WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk mice prefer

  1. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...

  2. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  3. Blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors attenuates the mania-like hyperactive, risk-preferring, and high motivation behavioral profile of mice with low dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Groenink, Lucianne; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine transporter expression recreates many bipolar disorder mania-relevant behaviors (i.e. hyperactivity and risk-taking). The current study investigated whether dopamine D 1 -family receptor blockade would attenuate the risk-taking, hypermotivation, and hyperactivity of dopamine transporter knockdown mice. Dopamine transporter knockdown and wild-type littermate mice were tested in mouse versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (risk-taking), Progressive Ratio Breakpoint Test (effortful motivation), and Behavioral Pattern Monitor (activity). Prior to testing, the mice were treated with the dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 hydrochloride (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg), or vehicle. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited hyperactivity and hyperexploration, hypermotivation, and risk-taking preference compared with wild-type littermates. SCH 23390 hydrochloride treatment decreased premature responding in dopamine transporter knockdown mice and attenuated their hypermotivation. SCH 23390 hydrochloride flattened the safe/risk preference, while reducing activity and exploratory levels of both genotypes similarly. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited mania-relevant behavior compared to wild-type mice. Systemic dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonism attenuated these behaviors in dopamine transporter knockdown, but not all effects were specific to only the knockdown mice. The normalization of behavior via blockade of dopamine D 1 -family receptors supports the hypothesis that D 1 and/or D 5 receptors could contribute to the mania-relevant behaviors of dopamine transporter knockdown mice.

  4. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  5. Humans and mice express similar olfactory preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mandairon

    Full Text Available In humans, the pleasantness of odors is a major contributor to social relationships and food intake. Smells evoke attraction and repulsion responses, reflecting the hedonic value of the odorant. While olfactory preferences are known to be strongly modulated by experience and learning, it has been recently suggested that, in humans, the pleasantness of odors may be partly explained by the physicochemical properties of the odorant molecules themselves. If odor hedonic value is indeed predetermined by odorant structure, then it could be hypothesized that other species will show similar odor preferences to humans. Combining behavioral and psychophysical approaches, we here show that odorants rated as pleasant by humans were also those which, behaviorally, mice investigated longer and human subjects sniffed longer, thereby revealing for the first time a component of olfactory hedonic perception conserved across species. Consistent with this, we further show that odor pleasantness rating in humans and investigation time in mice were both correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecules, suggesting that olfactory preferences are indeed partly engraved in the physicochemical structure of the odorant. That odor preferences are shared between mammal species and are guided by physicochemical features of odorant stimuli strengthens the view that odor preference is partially predetermined. These findings open up new perspectives for the study of the neural mechanisms of hedonic perception.

  6. Mice prefer draught-free housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, T C; Hansen, A K

    2010-10-01

    An increasing number of rodents are housed in individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems, as these seem to be very effective for the protection of animals against infections, as well as protecting the staff against allergens. For the IVC systems to be properly ventilated, a huge amount of air has to be blown into the cage, which may cause a draught at animal level inside the cage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preferences of mice for differing levels of air speeds and air changes inside the cage. It has been concluded that mice do react to draughts, whereas they do not seem to be affected by a high number of air changes delivered without draught, which underlines the importance of applying draught-free IVC systems for mice.

  7. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  8. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  9. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  10. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  11. Premium Auctions and Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Offerman, T.J.S.; Zou, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a premium auction, the seller offers some "pay back", called premium, to the highest bidders. This paper investigates how the performance of such premium tactic is related to the participant's risk preferences. By developing an English premium auction model with symmetric interdependent values,

  12. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  13. Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

  14. Investors’ Risk Preference Characteristics and Conditional Skewness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perspective on behavioral finance, we take a new look at the characteristics of investors’ risk preference, building the D-GARCH-M model, DR-GARCH-M model, and GARCHC-M model to investigate their changes with states of gain and loss and values of return together with other time-varying characteristics of investors’ risk preference. Based on a full description of risk preference characteristic, we develop a GARCHCS-M model to study its effect on the return skewness. The top ten market value stock composite indexes from Global Stock Exchange in 2012 are adopted to make the empirical analysis. The results show that investors are risk aversion when they gain and risk seeking when they lose, which effectively explains the inconsistent risk-return relationship. Moreover, the degree of risk aversion rises with the increasing gain and that of risk seeking improves with the increasing losses. Meanwhile, we find that investors’ inherent risk preference in most countries displays risk seeking, and their current risk preference is influenced by last period’s risk preference and disturbances. At last, investors’ risk preferences affect the conditional skewness; specifically, their risk aversion makes return skewness reduce, while risk seeking makes the skewness increase.

  15. Preferences, Consumption Smoothing and Risk Premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettau, M.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Risk premia in the consumption capital asset pricing model depend on preferences and dividend. We develop a decomposition which allows a separate treatment of both components. We show that preferences alone determine the risk-return tradeoff measured by the Sharpe-ratio. In general, the risk-return

  16. Mice take calculated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-29

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain.

  17. Social class & risk preferences and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews recent work regarding the link between one's societal ranking (or social class), and risk preferences and behavior. While the topic of social class and its relationship to risk has been studied only tentatively in psychology, preliminary evidence suggests that experiences with rank, access to resources, and movement between classes have a meaningful impact on people's risk preferences and behaviors. Yet, a clear pattern of results remains elusive. Some studies suggest that lower social class standing is related to risk aversion, while others suggest it is related to risk taking. These mixed results highlight the need for future research that examines when and why lower social class standing is related to more or less risky decisions. By shedding light on this important phenomenon, the hope is to offer intervention opportunities that influence policies and mitigate inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors attenuates the mania-like hyperactive, risk-preferring, and high motivation behavioral profile of mice with low dopamine transporter levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Groenink, Lucianne; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine

  19. Food preferences and mound-building behaviour of the mound-building mice Mus spicilegus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Michaela; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Hoi, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Optimal foraging strategies and food choice are influenced by various factors, e.g. availability, size and caloric content of the food type and predation risk. However, food choice criteria may change when food is not eaten immediately but has to be carried to a storage site for later use. For example, handling time in terms of harvesting and transport time should be optimized, particularly when the risk of predation is high. Thus, it is not clear whether food selected by hoarding animals reflects their food preference due to intrinsic features of the food type, e.g. size, caloric or lipid content, or whether the food type selected is a compromise that also considers the handling time required for harvesting and transport. We investigate this question in relation to food hoarding behaviour in mound-building mice. In autumn, mound-building mice Mus spicilegus collect seeds and other plant material and cover it with soil. Such above-ground storage is quite unusual for rodents. Here, we investigated whether there is a relationship between the seed species preferred as building materials and those preferred for food. We conducted a seed preference test using three most collected weed species for mound building. Controlling factors like food availability or predation risk, mice prefer Setaria spp. as food, although Amaranthus spp. and Chenopodium spp. were preferentially harvested and stored. By including the availability of the three species, our experimental results were confirmed, namely, a clear preference for Setaria spp. Also, handling time and seed size revealed to influence plant choice.

  20. Pine seed predation by mice: an experimental assessment of preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Peredo, R.; BolIvar Cime, B.S.

    2016-07-01

    Seed traits are considered an essential factor influencing rodents’ foraging preferences. We evaluated the mouse’s preferences for seeds of four pine species, Pinus patula, P. pseudostrobus, P. teocote and P. montezumae, that differ in length, width, nutritional content, and concentrated tannins. In ‘cafeteria experiments’ in the laboratory, we tested six of the nine mice species commonly found in the temperate forest of Southern Mexico. Longer and wider seeds were those of P. teocote and P. montezumae. P. teocote seeds had the highest protein content, P. patula were highest in lipids, and P. montezumae seeds were highest in carbohydrates. In concentrated tannins, gallic acid content was highest in P. patula seeds and tannic acid content was highest in P. teocote seeds. Mice preferred small pine seeds with a high lipid and gallic acid content, a low tannic acid content, and an intermediate protein and carbohydrate content. The foraging behavior of rodents, their energy optimization, and the likely effects on seed fate and plant composition would thus be mediated by combinations of seed traits rather than by single seed traits such as size or tannin contents. (Author)

  1. Drug-induced conditioned place preference and aversion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christopher L; Gremel, Christina M; Groblewski, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    This protocol describes the equipment and methods used to establish conditioned place preference (CPP) or aversion (CPA). Place conditioning is a form of Pavlovian conditioning routinely used to measure the rewarding or aversive motivational effects of objects or experiences (e.g., abused drugs). Here, we present a place conditioning procedure that has been used extensively to study the motivational effects of ethanol and other abused drugs in mice. This protocol involves three phases: (i) habituation (or a pretest), (ii) conditioning of an association between the drug and a tactile or visual stimulus and (iii) a test that offers a choice between the drug-associated cue and a neutral cue. If the drug has motivational significance, mice will spend significantly more time (CPP) or less time (CPA) in proximity to the drug-associated cue. Potential problems in the design and interpretation of place conditioning studies are discussed. A typical experiment lasts 2 weeks.

  2. Risk, time and social preferences : Evidence from large scale experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Padilla, Mitzi

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation contains four chapters studying individual preferences and economic decision-making. The first three chapters study preferences for risk taking and intertemporal choice. First, it asks the question whether economic preferences are related to psychological measures of personality

  3. Risk and Time Preferences of Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Di Girolamo, Amalia; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    To understand how small business entrepreneurs respond to government policy one has to know their risk and time preferences. Are they risk averse, or have high discount rates, such that they are hard to motivate? We have conducted a set of field experiments in Denmark that will allow a direct...... characterization of small business entrepreneurs in terms of these traits. We build on experimental tasks that are well established in the literature. The results do not suggest that small business entrepreneurs are more or less risk averse than the general population under the assumption of Expected Utility...... Theory. However, we generally find an S-shaped probability weighting function for both small business entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs, with entrepreneurs being more optimistic about the chance of occurrence for the best outcome in lotteries with real monetary outcomes. The results also point...

  4. Judging risk behaviour and risk preference: the role of the evaluative connotation of risk terms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, E.C.M.; van der Pligt, J.; van Baaren, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the impact of the evaluative connotation of risk terms on the judgment of risk behavior and on risk preference. Exp 1 focused on the evaluation congruence of the risk terms with a general risk norm and with Ss' individual risk preference, and its effects on the extremity

  5. Risk preferences over small stakes: Evidence from deductible choice

    OpenAIRE

    Janko Gorter; Paul Schilp

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on risk preferences over small stakes. Using unique population and survey data on deductible choice in Dutch universal health insurance, we find that risk preferences are a dominant factor in decision aking. In fact, our results indicate that risk preferences are both statistically and quantitatively more significant in explaining deductible choice behavior than risk type. This finding contrasts with classical expected utility theory, as it implies risk ...

  6. Conditioned social preference, but not place preference, produced by intranasal oxytocin in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a variety of mammalian reproductive and social behaviors, and the use of intranasal OT for clinical purposes is on the rise. However, basic actions of OT, including the rewarding or reinforcing properties of the drug, are currently not fully understood. In this study, the authors investigated whether intranasally administered OT has different reinforcing properties for social and nonsocial stimuli and whether such effects are variable between male and female subjects. Conditioned social preference (CSP) and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms were used to examine social and nonsocial reinforcing properties of OT. In CSP, the presence of a same-sex unfamiliar conspecific was repeatedly paired with intranasal OT, while a different conspecific was associated with saline. The reinforcing effect of OT was assessed in a postconditioning choice test under a drug-free condition. In CPP, the 2 conspecifics were replaced with nonsocial black and white compartments. The authors found that intranasal OT (12 μg) in females supported the formation of CSP (Experiment 1) but not CPP (Experiment 3). Neither CSP (Experiment 2) nor CPP (Experiment 4) was formed in males. Extended conditioning with higher dose OT (36 μg), however, abolished the initial CSP in females and produced an aversion to the OT-paired stimulus mouse. Experiment 5 indicated that it was the repeated administrations rather than the higher dose that produced the abolition of the original preference. Overall, the current results demonstrate for the first time a sex- and stimulus-dependent reinforcing property of intranasal OT in mice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Brain serotonin signaling does not determine sexual preference in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angoa-Pérez

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that male mice lacking brain serotonin (5-HT lose their preference for females (Liu et al., 2011, Nature, 472, 95-100, suggesting a role for 5-HT signaling in sexual preference. Regulation of sex preference by 5-HT lies outside of the well established roles in this behavior established for the vomeronasal organ (VNO and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE. Presently, mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2, which are depleted of brain 5-HT, were tested for sexual preference. When presented with inanimate (urine scents from male or estrous female or animate (male or female mouse in estrus sexual stimuli, TPH2-/- males show a clear preference for female over male stimuli. When a TPH2-/- male is offered the simultaneous choice between an estrous female and a male mouse, no sexual preference is expressed. However, when confounding behaviors that are seen among 3 mice in the same cage are controlled, TPH2-/- mice, like their TPH2+/+ counterparts, express a clear preference for female mice. Female TPH2-/- mice are preferred by males over TPH2+/+ females but this does not lead to increased pregnancy success. In fact, if one or both partners in a mating pair are TPH2-/- in genotype, pregnancy success rates are significantly decreased. Finally, expression of the VNO-specific cation channel TRPC2 and of CNGA2 in the MOE of TPH2-/- mice is normal, consistent with behavioral findings that sexual preference of TPH2-/- males for females is intact. In conclusion, 5-HT signaling in brain does not determine sexual preference in male mice. The use of pharmacological agents that are non-selective for the 5-HT neuronal system and that have serious adverse effects may have contributed historically to the stance that 5-HT regulates sexual behavior, including sex partner preference.

