WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk perceptions utilizing

  1. Cultural theory and risk perception: validity and utility explored in the French context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Mays, C.

    1996-01-01

    Explaining perceived risk can draw upon factors related to the person (e.g. demographics, personality, social/professional status, political orientation), or to the risk source (e.g. health impacts, economic effects). According to Cultural Theory risk perceptions are culturally biased. Wildavsky and Dake operationalised the Cultural Theory with questionnaire scales and found that resulting 'cultural profiles' best predict individual differences in risk perception. A French version of their questionnaire was inserted into a representative national risk opinion survey of May 1993; 1022 adults (age 18 and over) were interviewed. Major results are presented. The four cultural scales (hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism) show high correlations with political orientation as expected, but also with, for example, age, gender, income and education level. However, scale relationships to perception of risk situations (twenty, mainly technological) are not as strong as expected. Sjoeberg found similar results in Sweden. The utility of the existing operationalisation of Cultural Theory for risk perception analysis is discussed. (author)

  2. Cultural theory and risk perception: validity and utility explored in the French context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Mays, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    Explaining perceived risk can draw upon factors related to the person (e.g. demographics, personality, social/professional status, political orientation), or to the risk source (e.g. health impacts, economic effects). According to Cultural Theory risk perceptions are culturally biased. Wildavsky and Dake operationalised the Cultural Theory with questionnaire scales and found that resulting `cultural profiles` best predict individual differences in risk perception. A French version of their questionnaire was inserted into a representative national risk opinion survey of May 1993; 1022 adults (age 18 and over) were interviewed. Major results are presented. The four cultural scales (hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism) show high correlations with political orientation as expected, but also with, for example, age, gender, income and education level. However, scale relationships to perception of risk situations (twenty, mainly technological) are not as strong as expected. Sjoeberg found similar results in Sweden. The utility of the existing operationalisation of Cultural Theory for risk perception analysis is discussed. (author).

  3. Investigation into the risk perceptions of investors in the securities of nuclear-dependent electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudeck, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two weeks prior to the Three Mile Island accident, March 15, 1979, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered five operating nuclear plants shut down in order to reexamine safety standards in these plants. Reports in the popular and trade press during this time suggested that these events, particularly the accident at Three Mile Island, caused investors in the securities of electric utilities that had nuclear-generation facilities to revise their risk perceptions. This study was designed to examine the impact of both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission order and the accident at Three Mile Island on investor risk perceptions. Selected categories of electric utilities were chosen to examine any differential risk effects resulting from these events. An asset pricing model devoid of many of the restrictive assumptions of more familiar models was used to model investor behavior. The findings suggest that the events described did cause investors to revise upward their perceptions of systematic risk regarding different categories of electric utilities. More specifically, those electric utilities that were operating nuclear plants in 1979 experienced the largest and most sustained increase in systematic risk. However, electric utilities that in 1979 had no operating nuclear plants, but had planned and committed funds for nuclear plants in the future, also experienced increases in systematic risk

  4. Perception of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1992-01-01

    Perception of risks by people depends on many factors, either characterizing the individuals, or specific to the risk sources. The risk concept, which confuses the issue, is precised first. Second, the perception phenomenon is presented as an interactive process involving the individual, the hazard, and the social context. Third, dimensions of perception are listed and used to describe the perception of radiation risks. Finally, the relation between perception and attitude is clarified. (author) 50 refs

  5. Risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Conflicts on technical issues frequently involve disagreements between the public and the technologists. This paper summarizes the major characteristics of three groups of technologists and four groups of the public which lead to many of the disagreements. To advance the mores of making decisions involving complex science or technology, technologists should develop an understanding of what information is needed for decisions, of the need for two-way communication with the public, and to become responsible for the accuracy and honesty of risk communication messages

  6. Perception of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Hubert, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    Many factors are involved in the perception of a risk by individuals. Some are individual related (psychology, knowledge, experience), others describe the social environment (culture, ideology), others at end precise the nature of the risk. The word risk has various meanings and is understood differently by the three main categories involved in risk management, that is engineers, administrators and lay public. Several models which describe the perception phenomenon are presented. The dimensions affecting perception are listed. Based on public opinion poll data, a risk taxonomy is proposed, perceived nuclear risks are compared with other risks, and results are given concerning trust in the information diffused and the credibility of those in charge of nuclear activities. (author)

  7. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  8. Risk perception in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes empirical work on risk perception and some related dimensions, in particular with regard to radiation and nuclear power hazards. Most of the data cited come from a current CEC project in which 5 countries in Western Europe have participated. Models of risk perception are discussed and some generally valid findings concerning risk perception are summarized. Risk is seen to be a primary factor in many policy matters and clearly, to the public, more important than utility considerations. Previously formulated models (the Psychometric Model and Cultural Theory) are found to be deficient and a much more efficient alternative is suggested. It is stressed that risk perception is of interest foremost because it can be of value to decision makers in making difficult policy decisions in matters of risk. Hence, it is important to ask what facets of perceived risk are most strongly related to demand for risk mitigation. It is found that expected severity of consequences of an hazard is the clearly most important dimension. The paper concludes with a brief summary of a case study of Swedish experience with high-level nuclear waste repository siting

  9. Risks and perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.

    1987-01-01

    The article on the risks and perceptions of nuclear power was previously published in the Times Higher Education Supplement, May 1987. The public attitude towards risks associated with nuclear power, compared with other risks in everyday life, is examined. Results of psychological studies of the perceived risk of nuclear power are also discussed. The author argues that fear of nuclear catastrophe is not one which can be brushed aside by statistics or punditry. (UK)

  10. Perception of Product Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides several explanations for consumer risk perception. For frequently repeated behavior that is seemingly under their own control, consumers tend to be overly optimistic. This occurs in spite of the general tendency of consumers to be risk averse. Specific dimensions of different

  11. Perceptions of the risk of child abduction or loss and the utility of child electronic security devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R M; Pasnak, R

    1997-09-01

    Perceptions of the susceptibility of young children to becoming lost or being abducted, and of the potential usefulness of child electronic security devices, were examined via a questionnaire. Data were provided by 41 volunteers, most of them from a local government office centre. The questionnaire asked for demographic data, and then for the risk of a child being abducted or lost when under the supervision of different caregivers and in different situations. The probable effectiveness of three common abductor ploys was also addressed. The questionnaire concluded with 10 questions about child electronic security devices. Respondents viewed mothers, fathers, and grandparents as equally responsible caregivers and young adults/babysitters as the least responsible. These effects diminished as the age of the children increased. The garden at home was judged to be the most secure environment for children of all ages, while an amusement park was judged the least secure environment. Children were perceived to be more at risk of an abduction when a stranger asked for physical assistance or to take them to the hospital because their parents were hurt, than when asked for directions. Furthermore, the respondents expressed a moderately strong need for child electronic security devices, and viewed parents who use them as more responsible than those who do not.

  12. Nuclear risks perception and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Hubert, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this text we present the studies made by the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety) on the nuclear risks perception by the public and we compare this perception of risks with other industries

  13. Perception of risk from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Perceptions of risk from radiation have been studied systematically for about 20 years. This paper summarises the key findings and conclusions from this research with regard to the nature of risk perceptions, the impacts of these perceptions, and the need for communication about radiological hazards. Perhaps the most important generalisation from research in this area is that there is no uniform or consistent perception of radiation risks. Public perception and acceptance is determined by the context in which the radiation is used -and the very different reactions to different uses provide insight into the nature of perception and the determinants of acceptable risk. (author)

  14. Risk perception in planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S K

    1987-01-01

    The general public's perception of the risks involved with hazardous industries is increasing, especially in countries that high environmental amenity characteristics. This increased public awareness of risk may be an important factor in the future of countries who produce a large quantity of petroleum and chemical products. However, existing decision-making processes for determining safety controls do not take sufficient account of the community perception of risk. Identification of perceived risk levels could contribute to the determination of safe land-use planning policies and practices. The objective of land-use planning for hazardous industries is to reduce the gap between the calculated or technical assessment of risk and the risk as perceived by the community. This also facilitates a balanced approach in the decision making process between meeting industry requirements and community concerns. The comprehensive analysis presented in this study, based on a questionnaire given to residents in each of the three study areas (Australia, Japan and Korea), focused on identifying and measuring the respondent's understanding of the risk posed by nearby hazardous industrial developments.

  15. university students` perception and utilization of technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... university students` perceptions and utilization of technology for learning at Haramaya University in. Ethiopia (as a ... teaching and learning in classroom can greatly enhance the ..... benefits that it should be deliver. Looking at ...

  16. Public perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Public perceptions of risk will probably always be unsatisfying to a scientist. Public perceptions are formed by the actions of institutions which have goals other than formation of an informed public opinion, such as the schools, the media, business and the government. In this environment, it seems unrealistic to expect public opinion to reflect scientific realities. The talk will focus on the media as an opinion-former and will discuss several non-nuclear issues as illustrations: plague in New Mexico, Toxic Shock Syndrome, and Injuries as a Public Health Problem. Ultimately however, we are confronted with two wonderfully complex matters: can risk be adequately expressed or measured in universally comprehensible or broadly acceptable terms; and the mysterious movements of the public and collective mind

  17. The risk perception gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frech, E.

    1995-01-01

    Most members of the public view the risks of nuclear power as uniquely hazardous. A survey in 1993 found that Canadians rank nuclear waste as the eleventh highest risk to their health. The trouble is that the public are not simply misinformed; rather, they view risk as something different from the product of probability of occurrence of an event multiplied by the measure of its harmful consequences. Among the 30 to 40 factors that influence public perception of risk, or acceptance of technology, are some that the scientific and technical community has hitherto failed to heed. Many of these factors can in fact be accommodated in the design, development and public presentation of nuclear projects. Such an accommodation of the public's views would involve dealing with factors like voluntariness, controllability, reversibility, equity and fairness, benefits, and trust in institutions. 9 refs

  18. Undergraduate students' perception and Utilization of electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of undergraduate students' perception and utilization of electronic information resources and services was carried out. The population of the study consisted of all registered library users in the 2014/2015 academic session. The total population of the study was 4, 211 registered users. Accidental sampling ...

  19. Radiological risk perception in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Arias, R.; Prades, A.; Meza, R.; Sola, R.

    1997-01-01

    How does society perceive radiation risks?. Is there any logic underlying those perceptions?.The article describes the results of a cross-cultural survey on radiological risk perception applied to a representative sample of the Spanish population. This study has been carried out in the framework of a research project subsidized by the European Union and the CSN. (Author) 16 refs

  20. Risk perception for paragliding practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Jairo Antônio da; Tucher, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    As an adventure sport, paragliding exposes participants to different levels of life risk. However, the boundary between calculated risk and real risk is a subtle one, depending on the practitioner’s perception. Thus, this study aimed to analyze risk perception of 73 paragliding practitioners. The descriptive-exploratory study method was used. Data was col-lected via a questionnaire validated according to the Delphi technique. Variables were evaluated from a bipolar Likert type scale, ranging ...

  1. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Scientists and regulators are regularly baffled by public responses to risk, especially when the issue at stake seemed unproblematic or at least technocratically solvable as long as it was only discussed within the expert community. In terms of such polarizations, the 1970s were the age of dissen...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....... over nuclear power, while the 1990s saw the emergence of gene technology as an issue of public debate. The first decade of the new millennium aspires to become the age of food safety, and once again, a major research effort is made to find out how consumers' confidence can be restored. Brewing......, as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  2. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  3. Wildlife disease and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch-Kirkbride, Shauna L; Riley, Shawn J; Gore, Meredith L

    2013-10-01

    Risk perception has an important influence on wildlife management and is particularly relevant to issues that present health risks, such as those associated with wildlife disease management. Knowledge of risk perceptions is useful to wildlife health professionals in developing communication messages that enhance public understanding of wildlife disease risks and that aim to increase public support for disease management. To promote knowledge of public understanding of disease risks in the context of wildlife disease management, we used a self-administered questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample (n = 901) across the continental United States to accomplish three objectives: 1) assess zoonotic disease risk perceptions; 2) identify sociodemographic and social psychologic factors underlying these risk perceptions; and 3) examine the relationship between risk perception and agreement with wildlife disease management practices. Diseases we assessed in the surveys were rabies, plague, and West Nile virus. Risk perception, as measured by an index consisting of severity, susceptibility, and dread, was greatest for rabies and West Nile virus disease (x = 2.62 and 2.59, respectively, on a scale of 1 to 4 and least for plague (x = 2.39). The four most important variables associated with disease risk perception were gender, education, prior exposure to the disease, and concern for health effects. We found that stronger risk perception was associated with greater agreement with wildlife disease management. We found particular concern for the vulnerability of wildlife to zoonotic disease and for protection of wildlife health, indicating that stakeholders may be receptive to messages emphasizing the potential harm to wildlife from disease and to messages promoting One Health (i.e., those that emphasize the interdependence of human, domestic animal, wildlife, and ecosystem health).

  4. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  5. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D; Masters, Forrest J

    2012-01-01

    How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  6. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  7. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  8. Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge, behavioural ... we argue that individual risk perception is shaped by social network influences. ... to show that the importance of AIDS related knowledge and behavioural factors risks ...

  9. Assessment and perception of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J

    1981-01-01

    A recent two-day meeting was called by the Royal Society to discuss all types of risks, but symptomatic of the concerns of most of those present, the discussion centred mainly on the risks inherent in energy production and use. Among the subjects considered were public perception of differing risks, and how these are ranked, and risks versus benefits. Quotations from and summaries of many of the papers presented show that it was generally felt that scientists must be very careful in the way that they use numerical assessments of risk and that they should pay more attention than they have to social and political factors.

  10. Risks associated with utilization of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Kumazawa, Shigeru; Aoki, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Takeda, Atsuhiko; Kusama, Tomoko; Inaba, Jiro; Tanaka, Yasumasa.

    1993-01-01

    When mankind decides action, the conveniences and the risks obtained by the action are weighed up. When socially important judgement is done, the logical discussion based on objective data is indispensable. The utilization of radiation spread from industrial circles to general public, accordingly the circumstances changed from the recognition of its risks by professionals to that by general public. The radiation exposure dose of public has increased rapidly by medical treatment. The global radioactivity contamination accompanying nuclear explosion experiment and the Chernobyl accident raised the psychological risk recognition of public. Now, the fear of the potential radioactivity which may be released from nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities expanded. The radiation exposure due to its utilization in recent years is mostly at the level below natural radiation. The acute radiation syndrome by whole body exposure is shown, and the effect is probabilistic. The evaluation of the risks due to radiation in the early effect, the hereditary effect and the delayed effect including canceration is explained. The risks in general human activities, the concept of risks in radiation protection, the effect of Chernobyl accident and the perception of general public on radiation risks are reported. (K.I.)

  11. EMF and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widemann, P.M.; Schuetz, H.

    1995-01-01

    There has lately been a greater responsivement in the media as well as the general public to the risk potential of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). If the discussion continues to gain momentum, this could have grave consequences for companies offering the products or services under attack. The working group Man, Environment, Technology (MUT) at Juelich Research Centre has examined the question of how EMF risks are valuated by the public. The study centered on the following questions: How are EMF risk potentials perceived by the public and what factors influence the public discussion? What future course might the discussion on risks take and what critical events and conditions deserve particular attention? The authors present and discuss the results of this first German study on product-inherent risks. (orig.) [de

  12. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  13. Industrial risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    The risks of occupational exposure to radiation need fuller and more explicit characterization. They also need a more developed quantitative comparison with more familiar occupational hazards. To achieve this, some criterion is needed for establishing the amount of detriment one should attribute to different harmful effects, e.g., from accidents at work which cause death, temporary or permanent disability; from fatal and nonfatal cancers; from developmental abnormalities and any likely nonstochastic effects; and from a range of genetic defects. No such criterion for comparing incommensurable kinds of harm can be scientifically defined, but one is essential if occupational exposure standards are to be put into perspective. A comparison of the frequency of fatal cancers and severe genetic defects with that of accidental deaths at work is admittedly incomplete. One possible starting point is from a review of the average length of healthy life and activity lost as a result of nonfatal industrial accidents and some curable cancers, or of gross impairment during the course of an active disease or as a result of many types of genetic defect, or of life expectancy lost absolutely owing to fatal accidents and diseases. Estimates are discussed to emphasize the areas in which opinion is most needed to translate measures of risk based simply on total time lost into acceptable criteria of perceived detriment. Standards of industrial safety are reviewed on this basis, both for risk from accidents at work and from radiation exposure, with evidence on the rate at which both types of risk are being reduced

  14. Risk perception versus seismic risk: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubeddu, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    A seismic event generally has consequences on the social relationships, economy and culture of the impacted territory. As Mary Douglas quotes, a change into the social perception of risk as consequence of an earthquake may have effects on the lifestyle of the local community. The above mentioned statement is the starting point of this article. illustrating the difference between peril and risk is the second point. According to the Aristotelian theory of categories, risk can be considered as a human characteristic depending on social and cultural factors. Risk is here intended as a social category and cannot be de facto reported as a statistical or stochastic function based on a mathematical formula, as long assumed in the past. This approach, then, requires a deep revision. In this sense, and following the concept of risk perception, seismic risk is analysed in this article in terms of impacts, precautionary measures, risk assessment and management. Knowledge of this topic cannot be intended as a simple philosophical exercise, since right on awareness depend risk reduction, humans and goods too [it

  15. On the perception and operationalization of risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Ganzach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare and critique two measures of risk perception. We suggest that a single question --- ``How risky is the situation?'' --- captures the concept of risk perception more accurately than the multiple-item measure used by Sitkin and Weingart (1995. In fact, this latter measure inadvertently captures notions of attractiveness or expected return, rather than risk perception. We further propose that the error underlying the construction of Sitkin and Weingart's measure is explained in terms of a top-down model of risk perception, in which perceived risk and perceived return are consequences, rather than determinants, of attractiveness. Two studies compare the validity of the two alternative measures.

  16. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  17. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Technical risk and social perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muench, E; Renn, O

    1982-09-01

    In insurance science and natural science risks are defined as the expected extent of damages per time unit, i.e. risks are determined by empirical data representing the average number of people who incur damages in one year or one decade. In the social sciences the concept of risk is understood as the paragon of all unforeseeable consequences of an event or an action, or even plainly as the sum of things threatening our life and environment. Of course, the intuitive understanding of the concept is also of interest: what do people consider risky, how do they assess risks and how do they cope with risky situations. It is a chief task of interdisciplinary research to investigate the tension between the scientific and intuitive perception of risks and to develop political recommendations for those responsible for decision-making.

  19. Technical risk and social perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Renn, O.

    1982-01-01

    In insurance science and natural science risks are defined as the expected extent of damages per time unit, i.e. risks are determined by empirical data representing the average number of people who incur damages in one year or one decade. In the social sciences the concept of risk is understood as the paragon of all unforeseeable consequences of an event or an action, or even plainly as the sum of things threatening our life and environment. Of course, the intuitive understanding of the concept is also of interest: what do people consider risky, how do they assess risks and how do they cope with risky situations. It is a chief task of interdisciplinary research to investigate the tension between the scientific and intuitive perception of risks and to develop political recommendations for those responsible for decision-making. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Rural Nevada and climate change: vulnerability, beliefs, and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Ahmad Saleh; Smith, William James; Liu, Zhnongwei

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present the results of a study investigating the influence of vulnerability to climate change as a function of physical vulnerability, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity on climate change risk perception. In 2008/2009, we surveyed Nevada ranchers and farmers to assess their climate change-related beliefs, and risk perceptions, political orientations, and socioeconomic characteristics. Ranchers' and farmers' sensitivity to climate change was measured through estimating the proportion of their household income originating from highly scarce water-dependent agriculture to the total income. Adaptive capacity was measured as a combination of the Social Status Index and the Poverty Index. Utilizing water availability and use, and population distribution GIS databases; we assessed water resource vulnerability in Nevada by zip code as an indicator of physical vulnerability to climate change. We performed correlation tests and multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of vulnerability and its three distinct components on risk perception. We find that vulnerability is not a significant determinant of risk perception. Physical vulnerability alone also does not impact risk perception. Both sensitivity and adaptive capacity increase risk perception. While age is not a significant determinant of it, gender plays an important role in shaping risk perception. Yet, general beliefs such as political orientations and climate change-specific beliefs such as believing in the anthropogenic causes of climate change and connecting the locally observed impacts (in this case drought) to climate change are the most prominent determinants of risk perception. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders

  2. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  3. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium). PISA

    2006-09-15

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences.

  4. The Belgian Risk Perception Barometer Risk Perception Measuring Instruments Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeken, Koen van; Carle, Benny; Hardeman, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of the societal dimension of risk assessment has been at the cradle of the opinion research on risks. Since risk estimates are not fixed by experts anymore, but are considered to show variation across a diverse population, the people themselves must be asked how they experience the risks. Following the rise in popularity of risk assessment and the recognition of its 'human' dimension, the demand for public opinion surveys on risks has been increasing at a fast pace. Unfortunately, this high demand sees some negative consequences. First, surveys are frequently conducted by people lacking even a minimal knowledge of survey methodology. In this respect, we might think of a journal or a newspaper trying to impress their readers with the definitive public opinion poll about the latest issue in vogue. Second, time pressure causes experienced or trained researchers to lower themselves to 'quick and dirty' work. While methodologically flawed opinion research might not be something to worry about when appearing in the amusement press, concern is due if the results of a survey inspire policy development. Indeed, when public opinion research is conceived as an instrument to support rational, evidence based public policy, the strictest methodological standards should be applied, even if it is clear that scientific research will never substitute political reasoning. This contribution deals with the safeguarding and enhancing of the quality of large scale surveys focusing on risk perception and related issues. This attention is relevant, not only for the reason that methodological standards may be flawed due to the immense popularity of the opinion poll, but also because the results of opinion surveys may have far-reaching policy consequences

  5. The methodology of risk perception research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    Risk perception is frequently held to be crucial in the understanding and management of risk in policy contexts. The present paper takes as a starting point the notion that risk perception, of the public, of experts and other special groups, is important and hence the question arises how it should be investigated

  6. Risk perception and risk communication: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillif, L.; Sackur, J.

    1998-01-01

    Industry can master risks but it cannot master the representations people have of these risks. This is why distortions may occur, as the public perceives risks where they are not, or in a totally deformed way. To deal with this type of situation which is dangerous in the long run, both for society and industry, it is necessary to study in detail where and how the difference between real risks and perceived risks is introduced. It then becomes possible to determine what means of action are available to manage the representations and the perceptions of risks. We shall mention two rather different examples of type of direct contact with the industrial reality; in France, we have determined policy of visits of nuclear sites (more than 10 000 people visit Cogema- la Hague site yearly), mainly addressed to school children and people living in the vicinity of the site. During these visits there is of course no question of explaining the detailed operation of the facility or the risks it generates. The purpose is to make the representation of the nuclear industry just as familiar as the representation of another large-scale technology tool: trains, dams,. In a different manner, missions are organised by Cogema - B.N.F.L.- O.R.C. (Overseas reprocessing Committee) to de dramatize the transport of high level vitrified wastes from Europe to Japan. these missions travel through those countries the ship come close to. Here, again, although the target is more the relays of opinion, the effective presence of specialized transport ship is a crucial element in putting a halt to phantasmic representations, as they are born from the remoteness of the object. (N.C.)

  7. Risk perception and intended behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushkatel, A.; Nigg, J.; Pijawka, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach taken to assess the social impacts of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada on residents in the closest metropolitan area, Las Vegas. The purpose of this portion of the assessment is to investigate the effects of the repository on the future well-being and behavior of Las Vegas residents under different operational futures of the repository. To investigate these effects, a research design and conceptual framework were developed to collect data from a random sample of Las Vegas metropolitan area residents. The design allows for the collection of both baseline data (to determine current risk perceptions and behaviors) and projected effects of the repository under four different operational futures

  8. Risk and utility in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Morrel H.; Natoli, Vincent D.

    2003-06-01

    Modern portfolio theory (MPT) addresses the problem of determining the optimum allocation of investment resources among a set of candidate assets. In the original mean-variance approach of Markowitz, volatility is taken as a proxy for risk, conflating uncertainty with risk. There have been many subsequent attempts to alleviate that weakness which, typically, combine utility and risk. We present here a modification of MPT based on the inclusion of separate risk and utility criteria. We define risk as the probability of failure to meet a pre-established investment goal. We define utility as the expectation of a utility function with positive and decreasing marginal value as a function of yield. The emphasis throughout is on long investment horizons for which risk-free assets do not exist. Analytic results are presented for a Gaussian probability distribution. Risk-utility relations are explored via empirical stock-price data, and an illustrative portfolio is optimized using the empirical data.

  9. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Drug utilization research and risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Mol, Peter G. M.; Elseviers, Monique; Wettermark, Björn; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Andersen, Morten; Benko, Ria; Bennie, Marion; Eriksson, Irene; Godman, Brian; Krska, Janet; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Taxis, Katja; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Stichele, Robert Vander

    2016-01-01

    Good risk management requires continuous evaluation and improvement of planned activities. The evaluation impact of risk management activities requires robust study designs and carefully selected outcome measures. Key learnings and caveats from drug utilization research should be applied to the

  11. Risk perception influences athletic pacing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Dominic; Parry, David; Robinson, Tracy; Deacon, Greg; Renfree, Andrew; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Matthews, William J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine risk taking and risk perception associations with perceived exertion, pacing, and performance in athletes. Two experiments were conducted in which risk perception was assessed using the domain-specific risk taking (DOSPERT) scale in 20 novice cyclists (experiment 1) and 32 experienced ultramarathon runners (experiment 2). In experiment 1, participants predicted their pace and then performed a 5-km maximum effort cycling time trial on a calibrated Kingcycle mounted bicycle. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded every kilometer. In experiment 2, each participant predicted their split times before running a 100-km ultramarathon. Split times and perceived exertion were recorded at seven checkpoints. In both experiments, higher and lower risk perception groups were created using median split of DOSPERT scores. In experiment 1, pace during the first kilometer was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(18) = 2.0, P = 0.03) and faster among higher risk takers compared with lower risk takers (t(18) = 2.2, P = 0.02). Actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first kilometer in both the higher risk perceivers (t(9) = -4.2, P = 0.001) and lower risk perceivers (t(9) = -1.8, P = 0.049). In experiment 2, pace during the first 36 km was faster among lower risk perceivers compared with higher risk perceivers (t(16) = 2.0, P = 0.03). Irrespective of risk perception group, actual pace was slower than predicted pace during the first 18 km (t(16) = 8.9, P risk perception groups. Initial pace is associated with an individual's perception of risk, with low perceptions of risk being associated with a faster starting pace. Large differences between predicted and actual pace suggest that the performance template lacks accuracy, perhaps indicating greater reliance on momentary pacing decisions rather than preplanned strategy.

  12. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  14. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception

    OpenAIRE

    Bond Lyndal; Nolan Terry

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Maintaining high levels of childhood vaccinations is important for public health. Success requires better understanding of parents' perceptions of diseases and consequent decisions about vaccinations, however few studies have considered this from the theoretical perspectives of risk perception and decision-making under uncertainty. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of subjective risk perception and decision-making theories to provide a better understanding o...

  15. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  16. Stakeholder Perceptions of Risk in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; McCoy, Andrew P.; Kleiner, Brian M.; Mills, Thomas H.; Lingard, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Safety management in construction is an integral effort and its success requires inputs from all stakeholders across design and construction phases. Effective risk mitigation relies on the concordance of all stakeholders’ risk perceptions. Many researchers have noticed the discordance of risk perceptions among critical stakeholders in safe construction work, however few have provided quantifiable evidence describing them. In an effort to fill this perception gap, this research performs an experiment that investigates stakeholder perceptions of risk in construction. Data analysis confirms the existence of such discordance, and indicates a trend in risk likelihood estimation. With risk perceptions from low to high, the stakeholders are architects, contractors/safety professionals, and engineers. Including prior studies, results also suggest that designers have improved their knowledge in building construction safety, but compared to builders they present more difficultly in reaching a consensus of perception. Findings of this research are intended to be used by risk management and decision makers to reassess stakeholders’ varying judgments when considering injury prevention and hazard assessment. PMID:26441481

  17. Decision support for utility environmental risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balson, W.E.; Wilson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of decision support methods developed and applied by Decision Focus Incorporated to help utility personnel manage current environmental problems. This work has been performed for the Environmental Risk Analysis Program of EPRI's Environment Division, and also for a number of electric utilities across the country. These are two distinct types of decision support software tools that have been created: economic risk management and environmental risk analysis. These types differ primarily in the identification of who will make a decision. Economic risk management tools are directed primarily at decisions made by electric utilities. Environmental risk analysis tools are directed primarily at decisions made by legislative or regulatory agencies, about which a utility may wish to comment

  18. Evaluating Risk Perception based on Gender Differences for Mountaineering Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanto Novie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In average 26 death events in mountaineering per year for the time span from 2003 to 2012 is reported. The number of women dying during the mountaineering is significantly smaller than males (3.5 deaths male for one female death. This study aims to analyze the differences of risk perception based on gender and provide recommendations as education basic to prevent accidents in mountaineering. This study utilizes the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Delphi Method. A total of 200 mountaineer respondents (100 males and 100 females participated in this study. The independent variable in this study was gender. The dependent variable was risk perception including perception toward the serious accident, perception toward the probability of accident event as well as anxiety level and perception of efficacy and self-efficacy. The study result showed that the risk perception of women is higher than men with significant difference (p-value = 0.019. The recommendations from Delphi method result are by developing a positive mental attitude, showing about the risks that exist in nature, implementing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT to raise awareness of the safety of ownself, following the climbing or mountaineer school, and using instructors to give lessons about safety in outdoor activities.

  19. Evaluating Risk Perception based on Gender Differences for Mountaineering Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Novie; Susatyo, Nugroho W. P.; Rizkiyah, Ega

    2018-02-01

    In average 26 death events in mountaineering per year for the time span from 2003 to 2012 is reported. The number of women dying during the mountaineering is significantly smaller than males (3.5 deaths male for one female death). This study aims to analyze the differences of risk perception based on gender and provide recommendations as education basic to prevent accidents in mountaineering. This study utilizes the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Delphi Method. A total of 200 mountaineer respondents (100 males and 100 females) participated in this study. The independent variable in this study was gender. The dependent variable was risk perception including perception toward the serious accident, perception toward the probability of accident event as well as anxiety level and perception of efficacy and self-efficacy. The study result showed that the risk perception of women is higher than men with significant difference (p-value = 0.019). The recommendations from Delphi method result are by developing a positive mental attitude, showing about the risks that exist in nature, implementing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) to raise awareness of the safety of ownself, following the climbing or mountaineer school, and using instructors to give lessons about safety in outdoor activities.

  20. The perception of exposure to environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautard, Eric

    2014-10-01

    This publication reports and comments the results of a survey performed every 6 years on the perception of exposure to environmental risks. It notably comments the evolution between 2007 and 2013 of the perception of exposure to different types of risks: seismic risks, terrorism, major industrial risks, flooding risks, nuclear risks, food-related risks, risks related to climate change, unemployment, air pollution, and cancer. The perceptions of inhabitants of cities exposed or not exposed to some risks (industrial, climate, flooding) are compared. Risks are ranked from very important to not important at all. The influence of the existence of a risk when choosing to settle in a dwelling is also assessed, as well as the already lived consequences of catastrophes, the level of concern about possible consequences of a catastrophe, the respective roles of the State and citizen in the field of risk prevention, the opinions on law efficiency to protect people and goods, the knowledge of prevention arrangements against natural and technological risk, the level of confidence in public action regarding risks to which interviewed people are actually exposed (industrial risks, risks related to climate, flooding)

  1. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  2. Perception and acceptance of technological risk sources. Volume 2. Empirical analysis of risk perception and acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-01-01

    Volume 2 presents a comparative investigation of risk perception and acceptance. It contains the evaluations of the two experiments in social psychology and the analysis of two intensive inquiries concerning risk perception with a view to 12 different risk sources. The data of the two inquiries were acquired from a total of 200 interview partners in two cities in North-Rhine Westphalia.

  3. Teachers' perception of the utilization of instructional materials in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing teachers' perception of utilization of instructional materials in teaching social studies in junior secondary schools in Calabar Municipality of Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was guided by a research question based on the purpose of the study. The study adopted the survey research ...

  4. Utilization and perception of Community Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shell in collaboration with four communities in Obio-Akpor LGA, Port Harcourt, started a Community Health Insurance Scheme in February 2010. An evaluation of enrollees' utilization and perception of the services provided was done. Methodology: Quantitative data were collected by the use of structured interviewer ...

  5. perception and utilization of oral histopathology services by general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GENERAL PRACTICE DENTIST IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA pathology ... Keywords: Oral; Histopathology; General dental practice; Southwest Nigeria. Ann Ibd. Pg. Med .... Table 3: Distribution of responses indicating barriers and utilization of oral histopathology services. Perception of respondents χ2 p value. Poor. Good.

  6. Perception of risks by opinion leaders 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information

  7. Evaluations and utilizations of risk importances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Davis, T.C.

    1985-08-01

    This report presents approaches for utilizing Probabilistic Risk Analyses (PRA's) to determine risk importances. Risk importances are determined for design features, plant operations, and other factors that can affect risk. PRA's can be used to identify the importances of risk contributors or proposed changes to designs or operations. The objective of this report is to serve as a handbook and guide in evaluating and applying risk importances. The utilization of both qualitative risk importances and quantitative risk importances is described in this report. Qualitative risk importances are based on the logic models in the PRA, while quantitative risk importances are based on the quantitative results of the PRA. Both types of importances are among the most robust and meaningful information a PRA can provide. A wide variety of risk importance evaluations are described including evaluations of the importances of design changes, testing, maintenance, degrading environments, and aging. Specific utilizations are described in inspection and in reliability assurance programs, however the general approaches have widespread applicability. The role of personal computers and decision support programs in applying risk importance evaluations is also described

  8. Personality and risk perception in transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhri, Aslak; Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe

    2012-11-01

    Within research on individual variations in risk perception, personality has been suggested as one important factor. In the present study, personality traits (44 items from the Big Five inventory) were investigated in relation to risk perception in transport and transport behavioural adaptations. In a sample of 312 participants, we found that the personality trait 'emotional stability versus neuroticism' was negatively correlated with risk perception (operationalised as "thinking about the possibility") of an accident (-0.38) and an unpleasant incident, such as crime, violence, robbery (-0.25). 'Agreeableness' was also negatively related to risk perception, however first and foremost in relation to perceived risk for unpleasant incidents on transport modes in which one interacts with other people (0.25). Moreover, regression analyses showed that 'emotional stability' was a significant predictor of behavioural adaptations on bus. Regression analyses explained between 17 and 26 percent of variance in behavioural adaptations. The results show that different groups of people vary systematically in their perception of risk in transport. Furthermore, these differences are manifest as a difference in risk-preventive behaviour at a strategic level, i.e. as decisions about avoiding risky situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation risk perception in Institute 'Vinca'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Pavlovic, S

    1999-01-01

    The necessity for research and development of risk analysis methods arise from practical needs for safety for men and environment. Relating to speed of technological development risk is implemented in modern technological achievements. Complexity of approach to the concept of risk presents the essence of risk management. Risk management means to apply risk analysis in order to risk decrease and control. Database for risk management is in technical social, economic and political area. Risk perception is a construction in the field of social psychology i.e. public opinion research. These results are of importance for the risk management. Research presented in this paper has been done on the sample of 240 examines with two basic sub samples: person working with ionizing radiation (140 of them) and persons not working with ionizing radiation (100 of them). Attitudes to risk definition risk acceptance and relation to risk consequences. (author)

  10. Risk measures on networks and expected utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueti, Roy; Lupi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In reliability theory projects are usually evaluated in terms of their riskiness, and often decision under risk is intended as the one-shot-type binary choice of accepting or not accepting the risk. In this paper we elaborate on the concept of risk acceptance, and propose a theoretical framework based on network theory. In doing this, we deal with system reliability, where the interconnections among the random quantities involved in the decision process are explicitly taken into account. Furthermore, we explore the conditions to be satisfied for risk-acceptance criteria to be consistent with the axiomatization of standard expected utility theory within the network framework. In accordance with existing literature, we show that a risk evaluation criterion can be meaningful even if it is not consistent with the standard axiomatization of expected utility, once this is suitably reinterpreted in the light of networks. Finally, we provide some illustrative examples. - Highlights: • We discuss risk acceptance and theoretically develop this theme on the basis of network theory. • We propose an original framework for describing the algebraic structure of the set of the networks, when they are viewed as risks. • We introduce the risk measures on networks, which induce total orders on the set of networks. • We state conditions on the risk measures on networks to let the induced risk-acceptance criterion be consistent with a new formulation of the expected utility theory.

  11. Knowledge, risk perception and practice regarding tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.

  12. Fuzzy logic model to quantify risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukh, Julia; Dickstein, Phineas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is a quantification of public risk perception towards the nuclear field so as to be considered in decision making whenever the public involvement is sought. The proposed model includes both qualitative factors such as familiarity and voluntariness and numerical factors influencing risk perception, such as probability of occurrence and severity of consequence. Since part of these factors can be characterized only by qualitative expressions and the determination of them are linked with vagueness, imprecision and uncertainty, the most suitable method for the risk level assessment is Fuzzy Logic, which models qualitative aspects of knowledge and reasoning processes without employing precise quantitative analyses. This work, then, offers a Fuzzy-Logic based mean of representing the risk perception by a single numerical feature, which can be weighted and accounted for in decision making procedures. (author)

  13. Assessment of reduction in perception of nuclear risk related to perception of environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a bibliographic research accomplished to evaluate the matter of reduction in risk perception, on people in general, that nuclear energy can show, for generation of electric power, face to perception of risk associated to environmental questions, as the global warming, from greenhouse effect, addressing the matter to the relevance of public acceptance for the development of new technologies. (author)

  14. The influence of knowledge on risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Many researches on risk perception have often been concerned with reaction of the public to modern technology. A major concern is the public fear of such new technology as nuclear power and genetic engineering. When the perceived risk was examined using a risk ranking technique, Japanese school teachers, university students and also NIRS staffs (female clerical staffs and researchers) viewed nuclear power to be much riskier than the objective estimation. Many technical experts have believed that this great fear results from an overestimation of risk by the public due to lack of scientific knowledge. So far, several studies reported the results to examine the correlation of the perception of some risk sources with knowledge about them, although their conclusions are inconsistent. When the perceived risk by trainees on a radiation protection course in NIRS was examined, nuclear power was rated as the second and 14th among 30 risk items by those who majored in life sciences in college and by those in physics, chemistry or technology, respectively. The perceived risk of nuclear power did not change among trainees by training offered fundamental knowledge about radiation during the course. On the other hand, the orders of smoking and alcoholic beverages rose considerably. Our results are consistent with the previous reports, i.e., what people learn initially about risk source has more important role in risk perception than what they learn later, and the increase of perceived risk is more easier than its decrease. Knowledge is now recognized as one of the factors which influence on risk perception. However, a special emphasis is now placed on risk communication in order to make partnership between communicators and receivers in the risk management. (author)

  15. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  16. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  17. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-06-08

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  18. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J.

    2017-01-01

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  19. Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no statistical significant association in the utilization of health services with regard to gender (p=0.889, OR=1.04; 0.55-2.00), educational level (p=0.707, OR=1.16; 0.50-2.79) and age (p=0.839, OR=0.94; 0.51-1.72). Community perceptions of poor quality and inadequacy of available services, however, ...

  20. Social perception risk : evolution of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, A.; Sola, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article shows an overview of the evolution of a research line: the Social Perception of Risk. It starts with a brief reference to the origin and main results of this research field to focus on the crucial challenges we have to face today. Right now we are witnessing a real turning point which is not exclusive of the radiological risk arena. A genuine social change phenomena is leading us a step forward towards the so called risk Governance. (Author)

  1. Measuring Risk Perception in Later Life: The Perceived Risk Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Rinat; Nimrod, Galit; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2016-11-01

    Risk perception is a subjective assessment of the actual or potential threat to one's life or, more broadly, to one's psychological well-being. Given the various risks associated with later life, a valid and reliable integrative screening tool for assessing risk perception among the elderly is warranted. The study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of a new integrative risk perception instrument, the Perceived Risk Scale. This eight-item measure refers to various risks simultaneously, including terror, health issues, traffic accidents, violence, and financial loss, and was developed specifically for older adults. An online survey was conducted with 306 participants aged 50 years and older. The scale was examined using exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity testing. Factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure: later-life risks and terror risks A high percentage of explained variance, as well as internal consistency, was found for the entire scale and for both factors. Concurrent validity was supported by significant positive associations with participants' depression and negative correlations with their life satisfaction. These findings suggest that the Perceived Risk Scale is internally reliable, valid, and appropriate for evaluating risk perception in later life. The scale's potential applications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Perception of risks in transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, E.W.; Reese, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation is presented in which perceived risk was described in six basic terms: technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, benefit assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time. Scientists, the media and public officials contribute to the discussion of risks but ultimately people will decide for themselves how they feel and what they think. It is not sufficient to consider the public of not being enlightened enough to participate in the formulation of radioactive material transport policy. The framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better inform the public and to understand public perception

  3. Risk perception: expert opinion versus public understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Jennifer

    1987-01-01

    A research project looking at the public's attitudes towards the siting of radioactive waste depositories is reported. The risk perception studies seek to compare expert and lay understanding of risk. Adverse public reactions to risk can only be understood if it is known how people relate to risks in their everyday or working lives. Social trends and experiences are important, for example, the adverse public opinion on the siting of nuclear waste facilities. A number of elements have been identified as common to different risk areas such as chemicals, drugs, food or radioactive waste. These are the clashing of values, polarization of beliefs or clashes of interest. (UK)

  4. The assessment and perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1981-01-01

    A recent two-day meeting was called by the Royal Society to discuss all types of risks, but symptomatic of the concerns of most of those present, the discussion centred mainly on the risks inherent in energy production and use. Among the subjects considered were public perception of differing risks, and how these are ranked, and risks versus benefits. Quotations from and summaries of many of the papers presented show that it was generally felt that scientists must be very careful in the way that they use numerical assessments of risk and that they should pay more attention than they have to social and political factors. (U.K.)

  5. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different...... concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible....... The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally...

  6. The Role of risk perception for risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    1999-01-01

    The list of individual and social factors that shape risk perception demonstrates that the intuitive understanding of risk is a multidimensional concept and cannot be reduced to the product of probabilities and consequences. Although risk perceptions differ considerably among social and cultural groups, the multi-dimensionality of risk and the integration of beliefs related to risk, the cause of risk, and its circumstances into a consistent belief system appear to be common characteristics of public risk perception in almost all countries in which such studies have been performed. Furthermore, the experience of risk is not limited to the threat of facing harm in the future. It includes subjective predictions of possible outcomes, the social and cultural context in which the risk is experienced, the mental images the risk situation evokes, the perception of the players who are involved in the risk situation and the judgments about fairness and equity related to the distribution of potential hazardous events. In this sense, risk is a social construct rather than a physical entity. Risk communication and conflict resolution is therefore a crucial element of any risk management strategy. The goal of risk communication and conflict resolution should not be to persuade people to accept whatever the communicator thinks is best for them. The ideal communication program envisions a receiver who processes all the available information to form a well-balanced judgement in accordance with the factual evidence, the arguments of all sides, and his/her own interests and preferences. The ultimate goal of risk communication is to reconcile expertise, interests, and public preferences. (EHS)

  7. Risk perception in women with high-risk pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects the decisions they make about antenatal care and so may therefore influence the wellbeing of mother and baby. This article addresses the factors which influence women when making risk assessments and how these assessments may differ from those of healthcare professionals.\\ud \\ud Women use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status including advice from professionals, from other trusted sources, and their own intui...

  8. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  9. Risk perception and benefits perception. Survey results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Remedi, J.; Baron, J.; Caspani, C.

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the risks deriving from different activities involving the same radiation exposure are seen very differently by a single population is a highly significant one. Exactly identical risks are considered oppositely, depending on the origin of radiation (whether produced by medical applications or by nuclear power plants, resulting from natural radiation or from artificial radiation). It appears as if there was good radiation and bad radiation..! One of the purposes of the paper is the discussion of causes. The acceptance of a given risk by a certain section of the population is closely related to the benefits that the group expects to receive-either consciously or unconsciously-from the activity producing the risk. Consequently, an analysis of the factors influencing the eventual rejection of a practice should explore not only fears, but also hopes...! On the basis of a risk-perception survey carried out in a population sector attending hospitals-including both patients and physicians-, a prior objective analysis of the results obtained was performed and, later on, the various statements by those surveyed were studied. The design of the survey allowed for a comparative assessment of the perception of different risks depending on the people's educational and social level. An epistemological study was made on the validity involved in the use of the data resulting from the survey, so as to reach different conclusions. The population's opinion about the capacity for response, the qualification and the mitigation means available to the State authorities in order to face an eventual radiological emergency plays a leading role in risk perception. In an analysis of the relevant factors involved in risk and benefits perception by the population (in the real world), attention must be paid to the existence of organized opinion groups representing the interest of a given sector. Of course, the population's confidence in the experts providing the information is a key

  10. The public perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litai, D.; Lanning, D.D.; Rasmusson, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Although the results of this paper are based on some restrictive assumptions and a limited amount of data, the authors nevertheless feel that they form a starting point for some new insights into the difficult problem of how to compare risks that have different characteristics. Today almost all regulatory agencies are facing the difficult question of ''how safe is safe enough.''. Although risk conversion factors may be able to play a useful role in setting safety criteria, it must also be recognized that RCFs as developed here are only a part of what needs to be considered. The RCFs involve only risk comparisons, whereas a safety criterion must surely include not only risk but cost and benefit as well

  11. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades-Lopez, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  12. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage

  13. Making sense of fishermen's risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Grøn, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    , trips and falls. The fieldwork offered an in situ insight into the way fishermen perceive their work and the risks they face, as well as their views of an outsider. Through empirical examples derived from our research and other studies, we show that fishermen’s risk perception can be explained...... by the need to adopt coping strategies, ie compromises and resilience in an environment marked by uncertainty and unpredictability. The difference between lay and expert knowledge is particularly salient in the case of safety researchers and fishermen. In order to make sense of the fishermen’s risk perception......In this paper we reflect on the possible reasons for the acceptability of risk in sea fishing and the implications they may have for safety actions and interventions. The data presented in the paper were collected during three trips at sea on fishing vessels in connection with a study of slips...

  14. The risk perception and public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de

    2004-01-01

    The problems in the field of risk to inform the public are the difference in the risk perception by the public, between the risk realities and the image the public makes in himself, the confidence of the public towards those that give information, the readability ( and then understanding) of the information, the easiness for the public to forget the information. Solutions can be summarized by the same way: durability of information actions, information elaborated by safety authority, inhabitants associations, risk generator, elected members, supports of information clear and understandable. (N.C.)

  15. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  16. A Bayesian framework for risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, H.R.N.

    2017-01-01

    We present here a Bayesian framework of risk perception. This framework encompasses plausibility judgments, decision making, and question asking. Plausibility judgments are modeled by way of Bayesian probability theory, decision making is modeled by way of a Bayesian decision theory, and relevancy

  17. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  18. Naturalness, value systems and perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: what is natural? And what is Nature? Are perceptions of Nature and naturalness related to perceptions of risk? This paper focuses on these aspects based on results from a Swedish representative sample (N=731), where subjects indicated e.g. the degree of naturalness of various phenomena, their views of nature, and personal life values, as well as perceptions of risk in specified contexts. The results showed a tendency to perceive as natural the phenomenon which is positively valued, i.e. what is natural is also good or desirable. Further, there were weak correlations between perceived naturalness and indicators of technological optimism, possibly indicating that persons with a more generous view of what is natural also more easily might accept change and outcomes due to human intelligence and activity. The construct of 'tampering with nature' has previously been shown to be one good predictor of perceived risk. The respondents also rated their agreement with items aimed to reflect the four 'views of nature' as suggested by Cultural Theory, i.e. nature as robust, capricious, tolerant and fragile. Nature was foremost perceived as fragile, but the main result clearly revealed that peoples' views of nature were complex and most often involved several of the suggested categories. The discussion focuses on the possible implications on environmental concern and risk perception given that Nature would develop into an undesirable type of locality. (author)

  19. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  20. Prudence, preapproval, risk, and utility accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This section discusses the inherent risk in utility compliance planning and some means of reducing this risk. The risk originates from the fact that a compliance plan is extremely complex and involves forecasting situations fifteen or twenty years into the future. Two additional uncertainties peculiar to CAAA compliance are that the increased demand for low-sulfur coal and other substitute fuels is expected to place an unanticipatable premium on them and that the price of future emissions allowances is unknown. The prudent investment test and the issue of preapproval are also discussed. 14 refs

  1. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  2. Development of a system utilizing data of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Takano, Kenichi; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Aikawa, Tadashi; Hayase, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This report deals with a concrete method of utilizing data of risk assessment. First, the authors point out the necessity to assess all stages of jobs (planning, meeting with contractors, performing phase of task, etc.) in risk assessment bout jobs in electric power company, because most jobs are performed by contract system and risks of a job are distributed over electric company, contractors and subcontractors. Secondly, risks estimated from past accidents and near-miss events must be included. If these 2 requirements are fulfilled, data of risk assessment can be more useful. Then below 4 forms of present data of risk assessment were developed. A form to be used in job planning stage in electric companies for efficient investment planning in safety measures. A form to be used in meetings between electric companies and contractors for checking accident prevention methods. A form to be used in meetings between contractors and subcontractors for enhancing a shared awareness of risk. A form to be used in tool box meetings for confirming safe condition and inheriting of ability of risk perception. Additionally, a data base system of risk assessment about 4 jobs was developed. This system prints out about 4 forms for each job and is useful for PDCA of safety activities. (author)

  3. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  4. Risk Perception of Plastic Pollution: Importance of Stakeholder Involvement and Citizen Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    2017-01-01

    , the public, and policy makers and elaborate on how the eight risk drivers have influenced this process. Plastic pollution has several of the characteristics that can enhance people’s perception of the risk as being important and which has generated great awareness of the problem. The chapter finally...... discusses how risk perception can be improved by greater stakeholder involvement and utilization of citizen science and thereby improve the foundation for timely and efficient societal measures....

  5. The social perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiser, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Much research on acceptance of risks implies a distinction between objective and subjective definitions of risk. This paper disputes this distinction, arguing instead that discrepancies between public and 'expert' views are to be better understood in terms of differences in how decisions are seen to be made. Risk is a product of decisions taken in response to environmental events, and depends not simply on the threat posed by such events but on the quality of the decisions. A model of decision quality is presented, derived from signal detection theory, which distinguishes between the ability to discriminate between different kinds of events, and the criterion, or level of certainty that is required before a particular response is chosen. Whereas discrimination ability depends on the expertise of decision-makers and the predictability of the events in question, the response criterion reflects considerations of costs, benefits and equity. Where the cost of overlooking a real threat ('false-negative' response) is high, a cautious criterion may be demanded. Where discrimination ability is also seen to be low, the chance of 'false-negatives' may only be adequately reduced at the price of a large number of 'false-positives', or 'unnecessary' protective responses against imagined threats. In extreme cases, this may amount to total opposition to the operation of a system. (author)

  6. Nuclear risks perception and information; Perception des risques nucleaires et information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J; Bonnefous, S; Hubert, P

    1994-12-31

    In this text we present the studies made by the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety) on the nuclear risks perception by the public and we compare this perception of risks with other industries.

  7. Estimated risks and optimistic self-perception of breast cancer risk in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, ChaeWeon; Lee, Suk Jeong

    2013-11-01

    To determine women's perceived personal and comparative risks of breast cancer, and to examine the relationships with risk factors. Despite the increasing incidence of breast cancer in younger women and the availability of screening, women's health behaviors have not advanced accordingly. A cross-sectional survey design utilized a convenience sample of 222 women in their 30s and 40s recruited from community settings in Seoul. Self-administered questionnaire data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test, and ANOVA. Risk perception levels differed significantly by breast cancer risk factors. Half of the women were optimistic about their breast cancer risk, while perceived personal risk did not reflect women's own risk factors and comparative risk differed only by the practice of clinical breast exam. Women's knowledge and awareness of their breast cancer risk factors need to be improved for appropriate risk perception and health behaviors, and accurate risk estimation could be utilized to educate them in clinical settings. © 2013.

  8. Perceptions of risk factors for road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.

  9. Public perceptions of risk to forest biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bonita L

    2005-06-01

    This study examines the perceived risks to forest biodiversity and perceived effectiveness of biodiversity conservation strategies among the general public. It tests the hypotheses that perceived risk to forest biodiversity is influenced by cognitive factors (value orientation and knowledge) and social-cultural factors (such as gender and environmental membership) and that risk perceptions influence other cognitive constructs such as support for natural resource policy and management. Data were collected from a sample of the general public (n= 596) in British Columbia, Canada by mail survey in 2001. Results show that insects and disease were perceived as the greatest risk. Educating the public and industry about biodiversity issues was perceived as a more effective conservation strategy than restricting human uses of the forest. Value orientation was a better predictor of perceptions of risk and perceived effectiveness of conservation strategies than knowledge indicators or social-cultural variables. Examining the indirect effects of social-cultural variables, however, revealed that value orientation may amplify the effect of these variables and suggests that alternative paths of influence should be included. Perceived risk showed an inconsistent association with perceived effectiveness of conservation strategies.

  10. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraywinkel, Klaus; Heidrich, Jan; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wagner, Markus; Berger, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. Stroke risk factor knowledge, perception of lifetime stroke risk and risk factor status were included in the questionnaire, and the determinants of good risk factor knowledge and high stroke risk perception were identified using logistic regression models. Results Overall stroke risk factor knowledge was good with 67–96% of the participants recognizing established risk factors. The two exceptions were diabetes (recognized by 49%) and myocardial infarction (57%). Knowledge of a specific factor was superior among those affected by it. 13% of all participants considered themselves of having a high stroke risk, 55% indicated a moderate risk. All major risk factors contributed significantly to the perception of being at high stroke risk, but the effects of age, sex and education were non-significant. Poor self-rated health was additionally associated with high individual stroke risk perception. Conclusion Stroke risk factor knowledge was high in this study. The self perception of an increased stroke risk was associated with established risk factors as well as low perception of general health. PMID:17371603

  11. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  12. The role of risk perception for risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    1998-01-01

    Are risks social constructions of different societal actors that can be checked at best against standards of consistency, cohesion and internal conventions of deduction, but cannot claim any validity outside of the actor's logical framework? Or are technical estimates of risk representations of real hazards that can and will affect people as predicted by the statistical values, regardless of the beliefs or convictions of those who conduct the assessments? Which of the two sides one takes determines the legitimate function of risk perception for management purposes. The paper argues that both extremes, the constructivist and the realist perspective, miss the point, as risks are always mental representations of threats that are capable of claiming real losses. Over the last two decades, risk analysts have dealt with both sides of risk in an additive fashion. In times in which risk management has been under serious pressure to demonstrate effectiveness and cost-efficiency, the parallel approach of pleasing the technical elite and the public alike has lost legitimacy. In order to integrate risk assessment and perception, the paper analyses the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to risk analysis and highlights the potential contributions that the technical sciences and the social sciences can offer to risk management. Technical assessments provide the best estimate for judging the average probability of an adverse effect linked to an object or activity. First, public perception should govern the selection of criteria on which acceptability or tolerability are to be judged. Second, public input is needed to determine the trade-offs between criteria. Third, public preferences are needed to design resilient strategies for coping with remaining uncertainties. A public participation model is introduced that promises an integration of analytic knowledge and deliberative process involving those who will be affected by the respective risk

  13. How Perceptions of Mental Illness Impact EAP Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Jayme

    2017-01-01

    Studies of employee assistance program (EAP) clinical use across multiple industries and multiple EAP delivery models range from highs greater than 5% to lows of less than 1 %. Despite the range in utilization, the rates of employee behaviors that indicate a behavioral health issue are significantly higher, suggesting far too little use of EAPs overall. Studies of the costs to an employer for an employee with a mental health issue are as high as 37% lost annual productivity. EAPs have attempted to raise utilization through a variety of efforts, with mixed results. Most EAP utilization initiatives fail to address the impact of stigma, misunderstandings about mental illness and the reluctance of many employees to seek counseling as an option for better management of stress, work-life balance and overall mental wellness. For both employers and EAPs, addressing the impact of stigma and perceptions of mental illness is costly, requiring greater direct employee engagement and education. However, it is a more effective means of increasing EAP use than current practices and, ultimately, can result in significantly higher net gains in productivity while reducing employers' direct costs.

  14. Risk perception for diabetes in Appalachian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet

    2017-01-01

    The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.

  15. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-12-01

    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in multiple factors contribute to the perception of infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Risk Aversion and Expected-Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    Within the expected-utility framework, the only explanation for risk aversion is that the utility function for wealth is concave: A person has lower marginal utility for additional wealth when she is wealthy than when she is poor. This paper provides a theorem showing that expected-utility theory is an utterly implausible explanation for appreciable risk aversion over modest stakes: Within expected-utility theory, for any concave utility function, even very little risk aversion over modest st...

  17. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  18. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptance...... and cooperation. We do this by a comparative study with Bangladesh shrimp farmers and Danish mussel farmers. Since these people live on the edge of subsistence, already small changes in the climate will affect them significantly. Farmers in both developed and developing economies are concerned about global...... climate change but there are significant differences in farmers’ perceptions of the causes of global climate change in developed and developing countries....

  19. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  20. Nuclear power and investor perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.I.; Miller, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores and quantifies the recent Wall Street fears concerning nuclear utilities. An econometric model of investor behavior is presented that quantifies the nuclear risk premium for the period when nuclear fear among investors was at its height, in mid-1984. The principal finding is that the risk premium relates primarily to nuclear construction work in progress (CWIP), rather than to the commercial operation of completed nuclear plants. 7 references, 1 table

  1. Changes in risk perception over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Miller, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on changes in perceptions of the risks associated with nuclear waste management over time. In particular, we are interested in the kinds of change that take place when the management programs, and those who are charged with implementing them, are subject to intensive public debate over an extended period of time. We are undertaken an over-time study of perceived risks in Colorado and New Mexico by implementing sequential random household surveys in each state, timed at six month intervals. This study employs three of these surveys, spanning the period from summer, 1990 to summer, 1991. Using these data, we examine the dynamics that may underlie variations in perceived risks over time. In particular, our analysis is focused on changes in the roles played by (1) basic political orientations (i.e. political ideology) and (2) trust in those who advocate conflicting policy positions

  2. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  3. Radiation effects and risks: overview and a new risk perception index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty provides opportunities for differences in perception, and radiation risks at low level of exposures involved in few computed tomography scans fall in this category. While there is good agreement among national and international organisations on risk probability of cancer, risk perception has barely been dealt with by these organisations. Risk perception is commonly defined as the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Severity and latency are important factors in perception. There is a need to connect all these. Leaving risk perception purely as a subjective judgement provides opportunities for people to amplifying risk. The author postulates a risk perception index as severity divided by latency that becomes determining factor for risk perception. It is hoped that this index will bring rationality in risk perception. (authors)

  4. The Psychology of Hazard Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in preparing for natural hazards is understanding the risk: what is the hazard, its likelihood and range of impacts, and what are the vulnerabilities of the community? Any hazard forecast naturally includes a degree of uncertainty, and often these uncertainties are expressed in terms of probabilities. There is often a strong understanding of probability among the physical scientists and emergency managers who create hazard forecasts and issue watches, warnings, and evacuation orders, and often such experts expect similar levels of risk fluency among the general public—indeed, the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) states in the introduction to its earthquake rupture forecast maps that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities—from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [1] However, cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [see, e.g., 2-5] that the WGCEP's expectation of probability literacy is inaccurate. People neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probability information, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [6]. Even the most ubiquitous of probabilistic information—weather forecasts—are systematically misinterpreted [7]. So while disaster risk analysis and assessment is undoubtedly a critical step in public preparedness and hazard mitigation plans, it is equally important that scientists and practitioners understand the common psychological barriers to accurate probability perception before they attempt to communicate hazard risks to the public. This paper discusses several common, systematic distortions in probability perception and use, including: the influence of personal experience on use of statistical information; temporal discounting and construal level theory; the effect

  5. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Age and gender differences in health risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHo; Park, InKyoung; Kang, SooJin

    2018-03-01

    The current study investigated how adolescents perceive their own health risks and compare their own likelihood of health risks with that of others of the same age. Moreover, the study identified the differences in health risk perceptions between males and females. A total of 625 adolescents (314 males and 311 females) from the Nowon district, geographically located in northern Seoul, voluntarily participated. In order to measure health risk perceptions a Korean version of self-other risk judgments profile was used. The findings indicated that study participants, regardless of gender and age, tend to underestimate their vulnerability to majority of health risk events. Furthermore, there were significant gender and age differences in health risk perception and perception bias in all health risk domains. The present study suggests that further research is needed to identify realistic and unrealistic perception mechanism for a large number of people from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.

  7. Is seeing believing? Perceptions of wildfire risk over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing challenges to understanding how hazard exposure and disaster experiences influence perceived risk lead us to ask: Is seeing believing? We approach risk perception by attending to two components of overall risk perception: perceived probability of an event occurring and perceived consequences if an event occurs. Using a two-period longitudinal data set...

  8. A report on the public perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Noting that the public's perception of risk is real whether or not it is based on what experts call scientific fact, the report examines physchological, socio-economic, informational, and cultural factors affecting risk perception. In the case of nuclear energy it is concluded that the public has little knowledge of the many measures taken to control risks

  9. Everyday Uncertainties: Reframing Perceptions of Risk in Outdoor Free Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Anita Nelson; Bundy, Anita; Broom, Alex; Tranter, Paul; Ragen, Jo; Engelen, Lina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of risk reframing, an intervention to offer parents and educators a context for building new and complex perceptions of risk in children's outdoor free play. Our objective was to alter these adults' perceptions of risk to increase the sustainability of an innovative child-centred playground intervention. Qualitative…

  10. Perceptions of hazard and risk on Santorini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Minos-Minopoulos, Despina

    2004-10-01

    Santorini, Greece is a major explosive volcano. The Santorini volcanic complex is composed of two active volcanoes—Nea Kameni and Mt. Columbo. Holocene eruptions have generated a variety of processes and deposits and eruption mechanisms pose significant hazards of various types. It has been recognized that, for major European volcanoes, few studies have focused on the social aspects of volcanic activity and little work has been conducted on public perceptions of hazard, risk and vulnerability. Such assessments are an important element of establishing public education programmes and developing volcano disaster management plans. We investigate perceptions of volcanic hazards on Santorini. We find that most residents know that Nea Kameni is active, but only 60% know that Mt. Columbo is active. Forty percent of residents fear that negative impacts on tourism will have the greatest effect on their community. In the event of an eruption, 43% of residents would try to evacuate the island by plane/ferry. Residents aged >50 have retained a memory of the effects of the last eruption at the island, whereas younger residents have no such knowledge. We find that dignitaries and municipal officers (those responsible for planning and managing disaster response) are informed about the history, hazards and effects of the volcanoes. However, there is no "emergency plan" for the island and there is confusion between various departments (Civil Defense, Fire, Police, etc.) about the emergency decision-making process. The resident population of Santorini is at high risk from the hazards associated with a future eruption.

  11. Resolving inconsistencies in utility measurement under risk: Tests of generalizations of expected utility

    OpenAIRE

    Han Bleichrodt; José María Abellán-Perpiñan; JoséLuis Pinto; Ildefonso Méndez-Martínez

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores inconsistencies that occur in utility measurement under risk when expected utility theory is assumed and the contribution that prospect theory and some other generalizations of expected utility can make to the resolution of these inconsistencies. We used five methods to measure utilities under risk and found clear violations of expected utility. Of the theories studied, prospect theory was the most consistent with our data. The main improvement of prospect theory over expe...

  12. Social influence on risk perception during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Lisa J; Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-05-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Radiological social risk perception: something more than experts/ public discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades Lopez, Ana; Gonzalez Reyes, Felisa

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important concerns of the postindustrial societies lies on the specification and quantification of risk, the Risk Assesment. However, the efforts and resources devoted to such goal have not avoided a growing worry about both the environmental conditions and the situations that potentially threaten it, generating an intense social debate about risks. In this framework, discrepancies between experts and public evaluations risks leaded to the study of social Risk perception. Several theoretical scopes have tried to characterize the phenomenon. A worthy conclusion of the empirical studies carried out on this issue is that all of them, experts and public, are influence by some factors which, in turns, affect their risk perception,. Specially striking is the fact that perception of risk among experts is also modulated by qualitative, personal and social factors. Social Risk Perception, through the process of Communication and Social Participation, has been configurated as a critical tool for both risk prevention and management

  14. Risk perception in the public: Results of a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, S.; Brenot, J.

    1989-01-01

    At first, some approaches used to study risk perception are briefly reviewed. Then, results of a survey devoted to general public risk perception, are presented. Risky activities are ranked. Clusters of activities which are judged similar for danger, are given. The relations between perception of danger, trust in the safety organization and the characteristics of the interviewed people are emphasized. The nuclear and chemical sectors are shortly compared. (author)

  15. National standards in science education: Teacher perceptions regarding utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Carol Louise Parsons

    The purpose of this naturalistic study was to determine what factors most influence middle school science teachers' intentions to utilize or ignore national standards, as a toot for reform in their classrooms, schools, or districts. Results indicate. that teachers with. minimal training were unlikely to use national standards documents due to their perceptions of a lack of support from peers, administrators and a high-stakes state accountability system. Teachers with more extensive training were more inclined to use national standards documents as philosophical guides for reform because they believed in the validity of the recommendations. Implications are discussed, chief among them that short-term professional development may actually do more harm than good if teachers retain or develop unexamined misconceptions about national standards recommendations as a result. In addition, due to the concerns expressed by teachers regarding state curriculum mandates and standardized testing, this study indicates that changes in these external factors must be instituted before teachers will commit themselves to standards-based reforms. It is suggested that staff development focus on opportunities for reflection and application which will promote conceptual change in teachers. A model predicated on the notion that the process of implementing reform is essentially an issue of promoting conceptual change in teachers is proposed. This model, termed the Reform Implementation as Conceptual Change, or RICC, focuses specifically on the cognitive processes teachers may go through when they are exposed to an innovation such as national standards. Stages such as integrated application, accommodation, assimilation, disconnection, and false accommodation, are described. The impact that professional development and training may have on the likelihood that teachers will experience these various stages is also discussed. This model serves as a theoretical framework for explaining why some

  16. Affect and Acceptability: Exploring Teachers' Technology-Related Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Educational change, such as technology integration, involves risk. Teachers are encouraged to "take risks", but what risks they are asked to take and how do they perceive these risks? Developing an understanding of teachers' technology-related risk perceptions can help explain their choices and behaviours. This paper presents a way to…

  17. Cross-cultural differences in risk perceptions of disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlach, Elaine; Belsher, Bradley E; Beutler, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    Public risk perceptions of mass disasters carry considerable influences, both psychologically and economically, despite their oft-times imprecise nature. Prior research has identified the presence of an optimistic bias that affects risk perception, but there is a dearth of literature examining how these perceptions differ among cultures-particularly with regard to mass disasters. The present study explores differences among Japanese, Argentinean, and North American mental health workers in their rates of the optimistic bias in risk perceptions as contrasted between natural disasters and terrorist events. The results indicate a significant difference among cultures in levels of perceived risk that do not correspond to actual exposure rates. Japanese groups had the highest risk perceptions for both types of hazards and North Americans and Argentineans had the lowest risk perceptions for terrorism. Additionally, participants across all cultures rated risk to self as lower than risk to others (optimistic bias) across all disaster types. These findings suggest that cultural factors may have a greater influence on risk perception than social exposure, and that the belief that one is more immune to disasters compared to others may be a cross-cultural phenomenon. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Risk measurement with equivalent utility principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denuit, M.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.

    2006-01-01

    Risk measures have been studied for several decades in the actuarial literature, where they appeared under the guise of premium calculation principles. Risk measures and properties that risk measures should satisfy have recently received considerable attention in the financial mathematics

  19. Risk perception as a factor in policy and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoberg, L.

    2004-01-01

    Risk perception is often believed to be an important factor in policy decision making, when it comes to the management of hazardous technology. Research on risk perception by the public since the 1970's has purportedly shown that such perception is emotional and based on ignorance. Experts, on the other hand, have been claimed to be objective and correct in their risk assessments. The present paper reviews a large body of research which has led to a quite different conclusions, viz. that emotions play only a marginal role in risk perception, which is mainly driven by ideological concerns and attitudes. The methodological shortcomings of the prevailing view of risk perception as emotional and simply misinformed are described. (author)

  20. Risk perception and clinical decision making in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aim to present new knowledge about different perspectives of health care professionals’ risk perceptions and clinical decision making. Furthermore, we intend to discuss differences between professional and personal risk perceptions and the impact on decisions in terms of both short...... and long-term outcomes. Background Insight into healthcare professionals’ perception of risk is a cornerstone for understanding their strategies for practising preventive care. The way people perceive risk can be seen as part of a general personality trait influenced by a mixture of individual...... considerations and the specific context. Most research has been focused on understanding of the concepts of risk. However healthcare professionals’ risk perception and personal attitudes also affect their clinical decision-making and risk communication. The differences between health care professionals’ personal...

  1. Mental health, stress and risk perception: insights from psychological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    1997-01-01

    Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)

  2. A score for measuring health risk perception in environmental surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta

    2015-09-15

    In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of target's physical attractiveness and dominance on STD-risk perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P; Buunk, BP; Blanton, H

    Utilizing a 2 x 2 design, the present study examined the effect of a female's physical attractiveness and dominance on men's sexual motivation and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk perceptions in a sample of 72 heterosexual male college students. As predicted, participants a ere more motivated

  5. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  6. Radiation risk perception and public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs-Mayes, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    We as Health Physicists face what, at many times, appears to be a hopeless task. The task simply stated is informing the public about the risks (or lack thereof) of radiation. Unfortunately, the public has perceived radiation risks to be much greater than they actually are. An example of this problem is shown in a paper by Arthur C. Upton. Three groups of people -- the League of Women Voters, students, and Business and Professional Club members -- were asked to rank 30 sources of risk according to their contribution to the number of deaths in the United States. Not surprisingly, they ranked nuclear power much higher and medical x-rays much lower than the actual values. In addition to the perception problem, we are faced with another hurdle: health physicists as communicators. Members of the Health Physics Society (HPS) found that the communication styles of most health physicists appear to be dissimilar to those of the general public. These authors administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to the HPS Baltimore-Washington Chapter. This test, a standardized test for psychological type developed by Isabel Myers, ask questions that provide a quantitative measure of our natural preferences in four areas. Assume that you as a health physicist have the necessary skills to communicate information about radiation to the public. Health physicists do nothing with these tools. Most people involved in radiation protection do not get involved with public information activies. What I will attempt to do is heighten your interest in such activities. I will share information about public information activities in which I have been involved and give you suggestions for sources of information and materials. 2 refs., 1 tab

  7. Perception and acceptance of technological risk sources. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1981-01-01

    Volume II presents a comparative investigation of risk perception and acceptance. It contains the evaluations of the two experiments in social psychology and the analysis of two intensive enquiries concerning risk perception with a view to 12 different risk sources. The data of the two enquiries were acquired from a total of 200 interview partners in two cities in North-Rhine Westphalia. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected

  9. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  10. Data on German farmers risk preference, perception and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The extent to which people are willing to take on risk, i.e. their risk preferences as well as subjective risk perception plays a major role in explaining their behavior. This is of particular relevance in agricultural production, which is inherently risky. The data presented here was collected amongst a total of 64 German farmers in 2015. It includes results of three different risk preference elicitation methods (multiple price list, business statements in four relevant domains and general self-assessment) as well as risk perception. Additionally, farm business characteristics (e.g. size, farm-level workforce, succession) and personal farmer characteristics (e.g. age, gender, risk literacy) are included.