  8. Data on German farmers risk preference, perception and management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which people are willing to take on risk, i.e. their risk preferences as well as subjective risk perception plays a major role in explaining their behavior. This is of particular relevance in agricultural production, which is inherently risky. The data presented here was collected amongst a total of 64 German farmers in 2015. It includes results of three different risk preference elicitation methods (multiple price list, business statements in four relevant domains and general s...

  9. Increased anxiety, voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice following chronic psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-07-01

    Stress exposure is known to be a risk factor for alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Comorbid chronic stress and alcohol dependence may lead to a complicated and potentially severe treatment profile. To gain an understanding of the interaction between chronic psychosocial stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic stress exposure on alcohol reward using two-bottle choice and ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP). The study consisted of exposure of the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) mice "intruders" to an aggressive "resident" mouse for 19 consecutive days. Control mice were single housed (SHC). Ethanol consumption using two-bottle choice paradigm and ethanol CPP acquisition was assessed at the end of this time period. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to SHC controls. Importantly, in the two-bottle choice procedure, CSC mice showed higher alcohol intake than SHC. When testing their response to ethanol-induced CPP, CSC mice achieved higher preference for the ethanol-paired chamber. In fact, CSC exposure increased ethanol-CPP acquisition. Taken together, these data demonstrate the long-term consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting chronic stress as a risk factor for developing alcohol consumption and/or anxiety disorders.

  10. Farmers' Risk Preferences in Rural China: Measurements and Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianjun; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou; Xu, Xia; He, Chunyang

    2017-06-30

    This study measures farmers' risk attitudes in rural China using a survey instrument and a complementary experiment conducted in the field with the same sample of subjects. Using a question asking people about their willingness to take risks "in general", we found that the average response of our sample is slightly risk averse. Farmers' exogenous factors (age, gender, and height) and self-reported happiness have a significant impact on farmers' willingness to take risks. The experiment results show that approximately 44% of farmers in the study area are risk averse. We compare farmers' self-reported measures of risk preferences derived from the survey instrument to preferences elicited through the experimental task. Results show that answers to the general risk attitude question in the survey can predict farmers' behaviors in the experiment to a statistically significant degree. This paper can contribute to the empirical literature on comparing local farmers' risk attitudes across different risk preference measurement methods in the developing world.

  11. Investors’ Risk Preference Characteristics Based on Different Reference Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the stock market as a whole object, we assume that prior losses and gains are two different factors that can influence risk preference separately. The two factors are introduced as separate explanatory variables into the time-varying GARCH-M (TVRA-GARCH-M model. Then, we redefine prior losses and gains by selecting different reference point to study investors’ time-varying risk preference. The empirical evidence shows that investors’ risk preference is time varying and is influenced by previous outcomes; the stock market as a whole exhibits house money effect; that is, prior gains can decrease investors’ risk aversion while prior losses increase their risk aversion. Besides, different reference points selected by investors will cause different valuation of prior losses and gains, thus affecting investors’ risk preference.

  12. Data on German farmers risk preference, perception and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The extent to which people are willing to take on risk, i.e. their risk preferences as well as subjective risk perception plays a major role in explaining their behavior. This is of particular relevance in agricultural production, which is inherently risky. The data presented here was collected amongst a total of 64 German farmers in 2015. It includes results of three different risk preference elicitation methods (multiple price list, business statements in four relevant domains and general self-assessment) as well as risk perception. Additionally, farm business characteristics (e.g. size, farm-level workforce, succession) and personal farmer characteristics (e.g. age, gender, risk literacy) are included.

  13. Preferences of group-housed female mice regarding structure of softwood bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J; Hackbarth, H; Stelzer, H D; Tsai, P-P

    2012-04-01

    Bedding influences various parameters in the housing of laboratory mice, such as health, physiology and behaviour (often considered as being integral parts of welfare). Notwithstanding existent studies about bedding preferences of individually tested mice, data about group-housed mice are still lacking. The aim of this study was to find out the structure preference for softwood bedding of group-housed mice. One hundred and eight 8-week-old female mice (C57BL6/JOlaHsd and BALB/cOlaHsd) were housed in groups of three and were given one-week free access to two different bedding structures at a time. In three test combinations, softwood shaving bedding was tested versus softwood chip bedding products of three different particle sizes (fine/medium/coarse-grained). The preference test was performed in a DoubleCage system composed of two Makrolon type IIL cages, connected by a perspex tunnel. This validated system was able to detect the crossings of each individual animal with correct crossing time and direction. On the basis of these data, dwelling times on the particular bedding structures were statistically analysed as a parameter for bedding preferences. In all three test combinations, a highly significant shaving preference was detected. On average, mice spent 70% of their dwelling time on the shavings. This preference was more explicit during the light period and in C57BL/6J mice. The relative ranking of the bedding structures was: shavings > coarse-grained chips > medium chips = fine chips. By means of these results, a shaving structure as bedding can be recommended for laboratory mice, whereas fine chip structures should be avoided.

  14. Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musclus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, F P; Bradfield, A; Redfern, R

    1974-12-01

    The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner.The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils.The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice.

  15. Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, F. P.; Bradfield, A.; Redfern, R.

    1974-01-01

    The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner. The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils. The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice. PMID:4531454

  16. Shifted risk preferences in pathological gambling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligneul, R.; Sescousse, G.T.; Barbalat, G.; Domenech, P.; Dreher, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder characterized by excessive monetary risk seeking in the face of negative consequences. We used tools from the field of behavioral economics to refine our description of risk-taking behavior in pathological gamblers. This

  17. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Risk of Becoming a Heavy Drinker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.K.; Andersen, A.T.; Sørensen, T.I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages.......Studies have suggested that wine drinkers are at lower risk of death than beer or spirits drinkers. The aim of this study is to examine whether the risk of becoming a heavy or excessive drinker differs among individuals who prefer different types of alcoholic beverages....

  18. Inducing Risk Neutral Preferences with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    validity of any strategic equilibrium behavior, or even the customary independence axiom. We show that subjects sampled from our population are generally risk averse when lotteries are defined over monetary outcomes, and that the binary lottery procedure does indeed induce a statistically significant shift......We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumptions about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed...... toward risk neutrality. This striking result generalizes to the case in which subjects make several lottery choices and one is selected for payment....

  19. Relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3 signalling mediates stress-related alcohol preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Walker

    Full Text Available Stressful life events are causally linked with alcohol use disorders (AUDs, providing support for a hypothesis that alcohol consumption is aimed at stress reduction. We have previously shown that expression of relaxin-3 mRNA in rat brain correlates with alcohol intake and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3 prevents stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. Therefore the objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on baseline and stress-related alcohol consumption. Male wild-type (WT and Rxfp3 knockout (KO (C57/B6JRXFP3TM1/DGen littermate mice were tested for baseline saccharin and alcohol consumption and preference over water in a continuous access two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Another cohort of mice was subjected to repeated restraint followed by swim stress to examine stress-related alcohol preference. Hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was assessed in mice following chronic alcohol intake and in naive controls. WT and Rxfp3 KO mice had similar baseline saccharin and alcohol preference, and hepatic alcohol processing. However, Rxfp3 KO mice displayed a stress-induced reduction in alcohol preference that was not observed in WT littermates. Notably, this phenotype, once established, persisted for at least six weeks after cessation of stress exposure. These findings suggest that in mice, relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is involved in maintaining high alcohol preference during and after stress, but does not appear to strongly regulate the primary reinforcing effects of alcohol.

  20. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  1. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  2. Risk Aversion and Skewness Preference: a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEmpirically, co-skewness of asset returns seems to explain a substantial part of the cross-sectional variation of mean return not explained by beta. Thisfinding is typically interpreted in terms of a risk averse representativeinvestor with a cubic utility function. This comment questions

  3. Higher-order risk preferences in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Timo; Mayrhofer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We study prudence and temperance (next to risk aversion) in social settings. Previous experimental studies have shown that these higher-order risk preferences affect the choices of individuals deciding privately on lotteries that only affect their own payoff. Yet, many risky and financially relevant decisions are made in the social settings of households or organizations. We elicit higher-order risk preferences of individuals and systematically vary how an individual's decision is made (alone or while communicating with a partner) and who is affected by the decision (only the individual or the partner as well). In doing so, we can isolate the effects of other-regarding concerns and communication on choices. Our results reveal that the majority of choices are risk averse, prudent, and temperate across social settings. We also observe that individuals are influenced significantly by the preferences of a partner when they are able to communicate and choices are payoff-relevant for both of them.

  4. Risky Business: An Analysis of Teacher Risk Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Daniel H.; Buck, Stuart; Deck, Cary; Mills, Jonathan N.; Shuls, James V.

    2015-01-01

    A range of proposals aim to reform teacher compensation, recruitment, and retention. Teachers have generally not embraced these policies. One potential explanation for their objections is that teachers are relatively risk averse. We examine this hypothesis using a risk-elicitation task common to experimental economics. By comparing preferences of…

  5. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS−) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  6. State dependent valuation: the effect of deprivation on risk preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino J Levy

    Full Text Available The internal state of an organism affects its choices. Previous studies in various non-human animals have demonstrated a complex, and in some cases non-monotonic, interaction between internal state and risk preferences. Our aim was to examine the systematic effects of deprivation on human decision-making across various reward types. Using both a non-parametric approach and a classical economic analysis, we asked whether the risk attitudes of human subjects towards money, food and water rewards would change as a function of their internal metabolic state. Our findings replicate some previous work suggesting that, on average, humans become more risk tolerant in their monetary decisions, as they get hungry. However, our specific approach allowed us to make two novel observations about the complex interaction between internal state and risk preferences. First, we found that the change in risk attitude induced by food deprivation is a general phenomenon, affecting attitudes towards both monetary and consumable rewards. But much more importantly, our data indicate that rather than each subject becoming more risk tolerant as previously hypothesized based on averaging across subjects, we found that as a population of human subjects becomes food deprived the heterogeneity of their risk attitudes collapses towards a fixed point. Thus subjects who show high-risk aversion while satiated shift towards moderate risk aversion when deprived but subjects who are risk tolerant become more risk averse. These findings demonstrate a more complicated interaction between internal state and risk preferences and raise some interesting implications for both day-to-day decisions and financial market structures.

  7. State dependent valuation: the effect of deprivation on risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Dino J; Thavikulwat, Amalie C; Glimcher, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The internal state of an organism affects its choices. Previous studies in various non-human animals have demonstrated a complex, and in some cases non-monotonic, interaction between internal state and risk preferences. Our aim was to examine the systematic effects of deprivation on human decision-making across various reward types. Using both a non-parametric approach and a classical economic analysis, we asked whether the risk attitudes of human subjects towards money, food and water rewards would change as a function of their internal metabolic state. Our findings replicate some previous work suggesting that, on average, humans become more risk tolerant in their monetary decisions, as they get hungry. However, our specific approach allowed us to make two novel observations about the complex interaction between internal state and risk preferences. First, we found that the change in risk attitude induced by food deprivation is a general phenomenon, affecting attitudes towards both monetary and consumable rewards. But much more importantly, our data indicate that rather than each subject becoming more risk tolerant as previously hypothesized based on averaging across subjects, we found that as a population of human subjects becomes food deprived the heterogeneity of their risk attitudes collapses towards a fixed point. Thus subjects who show high-risk aversion while satiated shift towards moderate risk aversion when deprived but subjects who are risk tolerant become more risk averse. These findings demonstrate a more complicated interaction between internal state and risk preferences and raise some interesting implications for both day-to-day decisions and financial market structures.

  8. Panel data nonparametric estimation of production risk and risk preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    approaches for obtaining firm-specific measures of risk attitudes. We found that Polish dairy farmers are risk averse regarding production risk and price uncertainty. According to our results, Polish dairy farmers perceive the production risk as being more significant than the risk related to output price......We apply nonparametric panel data kernel regression to investigate production risk, out-put price uncertainty, and risk attitudes of Polish dairy farms based on a firm-level unbalanced panel data set that covers the period 2004–2010. We compare different model specifications and different...