  11. Protective response to technological emergency: risk perception and behavioral intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Barnes, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines why, as suggested by the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (TMI) event, the public is more inclined to evacuate in response to a radiation release than to a natural hazard. During the TMI incident, for example, did authorities present confusing or conflicting information or did the public have an exaggerated perception of radiation risk. Behavioral intention studies are combined with risk perception analyses to ascertain (1) the extent to which intentions to evacuate can be generalized from one sample to another and from one hazard to another, (2) the degree to which behavioral intentions are related to specific dimensions of risk perception, and (3) how public perceptions of risk compare with estimates of risk produced by reactor accident consequence analyses

  12. Risk perception among Brazilian individuals with high risk for colorectal cancer and colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Erika M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk perception is considered a motivating factor for adopting preventive behaviors. This study aimed to verify the demographic characteristics and cancer family history that are predictors of risk perception and to verify if risk perception is a predictor of colonoscopy adherence. Methods Individuals with a family colorectal cancer history as indicated by a proband with cancer were interviewed by telephone. They responded to a questionnaire covering demographic characteristics, colonoscopy history and four questions on risk perception. Tests of multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to identify associations between dependent and independent variables. Results The 117 participants belonged to 62 families and had a mean age of 45.2 years. The majority of these individuals were female (74.4% and from families who met the Amsterdam Criteria (54.7%. The average risk perception was 47.6%, with a median of 50%. The average population perception of individual risk was 55.4%, with a median of 50%. Variables associated with a higher risk perception were age, gender, religion, school level, income, and death of a family member. The variable predicting colonoscopy was receiving medical information regarding risk (odds ratio OR 8.40. Conclusions We found that family cancer history characteristics (number of relatives with cancer, risk classification are associated with adequate risk perception. Risk perception does not predict colonoscopy in this sample. The only variable that predicted colonoscopy was receiving medical information recommending screening.

  13. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  14. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and (c) personal-level risk perception appears more strongly related to intention to talk than does societal-level risk perception, although such relationships may vary across risk topics.

  15. Informal Risk Perceptions and Formal Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayford, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Economists have argued persuasively that our goals are wider than just risk minimization, and that they include a prudent weighing of costs and benefits. This economic line of thought recognizes that our policy goals are complex. As we widen the range of goals we are willing to entertain, though, we need to check that the methods we customarily employ are appropriate for the tasks to which we customarily apply them. This paper examines some economic methods of risk assessment, in light of the question of what our policy goals are and should be. Once the question of goals is open, more complexities than just cost intrude: what the public wants and why begs to be addressed. This leads us to the controversial issue of public risk perceptions. We have now examined a number of procedures that experts use to make public policy decisions. Behind all these issues is always the question of social welfare: what actions can we take, what policies should we embrace, to make the world a better place? In many cases, the public and the experts disagree about what the right choice is. In the first section, we saw a possible defense of the experts based on democratic theory: the people's participation, and even their will, can be legitimately set aside in the pursuit of their true interests. If this defense is to work, a great deal of weight rests on the question of the people's interests and the competence and integrity of the experts' pursuit of it. But at the same time, social preferences are ill-defined, and so are not good candidates for rational actor theory. Both the prescriptive legitimacy claim and the very workings of formal theory we have seen to depend on informal, qualitative, political judgments. Unfortunately, we have also seen a steady pattern of expert reliance on technical procedures even when they were manifestly unsuited to the task. The experts seem so intent on excluding informal thought that they would prefer even a bad quantitative process to a qualitative

  16. Informal Risk Perceptions and Formal Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayford, Jerry [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Economists have argued persuasively that our goals are wider than just risk minimization, and that they include a prudent weighing of costs and benefits. This economic line of thought recognizes that our policy goals are complex. As we widen the range of goals we are willing to entertain, though, we need to check that the methods we customarily employ are appropriate for the tasks to which we customarily apply them. This paper examines some economic methods of risk assessment, in light of the question of what our policy goals are and should be. Once the question of goals is open, more complexities than just cost intrude: what the public wants and why begs to be addressed. This leads us to the controversial issue of public risk perceptions. We have now examined a number of procedures that experts use to make public policy decisions. Behind all these issues is always the question of social welfare: what actions can we take, what policies should we embrace, to make the world a better place? In many cases, the public and the experts disagree about what the right choice is. In the first section, we saw a possible defense of the experts based on democratic theory: the people's participation, and even their will, can be legitimately set aside in the pursuit of their true interests. If this defense is to work, a great deal of weight rests on the question of the people's interests and the competence and integrity of the experts' pursuit of it. But at the same time, social preferences are ill-defined, and so are not good candidates for rational actor theory. Both the prescriptive legitimacy claim and the very workings of formal theory we have seen to depend on informal, qualitative, political judgments. Unfortunately, we have also seen a steady pattern of expert reliance on technical procedures even when they were manifestly unsuited to the task. The experts seem so intent on excluding informal thought that they would prefer even a bad quantitative process to

  17. Farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although there is an enormous potential for improving adoption of hybrid rice in Bangladesh, it is going through some difficulties in practice. Understanding farmers' perception about difficulties is critical to successful promotion. The present study was conducted to analyze farmers' perception of risk in cultivating hybrid rice ...

  18. Smoking behaviour, risk perception and attitudes toward anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to establish smoking behaviour, perceptions of health risks of smoking and attitudes toward anti-smoking legislation among a sample of South African university students. Undergraduates (225 women and 105 men) completed measures of behaviours, attitudes and perceptions related to smoking.

  19. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  20. Teachers' Risk Perception and Needs in Addressing Infectious Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M. Y.; Cheng, May M. H.; Lo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The outbreak of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus has led to numerous precautionary school closures in several countries. No research is available on the school teachers' perceptions as a health protective resource in controlling communicable disease outbreaks. The purposes of this study were to examine the risk perception, the perceived understanding…

  1. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as risk as risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  2. Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Suu, L.T.T.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Following the renewed attention for non-structural flood risk reduction measures implemented at the household level, there has been an increased interest in individual flood risk perceptions. The reason for this is the commonly-made assumption that flood risk perceptions drive the motivation of

  3. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  4. Communities' perception of climate change risks in South America's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Aug 15, 2014 ... uses an Integrated Coastal Management approach and stakeholder perceptions of climate change risks to inform wetland management. ... has been made worse by extreme events tied to climate change. ... Related articles ...

  5. Risk Assessment, Transparency and Public Perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, Judy

    2003-01-01

    To examine the US. public perception of risk now, in mid-2003, is a matter of capturing a snap shot at a particular moment of a specific circumstance. Over the past two years, Americans have gone from what they considered to be a fast-paced, high-stress, rapidly-changing, but fumiliar lifestyle and culture, to an uncertain existence that starts and stops with 'breaking news'. For people who previously felt confident about their understanding of what is or is not likely to happen, is or is not dangerous, and is or is not acceptable, there is now doubt. Studies of human behavior in judgement and decision making point out the importance of 'affect'. People's first reactions are based on good or bad experiences or images and not a rational weighing of pros and cons. The study results imply that people base their judgments of an activity or a technology not only on what they think about it but also on what they feel about it. It is unreasonable to expect that the public will accept decisions made for them regarding nuclear waste disposal and transport considering the negative images associated with radiation combined with the threat of possible terrorism. The federal government does face, as one of its most important tasks, protecting the health, safety and security of its people. it is also necessary for the government to consider the issue of nuclear waste disposal, but combining the two and using national security to defend nuclear waste policies is publically unacceptable. In a democracy, methods of how to best protect the people should be a matter of public debate and should be implemented only after public approval. One sure path to the erosion of democracy is govemmental decision making without the consent of the peopie, in the name of a (albeit honorable) principle. When government defends its own ideology and implements its own conception of what is best for the nation, democracy is lost

  6. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerking, S.D.; Khaddaria, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14–22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk,

  7. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  8. Environmental risk perception from visual cues: the psychophysics of tornado risk perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Barry; Fischhoff, Baruch; Davis, Alexander; Broomell, Stephen B.

    2015-12-01

    Lay judgments of environmental risks are central to both immediate decisions (e.g., taking shelter from a storm) and long-term ones (e.g., building in locations subject to storm surges). Using methods from quantitative psychology, we provide a general approach to studying lay perceptions of environmental risks. As a first application of these methods, we investigate a setting where lay decisions have not taken full advantage of advances in natural science understanding: tornado forecasts in the US and Canada. Because official forecasts are imperfect, members of the public must often evaluate the risks on their own, by checking environmental cues (such as cloud formations) before deciding whether to take protective action. We study lay perceptions of cloud formations, demonstrating an approach that could be applied to other environmental judgments. We use signal detection theory to analyse how well people can distinguish tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, and multidimensional scaling to determine how people make these judgments. We find that participants (N = 400 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk) have heuristics that generally serve them well, helping participants to separate tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, but which also lead them to misjudge the tornado risk of certain cloud types. The signal detection task revealed confusion regarding shelf clouds, mammatus clouds, and clouds with upper- and mid-level tornadic features, which the multidimensional scaling task suggested was the result of participants focusing on the darkness of the weather scene and the ease of discerning its features. We recommend procedures for training (e.g., for storm spotters) and communications (e.g., tornado warnings) that will reduce systematic misclassifications of tornadicity arising from observers’ reliance on otherwise useful heuristics.

  9. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeck, P.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Suu, L.T.T.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Following the renewed attention for non-structural flood risk reduction measures implemented at the household level, there has been an increased interest in individual flood risk perceptions. The reason for this is the commonly-made assumption that flood risk perceptions drive the motivation of individuals to undertake flood risk mitigation measures, as well as the public's demand for flood protection, and therefore provide useful insights for flood risk management. This study empirically exa...

  11. Modifiable risk factors of ecstasy use: risk perception, current dependence, perceived control, and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit Sang; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Cottler, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Risk perception, perceived behavioral control of obtaining ecstasy (PBC-obtaining), current ecstasy dependence, and recent depression have been associated with past ecstasy use, however, their utility in predicting ecstasy use has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine whether these four modifiable risk factors could predict ecstasy use after controlling for socio-demographic covariates and recent polydrug use. Data from 601 ecstasy users in the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded TriCity Study of Club Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Participants were interviewed twice within a 2-week period using standardized instruments. Thirteen percent (n=80) of the participants reported using ecstasy between the two interviews. Low risk perception, high PBC-obtaining (an estimated ecstasy procurement time ecstasy dependence were statistically associated with ecstasy use between the two interviews. Recent depression was not a significant predictor. Despite not being a target predictor, recent polydrug use was also statistically associated with ecstasy use. The present findings may inform the development of interventions targeting ecstasy users. PMID:19880258

  12. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress).

  13. [Factors of risk perception and risk acceptability: a contribution for the knowledge of the perception of the risk associated with blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergon, E; Moutel, G; Bellier, L; Hervé, C; Rouger, P

    2004-07-01

    The concept of risk cannot be limited to simply knowing the probability of occurrence and the seriousness of the damages caused. It's a matter of social construction and numerous elements contribute towards its perception and acceptability. These elements have been studied for 20 years or so. Some of these elements influence risk perception such as awfulness, unfamiliarity, the number of people exposed to it, other elements influence its acceptance such as individual perceptions, social factors, ethics and equity. Their knowledge allows a better understanding of the evolution of perception and of the risk acceptability in general and transfusion risk in particular.

  14. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  15. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  16. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  17. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...

  18. Data on German farmers risk preference, perception and management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which people are willing to take on risk, i.e. their risk preferences as well as subjective risk perception plays a major role in explaining their behavior. This is of particular relevance in agricultural production, which is inherently risky. The data presented here was collected amongst a total of 64 German farmers in 2015. It includes results of three different risk preference elicitation methods (multiple price list, business statements in four relevant domains and general s...

  19. Information needs and risk perception as predictors of risk information seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were

  20. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  1. Study on the possibility of measurement of individual risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Ayako; Fujimoto, Junzo; Takeda, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    In industry, because of retirement of postwar baby-boom generation and decreasing labor accident by improvement in facilities, diminished worker's risk perception is concerned about. Although hazard prediction activity (KY: Kiken-Yochi) is carried out for improvement of workers' risk perception in sites, it is get into a rut not to estimate the effects of the activity. Then the purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of measuring and estimating individual inherent risk perception not depending on the experiences and knowledge, and to confirm the effects of the experiences and knowledge on one's risk perception. Eleven subjects were requested to detect the hazards and to estimate the results and the extents of damage in the three films (1: working at an office (all subjects had the experience), 2: feeding at the GS (gas station) (half of them had the experience), 3: overhauling a valve (no one had the experience)) that were included in some hazards. The rate of hazards detection and the accuracies of 5 categories, that were hazards, results, damage of human, damage of objects or facilities and coping, were calculated. The experience of feeding had effects on the rate of hazards detection and some of the accuracies at the film of feeding at the GS. Also, all of indices were significantly lower at the firm of overhauling a valve than the firm of working at an office. These results showed that the experiences and knowledge were affected on one's risk perception. Meanwhile, the similarity of the tendency to the rate of hazards detection and the accuracies between 2 firms except for the firm of feeding was found by means of the ordinal correlation. The result showed that it will be able to measure the individual inherent risk perception from the number of hazards detection and the depth of the context. The future issues are discussed for developing the method to evaluate the risk perception. (author)

  2. To Risk or Not to Risk: Anxiety and the Calibration between Risk Perception and Danger Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaert, Lies; Masschelein, Stijn; Wright, Bridget; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety prepares an organism for dealing with threats by recruiting cognitive resources to process information about the threat, and by engaging physiological systems to prepare a response. Heightened trait anxiety is associated with biases in both these processes: high trait-anxious individuals tend to report heightened risk perceptions, and…

  3. Subjective expected utility with non-increasing risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that assumptions about risk aversion, usually studied under the presupposition of expected utility maximization, have a surprising extra merit at an earlier stage of the measurement work: together with the sure-thing principle, these assumptions imply subjective expected utility

  4. A metasynthesis of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Ayers, S.; Holden, D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies.\\ud \\ud Methods: A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that rep...

  5. Risk Perception and Communication in Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    2005-12-01

    A number of inventors and entrepreneurs are currently attempting to develop and commercially operate reusable launch vehicles to carry voluntary participants into space. The operation of these launch vehicles, however, produces safety risks to the crew, to the space flight participants, and to the uninvolved public. Risk communication therefore becomes increasingly important to assure that those involved in the flight understand the risk and that those who are not directly involved understand the personal impact of RLV operations on their lives. Those involved in the launch vehicle flight may perceive risk differently from those non-participants, and these differences in perception must be understood to effectively communicate this risk. This paper summarizes existing research in risk perception and communication and applies that research to commercial reusable launch vehicle operations. Risk communication is discussed in the context of requirements of United States law for informed consent from any space flight participants on reusable suborbital launch vehicles.

  6. Public perception of analytical risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; McCormack, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Most analytical assessments of potential impacts on the environment from US Department of Energy (DOE) activities receive, at some point in their development, public scrutiny. The objective of this paper is to discuss the apparent perception of these assessments held by the public reviewers, based on written and verbal comments that they have offered. The discussion begins with a short overview of the analytical assessment process most often used on DOE projects. The process is described in terms of the basic process elements and data sources involved. Based on this outline of the assessment process, the key elements from the public's perspective are identified and examined on the basis of Importance Criteria and the Perception Framework in which the Importance Criteria appear to be applied. The paper is concluded with an analysis of the key elements of the public's perception. This section of the discussion is formatted to couple observational evidence of public perception difficulties with key assessment elements, and these difficulties with potential alternative approaches that serve the same purpose but are more acceptable to the public

  7. Institutional trust, information, and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushkatel, A.H.; Pijawka, K.D.

    1992-09-01

    This study reports on the preliminary results of a survey of attitudes and perceptions of Las Vegas area residents regarding the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. The survey's focus was to examine the various dimensions of trust and confidence in government's efforts to develop the country's nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  8. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  9. Perception of risk of HIV infection in marital and cohabiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nearly 46% of women and 28% of men perceived themselves at medium or high risk of HIV infection. The qualitative and quantitative data show that perception of risk of HIV infection was influenced both by a person's own sexual behaviour and a partner's sexual behaviour. Men were significantly more likely to perceive ...

  10. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.

  11. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Arias, R.; Prades, A.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  12. Changing Forest Disturbance Regimes and Risk Perceptions in Homer, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney G. F1int

    2007-01-01

    Forest disturbances caused by insects can lead to other disturbances, risks, and changes across landscapes. Evaluating the human dimensions of such disturbances furthers understanding of integrated changes in natural and social systems. This article examines the effects of changing forest disturbance regimes on local risk perceptions and attitudes in Homer, Alaska....

  13. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  14. Perceptions of corporate cyber risks and insurance decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smidt, Guido; Botzen, Wouter

    This study provides an analysis of individual perceptions of cyber risks amongst professional decision makers. Data are collected using a survey of corporate professionals who are engaged in risk and insurance decision-making in various functional roles mainly in large companies. The study focuses

  15. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Swaton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)

  16. Risk Perceptions in Diabetic Patients Who Have Experienced Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Mikkel Lindskov; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Colding-Jørgensen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    as part of a benefit-risk assessment. However, the degree of heterogeneity of the patient population is critical for how accurately they can be represented by individuals. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore patients' risk perception of rare, serious adverse effects of medicines with regard to blood......, perceptions of the terms rare and serious, and overall levels of risk aversion. A thematic analysis of the interviews, including a consensus discussion, was carried out. RESULTS: Interestingly, respondents rarely made a clear distinction between medicines-induced AEs and complications related to disease...... focused on common and less serious AEs, thus disregarding rare and more serious events. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that experience of AEs, related to either medicines or disease, constitutes an important factor of patient risk perception. We therefore propose that serious adverse experiences should...

  17. Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vastfjall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami. In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

  18. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  19. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond Lyndal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining high levels of childhood vaccinations is important for public health. Success requires better understanding of parents' perceptions of diseases and consequent decisions about vaccinations, however few studies have considered this from the theoretical perspectives of risk perception and decision-making under uncertainty. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of subjective risk perception and decision-making theories to provide a better understanding of the differences between immunisers' and non-immunisers' health beliefs and behaviours. Methods In a qualitative study we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 45 Australian parents exploring their experiences and perceptions of disease severity and susceptibility. Using scenarios about 'a new strain of flu' we explored how risk information was interpreted. Results We found that concepts of dread, unfamiliarity, and uncontrollability from the subjective perception of risk and ambiguity, optimistic control and omission bias from explanatory theories of decision-making under uncertainty were useful in understanding why immunisers, incomplete immunisers and non-immunisers interpreted severity and susceptibility to diseases and vaccine risk differently. Immunisers dreaded unfamiliar diseases whilst non-immunisers dreaded unknown, long term side effects of vaccines. Participants believed that the risks of diseases and complications from diseases are not equally spread throughout the community, therefore, when listening to reports of epidemics, it is not the number of people who are affected but the familiarity or unfamiliarity of the disease and the characteristics of those who have had the disease that prompts them to take preventive action. Almost all believed they themselves would not be at serious risk of the 'new strain of flu' but were less willing to take risks with their children's health. Conclusion This study has found that health messages

  20. Making sense of perceptions of risk of diseases and vaccinations: a qualitative study combining models of health beliefs, decision-making and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lyndal; Nolan, Terry

    2011-12-20

    Maintaining high levels of childhood vaccinations is important for public health. Success requires better understanding of parents' perceptions of diseases and consequent decisions about vaccinations, however few studies have considered this from the theoretical perspectives of risk perception and decision-making under uncertainty. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of subjective risk perception and decision-making theories to provide a better understanding of the differences between immunisers' and non-immunisers' health beliefs and behaviours. In a qualitative study we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 45 Australian parents exploring their experiences and perceptions of disease severity and susceptibility. Using scenarios about 'a new strain of flu' we explored how risk information was interpreted. We found that concepts of dread, unfamiliarity, and uncontrollability from the subjective perception of risk and ambiguity, optimistic control and omission bias from explanatory theories of decision-making under uncertainty were useful in understanding why immunisers, incomplete immunisers and non-immunisers interpreted severity and susceptibility to diseases and vaccine risk differently. Immunisers dreaded unfamiliar diseases whilst non-immunisers dreaded unknown, long term side effects of vaccines. Participants believed that the risks of diseases and complications from diseases are not equally spread throughout the community, therefore, when listening to reports of epidemics, it is not the number of people who are affected but the familiarity or unfamiliarity of the disease and the characteristics of those who have had the disease that prompts them to take preventive action. Almost all believed they themselves would not be at serious risk of the 'new strain of flu' but were less willing to take risks with their children's health. This study has found that health messages about the risks of disease which are communicated as though there

  1. Evolution of Subjective Hurricane Risk Perceptions: A Bayesian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    David Kelly; David Letson; Forest Nelson; David S. Nolan; Daniel Solis

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies how individuals update subjective risk perceptions in response to hurricane track forecast information, using a unique data set from an event market, the Hurricane Futures Market (HFM). We derive a theoretical Bayesian framework which predicts how traders update their perceptions of the probability of a hurricane making landfall in a certain range of coastline. Our results suggest that traders behave in a way consistent with Bayesian updating but this behavior is based on t...

  2. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  3. Stroke Risk Perception in Atrial Fibrillation Patients is not Associated with Clinical Stroke Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaise, Anders; Skov, Jane; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Leppin, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Clinical risk stratification models, such as the CHA2DS2-VASc, are used to assess stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. No study has yet investigated whether and to which extent these patients have a realistic perception of their personal stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the association between AF patients' stroke risk perception and clinical stroke risk. In an observational cross-sectional study design, we surveyed 178 AF patients with a mean age of 70.6 years (SD 8.3) in stable anticoagulant treatment (65% treatment duration >12 months). Clinical stroke risk was scored through the CHA2DS2-VASc, and patients rated their perceived personal stroke risk on a 7-point Likert scale. There was no significant association between clinical stroke risk assessment and patients' stroke risk perception (rho = .025; P = .741). Approximately 60% of the high-risk patients had an unrealistic perception of their own stroke risk, and there was no significant increase in risk perception from those with a lower compared with a higher risk factor load (χ(2) = .010; P = .522). Considering possible negative implications in terms of lack of motivation for lifestyle behavior change and adequate adherence to the treatment and monitoring of vitamin K antagonist, the apparent underestimation of risk by large subgroups warrants attention and needs further investigation with regard to possible behavioral consequences. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patron perception and utilization of an embedded librarian program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Lindsay; Ballance, Darra; Davies, Kathy; Gaines, Julie K; Mears, Kim; Shipman, Peter; Connolly-Brown, Maryska; Burchfield, Vicki

    2016-07-01

    The study measured the perceived value of an academic library's embedded librarian service model. The study took place at the health sciences campuses of a research institution. A web-based survey was distributed that asked respondents a series of questions about their utilization of and satisfaction with embedded librarians and services. Over 58% of respondents reported being aware of their embedded librarians, and 95% of these were satisfied with provided services. The overall satisfaction with services was encouraging, but awareness of the embedded program was low, suggesting an overall need for marketing of services.

  5. Patron perception and utilization of an embedded librarian program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Blake, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study measured the perceived value of an academic library’s embedded librarian service model. Setting: The study took place at the health sciences campuses of a research institution. Methods: A web-based survey was distributed that asked respondents a series of questions about their utilization of and satisfaction with embedded librarians and services. Results: Over 58% of respondents reported being aware of their embedded librarians, and 95% of these were satisfied with provided services. Conclusions: The overall satisfaction with services was encouraging, but awareness of the embedded program was low, suggesting an overall need for marketing of services.

  6. Mapping spatial patterns of people's risk perception of landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Christian; Pedoth, Lydia; Elzbieta Stawinoga, Agnieszka; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The resilience of communities against natural hazards is largely influenced by how the individuals perceive risk. A good understanding of people's risk perception, awareness and hazard knowledge is crucial for developing and improving risk management and communication strategies between authorities and the affected population. A lot of research has been done in investigating the social aspects of risks to natural hazards by means of interviews or questionnaires. However, there is still a lack of research in the investigation of the influence of the spatial distance to a hazard event on peoples risk perception. While the spatial dimension of a natural hazard event is always assessed in works with a natural science approach, it is often neglected in works on social aspects of natural hazards. In the present study, we aimed to overcome these gaps by combining methods from different disciplines and assessing and mapping the spatial pattern of risk perception through multivariate statistical approaches based on empirical data from questionnaires. We will present results from a case study carried out in Badia, located in the Province of South Tyrol- Italy, where in December 2012 a landslide destroyed four residential buildings and led to the evacuation of 36 people. By means of questionnaires distributed to all adults living in the case study area we assessed people's risk perception and asked respondents to allocate their place of residence on a map of the case study area subdivided in 7 zones. Based on the data of the questionnaire results we developed a risk perception factor in order to express various assessed aspects linked to risk perception with one metric. We analyzed and mapped this factor according to the different zones reflecting the spatial distance to the event. Furthermore, a cluster analysis identified various risk behavior profiles within the population. We also investigated the spatial patterns of these risk profiles. We revealed that the residential

  7. Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth's perceptions of HIV infection risk: a sex-specific test of two risk models. ... The analysis is based on data from the 2003 Demographic and Health survey ... multiple partners, Nigeria, risk perception, sexual behaviour, vulnerability to HIV ...

  8. Systematic review of perceptive studies on nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Mariana Gama de

    2014-01-01

    This present work contains the study of risk perception in different areas of interaction. For it was made an analysis using methodology previously recognized and tested: a systematic review in the search for better understanding of the perception of risk in the nuclear area. Through this study it was possible to understand the potential of the systematic review as a tool for information that encompass the perception of risk as a whole. Making it possible to trace parameters to find out why the world's people have an aversion to certain matters relating to nuclear energy. Considering that if you can understand what drives the people has disgust on nuclear area, it is probably possible to create alternatives to remedy this lack of information and knowledge about the area. Causing the population to realize the benefits that nuclear power brings to people. (author)

  9. Perception of slipperiness and prospective risk of slipping at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Falls are a leading cause of injury at work, and slipping is the predominant cause of falling. Prior research has suggested a modest correlation between objective measures (such as coefficient of friction, COF) and subjective measures of slipperiness (such as worker perceptions) in the workplace. However, the degree of association between subjective measures and the actual risk of slipping at the workplace is unknown. This study examined the association between perception of slipperiness and the risk of slipping. Methods 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants participated in a 12-week prospective cohort study. At baseline, demographic information was collected, participants rated floor slipperiness in eight areas of the restaurant, and work environment factors, such as COF, were measured. Restaurant-level and area-level mean perceptions of slipperiness were calculated. Participants then reported their slip experience at work on a weekly basis for the next 12 weeks. The associations between perception of slipperiness and the rate of slipping were assessed. Results Adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education, primary language, mean COF, use of slip-resistant shoes, and restaurant chain, each 1-point increase in mean restaurant-level perception of slipperiness (4-point scale) was associated with a 2.71 times increase in the rate of slipping (95% CI 1.25 to 5.87). Results were similar for area-level perception within the restaurant (rate ratios (RR) 2.92, 95% CI 2.41 to 3.54). Conclusions Perceptions of slipperiness and the subsequent rate of slipping were strongly associated. These findings suggest that safety professionals, risk managers and employers could use aggregated worker perceptions of slipperiness to identify slipping hazards and, potentially, to assess intervention effectiveness. PMID:22935953

  10. Risk perceptions and technological hazards: a contextual view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Simmons, P.; Irwin, A.; Wynne, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the study of public perceptions of risk has given rise to a number of different (and sometimes conflicting) perspectives. Although the differences between these approaches are not trivial, recent reviews have suggested that there may be some points of convergence. In particular, recent work within the different traditions has emphasised the importance of factors such as trust and power for understanding public perceptions of risk. These factors take us beyond the characteristics of the risks themselves, which were the focus of influential work in the psychometric tradition and into a consideration of the social and cultural context within which potentially hazardous technologies are encountered and evaluated. In this paper we examine the way in which the lay public understand and respond to a particular class of technological risks - those associated with site-based major accident hazards. On the basis of empirical research, we argue that an appreciation of the different contexts within which citizens encounter such risks is crucial to understanding the dynamics of public concerns. We illustrate our argument by examining the different ways in which contextual factors influence perceptions. The discussion draws upon a recently completed study of public perceptions of the risks at seven major hazard sites in the UK, which was funded the by UK Health and Safety Executive. (authors)

  11. [Spanish adolescents' low perception of risk in alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Relinque, Cristian; Arroyo, Gonzalo Del Moral; Ferrer, Belén Martínez; Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu

    2017-08-07

    According to recent studies, Spanish adolescents show low perception of risk in alcohol consumption. The current study aims to analyze the factors that favor this low perception based on the opinion of a group of 32 professional experts on adolescence, family, school, mass media, and local policies. A qualitative methodology was used, based on Grounded Theory, using information from 5 focus groups guided by semi-structured interviews. Twelve factors or subcategories were identified, grouped in 4 general categories: short-term risk, immediacy, and perception of invulnerability ("adolescent thinking" category); benevolent view of alcohol, normalization of consumption, and alcohol-entertainment binomial ("social norms" category); parents' habitual consumption, verbal/non-verbal inconsistency in parental model, risk-free consumption depicted in the mass media, consumption with positive results in the media ("social models" category); and excessive health content, long-term risk ("preventive discourse" category). After discussing the results in the context of the current scientific literature, the article offers various proposals for increasing risk perception in adolescents: stronger impact of contents on short-term risks of alcohol; educational strategies targeted to adolescents to include agents of socialization, especially parents; and policies centered on the substance and reduction of supply.

  12. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  13. Evaluation of a visual risk communication tool: effects on knowledge and perception of blood transfusion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Mehta, M D

    2003-06-01

    Effective risk communication in transfusion medicine is important for health-care consumers, but understanding the numerical magnitude of risks can be difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a visual risk communication tool on the knowledge and perception of transfusion risk. Laypeople were randomly assigned to receive transfusion risk information with either a written or a visual presentation format for communicating and comparing the probabilities of transfusion risks relative to other hazards. Knowledge of transfusion risk was ascertained with a multiple-choice quiz and risk perception was ascertained by psychometric scaling and principal components analysis. Two-hundred subjects were recruited and randomly assigned. Risk communication with both written and visual presentation formats increased knowledge of transfusion risk and decreased the perceived dread and severity of transfusion risk. Neither format changed the perceived knowledge and control of transfusion risk, nor the perceived benefit of transfusion. No differences in knowledge or risk perception outcomes were detected between the groups randomly assigned to written or visual presentation formats. Risk communication that incorporates risk comparisons in either written or visual presentation formats can improve knowledge and reduce the perception of transfusion risk in laypeople.

  14. How is the older road users’ perception of risk constructed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Kjær, Marlene Rishøj

    2011-01-01

    limitations but by perceiving other road users behaving dangerously. While the self-regulation practices adapted by the participants may have been responses to age-related changes, they were constructed as practices based on the driver’s skills, experience and preferences, and presented as responses...... in their driving behaviour, but there is no unequivocal proof for this in the research literature. The present study aims to help to understand the risk perception of this group by studying how older persons construct their perceptions about risk and safety. The study uses material from focus groups conducted...

  15. Online versus conventional shopping: consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, Bob M

    2007-10-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a prevention focus. The findings in Study 1 demonstrate these effects by using self-report measures for risk perception and prevention focus. In Study 2, we replicated these findings and demonstrated that the effect of an online shopping environment carries over to behavior in a domain unrelated to shopping.

  16. Illness perceptions or recurrence risk perceptions: What comes first? A longitudinal cross-lagged examination among cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Shira; Drori, Erga; Banai, Shmuel; Finkelstein, Ariel; Shiloh, Shoshana

    2016-05-01

    Previous research suggested that illness perceptions provide the basis for illness risk perceptions through an inductive reasoning process. This study aimed to assess the direction of relationships between illness and recurrence risk perceptions over time, among cardiac patients. A longitudinal study was conducted among 138 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Self-report questionnaires measured perceived recurrence risk and illness perceptions one day and one month after catheterisation. Cross-lagged Panel Model Analyses revealed that higher perceptions of timeline, consequences and emotional representations of illness at hospitalisation were associated with higher recurrence risk perceptions one month later. Perceived personal control was the only illness perception with bi-directional associations: higher perceived personal control at hospitalisation was associated with higher recurrence risk perceptions one month later; and higher recurrence risk perceptions at hospitalisation was associated with lower personal control one month later. The findings suggest that the associations between recurrence risk and illness perceptions can only partly be explained by inductive reasoning. Halo effects and defensive processes are suggested as complementary explanations for the observed associations between risk and illness perceptions.

  17. Work and Risk: Perceptions of Nuclear-Power Personnel. a Study in Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Claire Dewitt

    1992-01-01

    The utility industry has devoted time and money to assure personnel within nuclear power plants are informed about occupational risks. Radiation-protection training programs are designed to present information to employees about occupational radiation and protective procedures. Work -related concerns are known to create stress, affect the morale of the workforce, influence collective bargaining, and increase compensation claims. This study was designed to determine perceptions of risk among employees of nuclear power plants and identify variables that influence these perceptions. Four power plants were included in the study, one in Canada and three in the United States. Data were generated through participant observations and interviews of 350 participants during a period of 3 weeks at each plant. Data were gathered and analyzed following procedures advanced by Grounded Theory, a naturalistic methodology used in this study. Training content, information, and communication materials were additional sources of data. Findings indicated employees believed health and safety risks existed within the work environment. Perceptions of risk were influenced by training quality, the work environment, nuclear myths and images of the general public, and fears of family members. Among the three groups of workers, administration personnel, security personnel, and radiation workers, the latter identified a larger number of risks. Workers perceived radiation risks, shift work, and steam pipe ruptures as high-level concerns. Experiencing stress, making mistakes, and fear of sabotage were concerns shared among all employee groups at various levels of concern. Strategies developed by employees were used to control risk. Strategies included teamwork, humor, monitoring, avoidance, reframing, and activism. When risks were perceived as uncontrollable, the employee left the plant. A coping strategy of transferring concerns about radiological risks to nonradiological risks were uncovered in

  18. Perception of stroke symptoms and utilization of emergency medical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano A. Hawkes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lack of stroke awareness and slow activation of emergency medical services (EMS are frequently reported reasons for delayed arrival to the hospital. We evaluated these variables in our population. Methods Review of hospital records and structured telephone interviews of 100 consecutive stroke patients. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results Seventy patients (75% arrived at the hospital 4.5 hours after stroke symptoms onset. The use of EMS did not improve arrival times. Most patients who recognized their symptoms did not use EMS (p < 0.02. Nineteen patients (20% were initially misdiagnosed. Eighteen of them were first assessed by non-neurologist physicians (p < 0.001. Conclusions Our population showed a low level of stroke awareness. The use of EMS did not improve arrival times at the hospital and the non-utilization of the EMS was associated with the recognition of stroke symptoms. There was a concerning rate of misdiagnosis, mostly by non-neurologist medical providers.

  19. The perception of the risk and the system of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The measures that are applied to regulate a certain practice, are based on the risk that implies the practice and in the acceptance of the above mentioned risk from the part affected by the practice. If the perception of the risk does not correspond to the reality the situation is unstable and it is possible to lose the control of the situation. When discrepancies exist in the Perception of the Risk on the part of different sectors of the society, they can produce serious conflicts that affect the establishment of the protection measures. The problem of the 'perception of the risk' rests on the fact that the technical people and the public use generally different reasoning and therefore its coincidence is almost fortuitous. The intuitive perception of the risk is often narrowly tied to a 'symbolic mechanism' and once established the symbolic relation can produce a psychological phenomenon by means of which the individuals resist to the reality, and the symbols make prevail over the facts in order not to alter the interior symbolic pre-established scheme. The perception of the risk appears in two different groups of persons: 1) The persons affected by the risk (the public); and 2) The persons who can modify this risk (operators). It is important that the perception of the risk is compatible with the scientific hypotheses to avoid conflicts in the situation 1 and to assure the control in the situation 2 (safety culture). The 'perception of the risk' is fundamental to support the control of a practice and it is possible to modify it across the communication. It is necessary to know which are all The Factors that affect the perception of the risk to be able to design a strategy of suitable communication. Across different studies it has been learned which are the factors that affect the perception of risk: 1) Some factors depend on the proper characteristics of the risk; 2) Others depend on the proper characteristics of the individuals and finally; 3) Other factors

  20. Risk Decision Making Model for Reservoir Floodwater resources Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Floodwater resources utilization(FRU) can alleviate the shortage of water resources, but there are risks. In order to safely and efficiently utilize the floodwater resources, it is necessary to study the risk of reservoir FRU. In this paper, the risk rate of exceeding the design flood water level and the risk rate of exceeding safety discharge are estimated. Based on the principle of the minimum risk and the maximum benefit of FRU, a multi-objective risk decision making model for FRU is constructed. Probability theory and mathematical statistics method is selected to calculate the risk rate; C-D production function method and emergy analysis method is selected to calculate the risk benefit; the risk loss is related to flood inundation area and unit area loss; the multi-objective decision making problem of the model is solved by the constraint method. Taking the Shilianghe reservoir in Jiangsu Province as an example, the optimal equilibrium solution of FRU of the Shilianghe reservoir is found by using the risk decision making model, and the validity and applicability of the model are verified.

  1. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism. Because behavior is determined by

  2. Cardiovascular risk-factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioe, Patricia A; Crawford, Sybil L; Stein, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in noninfected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk [F(1, 117) = 0.13, p > .05]. Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly but significantly correlated; r (126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk-factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Preventive care utilization: Association with individual- and workgroup-level policy and practice perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Sparer, Emily H; Boden, Leslie I; Wagner, Gregory R; Hashimoto, Dean M; Hopcia, Karen; Sorensen, Glorian

    2018-06-01

    Preventive medical care may reduce downstream medical costs and reduce population burden of disease. However, although social, demographic, and geographic determinants of preventive care have been studied, there is little information about how the workplace affects preventive care utilization. This study examines how four types of organizational policies and practices (OPPs) are associated with individual workers' preventive care utilization. We used data collected in 2012 from 838 hospital patient care workers, grouped in 84 patient care units at two hospitals in Boston. Via survey, we assessed individuals' perceptions of four types of OPPs on their work units. We linked the survey data to a database containing detailed information on medical expenditures. Using multilevel models, we tested whether individual-level perceptions, workgroup-average perceptions, and their combination were associated with individual workers' preventive care utilization (measured by number of preventive care encounters over a two-year period). Adjusting for worker characteristics, higher individual-level perceptions of workplace flexibility were associated with greater preventive care utilization. Higher average unit-level perceptions of people-oriented culture, ergonomic practices, and flexibility were associated with greater preventive care utilization. Overall, we find that workplace policies and practices supporting flexibility, ergonomics, and people-oriented culture are associated with positive preventive care-seeking behavior among workers, with some policies and practices operating at the individual level and some at the group level. Improving the work environment could impact employers' health-related expenditures and improve workers' health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Tripartite Model of Risk Perception (TRIRISK): Distinguishing Deliberative, Affective, and Experiential Components of Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Persoskie, Alexander; Avishai-Yitshak, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-10-01

    Although risk perception is a key predictor in health behavior theories, current conceptions of risk comprise only one (deliberative) or two (deliberative vs. affective/experiential) dimensions. This research tested a tripartite model that distinguishes among deliberative, affective, and experiential components of risk perception. In two studies, and in relation to three common diseases (cancer, heart disease, diabetes), we used confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the tripartite risk perception (TRIRISK) model and compared the fit of the TRIRISK model to dual-factor and single-factor models. In a third study, we assessed concurrent validity by examining the impact of cancer diagnosis on (a) levels of deliberative, affective, and experiential risk perception, and (b) the strength of relations among risk components, and tested predictive validity by assessing relations with behavioral intentions to prevent cancer. The tripartite factor structure was supported, producing better model fit across diseases (studies 1 and 2). Inter-correlations among the components were significantly smaller among participants who had been diagnosed with cancer, suggesting that affected populations make finer-grained distinctions among risk perceptions (study 3). Moreover, all three risk perception components predicted unique variance in intentions to engage in preventive behavior (study 3). The TRIRISK model offers both a novel conceptualization of health-related risk perceptions, and new measures that enhance predictive validity beyond that engendered by unidimensional and bidimensional models. The present findings have implications for the ways in which risk perceptions are targeted in health behavior change interventions, health communications, and decision aids.

  5. Perception of risk and the attribution of responsibility for accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N

    2014-03-01

    Accidents, one often hears, "happen"; we accept, and even expect, that they will be part of daily life. But in situations in which injury or death result, judgments of responsibility become critical. How might our perceptions of risk influence the ways in which we allocate responsibility for an accident? Drawing from attribution and risk perception theory, this study investigates how perceived controllability and desirability of risk, in addition to perceived danger and recreational risk-taking, relate to attributions of responsibility for the cause of unintentional injury in a unique setting: U.S. national parks. Three parks, Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Delaware Water Gap, provide the setting for this survey-based study, which considers how park visitors (N = 447) attribute responsibility for the cause of a hypothetical visitor accident. Results suggest that respondents tended to make more internal (i.e., related to characteristics of the victim), rather than external (i.e., related to characteristics of the park, or park management) attributions. As respondents viewed park-related risk as controllable, they were more likely to attribute the cause of the accident to the victim. Moreover, among other significant variables, having experienced a similar accident predicted lower internal causal attribution. Opportunities for future research linking risk perception and attribution variables, as well as practical implications for the management of public outdoor settings, are presented. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  7. Stochastic optimization under risk constraint and utility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, B.

    2008-09-01

    In a context of concurrence and emergence of energy markets, the production of electricity is affected by the new sources of risks which are the price variations on the energy markets. These new sources of risks generate a new risk: the market risk. In this research, the author explores the possibility of introducing constraints, expressed by measurements of risk, into the process of optimization of electricity production when financial contracts are signed on the energy market. The author makes the distinction between the engineering approach (taking the risk into account by risk measurements) and the economist approach (taking the risk into account by utility functions). After an overview of these both approaches in a static framework, he gives an economical formulation (a Maccheroni type one) for a static optimization problem under a risk constraint when the risk measurement is written under the form of an expected infimum like the variance, the 'conditional value at risk', and so on. The obtained results are then extended to a dynamic optimization framework under risk constraints. A numerical application of this approach is presented to solve a problem of electricity production management under a constraint of 'conditional value at risk' on a middle term

  8. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Adolescent Risk Behavior Participation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…

  9. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  10. Effects of risk communication on natural hazards on real estate owners' risk perception and risk behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Maidl, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, in most of the European countries risk maps on natural hazards have been elaborated but there is so far little experience how to efficiently communicate these maps to the public. Recently, the public authorities of Zurich informed the owners of buildings located within the hazard zone on urban flood risks The owners received official letters containing information on potential danger, the probability of flood events, constructional safety measures, and guidelines for appropriate actions in case of an immediate flood. In the cover letter they were also encouraged to achieve more detailed information about the particular risks for their building using an online accessible risk map within a geographic information system (GIS). This risk communication campaign was based on the expectation that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. There is, however, little empirical evidence that these expected outcomes can be achieved by written forms of risk communication. With this project we aim to find out to which degree a campaign of written risk communication can shape land owners risk perception and risk behaviour, and which other factors (e.g. trust in authorities, risk, risk zone category of the building) contributed to these outcomes... In collaboration with public authorities we conducted a survey among 1500 owners of buildings in the hazard zones in Zurich (50 % in blue zone, 50 % in yellow and yellow-white zone), that is 14% of all persons who were addressed by the authorities of the city. The standardized questionnaire comprises in particular items measuring respondents' evaluation of the virtual and physical information material, the time they spent for studying the information material, the dimensions of their risk perception, their acceptability of risks and their preparedness to implement constructional and other safety

  11. Novice drivers' risky driving behavior, risk perception, and crash risk: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.

  12. A metasynthesis of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne; Ayers, Susan; Holden, Des

    2014-04-01

    risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies. a systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that reported qualitative research into risk perception in relation to high risk pregnancy. A metasynthesis was developed to describe and interpret the studies. the synthesis resulted in the identification of five themes: determinants of risk perception; not seeing it the way others do; normality versus risk; if the infant is ok, I׳m ok; managing risk. this metasynthesis suggests women at high risk during pregnancy use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status. It shows women are aware of the risks posed by their pregnancies but do not perceive risk in the same way as healthcare professionals. They will take steps to ensure the health of themselves and their infants but these may not include following all medical recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assimilation of public opinions in nuclear decision-making using risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, K.Y.; Yang, J.W.; Kang, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of assimilating public opinions in the decision-making process has been developed in this study. The proposed method will resolve the major shortcomings of existing decision-making models, which are deficient in, or missing public participation during the process. In the nuclear-related decision-making process, a particular concern of the public is nuclear safety, which is numerically characterized by risk. In reality, it is the risk that each individual perceives that is very important. Hence, the public perception of risk has been employed as a key decision-making element in representing public opinions. To quantify the public perception of risk, the psychometric model is used. Psychological risk dimensions are first assessed using factor analysis and a set of factors is identified for optimized computation. Expert opinions formulated by a group of selected professionals and experts are then aggregated with the public opinions. To gather public and expert opinions, separate polls were conducted in this study. In the aggregation, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-attribute utility analysis (MAUA) were employed, and for uncertainty analysis, a fuzzy set based approach was adopted. This method has been applied to analyze six options for spent fuel management in Korea for a case study. As expected, the results of the case study show that public risk perception is an important element in nuclear-related decision-making processes

  14. Private forest owners and invasive plants: risk perception and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan Charnley

    2012-01-01

    We investigated nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners' invasive plant risk perceptions and mitigation practices using statistical analysis of mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interview data collected in Oregon's ponderosa pine zone. We found that 52% of the survey sample was aware of invasive plant species considered problematic by local...

  15. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  16. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  17. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  18. Students' Risk Perceptions of Nanotechnology Applications: Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant; Jones, Gail; Taylor, Amy; Forrester, Jennifer; Robertson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Scientific literacy as a goal of a science education reform remains an important discourse in the research literature and is a key component of students' understanding and acceptance of emergent technologies like nanotechnology. This manuscript focuses on undergraduate engineering students' perceptions of the risks and benefits posed by…

  19. SARS Risk Perception, Knowledge, Precautions, and Information Sources, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Arja R.; Oenema, Anke; de Zwart, Onno; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bishop, George D.

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–related risk perceptions, knowledge, precautionary actions, and information sources were studied in the Netherlands during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although respondents were highly aware of the SARS outbreak, the outbreak did not result in unnecessary precautionary actions or fears. PMID:15496256

  20. Perception of environmental health risks among workers in a food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Workplace safety relies partially on workers' ability to recognize hazards that could result in personal injury. This study aimed to determine the perception of industrial workers to the environmental risks that they are exposed to and their practice of self protection through the use of PPE. Methods: It was a ...

  1. The role of knowledge in students’ flood-risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, A.; Kuiper, W.; van der Schee, J.A.; Schoonenboom, J.

    2013-01-01

    Until now, flood-risk perception in the Netherlands has been solely studied as it relates to adults. This exploratory study focused on 15-year-old students who have taken geography courses for 3 years. Since geography education focuses on the formation of knowledge and understanding with respect to

  2. Online versus conventional shopping: Consumers' risk perception and regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kerkhof, P.; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  3. Online versus Conventional Shopping: Consumers' Risk Perception and Regulatory Focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    In two experiments, the impact of shopping context on consumers' risk perceptions and regulatory focus was examined. We predicted that individuals perceive an online (vs. conventional) shopping environment as more risky and that an online shopping environment, by its risky nature, primes a

  4. Risk perceptions and behavioral context: U.S. Forest Service fire management professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Carpenter, Edwin H.; Cortner, Hanna J.; Cleaves, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Fire managers from the U.S. Forest Service were surveyed to determine which decision factors most strongly influenced their fire‐risk decisions. Safety, the resources at risk, public opinion, and the reliability of information were important influences on these decisions. This research allowed direct comparison between fire managers’ perceptions of factor importance and how their fire‐risk decisions changed in response to those factors. These risk decisions were highly responsive to changes in context (an escaped wildfire decision versus a prescribed burning decision) as well as to changing factors. The results demonstrate the utility of using scenarios in risk research and the vital importance of context in studying risk‐taking behavior. Research which attempts to remove risk decisions from their real‐world context may well distort the nature of risk‐taking behavior.

  5. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  6. We are at risk, and so what? Place attachment, environmental risk perceptions and preventive coping behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Fornara, Ferdinando; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2015-01-01

    Place attachment regulates people-environment transactions across various relevant environmental-psychological processes. However, there is no consensus about its role in the relationship between environmental risk perception and coping behaviours. Since place attachment is strongly related to pl...

  7. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  8. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.

  9. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L. E. P.; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081

  10. HIV Risk Perception, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Transgender Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E

    2017-05-01

    Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tourists’ Risk Perception and the Use of Mobile Devices in Beach Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc González-Reverté

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The perceived risk of tourists’ use of smartphones is a key issue in shaping the tourist experience in terms of sustainability, as it can affect the behaviour of tourists and influence their satisfaction with that experience. However, little empirical research exists on the relationship between tourists’ risk perception and the perceived value of mobile device usage. This paper measures the association between tourists’ perceived risk of mobile device usage and several variables that demonstrate the perceived usefulness of mobile devices: utility, hedonic value and future intention of use. A survey on tourists’ use of smartphones was conducted in 2016 and, by means of a cluster analysis, four groups of tourists were identified with significant differences in their perception of the risk and use value of smartphones. Differences between tourists suggest that a single digital tourist profile does not exist and that tourism destinations and smart tourism DMOs (destination marketing organisations should include risk perception in their management agenda. This will allow them to achieve a better understanding of tourist behaviour and to adapt the commercialisation of tourism products and services to a wide range of tourism needs. In addition, four regression models were applied to measure the association between the risk and perceived usefulness of mobile devices. On the one hand, dependence on mobile devices was associated positively with the perceived usefulness of mobile devices. On the other hand, the tourists surveyed saw privacy risk as having a major negative impact on the tourist experience, although it did not affect their perceived utility value and future use of mobile devices. Smart tourism destination managers should bear in mind that privacy risk issues related to the use of mobile devices must be integrated into an ethical perspective when marketing a destination.

  12. DIFFUSION AND PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother’s consumption of...

  13. New methodology to quantify risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, H.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    A novel approach for establishing acceptability of risk is presented and illustrated by an application to the case of the light water reactors. The advantage of the method is that it takes into consideration the shape of the probability distribution function over consequences, instead of simply using the expected value of this distribution. 25 refs

  14. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  15. Farmers' motivations, risk perceptions and risk management strategies in a developing economy: Bangladesh experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    and farm management training are considered among the best methods to manage the risks in the shrimp-farming business. We also observe some disparities in farmers' perceptions. For instance, farmers mentioned that removal of influence of middlemen from supply chain is essential for the betterment......Aquaculture farmers' risk perceptions and risk management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research. Therefore, an exploratory study has been undertaken to provide empirical insight into Bangladeshi coastal shrimp farmers' risk perceptions and risk management...... and availability of quality shrimp seeds, exploitation by intermediaries and uncertainty about the future demand for shrimp in foreign markets are perceived as the most important sources of risk. On the other hand, prevention of disease, timely supply of shrimp seeds, elimination of middlemen from the supply chain...

  16. The role of risk perceptions in the risk mitigation process: The case of wildfire in high risk communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade E. Martin; Ingrid M. Martin; Brian Kent

    2009-01-01

    An important policy question receiving considerable attention concerns the risk perception-risk mitigation process that guides how individuals choose to address natural hazard risks. This question is considered in the context of wildfire. We analyze the factors that influence risk reduction behaviors by homeowners living in the wildland-urban interface. The factors...

  17. Risk Perception and Economic Value Of Disaster Mitigation Case of Bantul Post Earthquake May 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to obtain empirical evidence of disaster mitigation in Bantul, Indonesia. The expected utility theory and impact of regional characteristics on individual perceptions was used to describe the disaster risk management process. The regional mapping based on hazard level was conducted by a Geographical Information System (GIS. Data used in this research were primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained by distributing questionnaire to some respondents. Sample amounts used were 395 respondents. The research empirical contribution was to economic valuation method used towards safety and efforts to link regional characteristics, individual perception and also their willingness to conduct mitigation. The research practical contribution was to identify some key obstacles in disaster risk management. Based on multiple regression analysis, this study found that educational level, risk aversion degree, trust towards earthquake resistant building, control ability, income level, classification of hazard area contributes to higher Willingness To Pay (WTP for mitigation. It also found that perception towards central governmental roles variable did not affect to WTP for mitigation. However, the income levels of the communities in Bantul positively correspond to WTP for mitigation suggesting that the findings were consistent with the expected utility theory.

  18. Risk perception and management in smallholder dairy farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, K.; Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies on smallholder dairy farmers' risk perceptions and management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research of developing countries. This study focuses on farmers' risk perception and management strategies of smallholder dairy farms in urban and

  19. Perception of Risk of HIV among Adolescents' Living in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Using the Health Belief Model, the study investigated factors influencing perception of risk of. HIV among adolescents ... Keywords: HIV; risk perception; adolescents; urban slum; Ghana. Résumé ..... World Health Organization. "Global health ...

  20. Risk perception of medicinal marijuana in medical students from northeast Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Guzman Sandra; Palacios-Ríos Dionicio; Nava-Obregon Teresa A; Arredondo-Mendoza Julio C; Alcalá-Alvarado Olga V; Alonso-Bracho Sofía A; Becerril-Gaitan Daniela A; González-Santiago Omar

    2017-01-01

    This article discribe by the first time the risk perception of medicinal marijuana in medical students. The evaluation was done with a scale of 10 cm, similar to other studies that analyze risk perception to prescription drugs.

  1. Reconceptualising risk: Perceptions of risk in rural and remote maternity service planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Kornelsen, Jude; Longman, Jo; Robin, Sarah; Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue; Pilcher, Jennifer; Martin, Tanya; Grzybowski, Stefan; Donoghue, Deborah; Rolfe, Margaret; Morgan, Geoff

    2016-07-01

    to explore perceptions and examples of risk related to pregnancy and childbirth in rural and remote Australia and how these influence the planning of maternity services. data collection in this qualitative component of a mixed methods study included 88 semi-structured individual and group interviews (n=102), three focus groups (n=22) and one group information session (n=17). Researchers identified two categories of risk for exploration: health services risk (including clinical and corporate risks) and social risk (including cultural, emotional and financial risks). Data were aggregated and thematically analysed to identify perceptions and examples of risk related to each category. fieldwork was conducted in four jurisdictions at nine sites in rural (n=3) and remote (n=6) Australia. 117 health service employees and 24 consumers. examples and perceptions relating to each category of risk were identified from the data. Most medical practitioners and health service managers perceived clinical risks related to rural birthing services without access to caesarean section. Consumer participants were more likely to emphasise social risks arising from a lack of local birthing services. our analysis demonstrated that the closure of services adds social risk, which exacerbates clinical risk. Analysis also highlighted that perceptions of clinical risk are privileged over social risk in decisions about rural and remote maternity service planning. a comprehensive analysis of risk that identifies how social and other forms of risk contribute to adverse clinical outcomes would benefit rural and remote people and their health services. Formal risk analyses should consider the risks associated with failure to provide birthing services in rural and remote communities as well as the risks of maintaining services. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding gaps between the risk perceptions of wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents and wildfire professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Travis Warziniack; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2015-01-01

    Research across a variety of risk domains finds that the risk perceptions of professionals and the public differ. Such risk perception gaps occur if professionals and the public understand individual risk factors differently or if they aggregate risk factors into overall risk differently. The nature of such divergences, whether based on objective inaccuracies or on...

  3. Climate change beliefs, risk perceptions, and adaptation behavior among Midwestern U.S. crop farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Saylor Mase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change presents unique challenges to the resilience of United States agriculture, and farmers and advisors must utilize effective adaptation strategies to be both economically and environmentally sustainable. This study addresses Midwestern U.S. crop farmers’ beliefs about climate change, perceived risks from weather and climate, and attitudes toward adaptation that influence their decisions to adopt adaptation strategies. Analyzing a 2012 survey of nearly 5000 corn farmers across 22 Midwestern U.S. Watersheds, we investigate the most common weather and climate risk management strategies, including purchasing additional crop insurance, implementing conservation practices, and adding new technology. U.S. farmers’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of changing weather patterns, climate risks to their farm and attitudes toward adapting are analyzed. Farmers’ perceptions of risk to their own farm, attitudes toward innovation and adaptation attitudes were the most important determinants of adaptation. This study highlights the critical role of risk perceptions in adaptation attitudes as well as behaviors among agriculturalists. Finally, we discuss how these findings could be applied to increase uptake of adaptation strategies and thus resilience of U.S. agriculture to a changing climate.

  4. Local Perception of Risk to Livelihoods in the Semi-Arid Landscape of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Bunting

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deem many regions of southern Africa as vulnerable landscapes due to changing climatic regimes, ecological conditions, and low adaptive capacity. Typically in highly vulnerable regions, multiple livelihood strategies are employed to enable sustainable development. In Botswana, livelihood strategies have diversified over time to include tourism and other non-agricultural activities. While such diversification and development have been studied, little is known about how locals perceive livelihood risks. This article analyzes perceptions of risk through a risk hazards framework. During the summer of 2010, 330 surveys were completed within seven villages in northern Botswana and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia. During the survey respondents were asked to list the biggest threats/challenges to their livelihoods. Responses were grouped into categories of risk according to the capital assets on which livelihoods depend: natural, physical, financial, human, and social. A risk mapping procedure was utilized, for which indices of severity, incidence, and risk were calculated. It is hypothesized that people’s perception of risk is directly dependent on environmental conditions and employment status of the household. Results indicate that problems related to natural and financial assets are the greatest source of risk to livelihoods. Furthermore, flood, drought, and other measures of climate variability are perceived as influential, typically negatively, to livelihood strategies.

  5. Technological stigmatism, risk perception, and truth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, B.John

    1998-01-01

    Technological stigmas can be a source of confusion and misunderstandings of the effect on public health and safety of technological activities. The result can be a gross waste of national resources to fix the 'stigma' rather than the real problem. Fueling technological stigmas has become a visible activity, especially among non-technical professionals. Further, it is not clear that these same critics are accountable for their influence on policy and practices that may adversely affect people's lives and financial resources. Their bad news of alleged high risk and incompetent technologists is more appealing to the press than the more technical and apparently boring news of finding engineering solutions to real problems. The issue of technological stigma is especially visible in relation to the environmental and safety effects of the nuclear and chemical industries. These industries are in an extremely defensive position because the stigmatizes put much more emphasis on their risks than on their benefits to society. There is the genuine threat of the denial of important technologies in the nuclear and chemical fields and a resulting loss of lives and resources. The actions required to better tell the whole cost-risk-benefit story of specific technologies have to come from all of the groups involved. The critics and stigmatizers need to be more accountable for their assertions, the technologists need to involve the public more in their consideration of technological solutions to environmental and safety issues, and the press needs to present all of the facts rather than just the sensational or 'outrage' part of the story.

  6. Technological stigmatism, risk perception, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.John

    1998-01-01

    Technological stigmas can be a source of confusion and misunderstandings of the effect on public health and safety of technological activities. The result can be a gross waste of national resources to fix the 'stigma' rather than the real problem. Fueling technological stigmas has become a visible activity, especially among non-technical professionals. Further, it is not clear that these same critics are accountable for their influence on policy and practices that may adversely affect people's lives and financial resources. Their bad news of alleged high risk and incompetent technologists is more appealing to the press than the more technical and apparently boring news of finding engineering solutions to real problems. The issue of technological stigma is especially visible in relation to the environmental and safety effects of the nuclear and chemical industries. These industries are in an extremely defensive position because the stigmatizes put much more emphasis on their risks than on their benefits to society. There is the genuine threat of the denial of important technologies in the nuclear and chemical fields and a resulting loss of lives and resources. The actions required to better tell the whole cost-risk-benefit story of specific technologies have to come from all of the groups involved. The critics and stigmatizers need to be more accountable for their assertions, the technologists need to involve the public more in their consideration of technological solutions to environmental and safety issues, and the press needs to present all of the facts rather than just the sensational or 'outrage' part of the story

  7. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Risks and safety perception. IPSN barometer october 1999. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    An opinion investigation was realized in october 1999 by the IPSN to know the public opinion concerning the risks and safety perception. Five subjects were treated: the public care subjects (social and environment); the science and scientists image; the food risks; the opinion on the nuclear activities (interveners ability and credibility, nuclear controversy, radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents); the french people cares about the risks. The methodology and the analysis of the poll results are detailed. Tables of data investigation are also included. (A.L.B.)

  9. The perception of risks related to electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midden, C J; Daamen, D D; Verplanken, B

    1987-01-01

    Some of the key findings are discussed of psychological research on the perception of risks and attitudes with respect to the use of uranium and coal for electricity generation. It appears that attitudes are mostly not based on ideology but rather determined by a trade-off of expected risks and advantages. Lay estimates of probabilities are compared with expert judgements. In the last section attitudes of people living near existing or planned power plants are analyzed. Serious doubts are raised about the possibilities to give residents economic compensation for exposure to risks. 1 fig., 29 refs.

  10. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  11. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  12. How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this

  13. Some approaches to understanding public perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer-Wootten, B.

    1981-01-01

    The debate on nuclear power contains a central set of arguments that can be related, by and large, to differences in the meaning of risk assessment for various concerned publics. At an earlier point in time the arguments largely concerned power production (reactor safety), but now most components of the nuclear fuel cycle are subject to risk perceptions. The strongest levels of public concern over time have focussed on waste management, and in this area illustrates most clearly the gaps between the assessments of the technical community and those of the publics. In order to understand such gaps, a theoretical framework is necessary. The broadest scope for such a framework is found in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model developed by H.J. Otway, with its three interrelated components of risk estimation (technical), risk evaluation (public) and risk management. The model is described in this paper, as well as a number of empirical studies that derive from it and attempt to measure public perceptions of risks. These studies are then compared to several alternative explanations: the use of public opinion surveys; risk rating tasks based on psychologicl theory; the structure of arguments used by members of the public in qualitative focus group discussions; and a model of local community conflict derived from the content analysis of newspapers. Throughout the discussion, examples are taken wherever possible, from recent Canadian studies, in which the effects of major incidents (such as T.M.I., the Mississauga derailment, the Blind River refinery siting controversy, etc.) become apparent. It is suggested that our understanding of public perceptions of risks cannot be divorced from the set of broad societal concerns evidenced in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model, and that the crucial elements of this approach are seen in its emphasis on the decision-making process

  14. Perceptions of LWR risk for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.; Asselin, S.

    1984-01-01

    The Industry Degraded Core (IDCOR) Program was designed to develop a comprehensive, technically sound position on the issues related to potential accidents in light water reactors. One of the goals is to acquire knowledge and data so that a more realistic approach to the problem is possible. Some of the IDCOR tasks develop information in a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) framework. The PRA approach is structured upon reliability characteristics for individual components, such as pumps, valves and relays, which can be used to predict the frequency of system failures. System failure combinations can then be used to predict the probability of undesirable plant response to given initiating events. The IDCOR PRA tasks provide a significant amount of information related to the response of the plant to severe accidents. This information has been derived in a logical and consistent manner and so provides a coherent and rational basis for decision-making

  15. GM foods and the misperception of risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, George; Allum, Nick; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kronberger, Nicole; Torgersen, Helge; Hampel, Juergen; Bardes, Julie

    2004-02-01

    Public opposition to genetically modified (GM) food and crops is widely interpreted as the result of the public's misperception of the risks. With scientific assessment pointing to no unique risks from GM crops and foods, a strategy of accurate risk communication from trusted sources has been advocated. This is based on the assumption that the benefits of GM crops and foods are self-evident. Informed by the interpretation of some qualitative interviews with lay people, we use data from the Eurobarometer survey on biotechnology to explore the hypothesis that it is not so much the perception of risks as the absence of benefits that is the basis of the widespread rejection of GM foods and crops by the European public. Some respondents perceive both risks and benefits, and may be trading off these attributes along the lines of a rational choice model. However, for others, one attribute-benefit-appears to dominate their judgments: the lexicographic heuristic. For these respondents, their perception of risk is of limited importance in the formation of attitudes toward GM food and crops. The implication is that the absence of perceived benefits from GM foods and crops calls into question the relevance of risk communication strategies for bringing about change in public opinion.

  16. Perception of medical students for utility of mobile technology use in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Sushama Subhash Thakre; Subhash Bapurao Thakre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile technology is changing the way we live, and it is beginning to change the way we learn. Current literature reviews have shown that research on mobile technology in medical education primarily focused on efficacy, of mobile devices as an educational tool and resource, infrastructure to support m-learning, benefits, challenges, and appropriate use. Objectives: To assess the perception of medical student for the utility of mobile technology in their learning experience and t...

  17. Risk perception among nuclear power plant personnel: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated risk perception, well-being, and organizational commitment among nuclear power plant personnel. The study group, 428 employees from a nuclear power plant, completed a questionnaire which included the same questions as those in previous surveys on risk perception of lay persons and industrial workers. Hazards at work were not seen as a sizable problem by nuclear power plant personnel. The study group estimated the safety of nuclear power plants better and the possibility of a serious nuclear accident as more unlikely than the general public. Compared to employees in other industrial companies, the overall perceived risks at work among plant personnel did not exceed the respective perceptions of the reference groups. Risk-related attitudes did not explain well-being among plant personnel, but the relationship between the perceived probability of a serious nuclear accident at work and organizational commitment yielded to a significant correlation: Those plant workers who estimated the likelihood of an accident higher were less committed to the organization. 21 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Risk Perception and the Public Acceptance of Drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Reece A; Greer, Dominique A; Greer, Duncan G; Mehta, Amisha M

    2015-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft, or drones, are a rapidly emerging sector of the aviation industry. There has been limited substantive research, however, into the public perception and acceptance of drones. This article presents the results from two surveys of the Australian public designed to investigate (1) whether the public perceive drones to be riskier than existing manned aviation, (2) whether the terminology used to describe the technology influences public perception, and (3) what the broader concerns are that may influence public acceptance of the technology. We find that the Australian public currently hold a relatively neutral attitude toward drones. Respondents did not consider the technology to be overly unsafe, risky, beneficial, or threatening. Drones are largely viewed as being of comparable risk to that of existing manned aviation. Furthermore, terminology had a minimal effect on the perception of the risks or acceptability of the technology. The neutral response is likely due to a lack of knowledge about the technology, which was also identified as the most prevalent public concern as opposed to the risks associated with its use. Privacy, military use, and misuse (e.g., terrorism) were also significant public concerns. The results suggest that society is yet to form an opinion of drones. As public knowledge increases, the current position is likely to change. Industry communication and media coverage will likely influence the ultimate position adopted by the public, which can be difficult to change once established. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Intuitive risk perception: research results of attitude surveys toward risk and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Peters, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Using the instruments of the empirical social sciences, a cross-section study was conducted comprising experiments on qualitative risk characteristics, in-depth interviews on mechanisms of risk perception and representative surveys of the public on technical risk sources, in particular with regard to nuclear energy. The results of these studies show that person-related expectations in respect of risk consequences, the possibility of personal influencing control, the severity of risk consequences and one's own risk propensity play a significant role in the evaluation of risks

  20. Toward understanding the active SETI debate: Insights from risk communication and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbitz, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Insights from the robust field of risk communication and perception have to date been almost totally absent from the policy debate regarding the relative risks and merits of Active SETI or Messaging to Extraterrestrial Intelligence (METI). For many years, the practice (or proposed practice) of Active SETI has generated a vigorous and sometimes heated policy debate within the scientific community. There have also been some negative reactions in the media toward the activities of those engaged in Active SETI. Risk communication is a scientific approach to communication regarding situations involving potentially sensitive or controversial situations in which there may be high public concern and low public trust. The discipline has found wide acceptance and utility in fields such as public health, industrial regulation and environmental protection. Insights from the scientific field of risk communication (such as omission bias, loss aversion, the availability heuristic, probability neglect, and the general human preference for voluntary over involuntary risks) may help those who have participated in either side of the debate over Active SETI to better understand why the debate has taken on this posture. Principles of risk communication and risk perception may also help those engaged in Active SETI to communicate more effectively with other scientists, the public, with the media, and with policy makers regarding their activities and to better understand and respond to concerns expressed regarding the activity.

  1. Current features on risk perception and risk communication of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1997-01-01

    Health effects and risks of radiation and radionuclides are being misunderstood by many members of general public. Many peoples have fear and anxieties for radiation. So far, the health effects from radiation at low dose and low dose rate have not been cleared on biological aspects. Then, we have quantitatively estimated health risks of low-dose radiation on the basis of linear dose response relationship without threshold from the viewpoints of radiation protection by using both epidemiological data, such as atomic bomb survivors, and some models and assumptions. It is important for researchers and relevant persons in radiation protection to understand the process of risk estimation of radiation and to communicate an exact knowledge of radiation risks of the public members. (author)

  2. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk

  3. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk perception. A study

  4. The role of risk perception in making flood risk management more effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Salvini, G.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Semenzin, E.; Maidl, E.; Marcomini, A.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few decades, Europe has suffered from a number of severe flood events and, as a result, there has been a growing interest in probing alternative approaches to managing flood risk via prevention measures. A literature review reveals that, although in the last decades risk evaluation has been recognized as key element of risk management, and risk assessment methodologies (including risk analysis and evaluation) have been improved by including social, economic, cultural, historical and political conditions, the theoretical schemes are not yet applied in practice. One main reason for this shortcoming is that risk perception literature is mainly of universal and theoretical nature and cannot provide the necessary details to implement a comprehensive risk evaluation. This paper therefore aims to explore a procedure that allows the inclusion of stakeholders' perceptions of prevention measures in risk assessment. It proposes to adopt methods of risk communication (both one-way and two-way communication) in risk assessment with the final aim of making flood risk management more effective. The proposed procedure not only focuses on the effect of discursive risk communication on risk perception, and on achieving a shared assessment of the prevention alternatives, but also considers the effects of the communication process on perceived uncertainties, accepted risk levels, and trust in the managing institutions. The effectiveness of this combined procedure has been studied and illustrated using the example of the participatory flood prevention assessment process on the Sihl River in Zurich, Switzerland. The main findings of the case study suggest that the proposed procedure performed well, but that it needs some adaptations for it to be applicable in different contexts and to allow a (semi-) quantitative estimation of risk perception to be used as an indicator of adaptive capacity.

  5. Risk perceptions and smoking decisions of adult Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wanchuan; Sloan, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes effects of changes in risk perceptions of smoking's health harms on actual and attempted quits and quitting intentions of male smokers in China. Our survey of 5000+ male smokers was conducted two years after their neighbor's lung cancer diagnosis. We use proximity to a lung cancer neighbor as an exogenous determinant of individual's smoking risk perception. We show that learning of a neighbor's lung cancer diagnosis substantially affects smokers' subjective beliefs about smoking's harms, which in turn affects decisions about continued smoking and intentions to quit. Our study findings offer important public policy implications in indicating the importance of designing health-warning messages that fit smokers' personal circumstances as opposed to warnings solely based on edicts from scientific experts and/or epidemiological evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Financial Perceptions on Oil Spill Disasters: Isolating Corporate Reputational Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Feria-Domínguez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to isolate the corporate reputational risk faced by US oil and gas companies—as listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE—after recent oil spill disasters. For this purpose, we have conducted a standard short-horizon daily event study analysis aimed at the calibration of the financial perceptions caused by these environmental episodes between 2005 and 2011, and the drop effect on the market value of the firms analyzed. We not only find significant negative impact on the stock prices of the companies analyzed but also significant cumulative negative abnormal returns (CAR around the accidental spillages, especially for the longest event windows. Corporate reputational risk is also identified and even measured by adjusting abnormal returns by a certain loss ratio. A new metric, CAR(Rep, is then proposed to disentangle operational losses and the reputational damage derived from such negative financial perceptions.