  9. Measuring time and risk preferences: Reliability, stability, domain specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölbert, E.M.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To accurately predict behavior economists need reliable measures of individual time preferences and attitudes toward risk and typically need to assume stability of these characteristics over time and across decision domains. We test the reliability of two choice tasks for eliciting discount rates,

  10. Risk ON/Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a within-subjects experiment in which teenagers go over 256 gambles with real money gains and losses. For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike. In the main experiment we vary the music playing in the background, so that each subject hears some of their favorite music, and some disliked music, alternating in blocks of 16 gambles. We find that favorite music increases risk-taking ('risk on'), and disliked music suppresses risk-taking ('risk off'), compared to a baseline of no music. Literature in psychology proposes several mechanisms by which mood affects risk-taking, but none of them fully explain the results in our setting. The results are, however, consistent with the economics notion of preference complementarity, extended to the domain of risk preference. The preference structure implied by our results is more complex than previously thought, yet realistic, and consistent with recent theoretical models. More generally, this mechanism offers a potential explanation to why risk-taking is known to change over time and across contexts.

  11. Cocaine locomotor activation, sensitization and place preference in six inbred strains of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The expanding set of genomics tools available for inbred mouse strains has renewed interest in phenotyping larger sets of strains. The present study aims to explore phenotypic variability among six commonly-used inbred mouse strains to both the rewarding and locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in a place conditioning task, including several strains or substrains that have not yet been characterized for some or all of these behaviors. Methods C57BL/6J (B6), BALB/cJ (BALB), C3H/HeJ (C3H), DBA/2J (D2), FVB/NJ (FVB) and 129S1/SvImJ (129) mice were tested for conditioned place preference to 20 mg/kg cocaine. Results Place preference was observed in most strains with the exception of D2 and 129. All strains showed a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to cocaine. In BALB mice, however, locomotor activation was context-dependent. Locomotor sensitization to repeated exposure to cocaine was most significant in 129 and D2 mice but was absent in FVB mice. Conclusions Genetic correlations suggest that no significant correlation between conditioned place preference, acute locomotor activation, and locomotor sensitization exists among these strains indicating that separate mechanisms underlie the psychomotor and rewarding effects of cocaine. PMID:21806802

  12. Risk-averse and Risk-seeking Investor Preferences for Oil Spot and Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Lean (Hooi Hooi); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines risk-averse and risk-seeking investor preferences for oil spot and futures prices by using the mean-variance (MV) criterion and stochastic dominance (SD) approach. The MV findings cannot distinguish between the preferences of spot and futures markets. However, the SD

  13. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eChabout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 Holy & Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for.

  15. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 reduces ethanol intake and preference in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Blednov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Some anti-inflammatory medications reduce alcohol consumption in rodent models. Inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDE increases cAMP and reduces inflammatory signaling. Rolipram, an inhibitor of PDE4, markedly reduced ethanol intake and preference in mice and reduced ethanol seeking and consumption in alcohol-preferring fawn-hooded rats (Hu et al., 2011;Wen et al., 2012. To determine if these effects were specific for PDE4, we compared nine PDE inhibitors with different subtype selectivity: propentofylline (nonspecific, vinpocetine (PDE1, olprinone, milrinone (PDE3, zaprinast (PDE5, rolipram, mesopram, piclamilast, and CDP840 (PDE4. Alcohol intake was measured in C57BL/6J male mice using 24-hour two-bottle choice and two-bottle choice with limited (three-hour access to alcohol. Only the selective PDE4 inhibitors reduced ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour two-bottle choice test. For rolipram, piclamilast, and CDP840, this effect was observed after the first 6 hours but not after the next 18 hours. Mesopram, however, produced a long-lasting reduction of ethanol intake and preference. In the limited access test, rolipram, piclamilast, and mesopram reduced ethanol consumption and total fluid intake and did not change preference for ethanol, whereas CDP840 reduced both consumption and preference without altering total fluid intake. Our results provide novel evidence for a selective role of PDE4 in regulating ethanol drinking in mice. We suggest that inhibition of PDE4 may be an unexplored target for medication development to reduce excessive alcohol consumption.

  16. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling Regulates Sexual Preference for Females in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny-Shefer, Yamit; Zilkha, Noga; Lavi-Avnon, Yael; Bezalel, Nadav; Rogachev, Ilana; Brandis, Alexander; Dayan, Molly; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-12-12

    Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2 -/- and wild-type male mice. TrpC2 -/- males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2 -/- males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA-NAcc dopaminergic neurons in TrpC2 -/- males during exposure to a female promoted preference response to female pheromones and elevated copulatory behavior toward females. Additionally, we found that signaling through the D1 receptor in the NAcc is necessary for the olfactory preference for female-soiled bedding. Our study establishes a critical role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in governing pheromone-mediated responses and mate choice in male mice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Signaling Regulates Sexual Preference for Females in Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamit Beny-Shefer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexual preference for the opposite sex is a fundamental behavior underlying reproductive success, but the neural mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the role of dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcc in governing chemosensory-mediated preference for females in TrpC2−/− and wild-type male mice. TrpC2−/− males, deficient in VNO-mediated signaling, do not display mating or olfactory preference toward females. We found that, during social interaction with females, TrpC2−/− males do not show increased NAcc dopamine levels, observed in wild-type males. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA-NAcc dopaminergic neurons in TrpC2−/− males during exposure to a female promoted preference response to female pheromones and elevated copulatory behavior toward females. Additionally, we found that signaling through the D1 receptor in the NAcc is necessary for the olfactory preference for female-soiled bedding. Our study establishes a critical role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in governing pheromone-mediated responses and mate choice in male mice.

  18. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....

  19. Odor preference and olfactory memory are impaired in Olfaxin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Saiful; Ueda, Masashi; Nishida, Emika; Wang, Miao-Xing; Osawa, Masatake; Lee, Dongsoo; Itoh, Masanori; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Tana; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    Olfaxin, which is a BNIP2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH) domain-containing protein, is predominantly expressed in mitral and tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb (OB). Olfaxin and Caytaxin, which share 56.3% amino acid identity, are similar in their glutamatergic terminal localization, kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) interaction, and caspase-3 substrate. Although the deletion of Caytaxin protein causes human Cayman ataxia and ataxia in the mutant mouse, the function of Olfaxin is largely unknown. In this study, we generated Prune2 gene mutant mice (Prune2 Ex16-/- ; knock out [KO] mice) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, during which the exon 16 containing start codon of Olfaxin mRNA was deleted. Exon 16 has 80 nucleotides and is contained in four of five Prune2 isoforms, including PRUNE2, BMCC1, BNIPXL, and Olfaxin/BMCC1s. The levels of Olfaxin mRNA and Olfaxin protein in the OB and piriform cortex of KO mice significantly decreased. Although Prune2 mRNA also significantly decreased in the spinal cord, the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was intact. Further, disturbance of the sensory and motor system was not observed in KO mice. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the role of Olfaxin in the olfactory system where PRUNE2, BMCC1, and BNIPXL are scarcely expressed. Odor preference was impaired in KO mice using opposite-sex urinary scents as well as a non-social odor stimulus (almond). Results of the odor-aversion test demonstrated that odor-associative learning was disrupted in KO mice. Moreover, the NMDAR2A/NMDAR2B subunits switch in the piriform cortex was not observed in KO mice. These results indicated that Olfaxin may play a critical role in odor preference and olfactory memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring Producers' Risk Preferences: A Global Risk Attitude Construct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2001-01-01

    In applied agricultural economic research various risk-attitude elicitation techniques are used. Here, we investigate whether risk-attitude measures rooted in the expected utility framework are related to measures rooted in the multi-item scale framework. Using a second-order factor analytical

  1. Role of music in morphine rewarding effects in mice using conditioned place preference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Farnaz; Hoseini, Seyed Ebrahim; Mokhtari, Mokhtar; Vahdati, Akbar; Razmi, Nematollah; Vessal, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at studying the neuroendocrine effects of music on creating morphine dependence in mice using conditioned place preference (CPP). The mice treated with 10 mg/kg morphine subcutaneously, fast music and slow music. Morphine was used to create dependence. In order to recognize the morphine rewarding effects, CPP technique was used. In the conditioning stage that lasted for 8 days, different groups of mice, after receiving the treatment were randomly placed in compartment for 30 minutes. The post-conditioning stage included the fourth day, the ninth day, the 12th day and the 16th day. Comparing place preference between morphine group and the control group, a significant increase (pmusic group compared with morphine group alone. In addition morphine + alone in the rain music group demonstrated a significantly increased conditioned place preference (pmusic acts as a positive pleasant emotion increasing the dopaminergic activity in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and through associated learning mechanisms of reward-related behavior increases morphine addiction. However, taxi girl music may act as unpleasant experiences producing negative emotions and reducing morphine addiction.

  2. The Risk Preferences of U.S. Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I elicit risk attitudes of U.S. executives by calibrating a subjective option valuation model for option exercising data (1996 to 2008), yielding approximately 65,000 values of relative risk aversion (RRA) for almost 7,000 executives. The observed behavior is generally consistent...... with moderate risk aversion and a median (mean) RRA close to one (three). Values are validated for chief executive officers (CEOs) by testing theory-based predictions on the influence of individual characteristics on risk preferences such as gender, marital status, religiosity, and intelligence. Senior managers...... such as CEOs, presidents, and chairpersons of the boards of directors are significantly less risk averse than non-senior executives. RRA heterogeneity is strongly correlated with sector membership and firm-level variables such as size, performance, and capital structure. Alternative factors influencing option...

  3. Risk Preference of Farmer Beef Cattle Smallholder in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, H.; Fitriani, A.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle farm is an economic activity that its correlation relatively high with ecology condition, ever more its activity be dominated by smallholder with farm scale of 1—3 head beef cattle, so the capital of feeder cattle are component production costs relatively large. By doing so, lose one head of cattle means losing some of the capital that had been invested in its farm. This condition has implications for the behavior of farmers in managing its farm. The farmers in the decision-making act reluctant to risk so there is a bit of a program or package of new technologies to improve the performance of farm rejected. Therefore, this study analyzed the preferences of farmers against risks, and find out the socio-economic conditions that be the deciding factor on farmer preference for risk.The method used was a survey with multistage random sampling. The numbers of samples in this study were 150 people from three different areas, namely: District of Bandung, Subang, and Pangandaran (South Ciamis). Data analysis model used in relation to this research problem was the model’s utility function and Component Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed that the overall breeders had a reluctant attitude to risk (risk averter). This is indicated by the value of x3, namely -63,692.693 < 0; and socio-economic factors that determine the preference of farmers against risk are age, education, and experience for farm management; while the business scale factor, number of dependents, and ownership determine the size of the gross margin.

  4. Ethanol preference is impacted by estrus stage but not housing or stress in female C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly N. Williams

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to maladaptive patterns of alcohol use, including dependence and relapse, is influenced by a combination of biological and environmental factors. A better understanding of how individual factors influence alcohol use is needed to help reduce alcohol dependence and relapse rates in the general population. This study explored how environmental enrichment (EE, stress and estrus cycle stage affect ethanol (ETOH preference in female mice. Mice were housed in enriched or standard environments and exposed chronically to ETOH for two hours a day for twelve days, before entering a brief ETOH-free abstinence period. At the end of this abstinence period, mice were exposed to a series of mild stressors (forced swim tests and anxiety was assessed via an elevated plus-maze. Preference was measured using a two-bottle choice test prior to ETOH exposure (baseline, after chronic ETOH exposure, and immediately following the abstinence period and stressor. Results revealed that mice preferred ETOH more strongly after chronic ETOH exposure, but that this increase was not affected by environment. ETOH preference was further increased after a brief abstinence period, but preference was not affected by environment or mild stress. However, mice in the proestrus/estrus stage of the estrus cycle preferred ETOH more strongly after a brief abstinence period than did mice in the metestrus/diestrus stage, suggesting that circulating levels of gonadal hormones may contribute to the incubation of drug preference. Anxiety- and despair-like behaviors were not impacted by estrus cycle stage. These findings suggest that estrus stage may affect ETOH preference, even after relatively short drug-free periods. Further research is needed to rectify the role of EE and stress in individual vulnerability or resilience to substance abuse. These findings also highlight a need for increased research into how gonadal hormones may influence ETOH preference in both mice and humans.

  5. The relationship between risk attitude and strength of preference: A test of intrinsic risk attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn a field study, the concept of intrinsic, risk attitude is investigated. Intrinsic risk attitude concerns the relationship between risk attitude, measured by the utility function u(x), and strength of preference, measured by the value function v(x). We study farmers' decision-making

  6. Risk aversion, time preference, and the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthoff, David; Tol, Richard S J; Yohe, Gary W

    2009-01-01

    The Stern Review reported a social cost of carbon of over $300/tC, calling for ambitious climate policy. We here conduct a systematic sensitivity analysis of this result on two crucial parameters: the rate of pure time preference, and the rate of risk aversion. We show that the social cost of carbon lies anywhere in between 0 and $120 000/tC. However, if we restrict these two parameters to matching observed behaviour, an expected social cost of carbon of $60/tC results. If we correct this estimate for income differences across the world, the social cost of carbon rises to over $200/tC.