  7. Bounded rationality and risk perception in human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kenichi; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Nagashima, Miyuki; Oda, Junichiro; Tokushige, Kohko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of risk perception associated with nuclear power plants in the framework of the behavioral economics, such as prospect theory. Due to the bounded rationality of the people, the public tends to overestimate the risk of nuclear power, especially after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Social acceptance is an essential element for the nuclear power plants, but nuclear option is getting regarded as a risky choice. On the other hand, experts define and measure risk by the calculation of the probability of damage to the core as a result of sequences of accidents identified by the study. However, this approach also involves limitations to some extent. We explore a possible way to close the gap under in the by wider social context with consideration of risk trade-off among various risk factors, rather than focusing only on nuclear issue. (author)

  8. Concern and Risk Perception: Effects on Osteoprotective Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenilla-Wong, A. L.; Chen, J. S.; March, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect that level of concern for osteoporosis, as well as self-perceived risk of osteoporosis and fracture, has on supplementation use, seeking medical advice, bone mineral density (BMD) testing, and antiosteoporosis medication (AOM) use. Study subjects were 1,095 female Australian participants of the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) untreated for osteoporosis at baseline. Study outcomes from self-administered questionnaires included calcium and vitamin D supplementation, self-reported seeking of medical advice regarding osteoporosis, BMD testing, and AOM use in the last 12 months at the late assessment. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. Concern significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and, however, had no significant impact on screening or treatment. Heightened self-perceived risks of osteoporosis and fracture both significantly increased the likelihood of seeking medical advice and BMD testing while elevated self-perceived risk of fracture increased AOM use. Supplementation use was not significantly associated with concern levels and risk perception. Concern and risk perceptions to osteoporosis and fracture were significantly associated with certain bone-protective behaviours. However, the disconnect between perceived osteoporosis risk and AOM use illustrates the need to emphasize the connection between osteoporosis and fracture in future education programs. PMID:25276471

  9. Adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John; Johnson, Ilona; Popat, Hashmat; Morgan, Maria Z; Gill, Paul

    2018-04-24

    For effective risk communication, clinicians must understand patients' values and beliefs in relation to the risks of treatment. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information. Five focus groups were carried out with 32 school/college pupils aged 12-18 in Wales, UK. Participants were purposively selected and had all experienced orthodontic treatment. A thematic approach was used for analysis and data collection was completed at the point of data saturation. Four themes emerged from the data; (a) day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment, (b) important orthodontic risk information, (c) engaging with orthodontic risk information and (d) managing the risks of orthodontic treatment. Day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment that were affecting participants "here and now" were of most concern. Information about preventing the risks of treatment was deemed to be important. Participants did not actively seek risk information but engaged passively with information from convenient sources. Perceptions of risk susceptibility influenced participants' management of the risks of orthodontic treatment. This study demonstrates that adolescent patients can understand information about the nature and severity of orthodontic treatment risks. However, adolescent patients can have false perceptions if the risks are unfamiliar, perceived only to have a future impact or if seen as easy to control. Adolescent patients must be provided with timely and easily accessible risk information and with practical solutions to prevent the risks of treatment. The views and experiences gathered in this study can assist clinicians to better understand their young patients' beliefs about treatment risks, facilitate effective risk communication and contribute to improved patient-centred care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tourism at Risk: Failures and Dichotomies of Risk Perception Theory in Tourism (Opinion Piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. KORSTANJE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The turn of the century has brought a lot of radical shifts and risks for tourism industry, which ranged from terrorism to lethal virus outbreaks. Henceforth risk perception theory, which was formulated in psychology, was re-appropriated by policy makers and tourism-related scholars. However, from its inception this conceptual corpus was based on the economic-centred paradigm. This piece discusses critically the main limitations of risk perception theory and the rise of a new discipline, post disaster marketing, in view of the caveats and speculative assumption of “the precautionary principle”.

  11. Time will tell: changes in risk perception and the processing of risk information about the Y2K-risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2004-01-01

    A field study was performed on the perceived risks related to the Y2K-problem. Two cross-sectional surveys were executed to study whether risk perception regarding the Y2K-problem, the perceived societal and personal capabilities to mitigate the risks, the attitude toward computers and the attitude

  12. The Perception Gap: Recognizing and managing the risks that arise when we get risk wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropeik, David

    2012-05-01

    Many in the academic, science, and business communities are frustrated at how people perceive and respond to risk, lamenting that the lay public is sometimes more afraid of some threats than the evidence warrants, and less afraid of some dangers than the evidence warns. This is often ascribed to the alarmist way the news media cover risk-related subjects. That criticism is simplistic and unproductive, and ignores or dismisses the large body of research that finds that the perception of risk is not, and can never be, perfectly rational. Risk perception among members of the public, the media, and members of the academic, scientific, and business communities, is ultimately subjective. The gap between our fears and the evidence is not simply the product of alarmist media reporting. This 'Perception Gap' poses significant risks in and of itself, influencing the choices we make as individuals and as a society. The roots of the Perception Gap must be understood if we are to recognize the dangers that can arise when we sometimes get risk wrong, and in order that we may more wisely manage those risks as actively as we manage toxicological or food or other risks with which we are more familiar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  15. Perception of Suicide Risk in Mental Health Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Tim M.; Hawley, Christopher J.; Butler, John; Morton, Adrian; Singhal, Ankush

    2016-01-01

    This study employed an independent-groups design (4 conditions) to investigate possible biases in the suicide risk perception of mental health professionals. Four hundred participants comprising doctors, nurses and social workers viewed a vignette describing a fictitious patient with a long-term mental illness. The case was presented as being drawn from a sample of twenty similar clinical case reports, of which 10 were associated with an outcome of suicide. The participant tasks were (i) to d...

  16. Community perceptions and factors influencing utilization of health services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare utilization has particular relevance as a public health and development issue. Unlike material and human capital, there is little empirical evidence on the utility of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization in a developing country context. We sought to assess the relevance of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization. Study Objective To explore community perceptions among three different wealth categories on factors influencing healthcare utilization in Eastern Uganda. Methods We used a qualitative study design using Focus Group Discussions (FGD to conduct the study. Community meetings were initially held to identify FGD participants in the different wealth categories, ('least poor', 'medium' and 'poorest' using poverty ranking based on ownership of assets and income sources. Nine FGDs from three homogenous wealth categories were conducted. Data from the FGDs was analyzed using content analysis revealing common barriers as well as facilitating factors for healthcare service utilization by wealth categories. The Health Access Livelihood Framework was used to examine and interpret the findings. Results Barriers to healthcare utilization exist for all the wealth categories along three different axes including: the health seeking process; health services delivery; and the ownership of livelihood assets. Income source, transport ownership, and health literacy were reported as centrally useful in overcoming some barriers to healthcare utilization for the 'least poor' and 'poor' wealth categories. The 'poorest' wealth category was keen to utilize free public health services. Conversely, there are perceptions that public health facilities were perceived to offer low quality care with chronic gaps such as shortages of essential supplies. In addition to individual material resources and the availability of free public healthcare services, social resources are perceived as

  17. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-03-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10/sup -5//y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10/sup -5//y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10/sup -5//y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10/sup -5//y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one.

  18. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10 -5 /y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10 -5 /y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10 -5 /y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10 -5 /y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one. (author)

  19. Incidence of online health information search: a useful proxy for public health risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Scammon, Debra L

    2013-06-17

    Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers' search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public's attitudes and behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population's environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population's general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables-the incidence of the flu (Phealth lifestyles (P=.009); and public resources, such as hospital care utilization (P=.008) and public health funds (P=.02)-have significant effects on Web searches for queries related to the flu. After

  20. Health risk perception, optimistic bias, and personal satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    To examine change in risk perception and optimistic bias concerning behavior-linked health threats and environmental health threats between adolescence and young adulthood and how these factors related to personal satisfaction. In 1996 and 2002, 1624 adolescents responded to a mailed questionnaire. Adolescents showed strong positive optimistic bias concerning behaviorlinked risks, and this optimistic bias increased with age. Increase in optimistic bias over time predicted increase in personal satisfaction. The capacity to process and perceive potential threats in a positive manner might be a valuable human ability positively influencing personal satisfaction and well-being.

  1. RISK PERCEPTION AND DIFFUSION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most recent NHANES data reveals that approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily bec...

  2. HIV knowledge, risk perception and risk behaviour among male ex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate HIV knowledge, beliefs and HIV risk behaviours among ex-offenders in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A sample of 85 male ex-offenders conveniently selected from an exoffenders organization were interviewed with a structured and open-ended questionnaire. Results indicate ...

  3. An analysis of the public perception of flood risk on the Belgian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellens, Wim; Zaalberg, Ruud; Neutens, Tijs; Vanneuville, Wouter; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, perception of flood risks has become an important topic to policy makers concerned with risk management and safety issues. Knowledge of the public risk perception is considered a crucial aspect in modern flood risk management as it steers the development of effective and efficient flood mitigation strategies. This study aimed at gaining insight into the perception of flood risks along the Belgian coast. Given the importance of the tourism industry on the Belgian coast, the survey considered both inhabitants and residential tourists. Based on actual expert's risk assessments, a high and a low risk area were selected for the study. Risk perception was assessed on the basis of scaled items regarding storm surges and coastal flood risks. In addition, various personal and residence characteristics were measured. Using multiple regression analysis, risk perception was found to be primarily influenced by actual flood risk estimates, age, gender, and experience with previous flood hazards. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  5. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  6. Knowledge, risk, and policy support: Public perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Sturgess, Shelbi G.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy was becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to air polluting fossil fuel technologies through the latter half of the 2000s. The tragic events of March 11, 2011 in Fukushima, Japan appear to have instantly killed any momentum the nuclear industry had gained. While unfortunate, many argue that nuclear power is still a safe alternative and that the Fukushima disaster resulted from insufficient safety regulations in Japan, a problem that does not exist in the United States. This project examines U.S. public support for nuclear energy one year after the Fukushima tragedy, seeking to understand the influence of knowledge and risk perceptions on policy support. We evaluate public support for nuclear energy policy from several perspectives using risk and attitudinal measurements that are more specific than often found in the literature to obtain a greater understanding of the connection between policy and risk. -- Highlights: •Paper evaluates US public support for nuclear energy1 year after Fukushima tragedy. •Attitudinal indicators are significant predictors of nuclear power policy support. •People more knowledgeable about energy issues are more supportive of nuclear energy. •Perceptions of risk exert varying influence on support for nuclear power. •Specific attitude and risk indicators permit nuanced insight into their influence

  7. Perceptions of Risk Stratification Workflows in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Ross

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk stratification (RS in primary care is frequently used by policy-makers, payers, and health systems; the process requires risk assessment for adverse health outcomes across a population to assign patients into risk tiers and allow care management (CM resources to be targeted effectively. Our objective was to understand the approach to and perception of RS in primary care practices. An online survey was developed, tested, and administered to 148 representatives of 37 primary care practices engaged in RS varying in size, location and ownership. The survey assessed practices’ approach to, perception of, and confidence in RS, and its effect on subsequent CM activities. We examined psychometric properties of the survey to determine validity and conducted chi-square analyses to determine the association between practice characteristics and confidence and agreement with risk scores. The survey yielded a 68% response rate (100 respondents. Overall, participants felt moderately confident in their risk scores (range 41–53.8%, and moderately to highly confident in their subsequent CM workflows (range 46–68%. Respondents from small and independent practices were more likely to have higher confidence and agreement with their RS approaches and scores (p < 0.01. Confidence levels were highest, however, when practices incorporated human review into their RS processes (p < 0.05. This trend was not affected by respondents’ professional roles. Additional work from a broad mixed-methods effort will add to our understanding of RS implementation processes and outcomes.

  8. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  9. Public perceptions about nanotechnology: Risks, benefits and trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Michael D.; Macoubrie, Jane

    2004-01-01

    We report data from the first representative national phone survey of Americans' perceptions about nanotechnology (N =1536). Public opinion about nanotechnology is in its infancy, and knowledge about it is quite limited. Yet, Americans' initial reaction to nanotechnology is thus far generally positive, probably rooted in a generally positive view of science overall. Survey respondents expected benefits of nanotechnology to be more prevalent than risks, and they reported feeling hopeful about nanotechnology rather than worried. Their most preferred potential benefit of nanotechnology is 'new and better ways to detect and treat human diseases,' and they identified 'losing personal privacy to tiny new surveillance devices' as the most important potential risk to avoid. The most discouraging aspect to the data is respondents' lack of trust in business leaders to minimize nanotechnology risks to human health. Overall, these data indicate that while Americans do not necessarily presume benefits and the absence of risks, their outlook is much more positive than not

  10. What is risk perception in general and in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, David Te-Yao

    2000-01-01

    In view of the universal roll Risk Perception plays in our daily life, the author makes an effort to understand this notion better. For such a subtle task, it will be good to know something about the person, who undertakes such a challenge. Thus, he first makes a short description of himself in a number of relevant personal feature, emphasising rather what he is not: cadre of insurance company.... etc. He starts with a literal understanding of the idiom Risk Perception in English and in other languages (in Chinese). This formulation, still abstract, is framed with concrete objects, and materialised into touchable structures. He then puts life into these structures, and makes them accessible to emotion and experience. Now that this notion is animated, he follows it's way into life in the field of Radiation Protection, and find among others that the term Cost and Benefit correspond to the Chinese idiom, and that the system of Justification and Optimisation is as difficult to achieve objectively as an Upright Walk on the Confucian Path to-ward the Middle. One of the difficulties lies in the difference in the scale in estimating values. For instance, though the idea of Asian and Western Values are rather diffuse, their difference is never-the-less high enough to render it to be insurmountable, at least at present. These observation belong actually to common experience of Health physicists, and nothing new or spectacular is presented. The author emphasises only, again not a new idea of his own, only putting weight to, that perception depends on point of view, or rather on stand of viewing points, and rarely represent the whole story, the true situation. This leads, according to the author, to the well known and accepted term of Risk Residuum, in German, Rest Risiko. Despite of partialness of all perceptions, solid decisions are based on perception. We all know mournful consequences of unsound decision in our daily life. It is tragic, when this happens in history. The

  11. What is risk perception in general and in radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, David Te-Yao [CH-5400 Baden (Switzerland)

    2000-05-01

    In view of the universal role Risk Perception plays in our daily life, the author makes an effort to understand this notion better. For such a subtle task, it will be good to know something about the person who undertakes such a challenge. Thus, he first makes a short description of himself in a number of relevant personal feature, emphasising rather what he is not: cadre of insurance company.... etc. He starts with a literal understanding of the idiom Risk Perception in English and in other languages (in Chinese). This formulation, still abstract, is framed with concrete objects, and materialised into touchable structures. He then puts life into these structures, and makes them accessible to emotion and experience. Now that this notion is animated, he follows its way into life in the field of Radiation Protection, and find among others that the term Cost and Benefit correspond to the Chinese idiom, and that the system of Justification and Optimisation is as difficult to achieve objectively as an Upright Walk on the Confucian Path to-ward the Middle. One of the difficulties lies in the difference in the scale in estimating values. For instance, though the idea of Asian and Western Values are rather diffuse, their difference is never-the-less high enough to render it to be insurmountable, at least at present. These observation belong actually to common experience of Health physicists, and nothing new or spectacular is presented. The author emphasises only, again not a new idea of his own, only putting weight to, that perception depends on point of view, or rather on stand of viewing points, and rarely represent the whole story, the true situation. This leads, according to the author, to the well known and accepted term of Risk Residuum, in German, Rest Risiko. Despite of partialness of all perceptions, solid decisions are based on perception. We all know mournful consequences of unsound decision in our daily life. It is tragic, when this happens in history. The

  12. The evolution of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy--Canadian consumer and producer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.

  13. Perception and evaluation of risks. Findings of the 'Baden-Wuerttemberg Risk Survey 2001'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwick, M.M.; Renn, O. (eds.)

    2002-05-01

    Since most of the empirical work on risk perception has been conducted in the 1970s and few studies are available that claim to span the full range of psychological, sociological and cultural variables, the Center of Technology Assessment in Stuttgart (Germany) has conducted a representative survey in the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg on risk perception in the general population. In addition, a qualitative investigation based on a sample of 62 respondents was launched in 2001. The objective of the study was to determine the relative importance of psychometric, stigma-related, social value-related, trust-related and cultural variables in explaining risk perception and acceptance. The following report summarizes the results of these investigations. (orig.)

  14. The role of risk perception and technical information in scientific debates over nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    This article examines how members of the lay public factor risk perceptions, trust and technical information from differing scientific sources into policy judgements about potentially hazardous facilities. Focusing on radwaste storage repositories, we examine how members of the public filter new information about potential hazards through risk perceptions, and adjust their own beliefs about risks in light of that information. Scientists play a large (and increasing) role in public policy debates concerning nuclear waste issues, in which public perceptions of human health and environmental risks often differ substantially from scientific consensus about those risks. Public concerns and uncertainties are compounded when scientists from competing groups (government agencies, scientific institutions, industries, and interest groups) make different claims about the likely health and environmental consequences of different policy options. We show the processes by which the public receive and process scientific information about nuclear waste management risks using data taken from interviews with 1800 randomly selected individuals (1200 in New Mexico, and 600 nationwide). Among the more important findings are: (1) members of the public are able to make quite reasonable estimates about what kinds of positions on the risks of nuclear waste disposal will be taken by scientists from differing organizations (e.g. scientists from environmental groups, government agencies, or the nuclear industry); (2) in assessing the credibility of scientific claims, members of the public place great emphasis on the independence of the scientists from those who fund the research; and (3) prior expectations about the positions (or expected biases) of scientists from different organizations substantially affects the ways in which members of the public weigh (and utilize) information that comes from these scientists

  15. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  16. Factors associated with blue-collar workers' risk perception of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oisaeng; Kim, Mi Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as, individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors as predictors of CVD risk perception among Korean blue-collar workers. The participants were 238 Korean blue-collar workers who worked in small companies. Data were collected through a survey; anthropometric and blood pressure measures; and blood sampling for lipid levels. Blue-collar workers had high actual CVD risk and low CVD risk perception. The significant predictors of risk perception included perceived health status, alcohol consumption, knowledge of CVD risk, actual CVD risk, decision latitude, and shift work. The model explained 26% of the variance in CVD risk perception. The result suggests when occupational health nurses are giving routine health examination in small companies, they can enhance CVD risk perception in blue-collar workers by providing essential information about CVD risk factors and personal counseling on the individual worker's CVD risk status.

  17. Risk perception, psychological heuristics and the water fluoridation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrea M L; Kiss, Simon J

    2015-04-29

    Increasingly, support for water fluoridation has come under attack. We seek an explanation, focusing on the case of Waterloo, Ontario, where a 2010 referendum overturned its water fluoridation program. In particular, we test whether individuals perceive the risks of water fluoridation based not on 'hard' scientific evidence but on heuristics and cultural norms. A sample of 376 residents in Waterloo were surveyed in June 2012 using random digit dialing. We use factor analysis, OLS regression, as well as t-tests to evaluate a survey experiment to test the credibility hypothesis. Perceptions of fluoride as a risk are lower among those who perceive fluoride's benefits (B = .473, p < 0.001) and those whose cultural view is 'egalitarian' (B = .156, p < 0.05). The experiment shows a lower level of perception of fluoride's benefits among respondents who are told that water fluoridation is opposed by a national advocacy group (Group A) compared to those who are told that the government and the World Health Organization support fluoridation (Group B) (t = 1.6547, p < 0.05), as well as compared to the control group (t = 1.8913, p < 0.05). There is no difference between Group B and the control, possibly because people's already general support for fluoridation is less prone to change when told that other public organizations also support fluoridation. Public health officials should take into account cultural norms and perceptions when individuals in a community appear to rise up against water fluoridation, with implications for other public health controversies.

  18. Who reaps the benefits, who bears the risks? Comparative optimism, comparative utility, and regulatory preferences for mobile phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Eiser, J Richard; Harris, Peter R; Pahl, Sabine

    2007-06-01

    Although the issue of risk target (e.g., self, others, children) is widely acknowledged in risk perception research, its importance appears underappreciated. To date, most research has been satisfied with demonstrating comparative optimism, i.e., lower perceived risk for the self than others, and exploring its moderators, such as perceived controllability and personal exposure. Much less research has investigated how the issue of target may affect benefit perceptions or key outcomes such as stated preferences for hazard regulation. The current research investigated these issues using data from a public survey of attitudes toward mobile phone technology (N= 1,320). First, results demonstrated comparative optimism for this hazard, and also found moderating effects of both controllability and personal exposure. Second, there was evidence of comparative utility, i.e., users believed that the benefits from mobile phone technology are greater for the self than others. Third, and most important for policy, preferences for handset regulation were best predicted by perceptions of the risks to others but perceived benefits for the self. Results suggest a closer awareness of target can improve prediction of stated preferences for hazard regulation and that it would be profitable for future research to pay more attention to the issue of target for both risk and benefit perceptions.

  19. "Missing pieces": exploring cardiac risk perceptions in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Leanne L; McSweeney, Jean C; Garner, Kimberly K

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 95% of older women have factors that put them at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, but research indicates many do not perceive themselves to be at risk. We examined older women's perceived risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors influencing their perceptions. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study using in-depth, individual interviews and quantitative measures to assess perceived risk and risk factors. Twenty-four older African American and Caucasian women had a mean 4.46 cardiac risk factors but perceived their own CHD risk as unrealistically low at 1.95 cm (SD = 1.57, on 0-to-8 cm visual analogue scale). Narrative data clustered in themes that represented a lack of fact-based information and multiple misconceptions about CHD and prevention. Major improvements in CHD health are only achievable if risk factors are prevented. This research suggests older women have substantial needs for consistent CHD information and prevention guidance. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. THE RISK PERCEPTION OF TRANSPORT–GENERATED AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta GATERSLEBEN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a study that is part of a multidisciplinary project examining the relationship between transport, air pollution and health in Guildford, a medium sized town in the UK. Real-time air quality monitoring revealed low levels of air pollution through vehicle emissions. However, the residents of the town claim that there is an air pollution problem, perceptions reinforced by visual and sensory feedback, i.e., people see dust, feel irritations to their eyes, noses and throats and smell exhaust fumes. It is shown that the higher people believe air pollution levels to be the more responsible they feel and the less trust they have in local authorities and technological developments. Beliefs about the health consequences of air pollution are not related to responsibility and trust. The findings support other studies on risk perception that have shown that people find a risk less acceptable when they have a lower trust in risk managers. It is concluded that these findings are of importance for the environmental education of the public generally and risk communication by local authorities in particular.

  1. The perception of nuclear risks on French sites: social actors and rumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, L.

    1983-01-01

    This study summarizes the main French researchs on people living close to nuclear plants and their perception of nuclear risks. The ethnological approach was utilized, consisting in an observer living long periods of time on the site. It shows the existence of a ''psychogeographical'' zone in which people fell concerned by the building of the plant. This event reinforce the existing tensions between the social actors in the field of the site. The plant is seen as a ''big work'' ''eating'' land from agriculture and recreation, mixed with a nuclear thing mysterious and dangerous. Perceptions and rumors are greatly varying depending time and space. These results may be applied to a better siting of the plants [fr

  2. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  3. Knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ict utilization in agricultural extension service delivery in Gazipur district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Prodhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization and to determine the relationship between the selected characteristics of the respondents and knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization in extension service delivery. The study was conducted in Gazipur district and comprised proportionate random sample of 90 extension workers from five upazila of Gazipur district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. To measure the knowledge on ICT utilization 35 statements were selected regarding 7 ICT with five possible answer of each tools and a score of one was given to the right answer and zero to the wrong answer alternatively to measure the perception of the respondents rated each of 10 statements ICT utilization in agriculture on a 5-point Likert type scale and the total of these ratings formed perception index. The result of the study showed that out of seven ICT tools the knowledge of extension workers was highest in case of MS Word this was followed by internet/ web service and the lowest knowledge was found in case of Geographical Information System. It is observed that an overwhelming majority (88.9% of agricultural extension workers in the study area had low to medium knowledge towards ICT utilization. Findings reveal that the respondents had top most perception on the ICT utilization in respect of ‘Extension work can be greatly enhanced by ICT’ followed by on ‘The benefits of ICT use outweigh the financial burden involved’. The result also indicated that more than fourth-fifth (84.4% of the respondents had medium to high perception towards ICT utilization. There were significant relationship between service experience and use of the information sources of the respondents with their knowledge towards ICT utilization conversely innovativeness, cosmopoliteness and job satisfaction of the

  4. Dealing with public perceptions of health risks in a nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    An enormous gap exists between the perceptions within the scientific and technical community and the general public regarding health and safety risks associated with many technologies, especially nuclear power. Closing the gap in risk perception is not an easy matter. Studies demonstrate that disagreements about risks will not simply evaporate in the face of expert testimony. Problem resolution demands education and public information programs that clarify scientific and policy dimensions of the problem. Emphasis must be placed on identification of the knowledgeable experts as well as on explanation of their findings. Attention, in particular, must be paid to expanding public understanding of the meaning of risk probabilities. Encouragement must be given to the development of a sophisticated cadre of media personnel to serve as a liaison between the scientific community and the public. Additionally, increased use should be made by public utilities in the nuclear business of scientific and lay advisory committees to serve as a bridge to a skeptical public. And finally, outreach programs should be established with schools, church groups, and civic organizations designed to upgrade knowledge and understanding of health risks in the generation of nuclear energy

  5. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  6. Nuclear and environmental risk perceptions: results from a study with university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of advanced technologies depends on public acceptance. Studies on risk perception can assist decision makers in their choices and working methodology, as well as science communicators. In this work, the field study was conducted with a university population with the objective of compare the perceptions of nuclear risk and environmental. Concluding that the perception of environmental risk has excelled in public opinion, overcoming the perceived nuclear risk. (author)

  7. Perception of risk and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1993-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power has declined greatly, driven by a number of powerful forces and events. Numerous studies have demonstrated the public's extreme perceptions of risk and negative attitudes regarding nuclear power. This negativity is remarkable in light of the confidence most technical analysts have regarding the safety of this technology. Public fears and opposition to nuclear power can be seen as a crisis in confidence, a profound breakdown in trust in the scientific, governmental, and industrial managers of nuclear technologies. The problem is not due to public ignorance or irrationality, but is deeply rooted in individual psychology and the adversarial nature of our social, institutional, legal, and political systems of risk management. In the absence of revolutionary changes in the ways that risks are managed in our society, it is unlikely that public trust, confidence, and acceptance of nuclear power can be regained

  8. Risk perception and risk management: on knowledge, resource allocation and equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, David

    1998-01-01

    This article is an outgrowth of the opening article given at a pair of invited sessions on 'Risk Perception versus Risk Analysis' at the PSAM 3 Conference held on Crete in June 1996. The first introductory section provides some review of the relevant issues and raises some general questions about possible changes in the emphasis and directions of research on risk perception and related social science studies. The second section looks in a little more detail at issues related to public participation in the deliberations and decision-making concerning significant societal ventures involving risk. Section 3 examines the role and importance of knowledge in risk perception. the relatively brief fourth section raises questions about the public's perception of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes as something catastrophic, to be 'dreaded'. Section 5 looks at the bases for allocation of resources for improving the public health and safety. And the sixth section examines intragenerational equity and the conflict which can arise between it and intergenerational equity

  9. Comparative Pessimism or Optimism: Depressed Mood, Risk-Taking, Social Utility and Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhabet, Isabelle; Le Barbenchon, Emmanuelle; Cambon, Laurent; Molina, Guylaine

    2015-03-05

    Comparative optimism can be defined as a self-serving, asymmetric judgment of the future. It is often thought to be beneficial and socially accepted, whereas comparative pessimism is correlated with depression and socially rejected. Our goal was to examine the social acceptance of comparative optimism and the social rejection of comparative pessimism in two dimensions of social judgment, social desirability and social utility, considering the attributions of dysphoria and risk-taking potential (studies 2 and 3) on outlooks on the future. In three experiments, the participants assessed either one (study 1) or several (studies 2 and 3) fictional targets in two dimensions, social utility and social desirability. Targets exhibiting comparatively optimistic or pessimistic outlooks on the future were presented as non-depressed, depressed, or neither (control condition) (study 1); non-depressed or depressed (study 2); and non-depressed or in control condition (study 3). Two significant results were obtained: (1) social rejection of comparative pessimism in the social desirability dimension, which can be explained by its depressive feature; and (2) comparative optimism was socially accepted on the social utility dimension, which can be explained by the perception that comparatively optimistic individuals are potential risk-takers.

  10. Enhanced understanding of energy ratepayers: Factors influencing perceptions of government energy efficiency subsidies and utility alternative energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Allen, Myria W.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores factors related to energy consumers' perceptions of government subsidies for utility provided energy efficiency (EE) programs and for utility providers' use of more clean/alternative energy sources. Demographic factors, attitudes, planned purchases, and perceptions of utility provider motives in relation to governmental and utility provider EE initiatives (i.e. providing discounts and coupons for CFL bulbs), plus the influence of gain- and loss-framed messages are investigated. Over 2000 respondents completed a 16 item phone survey. Hierarchical regression explained 38% of the variance in reactions regarding government subsidies of the cost of utility provided EE programs and 43% of the variance in perceptions involving whether utility companies should use of more clean or alternative forms of energy. Gender and party differences emerged. Loss-framed messages were more important when the issue was government subsidies. Both gain- and loss-framed messages were important when clean/alternative energy was the issue. - Highlights: • Over 2000 ratepayers were surveyed on their attitudes, planned behaviors and perceptions towards energy efficiency programs. • Almost 40% of how ratepayers feel about government subsidies and utility use of clean/alternative energy was explained. • Loss-framed messages were more effective when the dependent variable was ratepayer perception of government subsidies

  11. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikom Chizoma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. Method This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. Findings The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%, mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39% and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8% and had secondary education (39%. The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result

  12. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikom, Chizoma Millicent; Ofi, Bola Abosede

    2012-08-06

    Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%), mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39%) and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8%) and had secondary education (39%). The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result. There is an urgent need for more enlightenment

  13. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milutinović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions.Method: a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses.Results: Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis.Conclusion: predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived.

  14. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Dragana; Simin, Dragana; Zec, Davor

    2015-01-01

    to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions. a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses. Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis. predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived.

  15. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Ki Moon; Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert's risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public's risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts' radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual's opinions have often exacerbated the public's confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years' research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects perception of radiation exposure.

  16. A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Radioactive Waste Transport: Managing Risk Perception and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a national transportation system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste that merits public trust and confidence will require the delivery of consistent, accurate and timely transportation messages; stakeholder and public understanding of the need for, and safety of, shipments; and effective two-way communication to address stakeholder concerns in its decision-making processes. Building the trust and consent of stakeholders and the public is complex and challenging. In order to accomplish this goal, it is imperative to understand how and why members of society develop various perceptions of risks and assessments of benefits with regard to the nuclear energy cycle. Understanding the basis and reasons for the public's beliefs concerning the nuclear energy cycle will allow OCRWM to more effectively address concerns regarding the national transportation program. This paper will examine how a person's gender, sources of information, world-view, culture, emotion, cognition, and other factors affect their beliefs and perceptions of risk. It will also explore the reasons why nuclear energy and nuclear waste are viewed with such a distinctly different attitude than other hazardous materials that pose a comparable or greater hazard. Drawing on research from prominent experts in risk perception and communication methods, this study will conduct a unique investigation into the perspectives of a diverse set of key stakeholders and experts involved in the transportation process. This paper will present several hypotheses on why there are unique challenges involved in communicating about transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear fuel cycle activities, and also present recommendations for remediating such challenges. (authors)

  18. Risk Perception and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remien, Robert H; Halkitis, Perry N; O'Leary, Ann; Wolitski, Richard J; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2005-06-01

    There are reports of increased sexual risk behavior among people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to beliefs about risk of HIV transmission when on HAART. In a cross-sectional study (Seropositive Urban Men's Study), we examined the relationship between risk perception and sexual risk behavior among sexually active, culturally diverse HIV positive men who have sex with men (N = 456). Less than twenty-five percent engaged in unprotected anal sex (either with an HIV negative, or unknown-status partner, or an HIV positive partner) within the past 3 months. Most men believed there was significant health risk (to partner or self) associated with unprotected sex when on HAART. There was no increased risk behavior associated with being on HAART, although the perception of negative health consequences, including HIV transmission, when on HAART was significantly lower for the relatively small subset of men who reported unprotected sex. Prevention strategies need to be tailored to address risk perception associated with HAART.

  19. Nuclear energy and the public: risk perception, attitudes and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1982-01-01

    A research group at the Nuclear Research Centre, Julich, has attempted to trace public attitudes to nuclear power and their roots. The structure of attitudes, types of reasoning and the processes involved in deciding about nuclear power were measured. Intuitive perceptions of technology and risk were studied. Attitudes to nuclear energy are found to be the result of intuitive processes and opposition is 'natural' on the basis of intuitive reasoning. Many people who believe nuclear power to be hazardous nevertheless will accept it as inevitable for the economic advantages it will bring in the future. (U.K.)

  20. Awareness of Individual Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Self-Perception of Cardiovascular Risk in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques; Pham, Tai; Karam, Nicole; Amar, Laurence; Chicheportiche-Ayache, Corinne; Menasché, Philippe; Desnos, Michel; Dardel, Paul; Weill, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) self-perception by women may be inaccurate. A questionnaire was completed anonymously Online by women who self-reported their personal CVRF levels including age, weight, contraceptive use, menopausal status, smoking, diet and physical activities. Self-perceived risk was matched to actual cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score. Among 5,240 young and middle-aged women with a high educational level, knowledge of personal CVRFs increased with age, from 51-90% for blood pressure (BP), 22-45% for blood glucose and 15-47% for blood cholesterol levels, between 30 and 65 years, respectively. This knowledge was lower for smoking compared with nonsmoking women: 62.5% vs. 74.5% for BP (P self-perception of individual risk are inaccurate in women. Educational interventions should be emphasized. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rural Veterans' dental utilization, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Findley, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Rural residents are overrepresented in the military; however, access to Veteran services is limited in rural areas. There is a need to identify rural Veteran healthcare utilization. This study addresses that need and has two purposes: a) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and Veteran utilization of dental services; and b) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and the oral health outcome of missing teeth. Data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were used in this study. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Rural Veterans were less likely to have a dental visit during the previous year as compared with metropolitan Veterans in unadjusted analysis (Odds ratio = 0.71, 95% Confidence Interval, 0.64, 0.77) and in adjusted analysis [0.87 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.78, 0.96)]. In cases in which all teeth were missing, rural Veterans had an unadjusted odds ratio of 1.79 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.55, 2.08] and an adjusted odds ratio of 1.37 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.17, 1.62] as compared with metropolitan Veterans. The Veterans Health Administration develops policies for establishing centers for care for Veterans. The policy development should take into consideration that rural Veterans have not been as likely as urban Veterans to utilize dental services and have poorer oral health outcomes. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Perceptions of ICU Diary Utility and Feasibility in a Combat ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Marisa; Ingalls, Nichole K; Hatzfeld, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Severely injured patients have difficulty recalling their intensive care unit (ICU) experience which may contribute to emotional trauma. An ICU patient journal contains a short summary of key events during the ICU stay, and has been shown to improve emotional well-being. This project evaluated the feasibility and perceptions of ICU journals in a combat ICU. A one-page survey was distributed to ICU nursing staff at Craig Joint Theater Hospital before and after the use of ICU journals as a process improvement initiative. 16 preimplementation and 10 postimplementation surveys were collected to determine the perception of the utility and feasibility of ICU journals, as well as changes to nursing job satisfaction. Overall, nurses had positive perceptions of ICU journaling; after implementation they felt it could also benefit nurses (31% vs. 80%, p = 0.002). ICU nurses that used journals were also more likely to feel their work makes a difference (90%, p = 0.012) and they could connect with their patient on a personal level (50%, p = 0.037). Primary barriers were time to journal and legal concerns. This study demonstrates with the right guidance, ICU journals can be incorporated into an ICU in a deployed environment and nursing staff feel they benefit the patient, family, unit, and staff. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Risk scenarios characterized by exposures to new technologies with unknown health effects, together with limited appreciation of benefits pose a challenge to risk communication. The present report illustrates this situation through a study of the perceived risk from mobile phones and mobile masts...... radiation from mobile phones and masts. The objective was to study whether different types of information were rated as equally useful, informative, comprehensible, and trustworthy. Moreover, an important issue was whether information would influence risk perception and intended behavior. The conclusion...

  4. Effects of risk estimation tendency on risk perception at the Tohoku Disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yuri; Tsuchida, Shoji; Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Shiotani, Takamasa

    2012-01-01

    The Tohoku Disaster showed the underlying risks of earthquake, tsunami, nuclear power plant accidents and debris removal. The ability to understand the risk and act appropriately has been widely discussed among the professionals as well within the community. In Oct 2011, an Online survey. Using the correspondence analysis approach, the data collected the free-answer question 'What do you remember most regarding news on the Tohoku Disaster' was analyzed. The relationship between the cognitive trade-off factors, zero-risk factors and elaboration tendency factors, and risk perception among the people following the Tohoku Disaster were discussed. (author)

  5. Risk - a symposium on the assessment and perception of risk to human health in Canada. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Bates, D.V.

    1983-04-01

    The central concern in this Symposium is with risk to human health and life. Health risk includes the possibility of deaths (mortality), either immediate or delayed, and less severe health effects due to injury and illness (morbidity). Risk is defined as the product of the magnitude and the probability so that where it may be expressed quantitatively it is stated in units of harm per unit time (e.g. deaths per year or deaths per year per million of population). The 15 papers presented at this conference discuss the measurement, analysis perception, and management of risk. Six papers judged to be in scope were indexed for INIS

  6. Exploring Students' Ideas about Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Using Risk Perception Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased energy demand, Turkey is continuing to explore the possibilities of introducing nuclear power. Gaining acceptance from local populations, however, may be problematic because nuclear power has a negative image and risk perceptions are complicated by a range of psychological and cultural factors. In this study, we explore the views…

  7. The Temporal Effect of Training Utility Perceptions on Adopting a Trained Method: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Juan M.; Steele, Stacey T.; Beier, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the temporal effect of perceived training utility on adoption of a trained method and how perceived organizational support influences the relationship between perceived training utility perceptions and adoption of a trained method. With the use of a correlational-survey-based design, this longitudinal study required…

  8. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogeras, Nikos; Pennings, Joost M.E.; van Ittersum, Koert

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions on consumer risk behaviour for contaminated food products can be used to formulate effective agricultural policies and strategies in case of a food ...

  9. Preparing for Local Adaptation: Understanding Flood Risk Perceptions in Pittsburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.

  10. Public Perception of Climate Risk: The Case of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskaki, Asimina; Tsermenidis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is generally considered as one of the greatest challenges our world is facing. In the case of Greece climatic change seems to be associated with sea level rise, increase in temperature, variation in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events. As a result of climate pattern changes a series of consequences are expected in areas involving build environment, infrastructures, health and various sectors of the economy. Even though climate change is probably going to affect Greece in terms of human welfare and economic growth, public perception and attitude do not always identify it as the most important, amongst others, environmental area of concern, or compared to various socio-economic issues. Considering that topics related to climate change involve a certain degree of uncertainty public perception seems to be important when dealing with adaptation strategies to manage or prevent risks from climate change impact and therefore people's reaction to risks seem to be an issue of great importance in future policy planning and implementation. The key issue of this paper is to investigate and analyse public perception in Greece as regards to climate change risk. Through a questionnaire survey this research investigates people's understanding, specific knowledge, opinion, awareness, emotions, behavior with regards to climate change risks and their willingness to pay in order to minimize or prevent risk. In addition, it examines people's willingness to alter current lifestyle and adapt to a changing climate. The information derived from survey data concern the topics and the perceived importance of the causes of the climate change between certain groups of people; the analysis of the data is focused on the correlation between perceived risk and knowledge about the issues involved. Rather than applying a specific technique extensively, we choose to deploy a number of methodologies with which we are able to draw different aspects from the data. To this

  11. Climate Change Perceptions of NY State Farmers: The Role of Risk Perceptions and Adaptive Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Bruno; Burnham, Morey; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Sopchak, Amanda R.; Selfa, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to severely impact agricultural practices in many important food-producing regions, including the Northeast United States. Changing climate conditions, such as increases in the amount of rainfall, will require farmers to adapt. Yet, little is known with regard to farmers' perceptions and understandings about climate change, especially in the industrialized country context. This paper aims at overcoming this research limitation, as well as determining the existing contextual, cognitive, and psychological barriers that can prevent adoption of sustainable practices of farmers in New York State. The study is framed within the adaptive capacity and risk perception literature, and is based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with farmers in 21 farms in two counties in Central New York. The results reveal diverging views about the long-term consequences of climate change. Results also reveal that past experience remains as the most important source of information that influences beliefs and perceptions about climate change, confirming previous research.

  12. Time and time again: risk perceptions by experts, legislators and the public over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, I.; Mays, C.; Sugier, N.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the hypothesis that a very different curve in perceptions of managed technological risks may be observed over time in experts, political decision makers, and the general public. Experts may have high risk perceptions during the phase of technology development, with the outcome of risk-reducing design. Members of the public, in their role as consumers, may perceive new technologies as very risky until such time as they have become integrated into everyday practice. At that time, with feedback from experience, risk perceptions may rise again in experts. The perceptions of legislators may respond to those expressed by either or both groups. Economic and social theories of risk perception are cited to construct the curve of risk perception for each group. (authors)

  13. A note on additive risk measures in rank-dependent utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, M.J.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This note proves that risk measures obtained by applying the equivalent utility principle in rank-dependent utility are additive if and only if the utility function is linear or exponential and the probability weighting (distortion) function is the identity.

  14. Predicting Cancer-Prevention Behavior: Disentangling the Effects of Risk Aversion and Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddel, Mary; Hales, David

    2018-05-16

    Experimental and survey research spanning the last two decades concludes that people who are more risk tolerant are more likely to engage in risky health activities such as smoking and heavy alcohol consumption, and are more likely to be obese. Subjective perceptions of the risk associated with different activities have also been found to be associated with health behaviors. While there are numerous studies that link risk perceptions with risky behavior, it is notable that none of these controls for risk aversion. Similarly, studies that control for risk aversion fail to control for risk misperceptions. We use a survey of 474 men and women to investigate the influence of risk aversion, risk misperceptions, and cognitive ability on the choice to engage in behaviors that either increase or mitigate cancer risk. We measure optimism in two dimensions: baseline optimists are those who inaccurately believe their cancer risk to be below its expert-assessed level, while control optimists are those who believe they can reduce their risk of cancer (by changing their lifestyle choices) to a greater extent than is actually the case. Our results indicate that baseline optimism is significantly and negatively correlated with subjects' tendencies to engage in cancer-risk-reducing behaviors, and positively correlated with risky behaviors. Subjects' control misperceptions also appear to play a role in their tendency to engage in risky and prevention behaviors. When controlling for both of these types of risk misperception, risk aversion plays a much smaller role in determining health behaviors than found in past studies. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. The Moderating Effect of Mental Toughness: Perception of Risk and Belief in the Paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Kenneth; Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Parker, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief. Responses were analyzed via correlations and moderation analyses. Results revealed that mental toughness correlated negatively with perception of risk and paranormal belief, whereas paranormal belief correlated positively with perception of risk. For the moderation effects, simple slopes analyses indicated that high levels of MT and subfactors of commitment and confidence reduced the strength of association between paranormal belief and perceived risk. Therefore, MT potentially acts as a protective factor among individuals who believe in the paranormal, reducing the tendency to perceive elevated levels of risk.

  16. GPs' Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Paulsen, Maja Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objective. General practitioners' (GPs') perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs' professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods....... The material was drawn from semistructured qualitative interviews. We sampled GPs purposively from ten selected practices, ensuring diversity of demographic, professional, and personal characteristics. The GPs were encouraged to describe examples from their own practices and reflect on them and were informed...... that the focus was their personal attitudes and experiences. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis in order to uncover the concepts and themes. Results. The analysis revealed the following 3 main themes: (1) use of cardiovascular guidelines and risk assessment tools, (2) strategies for managing...

  17. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  18. HIV and AIDS risk perception among sex workers in semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Several health behaviour theories propose that risk perception affects the likelihood of behaviour intentions and practice. The perception of risk to HIV and AIDS among female sex workers in Malawi has not been well described. Yet knowledge of how this most at risk population perceives contagion could help ...

  19. Risky-Play at School. Facilitating Risk Perception and Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrysen, Ann; Bertrands, Els; Leyssen, Leene; Smets, Lieve; Vanderspikken, Anja; De Graef, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that risk competence and perception can be improved through the learning environment. The project "Riscki" examined how risk perception and risk competence in young children between three and eight years of age can be observed and measured within the classroom and school context. An intensive package of…

  20. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  1. Health risks occurring when color is percepted under led lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of color perception under LED lighting. We revealed that inadequate perception of a signal color by a driver led to greater risks of transport accidents. We reviewed both Jung-Helmholtz three-color hypothesis and a modern one based on fiber-optical approach to functioning of "Mueller cells and cones" system. We made an attempt to explain a number of effects related to visibility curves and time delays when defining color of light signals. Our research on assessing influence exerted by LED lighting on functional state and working capacity of railway workers during which we applied occupational selection techniques revealed negative changes. We proved there was a decrease in functional resistance to color sense between red and green signals as well as longer response time for complicated sight-motor reaction and significant decrease in readiness to emergency actions (resistance to monotony in examined individuals. The article also contains data on time peculiarities which are characteristic for defining signals color in relation to red signal (650 nm. We showed that when red color LEDs with wave length much shorter than 650 nm were used in signaling devices it caused risks of inadequate color detection, longer reaction to inhibiting signals, and greater possibility of transport accidents and negative events in everyday life. These peculiarities should be taken into account when designing traffic lights and other signaling devices which provide transport safety. We also proved that signaling traffic lights for transport systems should be designed allowing for physiology of color perception by a human visual analyzer; application of LEDs with wave length shorter than 650 nm should be absolutely excluded

  2. Accident history, risk perception and traffic safe behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueutsa, Robert; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2017-09-01

    This study clarifies the associations between accident history, perception of the riskiness of road travel and traffic safety behaviours by taking into account the number and severity of accidents experienced. A sample of 525 road users in Cameroon answered a questionnaire comprising items on perception of risk, safe behaviour and personal accident history. Participants who reported involvement in more than three accidents or involvement in a severe accident perceived road travel as less risky and also reported behaving less safely compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. The results have practical implications for the prevention of traffic accidents. Practitioner Summary: The associations between accident history, perceived risk of road travel and safe behaviour were investigated using self-report questionnaire data. Participants involved in more than three accidents, or in severe accidents, perceived road travel as less risky and also reported more unsafe behaviour compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. Campaigns targeting people with a less serious, less extensive accident history should aim to increase awareness of hazards and the potential severity of their consequences, as well as emphasising how easy it is to take the recommended preventive actions. Campaigns targeting those involved in more frequent accidents, and survivors of serious accidents, should address feelings of invulnerability and helplessness.

  3. Neural Correlates of Risk Perception: HIV vs. Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eBarth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on HIV risk perception suggest that people may rely on impressions they have about the safety of their partner. Previous studies show that individuals perceived as 'risky' regarding HIV elicit a differential brain response in both earlier (~200 - 350 ms and later (~350 - 700 ms time windows compared to those perceived as safe. This raises the question whether this ERP response is specific to contagious life-threatening diseases or a general mechanism triggered by life-threatening but non-contagious diseases. In the present study, we recorded dense sensor EEG while participants (N = 36 evaluated photographs of unacquainted individuals for either HIV or leukemia risk. The ERP results replicated previous findings revealing earlier and later differential brain responses towards individuals perceived as high risk for HIV. However, there were no significant ERP differences for high vs. low leukemia risk. Rather than reflecting a generic response to disease, the present findings suggest that intuitive judgments of HIV risk are at least in part specific to sexually transmitted diseases.

  4. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, David; Fang, Chen-Ling; Tsai, Bi-Kun; Lan, Li-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1) the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2) the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3) consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception. PMID:23066394

  5. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1 the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2 the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3 consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception.

  6. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  7. AIDS Risk Perception and its related factors in Women with High-Risk Behaviors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Tafazoli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: AIDS is one of the major public health challenges all over the world. Perceived risk is a significant predictor of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. Women constitute more than half of the HIV patients, and the rate of female sex workers with AIDS is more than the rest of female population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate AIDS risk perception and its related factors in females with high-risk behaviors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 58 women who were arrested on prostitution charges and imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad Prison in 2013. The data were collected using self-designed questionnaires assessing knowledge regarding AIDS as well as sexual activities and also perceived risk of HIV questionnaire. One-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, linear regression, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean score of HIV risk perception was 18.43±5.92, which was average. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of perceived risk of HIV and knowledge regarding AIDS (P=0.005, alcohol consumption (P=0.04, history of addiction (P=0.008, using contraceptive methods (P=0.01, condom use during intercourse (P=0.02, voluntary HIV testing (P=0.001, and follow-up of HIV test (P=0.009. Conclusion:The findings of the present study revealed that knowledge, alcohol consumption, history of addiction, contraceptive methods, the rate of condom use during intercourse, as well as voluntary HIV testing and follow-up were associated with perceived risk of HIV infection. Therefore, taking the necessary steps towards health promotion through appropriate training and interventional approaches seems to be mandatory for reducing high-risk behaviors in populations with low risk perception.

  8. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  9. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: araquino@ipen.br, e-mail: lbueno@ipen.br, e-mail: mmvieira@ipen.br, e-mail: efonseca@ipen.br, e-mail: sbellint@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  10. Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

    1982-01-01

    The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature

  11. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  12. Estimating Bird / Aircraft Collision Probabilities and Risk Utilizing Spatial Poisson Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    ESTIMATING BIRD/AIRCRAFT COLLISION PROBABILITIES AND RISK UTILIZING SPATIAL POISSON PROCESSES GRADUATE...AND RISK UTILIZING SPATIAL POISSON PROCESSES GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...COLLISION PROBABILITIES AND RISK UTILIZING SPATIAL POISSON PROCESSES Brady J. Vaira, BS, MS Major, USAF Approved

  13. A common vision of energy risk? Energy securitisation and company perceptions of risk in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Stoddard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, energy security is provided by EU institutions, member states and commercial energy companies. However, despite the important role companies play in the provision of European energy security, it is not immediately evident to what extent the interests of the internationally operating energy firms are in line with the energy security preferences held by EU institutions. Analysing this relationship from the perspective of perceptions of energy security and energy business risk, this paper examines the extent to which there is a convergence between the energy securitisation of the European Commission and the observation of business risk as perceived by major European and international energy firms. It finds that while there are some significant areas where Commission securitisation contradicts energy company interests (e.g. climate change and energy prices there is also a high degree of convergence, in particular regarding perceptions of upstream political risk.

  14. Perception of the risk to electromagnetic RF fields in INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Gallastegi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception of environmental risks to the population is a priority issue for the bodies and administrations responsible for managing them. There are few studies on the perception of the risk to RF, but all of them report high levels of concern. This study describes and analyzes the RF risk perception of mothers belonging to the INMA-Gipuzkoa project.Data on perception were collected by means of two questionnaires given to mothers in two different periods. During pregnancy, 625 mothers chose the five relevant environmental issues in their place of residence from a list of 16. When their children were 8, 386 mothers rated, on a scale from 0 to 10, their perception of their levels of exposure to RF and the health risk derived from such exposure.During pregnancy, 31.8 % of mothers chose proximity to RF antennas as one of the 5 most important environmental problems. When their children were 8, 98.0 % and 90.3 % of women reported medium or high perception values (between 5 and 10 regarding exposure and health risk, respectively. A moderate correlation was found between exposure perception and risk perception (0.5. There is no association between RF exposure perception and actual levels measured inside homes.Knowing the factors associated with the perception of risks by the population will be useful to manage them properly.

  15. Psychological Vulnerability and Earthquake Risk Perception in Bucharest/Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Cretu, Zeno; Armas, Iuliana; Stanciugelu, Irina

    2010-05-01

    The importance of studying the relationship with the natural hazard events from a psycho-social perspective is fundamental by the experience with past disasters as much as by the research in the field that proved that the people's psychologic structures may constitute a starting point for risk reduction. People's psycho-behavioural patterns contain conscious or unconscious references to the environmental risk, thus creating certain adjustment strategies and mechanisms, with a certain degree of psychological vulnerability. In modern man's case, the high level of awareness in front of natural dangers, doubled by the perception of the environment's unsafety, experienced as a lack of control, brings to attention nowadays the problematic of the analysis of natural risk perception, as a main factor in the adjustment of human communities' capacity of adapting to the natural environment's dynamics. The major objective of this present work is, based on the development of an efficient evaluation methodology, to identify specific relational patterns to seismic risk in Bucharest, function the characteristics of the urban environment, the social, economical and psychological vulnerability, with results that can be applied for disaster management. For explaining human reactions and the way in which they perceive and evaluate the psychological resources, on a daily basis, but also in risk situations (earthquakes), a multi-modal questionnaire was conceived through qualitative methods (a focus group, along with experts from the Public and Administrative Sciences National School, Risk Communication Center). The questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence, in which were included different type of questions (with single or multiple answers, open questions etc), and also questions using different scaling methods. The items caught cognitive elements (expectations, anticipations and negative or positive judgments regarding risk element), affective (feelings) and behavioral

  16. The influence of knowledge and perception of the risk of cervical cancer on screening behavior in mainland Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; Twinn, Sheila; Choi, Kai Chow

    2012-12-01

    Theories of health behavior and empirical research highlight the risk perception as a significant factor for people adopting cancer screening. However, screening uptakes and risk perception of cervical cancer in mainland Chinese women remains unknown. This paper adopted the protection motivation theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing utilization of cervical screening. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 167 participants in mainland China (79 nonscreened and 88 screened women) in 2007 which consisted of four sections: background information, women's attendance pattern for cervical screening, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and PMT measures. All women considered themselves at low risk of cervical cancer. No significant association was observed between previous screening uptake and PMT variables. Using multivariate analysis, having children, a perception that visiting doctors regularly is important to health, average and high levels of knowledge about cervical screening were significantly associated with having been received screening. Chinese women demonstrated an unrealistic optimism about their personal risk of cervical cancer. The findings do not support an association between risk perception and screening uptake. In spite of this, current findings revealed some possible factors influencing women's screening behavior. This study highlights the significance of knowledge and culturally-relevant health behavior and beliefs about cervical screening for Chinese women in determining whether or not they receive screening. The promotion of cervical cancer prevention and early detection should be integrated into public education about women's health. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Risk perception and public concerns of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Hae-Joon; Song, Dae Jong; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Jae Wook

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the difference between the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones and the risk perception of other factors such as environment and food was analyzed. The cause of the difference in the psychological and social factors that affect the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves was also analyzed. A questionnaire survey on the risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was carried out on 1001 subjects (men and women) over the age of 20. In the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones, women had higher risk perception than men. Logistic regression analysis, where the group with high risk perception of electromagnetic waves and the group with low risk perception were used as dependent variables, indicated that the risk perception of electromagnetic waves in women was 1.815 times statistically significantly higher than the risk perception of men (95% CI: 1.340-2.457). Also, high risk perception of electromagnetic waves from cellular phones was observed when the subjects considered that they had more personal knowledge (OR: 1.416, 95% CI: 1.216-1.648), that the seriousness of the risk to future generations was high (OR: 1.410, 95% CI: 1.234-1.611), and their outrage for the occurrence of accidents related to electromagnetic waves was high (OR: 1.460, 95% CI: 1.264-1.686). The results of this study need to be sufficiently considered and reflected in designing the risk communication strategies and communication methods for the preventive measures and advice on electromagnetic waves from cellular phones. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1981-04-30

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy.

  19. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.

    1981-01-01

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy. (author)

  20. Health risk assessment for a MWC ash utilization demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffman, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    A Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was conducted for the proposed joint Hennepin County/Municipal Services Corporation (MSC) MSW Ash Utilization Demonstration Project, in which combined HERC ash was shipped to the MSC Pilot Plan near Atlanta, Georgia and used in the production of a synthetic aggregate. The synthetic aggregate, or TAP, will serve as a partial replacement for natural aggregates in a section of bituminous pavement that is proposed to be constructed on Pioneer Trail in the City of Corcoran, Minnesota. In this paper, the assessment compares the following three scenarios: a section of roadway paved using the MSC synthetic aggregate product (TAP) as a replacement for 30 percent of the natural aggregates used in bituminous pavement; a section of regular bituminous (asphalt) pavement; and a section of unpaved road currently in place at the site

  1. The risk of stranded assets for utilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, W.

    1998-01-01

    The problems of dealing with stranded assets in Canada and the United States were discussed. Compared to the United States, the risk associated with stranded assets for utilities in Canada was considered to be relatively low because of the following factors: (1) low variable cost, (2) isolation, (3) lack of transmission interconnection capacity, (4) lack of tight synchronization in North America, (5) the likelihood of an increase in natural gas prices, (6) the absence of jurisdictional disputes such as FERC versus the states, (7) social considerations, (8) the learning curve, (9) politics, (10) weak balance sheets, (11) relatively low electricity prices, (12) the weak Canadian dollar, and (13) the possibility of refinancing at lower interest rates. Ontario Hydro, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Power are the three Canadian utilities that may have stranded costs. For Ontario Hydro and New Brunswick Power the stranded costs would be related to nuclear generator problems, whereas for Nova Scotia Power, the stranded costs would be related to the thermal generating base, the threat from Sable Island Gas and the changing tax structure of the utility. Some other reasons why stranded assets could be created in Canada would include low variable costs and high fixed costs, over capacity of at least 30 per cent in generation, limited domestic energy growth, competitive threat from gas, reliability and safety of nuclear plants, and technology change. Five factors in terms of which stranded assets can be expressed are: (1) variable cost definition, (2) total cost definition, (3) operating profit definition, (4) wide geographic definition, and (5) free market definition. In calculating stranded assets, the number of years over which the assets are recovered and the discount rate are considered to be key factors. 26 tabs

  2. Public perceptions about nanotechnology: Risks, benefits and trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Michael D.; Macoubrie, Jane [North Carolina State University, Department of Political Science (United States)

    2004-08-15

    We report data from the first representative national phone survey of Americans' perceptions about nanotechnology (N =1536). Public opinion about nanotechnology is in its infancy, and knowledge about it is quite limited. Yet, Americans' initial reaction to nanotechnology is thus far generally positive, probably rooted in a generally positive view of science overall. Survey respondents expected benefits of nanotechnology to be more prevalent than risks, and they reported feeling hopeful about nanotechnology rather than worried. Their most preferred potential benefit of nanotechnology is 'new and better ways to detect and treat human diseases,' and they identified 'losing personal privacy to tiny new surveillance devices' as the most important potential risk to avoid. The most discouraging aspect to the data is respondents' lack of trust in business leaders to minimize nanotechnology risks to human health. Overall, these data indicate that while Americans do not necessarily presume benefits and the absence of risks, their outlook is much more positive than not.

  3. Sound Levels and Risk Perceptions of Music Students During Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Amorim, Marta; Silva, Manuela V; Neves, Paula; Sousa, Aida; Inácio, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that professional musicians are at risk of hearing damage due to the exposure to high sound pressure levels during music playing. However, it is important to recognize that the musicians' exposure may start early in the course of their training as students in the classroom and at home. Studies regarding sound exposure of music students and their hearing disorders are scarce and do not take into account important influencing variables. Therefore, this study aimed to describe sound level exposures of music students at different music styles, classes, and according to the instrument played. Further, this investigation attempted to analyze the perceptions of students in relation to exposure to loud music and consequent health risks, as well as to characterize preventive behaviors. The results showed that music students are exposed to high sound levels in the course of their academic activity. This exposure is potentiated by practice outside the school and other external activities. Differences were found between music style, instruments, and classes. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, diplacusis, and sound distortion were reported by the students. However, students were not entirely aware of the health risks related to exposure to high sound pressure levels. These findings reflect the importance of starting intervention in relation to noise risk reduction at an early stage, when musicians are commencing their activity as students.

  4. Perception on the Risk of the Sonora River Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Aragonés

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the “psychometric paradigm” of risk perception to the heavy mineral spill in the Sonora River (Mexico. A total of 241 inhabitants of the polluted area with a mean age of 46.3 years participated in the study, completing an interview questionnaire at the onset of the disaster. The results allow us to establish a profile of the 18 characteristics comprising the model and a multiple regression analysis shows that some characteristics of the dimensions of dread risk and unknown risk explain a percentage of the magnitude of the perceived risk. In addition, the behaviors recommended by the authorities were classified by the participants according to their estimated usefulness. Significant differences were observed. Avoiding contact with the water was considered the most effective, followed by recommendations on the use of the water, with actions related to the environment and how to avoid pollution being considered the least effective. In sum, the strategy deployed allows us to observe how the victims perceive the disaster and organize the behaviors proposed by the authorities.

  5. Flux and permanence of risk perceptions: Tourists' perception of the relative and absolute risk for various destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein

    2016-12-01

    The present investigation is a cross-sectional, multi-national, quantitative, and quasi-experimental comparison of tourists' risk perceptions regarding different destinations throughout the past decade. Over 10,000 tourists to Norway from 89 different countries filled in a questionnaire rating the perceived risk for various destinations. Data were collected during 2004, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2015 and allow for a comparison of perceived risk across time, place and nationality. Results show that while absolute risk judgments for different destinations fluctuate somewhat over the years, relative risk judgments remain constant. Findings also reveal a "home-is-safer-then-abroad-bias" with tourists consistently perceiving their home country among the safest destinations. The current investigation is rare because it looks at more than one destination at a time. Insights gained from the present findings diverge from what would have been concluded from employing case studies, that is, looking at one destination at a time. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Utilization of Authentic Materials in Indonesian EFL Contexts- An Exploratory Study on Learners’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Mudra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to find out the kinds of preferred authentic materials (AMs utilized by EFL learners at Islamic State College of Kerinci (STAIN Kerinci, Indonesia; and, to explore the learners` perceptions on the utilization of preferred AMs in EFL classrooms. This study was carried out of focus-group interviews towards seven learners selected by using snowball sampling technique. The findings of the study show that the EFL learners utilize various kinds of AMs including internet-mediated AMs, printed AMs, audiovisual (video AMs, and audio AMs. It was reported that each kind of materials has either advantages or disadvantages. The advantages of AMs included: improving and developing skills or abilities on listening, reading, speaking, writing, vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. The materials also make the learners aware of the importance of native-speaker cultures through which real English is learnt. However, the disadvantages of AMs included: unlimited in length and lack of academic instructions. It is recommended that EFL teachers should provide various AMs in EFL classrooms. The AMs should be selected and balanced with EFL learners’ English abilities or levels.

  7. Informing patients: the influence of numeracy, framing, and format of side effect information on risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ellen; Hart, P Sol; Fraenkel, Liana

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of effective patient communication, findings about influences on risk perception in nonmedical domains need replication in medical domains. To examine whether numeracy influences risk perceptions when different information frames and number formats are used to present medication risks. The authors manipulated the frame and number format of risk information in a 3 (frame: positive, negative, combined) × 2 (number format: frequency, percentage) design. Participants from an Internet sample (N = 298), randomly assigned to condition, responded to a single, hypothetical scenario. The main effects and interactions of numeracy, framing, and number format on risk perception were measured. Participants given the positive frame perceived the medication as less risky than those given the negative frame. Mean risk perceptions for the combined frame fell between the positive and negative frames. Numeracy did not moderate these framing effects. Risk perceptions also varied by number format and numeracy, with less-numerate participants given risk information in a percentage format perceiving the medication as less risky than when given risk information in a frequency format; highly numerate participants perceived similar risks in both formats. The generalizability of the findings is limited due to the use of non-patients, presented a hypothetical scenario. Given the design, one cannot know whether observed differences would translate into clinically significant differences in patient behaviors. Frequency formats appear to increase risk perceptions over percentage formats for less-numerate respondents. Health communicators need to be aware that different formats generate different risk perceptions among patients varying in numeracy.

  8. Coping strategies, stress and risk perception in a natural and industrial catastrophe risk situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vasquez, E.

    1998-01-01

    People are exposed to different environmental risks, their manifestations harm people according to the magnitude, intensity and the number of people concerned. This subject is very ample, therefore we consider only two kinds of risks: the natural risks (especially earthquakes) that have always threatened humanity, and the industrial risks that characterise our modern society. We are interested in risk perception, stress and coping strategies in these two kinds of extreme situations. We concentrate our study on two Mexican events: an industrial explosion accident in 1984 and 1985 (big earthquake, both devastated big urban zones. The consequences were enormous at all levels: personal, psychological, social, political and economical. Facing risk situations people can have stress reactions when a sign of danger appears. According to Jean RIVOLIER (1994), these situations must not be confounded with banal events of everyday life. Stress in those cases is not the stress we confront everyday, so people have to apply other strategies to face she stress and the incidents of the kind of extreme situations. To tackle our subject we are going to review some concepts used in our study: stress, coping strategies and risk perception. (author)

  9. Vesuvio civil protection exercise MESIMEX: survey on volcanic risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Ricci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2006 the European Civil Protection Exercise MESIMEX (Somma Vesuvio Mesimex – Major Emergency SIMulation Exercise on volcanic risk took place at Vesuvio, promoted by Campania Region and coordinated by the Italian Civil Protection Department. The exercise was focused on the preparedness phase for a major volcanic emergency in the area of Vesuvio. An evacuation of a sample of 1800 inhabitants from the Vesuvio Red Zone was also tested during the drill because the emergency plan ensures the complete evacuation of the population from the higher risk zone before the onset of the eruption. During that event a survey on volcanic risk perception was carried out on the evacuated population in order to compare the results with the ones coming from a previous similar survey, using the same questionnaire, carried out on a wider sample of residents in the Vesuvio Red Zone few months before MESIMEX exercise. The aim was to point out any differences in population’s attitude towards volcanic risk after having received detailed information on the emergency plan and on the hazards and risk related to the reactivation of Vesuvio, and experiencing the exercise. 463 questionnaires were distributed to the population evacuated from the 18 municipalities of the Red Zone and participating to the exercise. Main results in comparing data from MESIMEX survey with the Vesuvio previous one, put in evidence how the general level of Vesuvio residents’ trust remains quite low, indicating that a continuous and effective effort has to be done by both scientific community and Civil Protection Department. Particular attention should be paid in education and outreach activities and in involving people in risk mitigation procedures, also through more frequent exercises.

  10. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Interpersonal amplification of risk? Citizen discussions and their impact on perceptions of risks and benefits of a biological research facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Brossard, Dominique; Gunther, Albert C

    2011-02-01

    Much risk communication research has demonstrated how mass media can influence individual risk perceptions, but lacks a comprehensive conceptual understanding of another key channel of communication: interpersonal discussion. Using the social amplification of risk as a theoretical framework, we consider the potential for discussions to function as amplification stations. We explore this possibility using data from a public opinion survey of residents living in potential locations for a new biological research facility in the United States. Controlling for a variety of key information variables, our results show that two dimensions of discussion-frequency and valence-have impacts on residents' perceptions of the facility's benefits and its risks. We also explore the possibility that an individual's overall attitude moderates the effect of discussion on their perceptions of risks and benefits. Our results demonstrate the potential for discussions to operate as amplifiers or attenuators of perceptions of both risks and benefits. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  13. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on "cancer risk from

  14. Radioactive contamination of wild mushrooms: mycological approach and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droujinina, I.

    2001-11-01

    Recent investigations of the wide range of polluted environments have proven that different toxic elements, especially long-lived radionuclides of caesium and strontium, can be accumulated in fruit bodies of fungi. Therefore, consumption of wild mushrooms can be regarded as a risky activity. Radiocaesium, which was released into the environment by atomic weapons testing and accidents in the nuclear industry, is now accumulated particularly in the upper, mainly organic horizons of forest soils and it is assumed that fungal mycelium play a substantial role for the retention of this pollutant in top layers of soil. Nowadays macromycete fungi become a key point of the forest radioecology because of the extremely high level of the inter- and intraspecific variability of the radionuclide accumulation (from two to four orders of magnitude). The latter significantly complicates all efforts to predict the future migration of radionuclides in the ecosystem and creates a high uncertainty in the radioecological models. At the same time, mechanisms of radiocaesium uptake by fungal mycelium remain poorly understood. In this work, physiological mechanisms of radiocaesium accumulation by fungal mycelium (complex in vitro mycological approach) were investigated along with the pilot sociological study of the perception of the contamination of wild edible mushrooms by citizens of different countries. Such bilateral approach allows the comparison of an expert's perception of the problem with the mental model of those people who consume wild mushrooms. The revealed difference should be useful in future risk communication efforts when interested population should be informed. (author)

  15. Risk perception of tsunami in the community of Arauco, Chile - a contribution of risk perception to disaster risk management at local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, M. Sc. Susanne; Edilia Jaque Castillo, Dra.; Braun, JProf. Andreas Ch., ,, Dr.

    2017-04-01

    The research was carried out in the city center of the coastal community of Arauco, Central Chile. The community of Arauco was one of the most affected communities of the tsunami in Chile, the 27th of February 2010. For the data evaluation, the affected inhabitants of the community have been surveyed via standardized questionnaires. Furthermore experts of different fields, amongst others, Disaster Risk Management (DRM), risk education, urban and regional planning, as well as geology have been consulted in form of expert interviews. The results revealed a high risk perception part of the affected community and a weakness of DRM especially at local level, which opens a gap between the evaluation and treatment of risk by experts and risk perception of the affected community. The risk perception of the affected community, here, is predominantly determined by ecological vulnerability, expressed in direct and indirect experience of a tsunami and by institutional vulnerability, expressed among others by a weakness of DRM at local level and a mistrust in responsible institutions for DRM. Due to the institutional vulnerability and the mistrust in responsible institutions we recommend a Community Based Approach (CBA) to strengthen DRM at local level and to take advantage of the high risk perception and knowledge of the affected community. Involving the community in DRM, we assume to close the gap between risk evaluation of experts and risk perception of the inhabitants and to come up with the unique necessities and conditions at local level. Especially in centralized countries, DRM is less effective, because at the one hand, decisions are made distant from the affected communities, so that measures often do not come up with the unique conditions and necessities at local level, and on the other hand measures often do not find acceptance by the affected community. Furthermore centralized DRM is often not effective and quick in response in case of emergency. Another obstacle

  16. Strategic Risk Management Behavior: What Can Utility Functions Tell Us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The validity of the utility concept, particularly in an expected utility framework, has been questioned because of its inability to predict revealed behavior. In this paper we focus on the global shape of the utility function instead of the local shape of the utility function. We examine

  17. From risk perception to social trust: an outline of recent contributions of psychology to risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    As with many developing areas of inquiry, the psychology of risk management has progressed from an initial focus on proximal effects to an exploration of more stable distal factors, from risk perception to social trust. Risk perception is concerned with disruptions in the relations between individuals and their physical environments, specifically with the varying negative effects experienced by individuals. These effects have been found to be socially constructed, with systematic variations among groups (e.g., lay-person and experts; among various groups of experts; men and women; those with economic interests and those without; etc.). The focus of risk perception research has shifted over time: from the likelihood of specific health effects; to the likelihood of a wide range of effects, including emotional effects, varying with context; and, finally, to general emotional effects, positive and negative affect. This shift can be seen to be from cognitive/rational to affective; from expert/technical to public. The second stage of inquiry moved away from the surface effects of risk perception to the study of confidence. Confidence is concerned with constancy, the underlying, not directly experienced order of the relations between individuals and their social/physical environments. Disruptions in confidence lead to concern with risk. Initially, confidence was said to be based on past performance and systems of control, objectively defined; the appropriate response to disruptions was risk communication, the provision of correct information. Failures in risk communication indicated that confidence must be based on subjective judgements of past performance and systems of control. The third, and present, stage of inquiry moved back from confidence, and from the physical environment, to the study of social trust. Social trust is concerned with the relations between individuals within social groups. Individuals tend to trust others whom they judge to be similar to themselves

  18. Utilizing Multidimensional Measures of Race in Education Research: The Case of Teacher Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2015-10-01

    Education scholarship on race using quantitative data analysis consists largely of studies on the black-white dichotomy, and more recently, on the experiences of student within conventional racial/ethnic categories (white, Hispanic/Latina/o, Asian, black). Despite substantial shifts in the racial and ethnic composition of American children, studies continue to overlook the diverse racialized experiences for students of Asian and Latina/o descent, the racialization of immigration status, and the educational experiences of Native American students. This study provides one possible strategy for developing multidimensional measures of race using large-scale datasets and demonstrates the utility of multidimensional measures for examining educational inequality, using teacher perceptions of student behavior as a case in point. With data from the first grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort of 1998-1999, I examine differences in teacher ratings of Externalizing Problem Behaviors and Approaches to Learning across fourteen racialized subgroups at the intersections of race, ethnicity, and immigrant status. Results show substantial subgroup variation in teacher perceptions of problem and learning behaviors, while also highlighting key points of divergence and convergence within conventional racial/ethnic categories.