  7. Preferences of newborn mice for odours indicating closer genetic relatedness: is experience necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todrank, Josephine; Busquet, Nicolas; Baudoin, Claude; Heth, Giora

    2005-10-07

    Evidence from studies with adult rodents indicates that individual recognition enables distinctions between familiar individuals irrespective of relatedness (but including close kin) and a separate mechanism enables discriminations based on genetic relatedness without prior familiarity. For example, adult mice could assess the extent of their genetic relatedness to unfamiliar individuals using perceptual similarities between their individual odours. The ontogeny of this genetic relatedness assessment mechanism, however, had not been investigated. Here, in two-choice tests, newborn mice differentially preferred odours of more genetically similar lactating females (paternal aunts to unrelated conspecific and conspecific to heterospecific) even without prior direct exposure to adults with the tested genotypes. The results provide a direct demonstration of genetic relatedness assessment abilities in newborns and show that experience with parental odours is not necessary for genetic relatedness distinctions. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether exposure to odours of other foetuses in the womb or littermates shortly after birth affects this genetic relatedness assessment process.

  8. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K.; Ahmed, Alaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks. PMID:26106311

  9. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. O'Brien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching and whole-body leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory. Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the whole-body task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the whole-body movements than in arm-reaching at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects’ inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.

  10. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2015-01-01

    Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching (ARM) and whole-body (WB) leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the WB task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the WB movements than in ARM at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects' inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.

  11. Risk, Place and Oil and Gas Policy Preferences among Coloradoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Adam

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction, primarily via hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"), has changed the energy landscape in the United States. The policy regime currently governing fracking is a complex patchwork in which state regulators have the primary authority. Social scientists have thoroughly documented general beliefs and risk perceptions related to fracking there is a lack of policy-related research. This dissertation examined public policy preferences for fracking regulation using a survey data from a statewide sample of Coloradoans. Theoretically, it was hypothesized that policy support hinged upon factors like risk perceptions, benefit perceptions, place attachment, community economic identity and political ideology. Overall, risk perceptions and political ideology emerged as relatively consistent and powerful predictors of support for unconventional oil and gas regulatory policy. On the other hand, several possible predictors had little to no role. Benefit perceptions had little effect on any policy dependent variable. Further, community economic identity and place attachment played very little role. I discuss policy implications and directions for future research.

  12. Gender differences in risk preferences and stereotypes: Experimental evidence from a matrilineal and a patrilineal society

    OpenAIRE

    Pondorfer, Andreas; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    We use a controlled experiment to analyze gender differences in risk preferences and stereotypes about risk preferences of men and women across two distinct island societies in the Pacific: the patrilineal Palawan in the Philippines and the matrilineal Teop in Papua New Guinea. We find no gender differences in actual risk preferences, but evidence for culture-specific stereotypes. Like men in Western societies, Palawan men overestimate women's actual risk aversion. By contrast, Teop men under...

  13. Effect of Vomeronasal Organ Removal From Male Mice on Their Preference for and Neural Fos Responses to Female Urinary Odors

    OpenAIRE

    Pankevich, Diana E.; Cherry, James A.; Baum, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether vomeronasal organ (VNO) inputs in male mice mediate the rewarding properties of estrous female urinary odors. Sexually naive male mice with either an intact (VNOi) or lesioned (VNOx) VNO preferred to investigate female urine over water in Y-maze tests. Subsequently, VNOi males ran significantly more quickly and remained in nasal contact longer with estrous female urine than with male urine, whereas VNOx males investigated these odors equall...

  14. Agmatine attenuates nicotine induced conditioned place preference in mice through modulation of neuropeptide Y system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Walke, Sonali; Shelkar, Gajanan P; Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Umekar, Milind J; Taksande, Brijesh G

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of agmatine on nicotine induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino mice. Intra-peritoneal (ip) administration of nicotine (1mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in drug-paired compartment. Agmatine (20 and 40 mg/kg, ip) co-administered with nicotine during the 6 days conditioning sessions completely abolished the acquisition of nicotine-induced CPP in mice. Concomitant administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) (1 pg/mouse, icv) or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (0.1 pg/mouse, icv), selective NPY Y1 receptor agonist potentiated the inhibitory effect of agmatine (10 mg/kg, ip) on nicotine CPP. Conversely, pretreatment with NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (0.01 ng/mouse, icv) blocked the effect of agmatine (20 mg/kg, ip) on nicotine induced CPP. In immunohistochemical study, nicotine decreased NPY-immunoreactivity in nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral part (BNSTl), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Conversely, administration of agmatine prior to the nicotine significantly reversed the effect of nicotine on NPY-immunoreactivity in the above brain nuclei. This data indicate that agmatine attenuate nicotine induced CPP via modulation of NPYergic neurotransmission in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel system for tracking social preference dynamics in mice reveals sex- and strain-specific characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netser, Shai; Haskal, Shani; Magalnik, Hen; Wagner, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the biological mechanisms underlying social behavior in animal models requires standard behavioral paradigms that can be unbiasedly employed in an observer- and laboratory-independent manner. During the past decade, the three-chamber test has become such a standard paradigm used to evaluate social preference (sociability) and social novelty preference in mice. This test suffers from several caveats, including its reliance on spatial navigation skills and negligence of behavioral dynamics. Here, we present a novel experimental apparatus and an automated analysis system which offer an alternative to the three-chamber test while solving the aforementioned caveats. The custom-made apparatus is simple for production, and the analysis system is publically available as an open-source software, enabling its free use. We used this system to compare the dynamics of social behavior during the social preference and social novelty preference tests between male and female C57BL/6J mice. We found that in both tests, male mice keep their preference towards one of the stimuli for longer periods than females. We then employed our system to define several new parameters of social behavioral dynamics in mice and revealed that social preference behavior is segregated in time into two distinct phases. An early exploration phase, characterized by high rate of transitions between stimuli and short bouts of stimulus investigation, is followed by an interaction phase with low transition rate and prolonged interactions, mainly with the preferred stimulus. Finally, we compared the dynamics of social behavior between C57BL/6J and BTBR male mice, the latter of which are considered as asocial strain serving as a model for autism spectrum disorder. We found that BTBR mice ( n  = 8) showed a specific deficit in transition from the exploration phase to the interaction phase in the social preference test, suggesting a reduced tendency towards social interaction. We successfully

  16. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  17. Incidental emotions influence risk preference and outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Gu, Ruolei; Tang, Ping; Yang, Qiwei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-10-01

    Incidental emotions, which are irrelevant to the current decision, play a significant role in the decision-making process. In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on behavioral, psychological, and electrophysiological responses in the process of decision making, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. During the selection stage, an emotional picture, which was chosen from the Chinese Affective Picture System and fell into one of three categories: negative, neutral, and positive, was presented between two alternatives (small/large amount of bet). The pictures were provided to induce incidental emotions. ERPs and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Behavioral results showed that positive incidental emotions elicited risk preference, but emotional experiences to outcome feedback were not influenced by incidental emotions. The feedback-related negativity amplitudes were larger in the positive emotion condition than in the negative and neutral emotion conditions for small outcomes (including wins and losses), whereas there was no difference between the three conditions for large outcomes. In addition, the amplitudes of P3 were reduced overall in the negative emotion condition. We suggest that incidental emotions have modulated both the option assessment stage (manifested in behavioral choices) and the outcome evaluation stage (manifested in ERP amplitudes) of decision making unconsciously (indicated by unchanged subjective emotional experiences). The current findings have expanded our understanding of the role of incidental emotion in decision making. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Preference towards Control in Risk Taking: Control, No Control, or Randomize?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, King King

    2010-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates preference towards different methods of control in risk taking. Participants are asked to choose between different ways for choosing which numbers to bet on for a gamble. They can choose the numbers themselves (control), let the experimenter choose (no control), or randomize. It is found that in addition to the more conventional preference for control, some participants prefer not to control, or randomization. These preferences are robust as participants...

  19. Risk preference or financial literacy? Behavioural experiment on index insurance demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awel, Y.; Azomahou, T.T.

    2015-01-01

    We use unique cross-sectional household data from Ethiopia to investigate the effect of risk preference, financial literacy and other socio-economic characteristics on demand for index insurance. We measure risk preference based on survey experiments using lottery choice game with real monetary

  20. Risk attitudes in a changing environment: An evolutionary model of the fourfold pattern of risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2015-04-01

    A striking feature of human decision making is the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, involving risk-averse behavior in situations of unlikely losses and likely gains, but risk-seeking behavior in response to likely losses and unlikely gains. Current theories to explain this pattern assume particular psychological processes to reproduce empirical observations, but do not address whether it is adaptive for the decision maker to respond to risk in this way. Here, drawing on insights from behavioral ecology, we build an evolutionary model of risk-sensitive behavior, to investigate whether particular types of environmental conditions could favor a fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. We consider an individual foraging in a changing environment, where energy is needed to prevent starvation and build up reserves for reproduction. The outcome, in terms of reproductive value (a rigorous measure of evolutionary success), of a one-off choice between a risky and a safe gain, or between a risky and a safe loss, determines the risk-sensitive behavior we should expect to see in this environment. Our results show that the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes may be adaptive in an environment in which conditions vary stochastically but are autocorrelated in time. In such an environment the current options provide information about the likely environmental conditions in the future, which affect the optimal pattern of risk sensitivity. Our model predicts that risk preferences should be both path dependent and affected by the decision maker's current state. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunbi, D A; Li, X F; Lass, G; Shetty, K; Adegoke, O A; Yeo, S H; Colledge, W H; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2018-03-01

    The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is, however, limited information available on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and the anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique. Adult male Kiss-Cre mice received bilateral stereotaxic injections of a stimulatory DREADD viral construct (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM 3 D(Gq)-mCherry) targeted to the MePD, with subsequent activation by i.p. injection of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Socio-sexual behaviours were assessed in a counter-balanced fashion after i.p. injection of either saline or CNO (5 mg kg -1 ). Selective activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones by CNO significantly increased the time spent by male mice in investigating an oestrous female, as well as the duration of social interaction. Additionally, after CNO injection, the mice appeared less anxious, as indicated by a longer exploratory time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. However, levels of copulatory behaviour were comparable between CNO and saline-treated controls. These data indicate that DREADD-induced activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones enhances both sexual partner preference in males and social interaction and also decreases anxiety, suggesting a key role played by MePD kisspeptin in sexual motivation and social behaviour. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley

  2. Handling risk attitudes for preference learning and intelligent decision support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent decision support should allow integrating human knowledge with efficient algorithms for making interpretable and useful recommendations on real world decision problems. Attitudes and preferences articulate and come together under a decision process that should be explicitly modeled...

  3. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  4. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bee venom suppresses methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Bae; Li, Jing; Kook, Ji Ae; Kim, Tae Wan; Jeong, Young Chan; Son, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Kee Won; Lee, Jang Hern

    2010-02-01

    Although acupuncture is most commonly used for its analgesic effect, it has also been used to treat various drug addictions including cocaine and morphine in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of bee venom injection on methamphetamine-induced addictive behaviors including conditioned place preference and hyperlocomotion in mice. Methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) was subcutaneously treated on days 1, 3 and 5 and the acquisition of addictive behaviors was assessed on day 7. After confirming extinction of addictive behaviors on day 17, addictive behaviors reinstated by priming dose of methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg) was evaluated on day 18. Bee venom (20 microl of 1 mg/ml in saline) was injected to the acupuncture point ST36 on days 1, 3 and 5. Repeated bee venom injections completely blocked development of methamphetamine-induced acquisition and subsequent reinstatement. Single bee venom acupuncture 30 minutes before acquisition and reinstatement test completely inhibited methamphetamine-induced acquisition and reinstatement. Repeated bee venom acupunctures from day 8 to day 12 after methamphetamine-induced acquisition partially but significantly suppressed reinstatement. These findings suggest that bee venom acupuncture has a preventive and therapeutic effect on methamphetamine-induced addiction.

  6. Identifying patient preferences for communicating risk estimates: A descriptive pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Annette M

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients increasingly seek more active involvement in health care decisions, but little is known about how to communicate complex risk information to patients. The objective of this study was to elicit patient preferences for the presentation and framing of complex risk information. Method To accomplish this, eight focus group discussions and 15 one-on-one interviews were conducted, where women were presented with risk data in a variety of different graphical formats, metrics, and time horizons. Risk data were based on a hypothetical woman's risk for coronary heart disease, hip fracture, and breast cancer, with and without hormone replacement therapy. Participants' preferences were assessed using likert scales, ranking, and abstractions of focus group discussions. Results Forty peri- and postmenopausal women were recruited through hospital fliers (n = 25 and a community health fair (n = 15. Mean age was 51 years, 50% were non-Caucasian, and all had completed high school. Bar graphs were preferred by 83% of participants over line graphs, thermometer graphs, 100 representative faces, and survival curves. Lifetime risk estimates were preferred over 10 or 20-year horizons, and absolute risks were preferred over relative risks and number needed to treat. Conclusion Although there are many different formats for presenting and framing risk information, simple bar charts depicting absolute lifetime risk were rated and ranked highest overall for patient preferences for format.