  19. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  20. Which Type of Risk Information to Use for Whom? Moderating Role of Outcome-Relevant Involvement in the Effects of Statistical and Exemplified Risk Information on Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori

    2017-04-01

    The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.

  1. Cigarette graphic warning labels increase both risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Abigail T; Peters, Ellen; Shoben, Abigail B; Meilleur, Louise R; Klein, Elizabeth G; Tompkins, Mary Kate; Tusler, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Cigarette graphic warning labels elicit negative emotion, which increases risk perceptions through multiple processes. We examined whether this emotion simultaneously affects motivated cognitions like smoking myth endorsement (e.g. 'exercise can undo the negative effects of smoking') and perceptions of cigarette danger versus other products. 736 adult and 469 teen smokers/vulnerable smokers viewed one of three warning label types (text-only, low emotion graphic or high emotion graphic) four times over two weeks. Emotional reactions to the warnings were reported during the first and fourth exposures. Participants reported how often they considered the warnings, smoking myth endorsement, risk perceptions and perceptions of cigarette danger relative to smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes. In structural equation models, emotional reactions influenced risk perceptions and smoking myth endorsement through two processes. Emotion acted as information about risk, directly increasing smoking risk perceptions and decreasing smoking myth endorsement. Emotion also acted as a spotlight, motivating consideration of the warning information. Warning consideration increased risk perceptions, but also increased smoking myth endorsement. Emotional reactions to warnings decreased perceptions of cigarette danger relative to other products. Emotional reactions to cigarette warnings increase smoking risk perceptions, but also smoking myth endorsement and misperceptions that cigarettes are less dangerous than potentially harm-reducing tobacco products.

  2. Farmers' perception of termites in agriculture production and their indigenous utilization in Northwest Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yêyinou Loko, Laura Estelle; Orobiyi, Azize; Agre, Paterne; Dansi, Alexandre; Tamò, Manuele; Roisin, Yves

    2017-11-21

    Although termites are considered as agricultural pests, they play an important role in maintaining the ecosystem. Therefore, it matters to investigate the farmers' perception of the impacts of the termites on the agriculture and their indigenous utilization. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 94 farmers through 10 villages of Atacora department, in the northwestern region of Benin, to obtain information for the development of successful strategies of termite management and conservation. Their perceptions on the importance and management of termites along with the indigenous nomenclature and utilization of termite mounds were assessed. Termite species identified by farmers were collected and preserved in 80% alcohol for identification. Eight crops were identified by farmers as susceptible to termites with maize, sorghum, and yam as being the most susceptible. According to farmers, the susceptibility to termites of these crops is due to their high-water content and sweet taste. A total of 27 vernacular names of termites were recorded corresponding to 10 species, Amitermes evuncifer, Macrotermes subhyalinus, and Trinervitermes oeconomus being the most damaging termite species. All the names given to termite species had a meaning. The drought was identified by farmers as the main factor favouring termite attacks. Demolition of termite mounds in the fields was the most commonly reported control method. Salt and other pesticides were commonly used by farmers to protect stored farm products. The lack of effective control methods is the main constraint for termite management. In northwestern Benin, farmers reported different purpose utilizations of termite mounds and termites. The study has shown that farmers perceived termites as pests of several agricultural crops and apply various indigenous control practices whose efficiency need to be verified. Utilization of termites and termite mound soil as food and medicinal resources underlines the need for a

  3. Understanding the Cognitive and Affective Mechanisms that Underlie Proxy Risk Perceptions among Caregivers of Asthmatic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Lipsey, Nikolette P; Pachur, Thorsten; Waters, Erika A

    2018-07-01

    Medical decisions made on behalf of another person-particularly those made by adult caregivers for their minor children-are often informed by the decision maker's beliefs about the treatment's risks and benefits. However, we know little about the cognitive and affective mechanisms influencing such "proxy" risk perceptions and about how proxy risk perceptions are related to prominent judgment phenomena. Adult caregivers of minor children with asthma ( N = 132) completed an online, cross-sectional survey assessing 1) cognitions and affects that form the basis of the availability, representativeness, and affect heuristics; 2) endorsement of the absent-exempt and the better-than-average effect; and 3) proxy perceived risk and unrealistic comparative optimism of an asthma exacerbation. We used the Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (PACCI) to assess asthma severity. Respondents with higher scores on availability, representativeness, and negative affect indicated higher proxy risk perceptions and (for representativeness only) lower unrealistic optimism, irrespective of asthma severity. Conversely, respondents who showed a stronger display of the better-than-average effect indicated lower proxy risk perceptions but did not differ in unrealistic optimism. The absent-exempt effect was unrelated to proxy risk perceptions and unrealistic optimism. Heuristic judgment processes appear to contribute to caregivers' proxy risk perceptions of their child's asthma exacerbation risk. Moreover, the display of other, possibly erroneous, judgment phenomena is associated with lower caregiver risk perceptions. Designing interventions that target these mechanisms may help caregivers work with their children to reduce exacerbation risk.

  4. Safety Politics and Risk Perceptions in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    Abstract The book deals with the analysis of work hazards and safety in industrial enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia, Southeast Asia. It traces the development of this theme of conflict within the context constituted by state, labour market and labour-management relations in Malaysia. The book...... and safety, when compared with the influence of local conditions? What kind of process develops, as local theory about work hazards are formed among workers. And, which are the opportunities for changing working environment institutions in Malaysia? The first part of the book discusses traditions...... by the state from Burawoy, Beronius, and Adesina about production politics and social relations in the labour process provides an integrated perspective on individual risk perceptions, safety practices in enterprises, and government regulation. The empirical data were collected during the period 1989...

  5. [Perception of health and safety risks among workers pathology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Valencia-Cedillo, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Health care workers are experiencing increasing numbers of occupational illnesses. Safety practices in anatomical pathology laboratories (APL) are crucial to prevent unnecessary exposures to both chemical and biological agents. The main goal of this study was to determine if pathologists perceptions and actual practice mirror regulatory guidelines. Current available recommendations for APL were reviewed and used to construct an online survey distributed to pathologists. The survey was completed by 121 participants. Eighty-seven (72 %) of respondents reported receiving inadequate safety training. Most pathologists (82 %) were not well-informed about biosafety practices. Sixty-three (52 %) participants felt that the risks of chemical and infectious disease exposures in the APL were low. Most respondents reported having a needle stick or cut (71 %). Eighty-six (71 %) of participants reported musculo skeletal problems. This study indicated that there is a need for improving training in anatomical pathology safety practices in Mexican laboratories as daily practices do not reflected current guidelines.

  6. Can Knowledge Deficit Explain Societal Perception of Climate Change Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.; Bondell, H.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change literacy efforts have had a rough journey in the past decade. Although scientists have become increasingly convinced about anthropological climate change, change in public opinion has been underwhelming. The unexplained gap between scientific consensus and public opinion has made this topic an important research area in the realm of public understanding of science. Recent research on climate change risk perception (CCRP) has advanced an intriguing hypothesis, namely, cultural cognition thesis (CCT), which posits that the public has adequate knowledge to understand climate change science but people tend to use this knowledge solely to promote their culturally motivated view-point of climate change. This talk provides evidence to demonstrate that despite culture playing a significant role in influencing CCRP, knowledge deficiency remains a persistent problem in our society and contributes to the aforementioned gap. However, such deficits can remain undiagnosed due to limitations of survey design.

  7. Public perception process of nuclear power risk and some enlightenment to public education for nuclear power acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper, based on the international research literatures on perception of risks, designs a conceptual model of public perception of nuclear power risk. In this model, it is considered that the public perception of nuclear power risk is a dynamic, complicate and closed system and is a process from subjective perception to objective risk. Based on the features of the public perception of nuclear power risk and multi-faceted dimension influences as discussed, suggestions for the public education for nuclear power acceptance are given in five aspects with indication that the public education for nuclear power acceptance plays an important role in maintaining the public perception of nuclear power risk system. (author)

  8. Incidence of Online Health Information Search: A Useful Proxy for Public Health Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet users use search engines to look for information online, including health information. Researchers in medical informatics have found a high correlation of the occurrence of certain search queries and the incidence of certain diseases. Consumers’ search for information about diseases is related to current health status with regard to a disease and to the social environments that shape the public’s attitudes and behaviors. Objective This study aimed to investigate the extent to which public health risk perception as demonstrated by online information searches related to a health risk can be explained by the incidence of the health risk and social components of a specific population’s environment. Using an ecological perspective, we suggest that a population’s general concern for a health risk is formed by the incidence of the risk and social (eg, media attention) factors related with the risk. Methods We constructed a dataset that included state-level data from 32 states on the incidence of the flu; a number of social factors, such as media attention to the flu; private resources, such as education and health insurance coverage; public resources, such as hospital beds and primary physicians; and utilization of these resources, including inpatient days and outpatient visits. We then explored whether online information searches about the flu (seasonal and pandemic flu) can be predicted using these variables. We used factor analysis to construct indexes for sets of social factors (private resources, public resources). We then applied panel data multiple regression analysis to exploit both time-series and cross-sectional variation in the data over a 7-year period. Results Overall, the results provide evidence that the main effects of independent variables—the incidence of the flu (Psearches for queries related to the flu. After controlling for the number of reported disease cases and Internet access rate by state, we estimate the

  9. The influence of family history on cognitive heuristics, risk perceptions, and prostate cancer screening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Michelle E; Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2013-11-01

    To examine how family history of prostate cancer, risk perceptions, and heuristic decision strategies influence prostate cancer screening behavior. Men with a first-degree family history of prostate cancer (FDRs; n = 207) and men without a family history (PM; n = 239) completed a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) examining prostate cancer risk perceptions, PSA testing behaviors, perceptions of similarity to the typical man who gets prostate cancer (representativeness heuristic), and availability of information about prostate cancer (availability heuristic). A path model explored family history as influencing the availability of information about prostate cancer (number of acquaintances with prostate cancer and number of recent discussions about prostate cancer) to mediate judgments of risk and to predict PSA testing behaviors and family history as a moderator of the relationship between representativeness (perceived similarity) and risk perceptions. FDRs reported greater risk perceptions and a greater number of PSA tests than did PM. Risk perceptions predicted increased PSA testing only in path models and was significant only for PM in multi-Group SEM analyses. Family history moderated the relationship between similarity perceptions and risk perceptions such that the relationship between these variables was significant only for FDRs. Recent discussions about prostate cancer mediated the relationships between family history and risk perceptions, and the number of acquaintances men knew with prostate cancer mediated the relationship between family history and PSA testing behavior. Family history interacts with the individuals' broader social environment to influence risk perceptions and screening behavior. Research into how risk perceptions develop and what primes behavior change is crucial to underpin psychological or public health intervention that seeks to influence health decision making.

  10. Risk Perception for Developing Diabetes among Non-diabetic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Objective: to determine the risk perception for developing type 2 diabetes among non-diabetic individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving non-diabetic individuals in the catchment area of the doctor-and-nurse office No.15 of the Manuel Fajardo Polyclinic in Cienfuegos was conducted between May 2013 and June 2014. The universe consisted of 1145 people, and the sample included 323 individuals of different age groups selected by sex. The variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, and having a perceived risk when they answered 70 % of questions correctly. The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, and risk estimation were calculated with a 95 % confidence interval. Results: individuals aged 25 to 34 years and females predominated. Fifty nine point two percent of the study participants knew of their risk. Eighty one point one percent understood that diabetes is preventable and 93.5 % stated that it is their responsibility to prevent its development. Thirty five point two percent of women considered normal-weight/thin fully agreed on the importance of physical activity and diabetes prevention. Eighty point five percent of women and 78.5 % of men answered positively to the question about obesity and diabetes. Conclusions: study participants knew of their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although a large number of them attributed all responsibility for prevention to the health personnel.

  11. HIV Risk Perception and Risky Behavior Among People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Ahounbar, Elahe; Karimi, Salah Eddin; Ahmadi, Sina; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Farhadi, Mohammad Hassan; Higgs, Peter; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Sharhani, Asaad; Armoon, Bahram; Waye, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Understanding and increasing awareness on individual risk for HIV infection as well as HIV risk perception's effects on different behavioral outcomes for people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for policymaking and planning purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether HIV risk perception was associated with greater injection and sexual risk-taking behaviors among PWIDs. We surveyed 460 PWID in Kermanshah regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, HIV risk perception, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to the study. Three classes of HIV risk perception were identified using ordinal regression to determine factors associated with HIV risk perception. Study participants were categorized as follows: "low" (n = 100, 22%), "moderate" (n = 150, 32%), and "high" (n = 210, 46%) risk perception for becoming infected with HIV. The odds of categorizing as "high" risk for HIV was significantly greater in PWID that reported unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.4, p value 0.02), receptive syringe sharing (AOR 1.8, p value 0.01), and multiple sex partners (AOR 1.4, p value 0.03). PWID who reported unprotected sex had 2.7 times the odds of "high" risk perception when compared to PWID with "low" risk perception. Findings show that PWID could rate their HIV risk with acceptable accuracy. Additionally, perceived HIV risk was associated with many risk factors for transmission of HIV, emphasizing the importance of developing targeted prevention and harm reduction programs for all domains of risk behaviors, both sexual and drug-related use.

  12. Sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Weinman, John; French, David P

    2007-01-01

    This study examines sociodemographic differences in myocardial infarction (MI) risk perceptions among people with coronary heart disease (CHD) (N = 3130). Two variables for comparative risk perceptions were computed: (1) own risk compared to that of an average person; and (2) own risk compared...... to that of an average person with CHD. Comparative optimism in MI risk perceptions was common, particularly among men and those with higher education. CHD severity and psychosocial resources mediated these sociodemographic differences. These results suggest challenges for secondary prevention in CHD, particularly...

  13. Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanga, Eunice; Ulmer, Lisa; Berhane, Zekarias; Gatari, Michael

    2014-04-17

    Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge, hence investments in pollution prevention technologies get sidelined in favor of short-term benefits from increased production and job creation. This lack of air quality management capability translates into lack of air pollution data, hence the false belief that there is no problem. The objectives of the study were to: assess the population's environmental awareness, explore their perception of pollution threat to their health; examine the association between specific health hazards. A cross-sectional study was implemented by gathering quantitative information on demographic, health status, environmental perception and environmental knowledge of residents to understand their view of pollution in their neighborhood. Focus group discussions (FGDs) allowed for corroboration of the quantitative data. Over 80% of respondents perceived industrial pollution as posing a considerable risk to them despite the fact that the economy of the area largely depended on the factory. Respondents also argued that they had not been actively involved in identifying solutions to the environmental challenges. The study revealed a significant association between industrial pollution as a risk and, perception of risk from other familiar health hazards. The most important factors influencing the respondents' pollution risk perception were environmental awareness and family health status. This study avails information to policy makers and researchers concerning public awareness and attitudes towards environmental pollution pertinent to development and implementation of environmental policies for public health.

  14. Industrial air pollution in rural Kenya: community awareness, risk perception and associations between risk variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing countries have limited air quality management systems due to inadequate legislation and lack of political will, among other challenges. Maintaining a balance between economic development and sustainable environment is a challenge, hence investments in pollution prevention technologies get sidelined in favor of short-term benefits from increased production and job creation. This lack of air quality management capability translates into lack of air pollution data, hence the false belief that there is no problem. The objectives of the study were to: assess the population’s environmental awareness, explore their perception of pollution threat to their health; examine the association between specific health hazards. Methods A cross-sectional study was implemented by gathering quantitative information on demographic, health status, environmental perception and environmental knowledge of residents to understand their view of pollution in their neighborhood. Focus group discussions (FGDs) allowed for corroboration of the quantitative data. Results Over 80% of respondents perceived industrial pollution as posing a considerable risk to them despite the fact that the economy of the area largely depended on the factory. Respondents also argued that they had not been actively involved in identifying solutions to the environmental challenges. The study revealed a significant association between industrial pollution as a risk and, perception of risk from other familiar health hazards. The most important factors influencing the respondents’ pollution risk perception were environmental awareness and family health status. Conclusion This study avails information to policy makers and researchers concerning public awareness and attitudes towards environmental pollution pertinent to development and implementation of environmental policies for public health. PMID:24742166

  15. Drug utilization and teratogenicity risk categories during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basgül, Alin; Akici, Ahmet; Uzuner, Arzu; Kalaça, Sibel; Kavak, Zehra N; Tural, Alper; Oktay, Sule

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of studies have investigated in detail the use of drugs during pregnancy. Researchers in the present study investigated the details of drug utilization in pregnant women during the month before pregnancy, at the time that they became aware of the pregnancy, and during the first trimester. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 359 pregnant women who were admitted to the fetal medicine unit at a university hospital for diagnosis and follow-up. A questionnaire was used to document sociodemographic characteristics and details of drug use. Drugs were categorized according to the US Food and Drug Administration fetal risk classification. Mean maternal age was 29.9+/-5.1 y, and mean gestational age was 19.6+/-9.5 wk. Many of the pregnant women studied (46.6%) were university graduates, and most (61.9%) had a relatively high annual income. Mean gestational age when participants first learned of their pregnancy was 39.8+/-16.4 d. One hundred seventeen participants (32.6%) used drugs during the month before conception, 54 (15%) at the time when they learned of their pregnancy, 180 (50.1%) at the time of the interview, and 289 (80.5%) during the first trimester. The percentages of drugs in categories D and X used by these subjects were 14%, 13.5%, 2.9%, and 5.9%, respectively. Most of the drugs were hormones. The total rate of drug utilization was not high before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. A considerable number of women were using drugs from the D and X categories; however, these numbers decreased significantly when women learned of their pregnancies. Intake of folic acid, vitamins, and iron was very low during the preconception period and was not high enough during the first trimester; this suggests that particular attention should be paid to the use of beneficial "safe" drugs during the preconception and early pregnancy periods.

  16. Smoking, information sources, and risk perception. New evidence on Swedish data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundborg, N.

    2007-01-01

    Using data on Swedish adolescents, this study examines (1) perceptions of the addictiveness and mortality risk of smoking, (2) the effects of these perceptions on smoking behaviour, and (3) the role of various smoking risk information sources. The average respondent believed that 46 out of 100

  17. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  18. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated....... Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern....

  19. Perceptions of Risk from Substance Use among Adolescents. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Although many factors may influence the initiation of drug or alcohol use, the perception of risk associated with these behaviors also varies by gender, age, and type of drug. Understanding the different patterns of risk perceptions that emerge during adolescent development may help to better target health communication messages and increase the…

  20. The Influence of Instruction, Prior Knowledge, and Values on Climate Change Risk Perception among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Osman; McNeal, Karen S.; Gold, Anne U.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Harris, Sara

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated influences on the climate change risk perceptions of undergraduate students in an introductory Earth Science course. For this sample, domain-specific content knowledge about climate change was a significant predictor of students' risk perception of climate change while cultural worldviews (individualism, hierarchy) and political…

  1. Adult and Middle School Girls' Perceptions of Risk-Taking Behavior: Implications for School Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark

    2013-01-01

    There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school girls.…

  2. Risk perception of different emergencies in a sample of European firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Saccinto, Elisa; Kehl, Doris; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Firefighters frequently incur injuries while providing emergency services. Risk perception has been found to be associated with injury and safety behavior. This study examined risk perception of different emergency situations among firefighters. Along with risk perceptions, we investigated the role of practical experience, perceived training, tenure, and acute stress related to different emergency situations. Participants were a sample of 1324 firefighters from Germany and Italy. A questionnaire was administered to participants on risk perceptions, practical experience, perceived training, tenure, and acute stress. The results showed that different levels of risk perception are related to different practical experience, acute stress reactions, and training. Higher risk perception was associated with higher perceived training, practical experience, and acute stress reactions. A significant difference was found between the German and the Italian sample in risk perceptions. More specifically the Italian sample perceived disasters (e.g., earthquakes) as more risky. Moreover, there were some differences in perceived training and practical experience about the different emergency situations, in the two samples. The results underline the importance of considering organizational factors in the prediction of risk perception among firefighters.

  3. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  4. Flavor perception and the risk of malnutrition in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Dareia S.; Oranje, Oscar J.M.; Freriksen, Anneleen F.D.; Berendse, Henk W.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    Flavor perception involves both olfactory and gustatory function. In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), hyposmia is a frequent finding, as well as an increased risk of malnutrition. We performed a pilot study to investigate the relationship between flavor perception and risk of malnutrition in

  5. Risk perceptions, general environmental beliefs, and willingness to address climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.E.; Bord, R.J.; Fisher, A.

    1999-01-01

    The research reported here examines the relationship between risk perceptions and willingness to address climate change. The data are a national sample of 1,225 mail surveys that include measures of risk perceptions and knowledge tied to climate change, support for voluntary and government actions to address the problem, general environmental beliefs, and demographic variables. Risk perceptions matter in predicting behavior intentions. Risk perceptions are not a surrogate for general environmental beliefs, but have their own power to account for behavioral intentions. There are four secondary conclusions. First, behavioral intentions regarding climate change are complex and intriguing. People are neither nonbelievers who will take no initiatives themselves and oppose all government efforts, nor are they believers who promise both to make personal efforts and to vote for every government proposal that promises to address climate change. Second, there are separate demographic sources for voluntary actions compared with voting intentions. Third, recognizing the causes of global warming is a powerful predictor of behavioral intentions independent from believing that climate change will happen and have bad consequences. Finally, the success of the risk perception variables to account for behavioral intentions should encourage greater attention to risk perceptions as independent variables. Risk perceptions and knowledge, however, share the stage with general environmental beliefs and demographic characteristics. Although related, risk perceptions, knowledge, and general environmental beliefs are somewhat independent predictors of behavioral intentions

  6. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Hazard perception, risk perception, and the need for decontamination by residents exposed to soil pollution: the role of sustainability and the limits of expert knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Frédéric

    2008-04-01

    This case study examines the hazard and risk perception and the need for decontamination according to people exposed to soil pollution. Using an ecological-symbolic approach (ESA), a multidisciplinary model is developed that draws upon psychological and sociological perspectives on risk perception and includes ecological variables by using data from experts' risk assessments. The results show that hazard perception is best predicted by objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, estimated knowledge of experts, and the assessed risks. However, experts' risk assessments induce an increase in hazard perception only when residents know the urgency of decontamination. Risk perception is best predicted by trust in the risk management. Additionally, need for decontamination relates to hazard perception, risk perception, estimated knowledge of experts, and thoughts about sustainability. In contrast to the knowledge deficit model, objective and subjective knowledge did not significantly relate to risk perception and need for decontamination. The results suggest that residents can make a distinction between hazards in terms of the seriousness of contamination on the one hand, and human health risks on the other hand. Moreover, next to the importance of social determinants of environmental risk perception, this study shows that the output of experts' risk assessments-or the objective risks-can create a hazard awareness rather than an alarming risk consciousness, despite residents' distrust of scientific knowledge.

  8. Risk Perception and Psychological Distress in Genetic Counselling for Hereditary Breast and/or Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, G; De Luca, R; Dorangricchia, P; Lo Coco, G; Guarnaccia, C; Fanale, D; Calò, V; Russo, A

    2017-10-01

    Oncological Genetic Counselling (CGO) allows the identification of a genetic component that increases the risk of developing a cancer. Individuals' psychological reactions are influenced by both the content of the received information and the subjective perception of their own risk of becoming ill or being a carrier of a genetic mutation. This study included 120 participants who underwent genetic counselling for breast and/or ovarian cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between their cancer risk perception and the genetic risk during CGO before receiving genetic test results, considering the influence of some psychological variables, in particular distress, anxiety and depression. Participants completed the following tools during a psychological interview: a socio-demographic form, Cancer Risk Perception (CRP) and Genetic Risk Perception (GRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Distress Thermometer (DT). The data seem to confirm our hypothesis. Positive and significant correlations were found between the observed variables. Moreover, genetic risk perception determined an increase in depressive symptomatology and cancer risk perception led to an increase in anxious symptomatology, specifically in participants during cancer treatment. The present results suggest the importance of assessing genetic and cancer risk perception in individuals who undergo CGO, to identify those who are at risk of a decrease in psychological well-being and of developing greater psychological distress.

  9. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  10. Risk Assessments by Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Predictors of Risk Perceptions and Comparison to an Actuarial Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Henning, Kris; Moore, Stephanie; Holdford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies support the validity of both structured risk assessment tools and victim perceptions as predictors of risk for repeat intimate partner violence (IPV). Combining structured risk assessments and victim risk assessments leads to better predictions of repeat violence than either alone, suggesting that the two forms of assessment provide…

  11. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Impact of knowledge and misconceptions on benefit and risk perception of CCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallquist, Lasse; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is assumed to be one of the key technologies in the mitigation of climate change. Public acceptance may have a strong impact on the progress of this technology. Benefit perception and risk perception are known to be important determinants of public acceptance of CCS. In this study, the prevalence and effect of cognitive concepts underlying laypeople's risk perception and benefit perception of CCS were examined in a representative survey (N=654) in Switzerland. Results confirm findings from previous qualitative studies and show a quantification of a variety of widespread intuitive concepts that laypeople hold about storage mechanisms as well as about leakage and socioeconomic issues, which all appeared to influence risk perception and benefit perception. The perception of an overpressurized reservoir and concerns about diffuse impacts furthermore amplified risk perception. Appropriate images about storage mechanisms and climate change awareness were increasing the perception of benefits. Knowledge about CO2 seemed to lower both perceived benefits and perceived risks. Implications for risk communication and management are discussed.

  13. Perceptions of climate-related risk among water sector professionals in Africa-Insights from the 2016 African Water Association Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Katherine; Mbutu, Mwaura; Bartram, Jamie; Fuente, David

    2018-04-23

    The ability of water and wastewater utilities to provide safe and reliable water and sanitation services now and in the future will be determined, in part, by their resilience to climate change. Investment in infrastructure, planning, and operational practices that increase resilience are affected, in turn, by how water sector professionals perceive the risks posed to utilities by climate change and its related impacts. We surveyed water sector professionals at the 2016 African Water Association's Congress in Nairobi, Kenya to assess their perceptions of climate-specific and general risks that may disrupt utility service. We find that water sector professionals are most concerned about climate-specific and general risks that affect utility water supplies (quantity), followed by adequacy of utility infrastructure. We also find that professionals tend to rank climate-specific risks as less concerning than general risks facing utilities. Furthermore, non-utility professionals are more concerned about climate-specific risks and climate change in general than utility professionals. These findings highlight the multiple, competing risks utilities face and the need for adaptation strategies that simultaneously address climate-specific and general concerns of utilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of science communication with the public on inference of risk perception of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study showed a big difference between expert's own risk perception and experts' inference of the public risk perception about technologies. So, this study tried to clarify the effect of the perceived distance in risk perception between the public and experts themselves on forwardness in science communication to the public. The questionnaire survey results reaffirmed that experts were inclined to feel larger difference in risk perception between the public and themselves on the subject of their own specialty than of non-specialty. The result also suggested the tendency that the bigger experts recognized difference in risk perception from the public, the less they actually had experiences of science communication including communication with the public. Moreover, the result showed that experiences of science communication had positive effects on belief of the public's scientific literacy. (author)

  15. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  16. Health Care Workers’ Risk Perceptions and Willingness to Report for Work during an Influenza Pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Dionne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability and willingness of health care workers to report for work during a pandemic are essential to pandemic response. The main contribution of this article is to examine the relationship between risk perception of personal and work activities and willingness to report for work during an influenza pandemic. Data were collected through a quantitative Web-based survey sent to health care workers on the island of Montreal. Respondents were asked about their perception of various risks to obtain index measures of risk perception. A multinomial logit model was applied for the probability estimations, and a factor analysis was conducted to compute risk perception indexes (scores. Risk perception associated with personal and work activities is a significant predictor of intended presence at work during an influenza pandemic. This means that correcting perceptual biases should be a public policy concern. These results have not been previously reported in the literature. Many organizational variables are also significant.

  17. Decision-makers' Risk Perception in the Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Jonas Strømfeldt; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2016-01-01

    awareness exists, decision-makers do not perceive internationalisation as risky behaviour. Findings highlight the importance of decision-makers’ background, including cognitive and psychological characteristics, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, and their experiences in explaining risk perceptions......This study examines the risk perception of decision-makers in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the factors underlying these perceptions in the process of internationalization of their firms. While risk perception has been identified as a potential predictor variable...... in internationalisation research, very little work has been done exploring the factors and processes that shape decision-makers’ perception of risk. A qualitative interview-based approach was adopted by collecting data from thirty-two Danish SMEs operating in four different industries. Findings suggest that while risk...

  18. Occupational therapists' perceptions about the clinical utility of the 3D interior design software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwa, Anita; Money, Arthur G; Spiliotopoulou, Georgia; Mcintyre, Anne

    2013-07-01

    The 3D interior design software (3DIDS) is a technology, which primarily allows users to simulate their homes and visualize any changes prior to implementing them. This feasibility study aimed to examine occupational therapists' perceptions about the clinical utility of the 3DIDS. A secondary aim was to explore the attitudes of occupational therapists towards technology in general. Three focus groups were conducted with 25 occupational therapists working with older people in the UK. The qualitative data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The three main themes that were identified were usage and attitudes of technology, opportunities for realistic application of the 3DIDS and related threats and benefits for the occupational therapy profession. Occupational therapists had a positive attitude towards technology. They suggested that the 3DIDS could be used in discharge planning and in rehabilitation. They viewed it as a tool that could enhance their status within the health care profession and improve communication, but not as a tool that should replace the role of the occupational therapist. This research offers new and important findings about the utilization of the 3DIDS by occupational therapists and provides information as to where this technology should be trialled.

  19. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an

  20. Parents' and students' perceptions of college alcohol risk: the role of parental risk perception in intentions to communicate about alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Lucy E; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2015-03-01

    The current study aims to examine discrepancies in parents' and college students' perceptions of alcohol risk and the role of perceived risk in predicting parents' intentions to discuss alcohol with their child. In total, 246 college student-parent dyads (56.1% female students, 77.2% mothers) were recruited from a mid-size university. Participants completed measures of absolute likelihood, comparative likelihood, and severity of alcohol consequences. In comparison to students, parents perceived the risks of alcohol poisoning (pacademic impairment (pparents rated the majority of alcohol consequences (e.g., passing out, regrettable sexual situation, throwing up) as more severe than students (all psparents tended to be more optimistic than their child about the comparative likelihood of alcohol consequences. After controlling for demographics and past alcohol communication, greater absolute likelihood (β=.20, p=.016) and less confidence in knowledge of student behavior (β=.20, p=.013) predicted greater intentions to discuss alcohol. Providing parents of college students with information about college drinking norms and the likelihood of alcohol consequences may help prompt alcohol-related communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Twitter weather warnings: Communicating risk in 140 characters-the impact of imperative and declarative message style on weather risk perception and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainear, Adam M; Lachlan, Kenneth A; Spence, Patric R

    Understanding how individuals utilize risk messages is important for protecting lives and gaining compliance toward safe behaviors. Recent advances in technology afford users with timeliness when needing to acquire information, and research investigating imperative and declarative message styles suggests utilizing both strategies is most effective. Similarly, the element of time can play a role when an individual engages in certain behaviors. This study employed an experimental design to better understand how imperative and declarative tweets, and time can contribute to risk perceptions and behavioral intentions. Results indicate the most negative affect is experienced after receiving an imperative-only tweet in a short-lead time condition, whereas a tweet utilizing both message styles in a long-lead time condition induces the most fear. Future research should investigate stylistic message elements on new media platforms to better understand how messages can be effectively sent and received by the intended audience within character-limited platforms.

  2. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  3. Effect of Gun Carrying on Perceptions of Risk Among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.

  4. Perceptions of industrial and nuclear risks. Stakes, negotiations and social development of levels of risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, S.Ch.

    2007-11-01

    In this thesis we will question the perceptions of industrial risks in the occidental world at the beginning of the 21. century. For this purpose we will try to understand how concepts such as sustainable development, precautionary principle, liability, or even zero-risk bias have progressively developed around a thought model based on the scientific rationality. This model is now undermined by its incapacity to fully address the issues it raises and completely avoid the potential risks. However, despite consistent weaknesses, it remains a reference value moulded by past accidents which have led to the making of laws aiming mainly at defining liability and protecting those who are held liable. Thus, public information becomes a requirement for democracy and the protection of this thought model. In this context, the protagonists at stake are security-conscious, economical and political lobbies that constantly redefine the limits of risk acceptance. We come to the realization that our lifestyle and value system remain unchallenged even though undergoing a crisis. The specificity of this research lies into the importance we give to the local approach, dealing with registered Seveso sites and nuclear plants located in Indre et Loire. We have polled five categories of respondents through interviews or questionnaires in order to understand their opinion regarding situations involving technological risks. The result of this survey helps us understand and set the levels of risk acceptance that they define with regard to the industrial risks and show the complexity of a situation involving political stakes, environmental pressures, a profit-driven economy and security constraints, in a vague and complex context. This work gives us a contrasted picture of today's perceptions of risks. (author)

  5. An empirical study of the toxic capsule crisis in China: risk perceptions and behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianjun; Keller, L Robin; Wu, Ping; Xu, Yifan

    2014-04-01

    The outbreak of the toxic capsule crisis during April 2012 aroused widespread public concern about the risk of chromium-contaminated capsules and drug safety in China. In this article, we develop a conceptual model to investigate risk perceptions of the pharmaceutical drug capsules and behavioral responses to the toxic capsule crisis and the relationship between associated factors and these two variables. An online survey was conducted to test the model, including questions on the measures of perceived efficacy of the countermeasures, trust in the State FDA (Food and Drug Administration), trust in the pharmaceutical companies, trust in the pharmaceutical capsule producers, risk perception, concern, need for information, information seeking, and risk avoidance. In general, participants reported higher levels of risk perception, concern, and risk avoidance, and lower levels of trust in the three different stakeholders. The results from the structural equation modeling procedure suggest that perceived efficacy of the countermeasures is a predictor of each of the three trust variables; however, only trust in the State FDA has a dampening impact on risk perception. Both risk perception and information seeking are significant determinants of risk avoidance. Risk perception is also positively related to concern. Information seeking is positively related to both concern and need for information. The theoretical and policy implications are also discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Understanding and acknowledging the ice throw hazard - consequences for regulatory frameworks, risk perception and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, R. E.; Drapalik, M.; Butt, B.

    2017-11-01

    This study attempts to provide the necessary framework required to make sufficiently informed decisions regarding the safety implications of ice throw. The framework elaborates on how to cope with uncertainties, and how to describe results in a meaningful and useful manner to decision makers. Moreover, it points out the moral, judicial and economical obligations of wind turbine owners such that they are able to minimize risk of ice throws as much as possible. Building on the strength of knowledge as well as accounting for uncertainty are also essential in enabling clear communication with stakeholders on the most important/critical/vital issues. With increasing empirical evidence, one can assign a higher confidence level on the expert opinions on safety. Findings regarding key uncertainties of ice risk assessments are presented here to support the ongoing IEA Wind Task 19's work on creating the international guidelines on ice risk assessment due in 2018 (Krenn et al. 2017)[1-6]. In addition the study also incorporates the findings of a Norwegian information project, which focuses on the ice throw hazard for the public (Bredesen, Flage, Butt, Winterwind 2018)[7-9]. This includes measures to reduce damage and hazard from wind turbines for the general public. Recent theory of risk assessment questions the use of risk criteria for achieving optimum risk reduction and favours the use of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Given the several practical problems associated with the ALARA approach (e.g. judicial realization), a joint approach, which uses a minimum set of criteria as well as the obligation to meet ALARA is suggested (associated with acceptable cost). The actual decision about acceptance criteria or obligations is a societal one, thus suggestions can be made at best. Risk acceptance, risk perception and risk communication are inextricably linked and should thus never be considered separately. Risk communication can shape risk perception

  7. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  8. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  9. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  10. Perception of risk and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers were slow to recognize the importance of public attitudes and perceptions in shaping the fate of nuclear power. In 1976, Alvin Weinberg observed: 'As I compare the issues we perceived during the infancy of nuclear energy with those that have emerged during its maturity, the public perception and acceptance of nuclear energy appears to be the question that we missed rather badly.... This issue has emerged as the most critical question concerning the future of nuclear energy.' Today, fourteen years later, the problem of public acceptance is even more critical. Either the problem is damn tough or we have not been working hard enough to solve it (I suspect that both of these assertions are true). Public support for nuclear power has declined steadily for a decade and a half, driven by a number of powerful forces and events. In mid-March of 1979, the movie The China Syndrome had its premier, dramatizing the worst-case predictions of the earliest risk assessment studies. Two weeks later, events at Three Mile Island made the movie appear prophetic. Succeeding years have brought us Chernobyl and other major technological disasters, most notably Bhopal and the Challenger accident. The public has drawn a common message from these accidents - that nuclear (and other) complex technology is unsafe, that expertise is inadequate, and that government and industry cannot be trusted to manage nuclear power safely. These dramatic accidents and the distrust they have spawned have been reinforced by numerous chronic problems involving radiation, such as the discovery of significant radon concentrations in many homes, the continuing battles over the siting of facilities to store or dispose of nuclear wastes, and the disclosures of serious environmental contamination emanating from nuclear weapons facilities (at Hanford, Fernald, Rocky Flats and Savannah River)

  11. Perception of risk and the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovic, P [University of Oregon and Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Scientists and policy makers were slow to recognize the importance of public attitudes and perceptions in shaping the fate of nuclear power. In 1976, Alvin Weinberg observed: 'As I compare the issues we perceived during the infancy of nuclear energy with those that have emerged during its maturity, the public perception and acceptance of nuclear energy appears to be the question that we missed rather badly.... This issue has emerged as the most critical question concerning the future of nuclear energy.' Today, fourteen years later, the problem of public acceptance is even more critical. Either the problem is damn tough or we have not been working hard enough to solve it (I suspect that both of these assertions are true). Public support for nuclear power has declined steadily for a decade and a half, driven by a number of powerful forces and events. In mid-March of 1979, the movie The China Syndrome had its premier, dramatizing the worst-case predictions of the earliest risk assessment studies. Two weeks later, events at Three Mile Island made the movie appear prophetic. Succeeding years have brought us Chernobyl and other major technological disasters, most notably Bhopal and the Challenger accident. The public has drawn a common message from these accidents - that nuclear (and other) complex technology is unsafe, that expertise is inadequate, and that government and industry cannot be trusted to manage nuclear power safely. These dramatic accidents and the distrust they have spawned have been reinforced by numerous chronic problems involving radiation, such as the discovery of significant radon concentrations in many homes, the continuing battles over the siting of facilities to store or dispose of nuclear wastes, and the disclosures of serious environmental contamination emanating from nuclear weapons facilities (at Hanford, Fernald, Rocky Flats and Savannah River)

  12. Perception of risks and safety. Results of the November 2002 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After having recalled the themes present in the survey on the perception of risks and safety as far as nuclear energy is concerned, this report proposes an analysis of the obtained results. It discusses the current general concerns, the perception of risks (risks for the society, confidence in authorities, spoken truth), the opinions on the scientific expertise (role, opinion, confidence), the perception of technological and natural risks for the environment (hazardous installations, demand for environmental acceptability of installations, participation to information session, industrial and natural disasters), the opinions on nuclear activities (image, actors, information, control of these activities), and finally the possibility of a nuclear accident and the implemented countermeasures

  13. Perception of risks and safety. Results of the November 2001 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After having recalled the themes present in the survey on the perception of risks and safety as far as nuclear energy is concerned, this report proposes an analysis of the obtained results. It discusses the current general concerns, the perception of risks (confidence, truth), the perception of technological and natural risks for the environment (hazardous installations, demand for environmental acceptability of installations, disasters), the opinions on nuclear activities (image, actors, control of these activities, possibility of a nuclear accident), and finally the risks associated with radon

  14. Perception of risks and safety. Results of the October 2000 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    After having recalled the themes present in the survey on the perception of risks and safety as far as nuclear energy is concerned, this report proposes an analysis of the obtained results. It discusses the current general concerns, the perception of risks (confidence, truth), the opinions on the scientific expertise, the perception of technological and natural risks for the environment (hazardous installations, demand for environmental acceptability of installations, disasters), the opinions on nuclear activities (image, actors, information, control of these activities), the possibility of a nuclear accident and the implemented countermeasures, and finally the risks associated with radon

  15. Traffic risk behavior and perceptions of Thai motorcyclists: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathurng Hongsranagon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.

  16. Optimising risk reduction: An expected utility approach for marginal risk reduction during regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiawei; Pollard, Simon; Kendall, Graham; Soane, Emma; Davies, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    In practice, risk and uncertainty are essentially unavoidable in many regulation processes. Regulators frequently face a risk-benefit trade-off since zero risk is neither practicable nor affordable. Although it is accepted that cost-benefit analysis is important in many scenarios of risk management, what role it should play in a decision process is still controversial. One criticism of cost-benefit analysis is that decision makers should consider marginal benefits and costs, not present ones, in their decision making. In this paper, we investigate the problem of regulatory decision making under risk by applying expected utility theory and present a new approach of cost-benefit analysis. Directly taking into consideration the reduction of the risks, this approach achieves marginal cost-benefit analysis. By applying this approach, the optimal regulatory decision that maximizes the marginal benefit of risk reduction can be considered. This provides a transparent and reasonable criterion for stakeholders involved in the regulatory activity. An example of evaluating seismic retrofitting alternatives is provided to demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach.

  17. Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Han, Ziqiang

    2018-01-08

    This study differentiates the risk perception and influencing factors of climate change along the dimensions of global severity and personal threat. Using the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSGS) data (N = 2001) as a representative sample of adults from Taiwan, we investigated the influencing factors of the risk perceptions of climate change in these two dimensions (global severity and personal threat). Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlations of individual factors (gender, age, education, climate-related disaster experience and risk awareness, marital status, employment status, household income, and perceived social status) and societal factors (religion, organizational embeddedness, and political affiliations) with the above two dimensions. The results demonstrate that climate-related disaster experience has no significant impact on either the perception of global severity or the perception of personal impact. However, climate-related risk awareness (regarding typhoons, in particular) is positively associated with both dimensions of the perceived risks of climate change. With higher education, individuals are more concerned about global severity than personal threat. Regarding societal factors, the supporters of political parties have higher risk perceptions of climate change than people who have no party affiliation. Religious believers have higher risk perceptions of personal threat than non-religious people. This paper ends with a discussion about the effectiveness of efforts to enhance risk perception of climate change with regard to global severity and personal threat.

  18. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  19. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  20. Perception of Risk for Developing Diabetes Among Foreign-Born Spanish-Speaking US Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Kevin L; Sternberg, Rosa Maria; Kennedy, Christine M; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Chen, Jyu-Lin; Janson, Susan L

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe perception of risk for developing diabetes among foreign-born Spanish-speaking US Latinos. Participants (N = 146), recruited at food-pantry distribution events and free clinics, were surveyed using the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes in Spanish. Type 2 diabetes risk factors measured included body mass index, physical activity, and A1C. Sample characteristics were mean (SD) age of 39.5 (9.9) years, 58% with less than a high school graduate-level education, and 65% with a family income less than $15,000/year. Prevalence of risk factors was 81% overweight or obese, 47% less than 150 minutes/week moderate/vigorous-intensity physical activity, and 12% A1C consistent with prediabetes. Of the 135 participants with complete data, 31% perceived a high/moderate risk for developing diabetes. In univariate logistic regression analyses, 9 of 18 potential variables were significant (P perception of risk. When these 9 variables were entered into a multiple logistic regression model, 5 were significant predictors of perception of risk: history of gestational diabetes, high school graduate or above, optimistic bias, worry, and perceived personal disease risk. Use of the Spanish-language translation of the Risk Perception Survey for Developing Diabetes revealed factors influencing perception of risk for developing diabetes. Results can be used to promote culturally acceptable type 2 diabetes primary prevention strategies and provide a useful comparison to other populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    -up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  2. “Is it Safe?” Risk Perception and Drinking Water in a Vulnerable Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Spence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to safe drinking water is a pressing social policy issue globally. Despite the milestones reached in this area of Canadian public health, marginalized and vulnerable populations, including those founded on racialized identity, such as First Nations, continue to be plagued by accessibility issues. This work sheds new perspective on the issue, arguing for a research and policy focus that is inclusive of risk perception. A model of risk perception of drinking water is developed and tested for First Nations on reserve in Canada using the 2001 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. It is shown that the analytical use of racialized identity advances understanding of risk perception and the environment (water. Moreover, a large degree of heterogeneity within the First Nation population across a number of social determinants of risk perception illustrates the shortcomings of framing the issue in a simplistic manner (First Nation population versus general population. Implications for risk research, including risk communication & management, and policy are provided.

  3. Family Communication, Risk Perception and Cancer Knowledge of Young Adults from BRCA1/2 Families: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alison L; Butow, Phyllis N; Vetsch, Janine; Quinn, Veronica F; Patenaude, Andrea F; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E

    2017-12-01

    Understanding challenges in familial communication of cancer risk has informed genetic service delivery. Parent-child interactions have received considerable attention, but few studies focus on young adulthood experiences within BRCA1/2 families. Young adults are approaching, or at a life stage where awareness of hereditary cancer risk is vital for informed choice of risk management options. This review assesses family communication, risk perception and cancer knowledge held by 18-40 year old individuals who have a parent with a BRCA1/2 gene mutation or carry the gene mutation themselves. Thirteen papers met the inclusion criteria. One utilized a 'mixed methods' methodology and the remaining used a qualitative approach. Findings were synthesized into themes and reported narratively. In general, parents are communicating openly about genetic risk with young adult offspring, but there is evidence that some young adults are withholding information from their parents about their own test results. Risk perception is influenced by a family history of cancer, childbearing plans and health providers' advice. Misconceptions about genetic risk appear to be common and gaps in hereditary cancer knowledge are evident. It is unclear whether incorrect knowledge was passed from parents to offspring. Health providers need to provide developmentally appropriate services for emerging adults (18-25 years old), with particular support in navigating through risk management options.

  4. Expert risk perceptions and the social amplification of risk: A case study in invasive tree pests and diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Urquhart, Julie; Potter, Clive; Barnett, Julie; Fellenor, John; Mumford, John; Quine, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) is often used as a conceptual tool for studying diverse risk\\ud perceptions associated with environmental hazards. While widely applied, it has been criticised for implying that\\ud it is possible to define a benchmark ‘real’ risk that is determined by experts and around which public risk\\ud perceptions can subsequently become amplified. It has been argued that this objectification of risk is particularly\\ud problematic when there are high leve...

  5. Efforts to utilize risk assessment at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment means the use of the outputs that have been obtained through risk identification and risk analysis (risk information), followed by the determination of the response policy by comparing these outputs with the risk of judgement standards. This paper discusses the use of risk information with multifaceted nature and its significance, and the challenges to the further penetration of these items. As the lessons and risk assessment learnt from the past accidents, this paper takes up the cases of the severe accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi power stations, and discusses their causes and expansion factors. In particular, at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, important lessons were shortage in measures against the superimposition of earthquake and tsunami, and the insufficient use of risk assessment. This paper classified risk assessment from the viewpoint of risk information, and showed the contents and index for each item of risk reduction trends, risk increase trends, and measures according to the importance of risk. As the benefits of activities due to risk assessment, this paper referred to the application cases of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of IAEA, and summarized the application activities of 10 items of risk indexes by classifying them to safety benefits and operational benefits. For example, in the item of flexible Allowed Outage Time (AOT), the avoidance of plant shutdown and the flexibility improvement of maintenance scheduling at a plant are corresponding to the above-mentioned benefits, respectively. (A.O.)

  6. The influence of outrage and technical detail on the perception of environmental health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems D; Bruggen M van; IMD; GGD Rotterdam

    2004-01-01

    Differences in risk perception between a professional assessing a risk and a concerned community affected by this risk have been shown to be important obstacles in the communication of environmental health risks. The study reported here aimed at gaining insight into factors that influence people's

  7. Risk perception as it applies to nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Disparate perceptions of risk have emerged as one of the critical issues confronting the future of commercial nuclear power. This paper explores the origins and possible ramifications of the public's perception of risks associated with commercial nuclear power and related high-level nuclear waste disposal programs. This paper summarizes the results of numerous psychometric studies and public opinion polls that analyze the relationship of risk to nuclear power and waste management

  8. An assessment of change in risk perception and optimistic bias for hurricanes among Gulf Coast residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Meyer, Michelle A; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on levels of concern for hurricanes among individuals living along the Gulf Coast during the quiescent two-year period following the exceptionally destructive 2005 hurricane season. A small study of risk perception and optimistic bias was conducted immediately following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Two years later, a follow-up was done in which respondents were recontacted. This provided an opportunity to examine changes, and potential causal ordering, in risk perception and optimistic bias. The analysis uses 201 panel respondents who were matched across the two mail surveys. Measures included hurricane risk perception, optimistic bias for hurricane evacuation, past hurricane experience, and a small set of demographic variables (age, sex, income, and education). Paired t-tests were used to compare scores across time. Hurricane risk perception declined and optimistic bias increased. Cross-lagged correlations were used to test the potential causal ordering between risk perception and optimistic bias, with a weak effect suggesting the former affects the latter. Additional cross-lagged analysis using structural equation modeling was used to look more closely at the components of optimistic bias (risk to self vs. risk to others). A significant and stronger potentially causal effect from risk perception to optimistic bias was found. Analysis of the experience and demographic variables' effects on risk perception and optimistic bias, and their change, provided mixed results. The lessening of risk perception and increase in optimistic bias over the period of quiescence suggest that risk communicators and emergency managers should direct attention toward reversing these trends to increase disaster preparedness. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND RISK PERCEPTION ON COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Bülent

    2018-01-01

    Theaim of this research is to examine the impact of strategic management practicesand risk perception on the competitive advantage. In the research, strategicmanagement practices and risk perception were considered as independentvariables and competitive advantage as dependent variable.Theresearch is expected to contribute to the theoretical and practical aspects ofthe literature. The theoretical contribution of the research is that the effectof strategic management practices and the risk per...

  10. Risk Perception and Economic Value Of Disaster Mitigation Case of Bantul Post Earthquake May 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanto Suryanto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This study aims to obtain empirical evidence of disaster mitigation in Bantul, Indonesia. The expected utility theory and impact of regional characteristics on individual perceptions was used to describe the disaster risk management process. The regional mapping based on hazard level was conducted by a Geographical Information System (GIS. Data used in this research were primary and secondary data. Primary data were obtained by distributing questionnaire to some respondents. Sample amounts used were 395 respondents. The research empirical contribution was to economic valuation method used towards safety and efforts to link regional characteristics, individual perception and also their willingness to conduct mitigation. The research practical contribution was to identify some key obstacles in disaster risk management. Based on multiple regression analysis, this study found that educational level, risk aversion degree, trust towards earthquake-resistant building, control ability, income level, classifi cation of hazard area contributes to higher Willingness To Pay (WTP for mitigation. It also found that perception towards central governmental roles variable did not affect to WTP for mitigation. However, the income levels of the communities in Bantul positively correspond to WTP for mitigation suggesting that the fi ndings were consistent with the expected utility theory. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso

  11. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation.

  12. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M. P.; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation. PMID:29494705

  13. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert’s risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public’s risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts’ radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual’s opinions have often exacerbated the public’s confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years’ research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at risk perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects risk perception of radiation exposure. PMID:28166286

  14. Modeling Crossing Behavior of Drivers at Unsignalized Intersections with Consideration of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miaomiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ risk perception is vital to driving behavior and traffic safety. In the dynamic interaction of a driver-vehicle-environment system, drivers’ risk perception changes dynamically. This study focused on drivers’ risk perception at unsignalized intersections in China and analyzed drivers’ crossing behavior. Based on cognitive psychology theory and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, quantitative models of drivers’ risk perception were established for the crossing processes between two straight-moving vehicles from the orthogonal direction. The acceptable risk perception levels of drivers were identified using a self-developed data analysis method. Based on game theory, the relationship among the quantitative value of drivers’ risk perception, acceptable risk perception level, and vehicle motion state was analyzed. The models of drivers’ crossing behavior were then established. Finally, the behavior models were validated using data collected from real-world vehicle movements and driver decisions. The results showed that the developed behavior models had both high accuracy and good applicability. This study would provide theoretical and algorithmic references for the microscopic simulation and active safety control system of vehicles.

  15. Appraising longitudinal trends in the strategic risks cited by risk managers in the international water utility sector, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker, Rosemary T C; Pollard, Simon J T; Leinster, Paul; Jude, Simon

    2018-03-15

    We report dynamic changes in the priorities for strategic risks faced by international water utilities over a 10year period, as cited by managers responsible for managing them. A content analysis of interviews with three cohorts of risk managers in the water sector was undertaken. Interviews probed the focus risk managers' were giving to strategic risks within utilities, as well as specific questions on risk analysis tools (2005); risk management cultures (2011) and the integration of risk management with corporate decision-making (2015). The coding frequency of strategic (business, enterprise, corporate) risk terms from 18 structured interviews (2005) and 28 semi-structured interviews (12 in 2011; 16 in 2015) was used to appraise changes in the perceived importance of strategic risks within the sector. The aggregated coding frequency across the study period, and changes in the frequency of strategic risks cited at three interview periods identified infrastructure assets as the most significant risk over the period and suggests an emergence of extrinsic risk over time. Extended interviews with three utility risk managers (2016) from the UK, Canada and the US were then used to contextualise the findings. This research supports the ongoing focus on infrastructure resilience and the increasing prevalence of extrinsic risk within the water sector, as reported by the insurance sector and by water research organisations. The extended interviews provided insight into how strategic risks are now driving the implementation agenda within utilities, and into how utilities can secure tangible business value from proactive risk governance. Strategic external risks affecting the sector are on the rise, involve more players and are less controllable from within a utility's own organisational boundaries. Proportionate risk management processes and structures provide oversight and assurance, whilst allowing a focus on the tangible business value that comes from managing strategic

  16. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Attitude: A Comparison between Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph; Tao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares risk perception and risk-taking attitude between Hong Kong and mainland China undergraduate students using a Chinese version of the 30-item domain-specific risk-taking (DOSPERT) scale (Blais and Weber 2006b). Compared with their counterparts from mainland China, Hong Kong university students reported higher levels of risk…

  17. Natural hazards knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Giulia; Ruljigaljig, Tjuku; Lin, Ching-Weei; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the natural hazard knowledge and risk perception of Wujie indigenous community, located in Fazhi Village in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. Taiwan has encountered many different types of natural hazards (e.g. landslides and debris flows) that have increased sharply in the last century. Because of that, they are one of the most critical issues for the government and for the people living in mountainous areas. These areas are mainly populated by indigenous people that have experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonizing periods causing a progressive loss of their original cultural identity. The motivation of selecting the case study of Wujie community is because (i) it has suffered, more than others, generations of devastating colonial oppression by foreign governments; (ii) the consequences of hydroelectric projects that moved a lot of water and sediment to the valley and modified the path of the river through the years; (iii) the documented landslides and debris flows occurred in the region during the last decades. Two questions appear spontaneously: How indigenous people are nowadays living with natural hazards? Have land use change or any other human footprint affected their knowledge and perception on natural hazards? This research, the first carried out in Taiwan involving an indigenous community, can offer a unique opportunity to answer these questions. The investigation utilized a variety of participatory methods conducted at the household and community level by the use of 65 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that residents felt a higher worry about landslide and flood risks, and a slight preparedness to face them. This discrepancy may derive from an unsatisfactory level of communication and information, and the most considerable differences were found between the evaluations of individual subjects as opposed to overall communities. Results revealed also the complexity

  18. Structural Relation Pattern between Deviant Personality Traits, Risk Perception and Treatment Motivation in People with Substance Dependency: The Mediating Role of Risk Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basharpoor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current study was conducted to investigate the pattern of structural relations between deviant personality traits, risk perception and treatment motivation in people with substance dependency. Method: A descriptive- correlational method was used in this study. All the drug addicts referring to Ardabil centers of addiction treatment in second half of 2014 constituted the statistical population of this study. The number of 140 individuals from this population was selected via cluster sampling and responded to stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale, personality deviance scale, and cognitive appraisal of risky events (CARE questionnaire. Results: The results showed that risk perception and three components of treatment motivation are negatively correlated with hostile thoughts, denigration of others, low self-confidence, dependency, submissiveness; however, risk perception was positively associated with the three components of treatment motivation. The results of regression analyses also revealed that 53% variance of recognition, 44 % variance of ambivalence, and 47 % of variance of step taking were explained by deviant personality traits. Model fitness indexed confirmed the path of deviant personality traits to treatment motivation via the mediating role of risk perception. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that low risk perception is one of the explanatory pathways for the relationship between deviant personality traits and treatment motivation.

  19. Perceptions of Active Versus Passive Risks, and the Effect of Personal Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, Ruty; Bereby-Meyer, Yoella

    2017-07-01

    Not getting vaccinated or not backing up computer files are examples of passive risk taking: risk brought on or magnified by inaction. We suggest the difficulty in paying attention to absences, together with the reduced agency and responsibility that is associated with passive choices, leads to the perception of passive risks as being less risky than equivalent active risks. Using scenarios in which risk was taken either actively or passively, we demonstrate that passive risks are judged as less risky than equivalent active risks. We find the perception of personal responsibility mediates the differences between the perception of passive and active risks. The current research offers an additional explanation for omission or default biases: The passive nature of these choices causes them to appear less risky than they really are.

  20. Perception of Suicide Risk in Mental Health Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Gale

    Full Text Available This study employed an independent-groups design (4 conditions to investigate possible biases in the suicide risk perception of mental health professionals. Four hundred participants comprising doctors, nurses and social workers viewed a vignette describing a fictitious patient with a long-term mental illness. The case was presented as being drawn from a sample of twenty similar clinical case reports, of which 10 were associated with an outcome of suicide. The participant tasks were (i to decide whether the presented vignette was one of those cases or not, and (ii to provide an assessment of confidence in that decision. The 4 conditions were used to investigate whether the presence of an associated face, and the nature of the emotional state expressed by that face, affected the response profile. In fact, there were no significant differences between conditions, but there was a significant bias across all conditions towards associating the vignette with suicide, despite the base rate being pre-determined at 50%. The bias was more pronounced in doctors and in male respondents. Moreover, many participants indicated substantial confidence in their decisions. The results are discussed in terms of availability bias and over-confidence bias.

  1. Evaluation of influential factors on food risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Kosuke; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Influential factors on food risk perception were investigated from the viewpoints of socio-demographics, lifestyles and personalities. The anxieties about 24 types of food based on six product areas and four food types were investigated through the questionnaire survey getting 16,650 respondents in Japan. Besides, 60 questions were prepared to investigate the personalities based on 14 sub-scales. The anxiety was influenced mainly by the product areas instead of food types; the highest anxiety was observed for the foods from China, followed by those from developing countries (except for China), developed countries, and Fukushima. For personality, nine factors were extracted. The results of multiple regression analysis incorporating socio-demographic, lifestyle, and personality variables were not influenced by the food types but influenced by the product areas. The most influential variable on the anxiety for all product areas was 'habits to check product areas.' It was also indicated that 'general trust' and 'being strict in discipline' were most influential personalities on the anxiety about foods from Fukushima and foods from China, respectively. (author)

  2. Nuclear waste in the Pacific: perceptions of the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, I.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation examines the problem of the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Pacific region. There is a consensus of scientific opinion that the technical difficulties in waste disposal can be overcome. The most acceptable solution seems to be the multi-barrier approach for deep land-based geologic disposal. A questionnaire survey on the perception of nuclear and other hazards, conducted with student populations in Japan and Australia, and a survey of reporting of nuclear events in Pacific newspapers over the period 1946 to the 1980s, reveal that the image of nuclear weapons dominates public views on the risks associated with waste disposal in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands. The problem of finding a suitable site for a nuclear waste disposal facility is to a large extent political. The capacity of anti-nuclear groups to influence waste disposal policies in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands is examined. Current public attitudes toward nuclear waste disposal will delay the further development of activities connected with the nuclear fuel cycle, but this may change over time if the connection between commercial nuclear power and nuclear weapons can be severed more effectively. The most urgent problem in the region is the waste from the ambitious nuclear power programs of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

  3. Dietary nitrate and nitrite: Benefits, risks, and evolving perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedale, Wendy; Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Milkowski, Andrew L

    2016-10-01

    Consumers have an illogical relationship with nitrite (and its precursor, nitrate) in food. Despite a long history of use, nitrite was nearly banned from use in foods in the 1970s due to health concerns related to the potential for carcinogenic nitrosamine formation. Changes in meat processing methods reduced those potential risks, and nitrite continued to be used in foods. Since then, two opposing movements continue to shape how consumers view dietary nitrate and nitrite. The discovery of the profound physiological importance of nitric oxide led to the realization that dietary nitrate contributes significantly to the nitrogen reservoir for nitric oxide formation. Numerous clinical studies have also demonstrated beneficial effects from dietary nitrate consumption, especially in vascular and metabolic health. However, the latest wave of consumer sentiment against food additives, the clean-label movement, has renewed consumer fear and avoidance of preservatives, including nitrite. Education is necessary but may not be sufficient to resolve this disconnect in consumer perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [FAMILY EATING HABITS AND PERCEPTION OF RISK IN EATING DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Lazo, María; Hernández Camacho, Juan Diego; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    factors related to food, shape, weight and exercise, transmitted from parents to children, and media sociocultural factors, such as social networks, also influence the development of Eating Disorders (ED). to analyse the influence of family eating habits and the parents perception about the influence of social networks on the development and maintenance of ED. 30 parents of ED patients participated voluntarily in this study fulfilling a series of questionnaires, as well as reporting their weight and height. it is observed an underestimation of weight in the case of overweight (33.33%) and obesity (35%) without considering the fact of going on diet in the future (χ2 = 11.31; p habits seem to be more relevant (e.g. snacking, intake of a single dish) (p eating habits of ED patients' families improve by means of the nutrition education included in the treatment. Relatives do not perceive adequately the risk of the social networks in their children, which might contribute to the maintenance and future relapses of ED. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptions of Alcohol Advertising Among High Risk Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas F

    2018-01-03

    Individuals who are particularly vulnerable to the influence of alcohol advertising, such as youth, need special protections, yet little research has been done to determine if other vulnerable groups exist. Secondary data analysis was conducted to determine if perceptions of alcohol advertising differ between groups based on their alcohol use and whether the definition of "vulnerable" should be expanded beyond demographic categories. Students (n = 326) from 2 U.S. colleges viewed 5 alcohol ads and rated them using a scale designed to detect violations of the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes. Individuals with a history of excessive alcohol use, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were considered potentially vulnerable to alcohol advertising and were compared against individuals without a history of excessive alcohol use. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine between-group differences in 4 dependent variables (ad appeal, perceived alcohol consumption, perceived excessive drinking, and perceived responsible drinking). All models were adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, sex, and parental alcohol use. AUDIT risk categories were positively associated with ad appeal (p advertising.

  6. The Norwegian public's perception of risk from electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey with a representative sample of the adult Norwegian population reveals that the public is concerned about the health effects of electromagnetic fields; almost 2/3 of the population regard health effects as a likely consequence if exposed, the level of exposure is regarded as higher today than previously, and a clear majority now consider the fields to be more dangerous than they formerly believed. Despite this general concern, fewer consider personal effects to be probable; approximately one of six reports concern for personal injuries due to the fields. Further, the reported will to act in situations of known exposure from a (hypothetical) power line nearby is high, either by gathering information or putting up shielding against the fields. More concerned parts of the public also show a more committed engagement, including a higher willingness to make economic sacrifices for limiting the fields. There are special features of risk perception across the sample, and gender differences are particularly prominent. Women regard health effects more probable, and respond more strongly to situations of known exposure. People living near to power lines seem to be more aware of the fields, but at the same time cancer is regarded less probable by this group. (author)

  7. Preliminary survey for communicating risk in medical exposure. Perception of risk among nurses working in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko; Tsuji, Satsuki; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted on radiation risk and medical exposure, particularly in applications involving children. The survey was targeted at nurses (170 females) engaged in important roles in communicating risk regarding medical exposure. The questionnaire survey yielded the following findings. A significant number of respondents associated the word radiation' with 'cancer treatment,' 'exposure,' and 'X-ray pictures.' Perceptions about 'food exposure' differed between respondents with children and those without. Among the potential health problems posed by radiation, effects on children,' 'cancer and leukemia,' and 'genetic effects' were perceived as the most worrisome. Significant differences in perception were noted regarding infertility between respondents with children and those without. Concerning the effects of medical exposure on fetuses/children, only 10 percent of all respondents replied that they were not anxious about negative effects in either case. Among the respondents who felt uneasy about these aspects, most tended to assess exposed parts, doses, damage potentially suffered, timing of occurrence, and uncertainty, based on their professional experience and knowledge, to rationally distinguish acceptable risks from unacceptable ones and to limit concern to the unacceptable aspects. (author)

  8. Design of risk communication strategies based on risk perception among farmers exposed to pesticides in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Frederico; Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; da Silva Peixoto Belo, Mariana Soares; Moreira, Josino Costa; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess pesticide exposure risk perception among farmers from three rural areas of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 66 adults and participatory workshops with 27 teenagers and analyzed through content analysis techniques. Systematized results were discussed at local meetings, and two risk communication initiatives were devised. Study results demonstrated the use of defensive strategies by men and a diminished risk perception among women. Teenagers relied on parents to develop their own work practices. These findings supported the importance of cultural and social determinants of farmers' understandings of risk and of the relevance of different pesticide exposure pathways. Risk perceptions and work practices are strongly influenced by local cultural patterns and, therefore, must be taken into account when developing effective intervention strategies, including risk communication initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Framework for Hierarchical Perception-Action Learning Utilizing Fuzzy Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windridge, David; Felsberg, Michael; Shaukat, Affan

    2013-02-01

    Perception-action (P-A) learning is an approach to cognitive system building that seeks to reduce the complexity associated with conventional environment-representation/action-planning approaches. Instead, actions are directly mapped onto the perceptual transitions that they bring about, eliminating the need for intermediate representation and significantly reducing training requirements. We here set out a very general learning framework for cognitive systems in which online learning of the P-A mapping may be conducted within a symbolic processing context, so that complex contextual reasoning can influence the P-A mapping. In utilizing a variational calculus approach to define a suitable objective function, the P-A mapping can be treated as an online learning problem via gradient descent using partial derivatives. Our central theoretical result is to demonstrate top-down modulation of low-level perceptual confidences via the Jacobian of the higher levels of a subsumptive P-A hierarchy. Thus, the separation of the Jacobian as a multiplying factor between levels within the objective function naturally enables the integration of abstract symbolic manipulation in the form of fuzzy deductive logic into the P-A mapping learning. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting framework achieves significantly better accuracy than using P-A learning without top-down modulation. We also demonstrate that it permits novel forms of context-dependent multilevel P-A mapping, applying the mechanism in the context of an intelligent driver assistance system.

  10. Consumers' and providers' perceptions of utilizing a computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alison; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) programs for childhood anxiety are being developed, although research about factors that contribute to implementation of CCBT in community mental health centers (CMHC) is limited. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore consumers' and providers' perceptions of utilizing a CCBT for childhood anxiety in CMHC in an effort to identify factors that may impact implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Focus groups and interviews occurred with 7 parents, 6 children, 3 therapists, 3 project coordinators and 3 administrators who had participated in CCBT for childhood anxiety. Surveys of treatment satisfaction and treatment barriers were administered to consumers. RESULTS suggest that both consumers and providers were highly receptive to participation in and implementation of CCBT in CMHC. Implementation themes included positive receptiveness, factors related to therapists, treatment components, applicability of treatment, treatment content, initial implementation challenges, resources, dedicated staff, support, outreach, opportunities with the CMHC, payment, and treatment availability. As studies continue to demonstrate the effectiveness of CCBT for childhood anxiety, research needs to continue to examine factors that contribute to the successful implementation of such treatments in CMHC.

  11. Cell phone conversing while driving in New Zealand: prevalence, risk perception and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Charlene; Lambert, Anthony; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of conversing on a cell phone while driving in New Zealand, (ii) respondents' perception of risk regarding this behaviour and (iii) attitudes towards legislation banning cell phone use while driving. In addition, the study examined the association between the prevalence of conversing on a cell phone and risk perception. Anonymous, self-reported, survey data was collected via the internet from 1057 drivers nationwide regarding the frequency of conversing on a cell phone, including hands-free and hand-held conversing, risk perception, views on legislation, and demographic information. A positive relationship was found between the frequency of conversing on a cell phone and risk perception; that is, as the frequency of conversing on a cell phone increased, the perceived risk of this behaviour decreased. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The risk of major nuclear accident: calculation and perception of probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Whereas before the Fukushima accident, already eight major accidents occurred in nuclear power plants, a number which is higher than that expected by experts and rather close to that corresponding of people perception of risk, the author discusses how to understand these differences and reconcile observations, objective probability of accidents and subjective assessment of risks, why experts have been over-optimistic, whether public opinion is irrational regarding nuclear risk, and how to measure risk and its perception. Thus, he addresses and discusses the following issues: risk calculation (cost, calculated frequency of major accident, bias between the number of observed accidents and model predictions), perceived probabilities and aversion for disasters (perception biases of probability, perception biases unfavourable to nuclear), the Bayes contribution and its application (Bayes-Laplace law, statistics, choice of an a priori probability, prediction of the next event, probability of a core fusion tomorrow)

  13. Determinants and stability over time of perception of health risks related to mobile phone base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2012-01-01

    about other environmental and health risks, is associated with psychological strain, and is stable on the individual level over time. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires filled in by 3,253 persons aged 15-69 years in 2004 and 2006 in Germany. RESULTS: Risk perception of MPBS was strongly......OBJECTIVE: Perception of possible health risks related to mobile phone base stations (MPBS) is an important factor in citizens' opposition against MPBS and is associated with health complaints. The aim of the present study is to assess whether risk perception of MPBS is associated with concerns...... in 2004 expressed these concerns again 2 years later, the corresponding figure for attribution of health complaints to MPBS was 31.3%. CONCLUSION: Risk perception of MPBS is strongly associated with general concern, anxiety, depression, and stress, and rather instable over time....

  14. Risk perception, self-efficacy, trust for physician, depression, and behavior modification in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hayashi, Shin-U; Goto, Atsushi; Izumi, Kazuo; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    <