  7. Risk Management in Supply Chain using Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jafarnejad; Mehran Ebrahimi; Mohammad Ali Abbaszadeh; Seyed Mehdi Abtahi

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, supply chains are exposed to numerous risks. Thus, to success in risky business environment, it is imperative for firms to systematically manage supply chain risks. Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of supply chain risks. The purpose of this paper is to propose a comprehensive approach to risk management in supply chains. Thus, by an appropriate review of the literature, supply chain risk sources are identified in six areas. Then, a CFPR method is...

  8. Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice

  9. From risk-seeking to risk-averse: The development of economic risk preference from early childhood to adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Paulsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened risk-taking. Adolescents are notorious for impulsivity, emotional volatility, and risky behaviors such as drinking under the influence of alcohol. By contrast, we found that risk-taking declines linearly from childhood to adulthood when individuals make choices over monetary gambles. Further, with age we found increases in the sensitivity to economic risk, defined as the degree to which a preference for assured monetary gains over a risky payoff depends upon the variability in the risky payoff. These findings indicate that decisions about economic risk may follow a different developmental trajectory than other kinds of risk taking, and that changes in sensitivity to risk may be a major factor in the development of mature risk aversion.

  10. Decision process in MCDM with large number of criteria and heterogeneous risk preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available A new decision process is proposed to address the challenge that a large number criteria in the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM problem and the decision makers with heterogeneous risk preferences. First, from the perspective of objective data, the effective criteria are extracted based on the similarity relations between criterion values and the criteria are weighted, respectively. Second, the corresponding types of theoretic model of risk preferences expectations will be built, based on the possibility and similarity between criterion values to solve the problem for different interval numbers with the same expectation. Then, the risk preferences (Risk-seeking, risk-neutral and risk-aversion will be embedded in the decision process. Later, the optimal decision object is selected according to the risk preferences of decision makers based on the corresponding theoretic model. Finally, a new algorithm of information aggregation model is proposed based on fairness maximization of decision results for the group decision, considering the coexistence of decision makers with heterogeneous risk preferences. The scientific rationality verification of this new method is given through the analysis of real case. Keywords: Heterogeneous, Risk preferences, Fairness, Decision process, Group decision

  11. Learning strategy preference of 5XFAD transgenic mice depends on the sequence of place/spatial and cued training in the water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Chung, ChiHye; Jeon, Won Kyung; Han, Jung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Learning strategy preference was assessed in 5XFAD mice, which carry 5 familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. Mice were sequentially trained in cued and place/spatial versions of the water maze task. After training, a strategy preference test was conducted in which mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had previously been during the place/spatial training, and a visible platform in a new location. 5XFAD and non-transgenic control mice showed equivalent escape performance in both training tasks. However, in the strategy preference test, 5XFAD mice preferred a cued strategy relative to control mice. When the training sequence was presented in the reverse order (i.e., place/spatial training before cued training), 5XFAD mice showed impairments in place/spatial training, but no differences in cued training or in the strategy preference test comparing to control. Analysis of regional Aβ42 deposition in brains of 5XFAD mice showed that the hippocampus, which is involved in the place/spatial learning strategy, had the highest levels of Aβ42 and the dorsal striatum, which is involved in cued learning strategy, showed a small increase in Aβ42 levels. The effect of training protocol order on performance, and regional differences in Aβ42 deposition observed in 5XFAD mice, suggest differential functional recruitment of brain structures related to learning in healthy and AD individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk preferences, probability weighting, and strategy tradeoffs in wildfire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Hand; Matthew J. Wibbenmeyer; Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to...

  13. Palmitoylethanolamide attenuates cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana-Infantes, Emma; Rosell Del Valle, Cristina; Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda, David; Galeano, Pablo; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Blanco, Eduardo; Santín, Luis Javier

    2018-03-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine, as well as other drugs of abuse, alters the levels of lipid-based signaling molecules, such as N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Moreover, brain levels of NAEs have shown sensitivity to cocaine self-administration and extinction training in rodents. Given this background, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated or acute administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous NAE, on psychomotor sensitization and cocaine-induced contextual conditioning. To this end, the potential ability of repeated PEA administration (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) to modulate the acquisition of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization (BS) and conditioned place preference (CPP) was assessed in male C57BL/6J mice. In addition, the expression of cocaine-induced BS and CPP following acute PEA administration were also studied. Results showed that repeated administration of both doses of PEA were able to block the acquisition of cocaine-induced BS. Furthermore, acute administration of both doses of PEA was able to abolish the expression of BS, while the highest dose also abolished the expression of cocaine-induced CPP. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenous administration of PEA attenuated psychomotor sensitization, while the effect of PEA in cocaine-induced CPP depended on whether PEA was administered repeatedly or acutely. These findings could be relevant to understand the role that NAEs play in processes underlying the development and maintenance of cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monosodium glutamate-associated alterations in open field, anxiety-related and conditioned place preference behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Aremu, Olaleye Samuel; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in behaviour associated with oral monosodium glutamate (a flavouring agent), using the open field, elevated plus maze and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms, respectively. Mice were assigned to two groups for CPP [monosodium glutamate (MSG)-naïve (n = 40) and MSG-pretreated (n = 40)] and two groups for open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests [n = 40 each], respectively. Animals in respective groups were then divided into four subgroups (n = 10) (vehicle or MSG (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg)). MSG-naïve mice were observed in the CPP box in three phases (pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning). Mice were conditioned to MSG or an equivalent volume of saline. The MSG pretreatment group received vehicle or respective doses of MSG daily for 21 days, prior to conditioning. Mice in the OF or EPM groups received vehicle or doses of MSG (orally) for 21 days, at 10 ml/kg. Open field or EPM behaviours were assessed on days 1 and 21. At the end of the experiments, mice in the OF groups were sacrificed and brain homogenates used to assay glutamate and glutamine. Results showed that administration of MSG was associated with a decrease in rearing, dose-related mixed horizontal locomotor, grooming and anxiety-related response and an increase in brain glutamate/glutamine levels. Following exposure to the CPP paradigm, MSG-naïve and MSG-pretreated mice both showed 'drug-paired' chamber preference. The study concluded that MSG (at the administered doses) was associated with changes in open field activities, anxiety-related behaviours and brain glutamate/glutamine levels; its ingestion also probably leads to a stimulation of the brain reward system.

  15. Chronic psychosocial stress causes delayed extinction and exacerbates reinstatement of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    We have shown previously, using an animal model of voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP), that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress induces increased ethanol intake and EtOH-CPP acquisition in mice. Here, we examined the impact of chronic subordinate colony (CSC) exposure on EtOH-CPP extinction, as well as ethanol-induced reinstatement of CPP. Mice were conditioned with saline or 1.5 g/kg ethanol and were tested in the EtOH-CPP model. In the first experiment, the mice were subjected to 19 days of chronic stress, and EtOH-CPP extinction was assessed during seven daily trials without ethanol injection. In the second experiment and after the EtOH-CPP test, the mice were subjected to 7 days of extinction trials before the 19 days of chronic stress. Drug-induced EtOH-CPP reinstatement was induced by a priming injection of 0.5 g/kg ethanol. Compared to the single-housed colony mice, CSC mice exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field tests. Interestingly, the CSC mice showed delayed EtOH-CPP extinction. More importantly, CSC mice showed increased alcohol-induced reinstatement of the EtOH-CPP behavior. Taken together, this study indicates that chronic psychosocial stress can have long-term effects on EtOH-CPP extinction as well as drug-induced reinstatement behavior and may provide a suitable model to study the latent effects of chronic psychosocial stress on extinction and relapse to drug abuse.

  16. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. individual vs. collective behavior: an experimental. investigation of risk and time preferences in couples

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellaoui, Mohammed; l'Haridon, Olivier; Paraschiv, Corina

    2010-01-01

    Author's abstract. This paper study decision-making under risk and decision-making over time made by couples. We performed a joint experimental elicitation of risk and time preferences both for couples and for their individual members. We used general behavioral models of decision under risk and over time and measured utility, probability weighting, and discounting. Under risk, our main result is that probabilistic risk attitude for couples lay within the boundaries of individual attitudes: c...

  18. Climate Change or Nuclear Power - Which Risk do we Prefer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and nuclear power provide two of the biggest technological risks of our times. Both involve widespread risks, long-term wastes and inter-generational equity, but in rather different ways. If it came to a choice, which is the worse set of risks to run? Serious doubts have been raised whether the implementation of renewable energies and energy saving are able in practice to deliver quickly enough the radical reductions of CO 2 emissions that are needed to tackle climate change. Some countries may face a dilemma - to continue another generation of nuclear power or to accept that its CO 2 emissions will rise when current nuclear stations finish their time? This paper compares the risks, and explores the ethical issues around which a society would have to weigh up such a choice, the role of the precautionary principle, and the place of expert and lay evaluations of risk (full text of contribution)

  19. At risk of being risky: The relationship between "brain age" under emotional states and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Marc D; Miranda-Domínguez, Oscar; Cohen, Alexandra O; Breiner, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence; Bonnie, Richard J; Scott, Elizabeth S; Taylor-Thompson, Kim; Chein, Jason; Fettich, Karla C; Richeson, Jennifer A; Dellarco, Danielle V; Galván, Adriana; Casey, B J; Fair, Damien A

    2017-04-01

    Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10-25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the "brain age" of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that "brain age" across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts) relates to a group mean difference in risk perception - a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18-21). The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at "risk to be risky." Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk preference, option pricing and portfolio hedging with proportional transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian; Li, Zhe; Zhuang, Le

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Scaling is a key factor in option pricing. • The model is theoretically analyzed and the results are new. • Some numerical examples are performed. • The implied-volatility-frown is affected by the risk preference and scaling. - Abstract: This paper is concerned in the option pricing and portfolio hedging in a discrete time case with the proportional transaction costs. Through the Monte Carlo simulations it has been shown that the fractal scaling and risk preference of traders have an important influence on the hedging performances in both option pricing and portfolio hedging in a discrete time case. In addition, the relation between preference of traders and implied volatility frown is discussed. We conclude that the risk preferences of traders play an important role in determining the shape of the implied-volatility-frown and the different options having the different hedging frequencies is another reason for the implied volatility frown.

  1. an examination of risk allocation preferences in public-private

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chikara Onda

    tension in many negotiations between the public and private sector in PPPs ... compensates for higher cost of capital used by private sector partners .... this study, both the public sector client and private sector contractor should share the risks.

  2. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, David; Fang, Chen-Ling; Tsai, Bi-Kun; Lan, Li-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1) the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2) the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3) consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception. PMID:23066394

  3. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1 the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2 the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3 consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception.

  4. State-Dependent Risk Preferences in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patrick; Nau, Dana

    There is much empirical evidence that human decision-making under risk does not correspond the decision-theoretic notion of "rational" decision making, namely to make choices that maximize the expected value. An open question is how such behavior could have arisen evolutionarily. We believe that the answer to this question lies, at least in part, in the interplay between risk-taking and sequentiality of choice in evolutionary environments.

  5. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Till

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  6. Associations between film preferences and risk factors for suicide: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.

  7. Associations between Film Preferences and Risk Factors for Suicide: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966

  8. Transport priorities, risk perception and worry associated with mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Simşekoğlu, Özlem; Lind, Hans Brende; Jørgensen, Stig Halvard; Rundmo, Torbjørn

    2014-11-01

    There is currently scant research on the role of transport priorities, risk perception and worry for travel mode use and preferences. The present study aims to examine these factors in relation to mode use and preferences among Norwegian commuters. A web-based survey was conducted in a randomly obtained representative sample of daily commuters in the extended greater Oslo area (n=690). The results showed that those who prioritized efficiency and flexibility tended to commute by car, while those who prioritized safety and comfort used public (e.g. metro, tram, and train) or active (e.g. walking and cycling) transport. In a free choice scenario, the respondents who prioritized flexibility reported a preference for using a car, whereas those who prioritized safety and comfort preferred public and active transport for their commuter travels. Risk perception of high impact events, such as terrorism and major accidents, as well as risk perception related to personal impact risks (theft, violence etc.) were related to car use on commuter travels. Transport-related worry exerted weak influences on mode use and preferences. Increased speed on rail transport and more frequent departures may be effective in reducing car use on commuter travels. Risk communication should focus on highlighting the low risk of experiencing security and safety issues in the public transport sector, and this message should be complemented by efforts to reduce the probability of negative events affecting public transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Dual System Model of Preferences under Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a dual system model (DSM) of decision making under risk and uncertainty according to which the value of a gamble is a combination of the values assigned to it independently by the affective and deliberative systems. On the basis of research on dual process theories and empirical research in Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) and…

  10. Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

  11. Subjective perception of cocaine reward in mice assessed by a single exposure place preference (sePP) paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runegaard, Annika H.; Jensen, Kathrine Louise; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    -related behavior. Comparison with existing methods In rodents, the rewarding effects of drugs have often been assessed in self-administration or place preference paradigms; both involving repeated drug exposure and weeks of training and testing. New method Our investigation describes a valid approach to assess....... The sePP protocol allows further dissection of the mechanism and influence of initial cocaine exposure on subsequent drug-related behaviors by including extinction and reinstatement. The lack of sePP in female mice may reflect a biologically relevant sex difference in the initial subjective perception...

  12. A dual system model of preferences under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a dual system model (DSM) of decision making under risk and uncertainty according to which the value of a gamble is a combination of the values assigned to it independently by the affective and deliberative systems. On the basis of research on dual process theories and empirical research in Hsee and Rottenstreich (2004) and Rottenstreich and Hsee (2001) among others, the DSM incorporates (a) individual differences in disposition to rational versus emotional decision making, (b) the affective nature of outcomes, and (c) different task construals within its framework. The model has good descriptive validity and accounts for (a) violation of nontransparent stochastic dominance, (b) fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, (c) ambiguity aversion, (d) common consequence effect, (e) common ratio effect, (f) isolation effect, and (g) coalescing and event-splitting effects. The DSM is also used to make several novel predictions of conditions under which specific behavior patterns may or may not occur.

  13. Decisional role preferences, risk knowledge and information interests in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Christoph; Kasper, Jürgen; Segal, Julia; Köpke, Sascha; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2004-12-01

    Shared decision making is increasingly recognized as the ideal model of patient-physician communication especially in chronic diseases with partially effective treatments as multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate prerequisite factors for this kind of decision making we studied patients' decisional role preferences in medical decision making, knowledge on risks, information interests and the relations between these factors in MS. After conducting focus groups to generate hypotheses, 219 randomly selected patients from the MS Outpatient Clinic register (n = 1374) of the University Hospital Hamburg received mailed questionnaires on their knowledge of risks in MS, their perception of their own level of knowledge, information interests and role preferences. Most patients (79%) indicated that they preferred an active role in treatment decisions giving the shared decision and the informed choice model the highest priority. MS risk knowledge was low but questionnaire results depended on disease course, disease duration and ongoing immune therapy. Measured knowledge as well as perceived knowledge was only weakly correlated with preferences of active roles. Major information interests were related to symptom alleviation, diagnostic procedures and prognosis. Patients with MS claimed autonomous roles in their health care decisions. The weak correlation between knowledge and preferences for active roles implicates that other factors largely influence role preferences.

  14. Preferred place of birth: characteristics and motives of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren-Ten Haken, Tamar; Hendrix, Marijke; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne; Budé, Luc; de Vries, Raymond; Nijhuis, Jan

    2012-10-01

    to explores preferences, characteristics and motives regarding place of birth of low-risk nulliparous women in the Netherlands. a prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women and their partners starting their pregnancy in midwifery-led care or in obstetric-led care. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, including questions on demographic, psychosocial and pregnancy factors and statements about motives with regard to place of birth. Depression, worry and self-esteem were explored using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSE). participants were recruited in 100 independent midwifery practices and 14 hospitals from 2007 to 2011. 550 low-risk nulliparous women; 231 women preferred a home birth, 170 women a hospital birth in midwifery-led care and 149 women a birth in obstetric-led care. Significant differences in characteristics were found in the group who preferred a birth in obstetric-led care compared to the two groups who preferred midwifery-led care. Those women were older (F (2,551)=16.14, pbirth is driven by a desire for greater personal autonomy, whereas women's choice for a hospital birth is driven by a desire to feel safe and control risks. the characteristics of women who prefer a hospital birth are different than the characteristics of women who prefer a home birth. It appears that for women preferring a hospital birth, the assumed safety of the hospital is more important than type of care provider. This brings up the question whether women are fully aware of the possibilities of maternity care services. Women might need concrete information about the availability and the characteristics of the services within the maternity care system and the risks and benefits associated with either setting, in order to make an informed choice where to give birth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying women's stated benefit-risk trade-off preferences for IBS treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F Reed; Hauber, A Brett; Ozdemir, Semra; Lynd, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration, currently, is exploring quantitative benefit-risk methods to support regulatory decision-making. A scientifically valid method for assessing patients' benefit-risk trade-off preferences is needed to compare risks and benefits in a common metric. The study aims to quantify the maximum acceptable risk (MAR) of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) that women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are willing to accept in exchange for symptom relief. A stated-choice survey was used to elicit trade-off preferences among constructed treatment profiles, each defined by symptom severity and treatment-related AEs. Symptom attributes included frequency of abdominal pain and discomfort, frequency of diarrhea, and frequency of urgency. AE attributes included frequency of mild-to-moderate constipation and the risk of four possible serious AEs. A Web-enabled survey was administered to 589 female US residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported diagnosis of diarrhea-predominant IBS. Preference weights and MAR were estimated using mixed-logit methods. SUBJECTS were willing to accept higher risks of serious AEs in return for treatments offering better symptom control. For an improvement from the lowest to the highest of four benefit levels, subjects were willing to tolerate a 2.65% increase in impacted-bowel risk, but only a 1.34% increase in perforated-bowel risk. Variation in MARs across AE types is consistent with the relative seriousness of the AEs. Stated-preference methods offer a scientifically valid approach to quantifying benefit-risk trade-off preferences that can be used to inform regulatory decision-making.

  16. HOW DEPRESSION AND SOCIAL MEDIA PREFERENCES AFFECT FINANCIAL INVESTMENT&GAMBLING RISK TAKING BEHAVIOURS

    OpenAIRE

    YALVAC HAMURCU, H. Dilek; HAMURCU, Çağrı

    2017-01-01

    This study mainly examines the relationship between financial investment and gambling risk-taking tendencies and depression. In addition, how financial investment and gambling risk taking attitudes and depression level change with respect to age, gender and social media preferences are also analyzed in this study. DOSPERT Scale with subscales of financial investment and gambling and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are used for evaluating financial investment&gambling risk-taking tende...

  17. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Assessment of the use of two commercially available environmental enrichments by laboratory mice by preference testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, P.L. van; Blom, H.J.; Meijer, M.K.; Baumans, V.

    2005-01-01

    In the field of biomedical research, the demand for standardization of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals is growing. For laboratory mice, a wide variety of environmental enrichment items are commercially available. Most of these comply with the demands for standardization, hygiene and

  19. Salty Food Preference and Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The JACC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsumasa Umesawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High sodium intake is a potential risk factor of gastric cancer. However, limited information is available on the relationship between salty food preference or intake and risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between these variables among the Japanese population. Methods: Between 1988 and 1990, 15 732 men and 24 997 women aged 40–79 years old with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease completed a lifestyle questionnaire that included information about food intake. The subjects were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 787 incident gastric cancers were documented. We examined the associations between salty food preference and intake and gastric cancer incidence using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: The risk of gastric cancer among subjects with a strong preference for salty food was approximately 30% higher than among those who preferred normal-level salty food (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.67. The risk of gastric cancer in subjects who consumed 3 and ≥4 bowls/day of miso soup was approximately 60% higher than in those who consumed less miso soup (HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16–2.39 and HR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11–2.42, respectively. Sodium intake correlated positively and linearly with risk of gastric cancer (P for trend = 0.002. Conclusions: The present study showed that salty food preference, consumption of large quantities of miso soup, and high sodium intake were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese people.

  20. Risk communication formats for low probability events: an exploratory study of patient preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadarola Stephen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clear communication about the possible outcomes of proposed medical interventions is an integral part of medical care. Despite its importance, there have been few studies comparing different formats for presenting probabilistic information to patients, especially when small probabilities are involved. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of several new small-risk graphic communication formats. Methods Information about the likelihoods of cancer and cancer prevention associated with two hypothetical cancer screening programs were used to create an augmented bar chart, an augmented grouped icon display, a flow chart, and three paired combinations of these formats. In the study scenario, the baseline risk of cancer was 53 per 1,000 (5.3%. The risk associated with cancer screening option A was 38 per 1,000 (3.8% and the risk associated with screening option B was 29 per 1,000 (2.9%. Both the augmented bar chart and the augmented grouped icon display contained magnified views of the differences in cancer risk and cancer prevention associated with the screening programs. A convenience sample of 29 subjects (mean age 56.4 years; 76% men used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to indicate their relative preferences for the six formats using 15 sequential paired comparisons. Results The most preferred format was the combined augmented bar chart + flow diagram (mean preference score 0.43 followed by the combined augmented icon + augmented bar chart format (mean preference score 0.22. The overall differences among the six formats were statistically significant: Kruskal-Wallis Chi Square = 141.4, p Conclusion These findings suggest that patients may prefer combined, rather than single, graphic risk presentation formats and that augmented bar charts and icon displays may be useful for conveying comparative information about small risks to clinical decision makers. Further research to confirm and extend these

  1. Effect of the CB1 cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2 on the acquisition and reinstatement of MDMA-induced conditioned place preference in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miñarro José

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous reports indicate that MDMA users consume other psychoactive drugs, among which cannabis is one of the most common. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, using the conditioned place preference, the effect of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 on the rewarding effects of MDMA in mice. Methods In the first experiment adolescent mice were initially conditioned with 1.25, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of MDMA or 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg of WIN and subsequently with both drugs. Reinstatement of the extinguished preference by priming doses was performed in the groups that showed CPP. In the second experiment, animals were conditioned with 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of MDMA and, after extinction, reinstatement of the preference was induced by 0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg of WIN. Results A low dose of WIN 55212-2 (0.1 mg/kg increased the rewarding effects of low doses of MDMA (1.25 mg/kg, although a decrease in the preference induced by MDMA (5 and 2.5 mg/kg was observed when the dose of WIN 55212-2 was raised (0.5 mg/kg. The CB1 antagonist SR 141716 also increased the rewarding effects of the lowest MDMA dose and did not block the effects of WIN. Animals treated with the highest WIN dose plus a non-neurotoxic dose of MDMA exhibited decreases of striatal DA and serotonin in the cortex. On the other hand, WIN 55212-2-induced CPP was reinstated by priming injections of MDMA, although WIN did not reinstate the MDMA-induced CPP. Conclusions These results confirm that the cannabinoid system plays a role in the rewarding effects of MDMA and highlights the risks that sporadic drug use can pose in terms of relapse to dependence. Finally, the potential neuroprotective action of cannabinoids is not supported by our data; on the contrary, they are evidence of the potential neurotoxic effect of said drugs when administered with MDMA.

  2. Long-term effects of repeated social stress on the conditioned place preference induced by MDMA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pardo, M P; Blanco-Gandía, M C; Valiente-Lluch, M; Rodríguez-Arias, M; Miñarro, J; Aguilar, M A

    2015-12-03

    Previous studies have demonstrated that social defeat stress increases the rewarding effects of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine. In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of repeated social defeat (RSD) on the rewarding effects of ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Adolescent and young adult mice were exposed to four episodes of social defeat (on PND 29-40 and PND 47-56, respectively) and were conditioned three weeks later with 1.25 or 10mg/kg i.p. of MDMA (experiment 1). The long-term effects of RSD on anxiety, social behavior and cognitive processes were also evaluated in adult mice (experiment 2). RSD during adolescence enhanced vulnerability to priming-induced reinstatement in animals conditioned with 1.25mg/kg of MDMA and increased the duration of the CPP induced by the 10mg/kg of MDMA. The latter effect was also observed after RSD in young adult mice, as well as an increase in anxiety-like behavior, an alteration in social interaction (reduction in attack and increase in avoidance/flee and defensive/submissive behaviors) and an impairment of maze learning. These results support the idea that RSD stress increases the rewarding effects of MDMA and induces long-term alterations in anxiety, learning and social behavior in adult mice. Thus, exposure to stress may increase the vulnerability of individuals to developing MDMA dependence, which is a factor to be taken into account in relation to the prevention and treatment of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Facts and Misconceptions about 2D:4D, Social and Risk Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Judit; Di Paolo, Roberto; Ponti, Giovanni; Sartarelli, Marcello

    2018-01-01

    We study how the ratio between the length of the second and fourth digit (2D:4D) correlates with choices in social and risk preferences elicitation tasks by building a large dataset from five experimental projects with more than 800 subjects. Our results confirm the recent literature that downplays the link between 2D:4D and many domains of economic interest, such as social and risk preferences. As for the former, we find that social preferences are significantly lower when 2D:4D is above the median value only for subjects with low cognitive ability. As for the latter, we find that a high 2D:4D is not correlated with the frequency of subjects' risky choices. PMID:29487510

  4. The effects of risk preferences in mixed-strategy equilibria of 2x2 games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, D.; Steiner, Jakub

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2007), s. 381-388 ISSN 0899-8256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : risk preferences * mixed strategy equilibria Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2007

  5. Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Shengxiang; Eimontaite, Iveta; Zhang, Dangli; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American). Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual "Asia Disease Problem" task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger) and risky decisions.

  6. Fear, Anger, and Risk Preference Reversals: An Experimental Study on a Chinese Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxiang She

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fear and anger are basic emotions of the same valence which differ in terms of their certainty and control dimensions according to the Appraisal Tendency Framework, a theory addressing the relationship between specific emotions, and judgments and choices. Past research based on the Appraisal Theory revealed contradictory results for risky choice decision-making. However, these conclusions were drawn from Western samples (e.g., North American. Considering potential cultural differences, the present study aims to investigate whether the Appraisal Tendency hypothesis yields the same results in a Chinese sample. Our first study explores how dispositional fear and anger influence risk preferences through a classic virtual “Asia Disease Problem” task and the second study investigates how induced fear and anger influence risk preferences through an incentive-compatible task. Consistent with previous research, our results reveal that induced fear and anger have differential effects on risky decisions: angry participants prefer the risk-seeking option, whereas fearful participants prefer a risk-averse option. However, we find no associations between dispositional fear (or anger and risky decisions.

  7. Risk preferences and aging: The “Certainty Effect” in older adults’ decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Mazar, Nina; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Lighthall, Nichole R.; Burgeno, Jessica; Schoeke, Andrej; Ariely, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent stereotype is that people become less risk taking and more cautious as they get older. However, in laboratory studies, findings are mixed and often reveal no age differences. In the current series of experiments, we examined whether age differences in risk seeking are more likely to emerge when choices include a certain option (a sure gain or a sure loss). In four experiments, we found that age differences in risk preferences only emerged when participants were offered a choice between a risky and a certain gamble but not when offered two risky gambles. In particular, Experiments 1 and 2 included only gambles about potential gains. Here, compared with younger adults, older adults preferred a certain gain over a chance to win a larger gain and thus, exhibited more risk aversion in the domain of gains. But in Experiments 3 and 4, when offered the chance to take a small sure loss rather than risking a larger loss, older adults exhibited more risk seeking in the domain of losses than younger adults. Both their greater preference for sure gains and greater avoidance of sure losses suggest that older adults weigh certainty more heavily than younger adults. Experiment 4 also indicates that older adults focus more on positive emotions than younger adults do when considering their options and that this emotional shift can at least partially account for age differences in how much people are swayed by certainty in their choices. PMID:23066800

  8. At risk of being risky: The relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    OpenAIRE

    Marc D. Rudolph; Oscar Miranda-Domínguez; Alexandra O. Cohen; Kaitlyn Breiner; Laurence Steinberg; Richard J. Bonnie; Elizabeth S. Scott; Kim Taylor-Thompson; Jason Chein; Karla C. Fettich; Jennifer A. Richeson; Danielle V. Dellarco; Adriana Galván; B.J. Casey; Damien A. Fair

    2017-01-01

    Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a ...

  9. Female field crickets incur increased parasitism risk when near preferred song.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra M Martin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Female animals often prefer males with conspicuous traits because these males provide direct or indirect benefits. Conspicuous male traits, however, can attract predators. This not only increases the risk of predation for conspicuous males but also for the females that prefer them. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, males that produce preferred song types provide females with greater material benefits, but they are also more likely to attract lethal parasitoid flies. First, we conducted a field experiment that tested the hypothesis that females have a greater risk of fly parasitism when in association with preferred high chirp rate males. Females were nearly twice as likely to be parasitized when caged with high chirp rate song than when caged with low chirp rate song. Females may thus be forced to trade off the quality of the benefits they receive from mating with preferred males and the risk of being killed by a predator when near these males. Second, we assessed female parasitism rates in a natural population. Up to 6% of the females were parasitized in field samples. Because the females we collected could have become parasitized had they not been collected, this provides a minimum estimate of the female parasitism rate in the field. In a laboratory study, we found no difference in the proportion of time parasitized and unparasitized females spent hiding under shelters; thus, differences in activity patterns do not appear to have biased our estimate of female parasitism rates. Overall, our results suggest that female association costs have the potential to shape the evolution of female mating preferences.

  10. Exploring differences in dogs’ and wolves’ preference for risk in a foraging task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Marshall-Pescini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Both human and non-humans species face decisions in their daily lives which may entail taking risks. At the individual level, a propensity for risk-taking has been shown to be positively correlated with explorative tendencies, whereas at the species level a more variable and less stable feeding ecology has been associated with a greater preference for risky choices. In the current study we compared two closely related species; wolves and dogs, which differ significantly in their feeding ecology and their explorative tendencies. Wolves depend on hunting for survival with a success rate of between 15 and 50%, whereas free-ranging dogs (which make up 80% of the world dog population, are largely scavengers specialized on human produce i.e. a more geographically and temporally stable resource. Here, we used a foraging paradigm, which allowed subjects to choose between a guaranteed less preferred food vs. a more preferred food, which was however delivered only 50% of the time (a stone being delivered the rest of time. We compared identically raised adult wolves and dogs and found that in line with the differing feeding ecologies of the two species and their explorative tendencies, wolves showed a higher preference for risk-taking than dogs.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide reduces incentive motivation while boosting preference for high reward in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Hunt, Sarah C; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the development of various psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, the neurobehavioral mechanism involved in this relationship remains elusive. This gap in knowledge may best be filled by evaluating elementary neurobehavioral units affected by inflammation rather than behavioral changes in conventional animal tests of depression. To this end, the current study used a concurrent choice paradigm to evaluate inflammation-induced motivational changes. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=27) were food restricted to between 85 and 90% of their free-feeding weight and were trained to perform a concurrent choice task where they nose-poked for grain rewards on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule (low effort/low reward) and chocolate-flavored rewards on a FR-10 schedule (high effort/high reward). A counterbalanced-within subjects design was used. A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.33 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce peripheral inflammation. Twenty-four hours after LPS administration, mice showed a reduction in the total number of nose pokes. A proportionally greater reduction in nose pokes was observed for grain, resulting in an increase in percent chocolate pellets earned. These behavioral changes cannot be explained by reduced appetite as feeding before the test led to a similar increase in percent chocolate pellets earned but without any decrease in responding. These results indicate that inflammation modulates incentive motivation by affecting willingness to exert effort for reward and not by reducing sensitivity to reward.

  12. Selection and Mode Effects in Risk Preference Elicitation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2008-01-01

    experiment is drastically below that of the representative sample in the Internet experiment, and average risk aversion is also lower. Considering the student-like subsample of the Internet subjects and comparing a traditional lab design with an Internet-like design in the lab gives two ways to decompose......We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on students for the same experiment to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of errors in the lab...... shows that these processes are selective in selecting subjects who make fewer errors, but do not lead to biased conclusions on risk preferences. These findings point at the usefulness of the Internet survey as an alternative to a student pool in the laboratory if the ambition is to use the experiments...

  13. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders: a Danish prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....

  14. Agmatine attenuates acquisition but not the expression of ethanol conditioned place preference in mice: a role for imidazoline receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameer, Shaikh M; Chakraborty, Suwarna S; Ugale, Rajesh R

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of agmatine on acquisition and expression of ethanol conditioned place preference (CPP) and its modulation by imidazoline agents. Swiss albino mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or agmatine (20-40 mg/kg) before injection of ethanol (1.25 mg/kg) during conditioning days or on a test day (20-120 mg/kg), to observe the effect on acquisition or expression of CPP, respectively. Agmatine inhibited the acquisition but not the expression of ethanol CPP. Furthermore, both the I₁ receptor antagonist, efaroxan (9 mg/kg) and the I₂ receptor antagonist, BU224 (5 mg/kg) attenuated the agmatine-induced inhibition of the ethanol CPP acquisition. In contrast, the I₂ receptor agonist, 2-BFI (5 mg/kg) and I₁ receptor agonist, moxonidine (0.4 mg/kg) alone, or a combination of their subeffective doses, significantly attenuated the effect of agmatine (20 mg/kg) on acquisition of ethanol CPP. Agmatine or imidazoline agents alone produced neither place preference nor aversion, and at the doses used in the present study did not affect locomotor activity. Thus, agmatine attenuates the acquisition of ethanol CPP at least in part by imidazoline (I₁ or I₂) receptors. In future studies, agmatine or agents acting at the imidazoline receptors could be explored for their therapeutic potential in ethanol dependence.

  15. Understanding household preferences for hurricane risk mitigation information: evidence from survey responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Chiradip; Mozumder, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    Risk information is critical to adopting mitigation measures, and seeking risk information is influenced by a variety of factors. An essential component of the recently adopted My Safe Florida Home (MSFH) program by the State of Florida is to provide homeowners with pertinent risk information to facilitate hurricane risk mitigation activities. We develop an analytical framework to understand household preferences for hurricane risk mitigation information through allowing an intensive home inspection. An empirical analysis is used to identify major drivers of household preferences to receive personalized information regarding recommended hurricane risk mitigation measures. A variety of empirical specifications show that households with home insurance, prior experience with damages, and with a higher sense of vulnerability to be affected by hurricanes are more likely to allow inspection to seek information. However, households with more members living in the home and households who live in manufactured/mobile homes are less likely to allow inspection. While findings imply MSFH program's ability to link incentives offered by private and public agencies in promoting mitigation, households that face a disproportionately higher level of risk can get priority to make the program more effective. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Do general practitioners' risk-taking propensities and learning styles influence their continuing medical education preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    US studies have shown that a clinician's risk-taking propensity significantly predicts clinical behaviour. Other US studies examining relationships between family practice doctors' preferences for CME and their Kolb learning style have described conflicting findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate GPs' learning styles, risk-taking propensities and CME preferences, and to explore links between them. A descriptive confidential cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of the 304 general practitioner principals within Portsmouth and South East Hampshire Health Authority was conducted. Two hundred and seventy-four GPs returned questionnaires, a response rate of 90.1%. The Kolb learning style types were assimilators 43.8% (predominant learning abilities watching and thinking), divergers 21.1% (feeling and watching), convergers 18.3% (doing and thinking), and accommodators 16.8% (doing and feeling). The Pearson risk-taking propensities were 65.8% risk neutral, 19.4% risk seeking and 14.8% risk averse. Risk-seeking GPs were significantly more likely to be accommodators or convergers than divergers or assimilators (p = 0.006). Majorities of 54.9% stated that the present PGEA system works well, 85% welcomed feedback from their peers, and 76.8% stated that learning should be an activity for all the practice team. Further majorities would welcome help to decide their learning needs (63.8%) and are looking to judge CME effectiveness by changes in GP performance or patient care (54.8%). Further significant correlations and cross-tabulations were found between learning style and risk-taking and CME attitudes, experiences and preferences. It is concluded that risk seekers and accommodators (doing and feeling) prefer feedback, interaction and practical hands-on learning, and assimilators (watching and thinking) and the risk averse tend towards lectures, theoretical learning formats and less interactive activities. Sharing feelings in groups may be difficult for

  17. Public Governance Quality and Tax Compliance Behavior in Nigeria: The Moderating Role of Financial Condition and Risk Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O. Alabede

    2011-06-01

    public governance quality on tax compliance behavior of individual taxpayers as well as the moderating effect of financial condition and risk preference on tax compliance and its determinants. This study extended tax compliance model to incorporate public governance quality and moderating effects of financial condition and risk preference.

  18. Risk Preferences and Predictions about Others: No Association with 2D:4D Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lima de Miranda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal androgen exposure affects the brain development of the fetus which may facilitate certain behaviors and decision patterns in the later life. The ratio between the lengths of second and the fourth fingers (2D:4D is a negative biomarker of the ratio between prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure and men typically have lower ratios than women. In line with the typical findings suggesting that women are more risk averse than men, several studies have also shown negative relationships between 2D:4D and risk taking although the evidence is not conclusive. Previous studies have also reported that both men and women believe women are more risk averse than men. In the current study, we re-test the relationship between 2D:4D and risk preferences in a German student sample and also investigate whether the 2D:4D ratio is associated with people’s perceptions about others’ risk preferences. Following an incentivized risk elicitation task, we asked all participants their predictions about (i others’ responses (without sex specification, (ii men’s responses, and (iii women’s responses; then measured their 2D:4D ratios. In line with the previous findings, female participants in our sample were more risk averse. While both men and women underestimated other participants’ (non sex-specific and women’s risky decisions on average, their predictions about men were accurate. We also found evidence for the false consensus effect, as risky choices are positively correlated with predictions about other participants’ risky choices. The 2D:4D ratio was not directly associated either with risk preferences or the predictions of other participants’ choices. An unexpected finding was that women with mid-range levels of 2D:4D estimated significantly larger sex differences in participants’ decisions. This finding needs further testing in future studies.

  19. Risk Preferences and Predictions about Others: No Association with 2D:4D Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Miranda, Katharina; Neyse, Levent; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgen exposure affects the brain development of the fetus which may facilitate certain behaviors and decision patterns in the later life. The ratio between the lengths of second and the fourth fingers (2D:4D) is a negative biomarker of the ratio between prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure and men typically have lower ratios than women. In line with the typical findings suggesting that women are more risk averse than men, several studies have also shown negative relationships between 2D:4D and risk taking although the evidence is not conclusive. Previous studies have also reported that both men and women believe women are more risk averse than men. In the current study, we re-test the relationship between 2D:4D and risk preferences in a German student sample and also investigate whether the 2D:4D ratio is associated with people’s perceptions about others’ risk preferences. Following an incentivized risk elicitation task, we asked all participants their predictions about (i) others’ responses (without sex specification), (ii) men’s responses, and (iii) women’s responses; then measured their 2D:4D ratios. In line with the previous findings, female participants in our sample were more risk averse. While both men and women underestimated other participants’ (non sex-specific) and women’s risky decisions on average, their predictions about men were accurate. We also found evidence for the false consensus effect, as risky choices are positively correlated with predictions about other participants’ risky choices. The 2D:4D ratio was not directly associated either with risk preferences or the predictions of other participants’ choices. An unexpected finding was that women with mid-range levels of 2D:4D estimated significantly larger sex differences in participants’ decisions. This finding needs further testing in future studies. PMID:29472846

  20. The Effects of Framing, Reflection, Probability, and Payoff on Risk Preference in Choice Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühberger; Schulte-Mecklenbeck; Perner

    1999-06-01

    A meta-analysis of Asian-disease-like studies is presented to identify the factors which determine risk preference. First the confoundings between probability levels, payoffs, and framing conditions are clarified in a task analysis. Then the role of framing, reflection, probability, type, and size of payoff is evaluated in a meta-analysis. It is shown that bidirectional framing effects exist for gains and for losses. Presenting outcomes as gains tends to induce risk aversion, while presenting outcomes as losses tends to induce risk seeking. Risk preference is also shown to depend on the size of the payoffs, on the probability levels, and on the type of good at stake (money/property vs human lives). In general, higher payoffs lead to increasing risk aversion. Higher probabilities lead to increasing risk aversion for gains and to increasing risk seeking for losses. These findings are confirmed by a subsequent empirical test. Shortcomings of existing formal theories, such as prospect theory, cumulative prospect theory, venture theory, and Markowitz's utility theory, are identified. It is shown that it is not probabilities or payoffs, but the framing condition, which explains most variance. These findings are interpreted as showing that no linear combination of formally relevant predictors is sufficient to capture the essence of the framing phenomenon. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Tailoring in risk communication by linking risk profiles and communication preferences: The case of speeding of young car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  3. Mice expressing a “hyper-sensitive” form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonek, Maciej; Zee, Michael L.; Farnsworth, Jill C.; Amin, Randa A.; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Davis, Brian J.; Mackie, Ken; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a “hyper-sensitive” form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg), morphine (10 mg/kg), and cocaine (10 mg/kg), demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model. PMID:28426670

  4. Brown rice and its component, γ-oryzanol, attenuate the preference for high-fat diet by decreasing hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Sunagawa, Sumito; Ueda, Rei; Taira, Shin-Ichiro; Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ikema, Tomomi; Yamakawa, Ken; Higa, Moritake; Tanaka, Hideaki; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    Brown rice is known to improve glucose intolerance and prevent the onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effect of brown rice and its major component, γ-oryzanol (Orz), on feeding behavior and fuel homeostasis in mice. When mice were allowed free access to a brown rice-containing chow diet (CD) and a high-fat diet (HFD), they significantly preferred CD to HFD. To reduce hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on an HFD, mice were administered with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone, which caused them to prefer the CD. Notably, oral administration of Orz, a mixture of major bioactive components in brown rice, also improved glucose intolerance and attenuated hypothalamic ER stress in mice fed the HFD. In murine primary neuronal cells, Orz attenuated the tunicamycin-induced ER stress. In luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Orz suppressed the activation of ER stress-responsive cis-acting elements and unfolded protein response element, suggesting that Orz acts as a chemical chaperone in viable cells. Collectively, the current study is the first demonstration that brown rice and Orz improve glucose metabolism, reduce hypothalamic ER stress, and, consequently, attenuate the preference for dietary fat in mice fed an HFD.

  5. Mice expressing a "hyper-sensitive" form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcus

    Full Text Available We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6% but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg, morphine (10 mg/kg, and cocaine (10 mg/kg, demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model.

  6. Risk Preferences and Demand for Insurance in Peru: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Galarza; Michael Carter

    2011-01-01

    "This paper reports the results of behavioral economic experiments conducted in Peru to examine the relationship amongst risk preferences, loan take-up, and insurance purchase decisions. This area-based yield insurance can help reduce people's vulnerability to large scale covariate shocks, and can also lower the loan default probability under extreme negative covariate shocks. In a context of collateralized formal credit markets, we provide suggestive evidence that insurance may help reduce t...

  7. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Kathryn; Senekal, Marjanne; Harbron, Janetta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning. Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG]) versus usual care (individual consultations) treatment. Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa. ...

  8. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) versus MRI in the high-risk screening setting: patient preferences and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jordana; Miller, Matthew M; Mehta, Tejas S; Fein-Zachary, Valerie; Nathanson, Audrey; Hori, Wendy; Monahan-Earley, Rita; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    Our study evaluates patient preferences toward screening CESM versus MRI. As part of a prospective study, high-risk patients had breast MRI and CESM. Patients completed an anonymous survey to evaluate preferences regarding the two modalities. 88% of participants completed the survey. 79% preferred CESM over MRI if the exams had equal sensitivity. 89% would be comfortable receiving contrast as part of an annual screening test. High-risk populations may accept CESM as a screening exam and may prefer it over screening MRI if ongoing trials demonstrate screening CESM to be clinically non-inferior MRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk preferences impose a hidden distortion on measures of choice impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konova, Anna B.; Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience) in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from) mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques. Economists have pointed to interactions between measurements of time preferences and risk preferences that may distort estimations of the discount rate. However, although becoming standard practice in economics, discount rates and risk preferences are rarely measured simultaneously in the same subjects in other fields, and the magnitude of the imposed distortion is unknown in the assessment of individual differences. Here, we show that standard models of temporal discounting —such as a hyperbolic discounting model widely present in the literature which fails to account for risk attitudes in the estimation of discount rates— result in a large and systematic pattern of bias in estimated discounting parameters. This can lead to the spurious attribution of differences in impulsivity between individuals when in fact differences in risk attitudes account for observed behavioral differences. We advance a model which, when applied to standard choice tasks typically used in psychology and neuroscience, provides both a better fit to the data and successfully de-correlates risk and impulsivity parameters. This results in measures that are more accurate and thus of greater utility to the many fields interested in individual differences in impulsivity. PMID:29373590

  10. Risk preferences impose a hidden distortion on measures of choice impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopez-Guzman

    Full Text Available Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques. Economists have pointed to interactions between measurements of time preferences and risk preferences that may distort estimations of the discount rate. However, although becoming standard practice in economics, discount rates and risk preferences are rarely measured simultaneously in the same subjects in other fields, and the magnitude of the imposed distortion is unknown in the assessment of individual differences. Here, we show that standard models of temporal discounting -such as a hyperbolic discounting model widely present in the literature which fails to account for risk attitudes in the estimation of discount rates- result in a large and systematic pattern of bias in estimated discounting parameters. This can lead to the spurious attribution of differences in impulsivity between individuals when in fact differences in risk attitudes account for observed behavioral differences. We advance a model which, when applied to standard choice tasks typically used in psychology and neuroscience, provides both a better fit to the data and successfully de-correlates risk and impulsivity parameters. This results in measures that are more accurate and thus of greater utility to the many fields interested in individual differences in impulsivity.

  11. Risk preferences impose a hidden distortion on measures of choice impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guzman, Silvia; Konova, Anna B; Louie, Kenway; Glimcher, Paul W

    2018-01-01

    Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience) in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from) mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques. Economists have pointed to interactions between measurements of time preferences and risk preferences that may distort estimations of the discount rate. However, although becoming standard practice in economics, discount rates and risk preferences are rarely measured simultaneously in the same subjects in other fields, and the magnitude of the imposed distortion is unknown in the assessment of individual differences. Here, we show that standard models of temporal discounting -such as a hyperbolic discounting model widely present in the literature which fails to account for risk attitudes in the estimation of discount rates- result in a large and systematic pattern of bias in estimated discounting parameters. This can lead to the spurious attribution of differences in impulsivity between individuals when in fact differences in risk attitudes account for observed behavioral differences. We advance a model which, when applied to standard choice tasks typically used in psychology and neuroscience, provides both a better fit to the data and successfully de-correlates risk and impulsivity parameters. This results in measures that are more accurate and thus of greater utility to the many fields interested in individual differences in impulsivity.

  12. Speech preference is associated with autistic-like behavior in 18-months-olds at risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-09-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to nonspeech at 12 months. In both groups, relative preference for speech correlated positively with general cognitive ability at 12 months. However, in high-risk infants only, preference for speech was associated with autistic-like behavior at 18 months, while in low-risk infants, preference for speech correlated with language abilities. This suggests that in children at risk for ASD an atypical species-specific bias for speech may underlie atypical social development.

  13. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts’ knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts’ preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n − 1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  14. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Liao, Huchang; Li, Zongmin; Xu, Zeshui

    2018-04-13

    Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts' knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts' preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n-1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  15. Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni unripe fruit attenuates ethanol-induced conditioned place preferences in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC, on compulsive ethanol-seeking behaviour using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p. in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM, on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg and ACAM (300 mg/kg 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction, during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg, p.o. or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.. Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4g/kg, i.p. in the home cage (Reinstatement was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5g/kg, p.o and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  16. Perceived risks, emotions, and policy preferences : A longitudinal survey among the local population on gas quakes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlaviciute, Goda; Steg, Linda; Hoekstra, Elisabeth J.; Vrieling, Leonie

    Energy production can pose risks, such as nuclear accidents, oil spills, and earthquakes caused by gas production. Besides experts’ evaluations of risks, appropriate risk assessment and management require knowledge about how people experience these risks and which mitigation measures they prefer.

  17. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) - inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing - administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion - but not saccharin preference - in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference - but not in locomotion - was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be used as a more

  18. Effect of capital constraints on risk preference behavior of commercial banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ma; Junxun Dai; Xian Huang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the financial supervision authority utilizes the restrictions of capital constraints imposing on commercial banks the need to develop the macro economy.Design/methodology/approach-This paper uses multilateral game to deduce the loan characteristics of banks,vector and void coordinates to analyze the behavior choices of banks under capital supervision,sets up an index to describe the risk preference of banks,and analyzes the process with Chinese data empirically.Findings-This paper finds big banks have a loan preference for big enterprises and small banks have a preference for establishing a bank syndicate to pursue large projects.Further,the paper notes the conditions by which the heterology banks choose loans across the border and proves that changes of capital requirements would force the credit structure of the commercial banks to adjust along an efficient frontier broken line or an efficient frontier plane under the conditions of interest rate regulation or interest rate marketization,respectively.Research limitations/implications-It is very complex to describe the choices of risk behavior of banks and the simple supervision method needs to be adjusted.Practical implications-This paper finds that banks show risk preferences of credit structure,and capital constraints would affect it greatly;regulators should guard against capital constraint softening.Originality/value-It is the first time that the conditions of banks beyond the loan border have been studied and the behavior adjustment of banks using the vector and void coordinate analyzed.

  19. Are gastroenterologists less tolerant of treatment risks than patients? Benefit-risk preferences in Crohn's disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F Reed; Hauber, Brett; Özdemir, Semra; Siegel, Corey A; Hass, Steven; Sands, Bruce E

    2010-10-01

    Crohn's disease is a serious and debilitating gastrointestinal disorder with a high, unmet need for new treatments. Biologic agents have the potential to alter the natural course of Crohn's disease but present known risks of potential serious adverse events (SAEs). Previous studies have shown that patients are willing to accept elevated SAE risks in exchange for clinical efficacy. Gastroenterologists and patients may have similar goals of maximizing treatment benefit while minimizing risk; however, gastroenterologists may assess the relative importance of risk differently than patients. To (a) understand how gastroenterologists caring for patients with Crohn's disease balance benefits and risks in their treatment decisions and (b) compare their treatment preferences with those of adult patients with Crohn's disease. Both patient and gastroenterologist treatment preferences were elicited using a web-based, choice-format conjoint survey instrument. The conjoint questions required subjects to choose between 2 hypothetical treatment options with differing levels of treatment attributes. Patients evaluated the treatment options for themselves, and gastroenterologists evaluated the treatment options for each of 3 hypothetical patient types: (a) female aged 25 years with no history of Crohn's disease surgery (young), (b) male aged 45 years with 1 Crohn's disease surgery (middleaged), and (c) female older than 70 years with 4 Crohn's disease surgeries (older). Treatment attributes represented the expected outcomes of treatment: severity of daily symptoms, frequency of flare-ups, serious disease complications, oral steroid use, and the risks of 3 potentially fatal SAEs - lymphoma, serious or opportunistic infections, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) - during 10 years of treatment. Maximum acceptable risk (MAR), defined as the highest level of SAE risk that subjects would accept in return for a given improvement in efficacy (i.e., the increase in

  20. Preference Reversals in Decision Making Under Risk are Accompanied by Changes in Attention to Different Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Betty E; Seligman, Darryl; Kable, Joseph W

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that visual fixations reflect and influence trial-to-trial variability in people's preferences between goods. Here we extend this principle to attribute weights during decision making under risk. We measured eye movements while people chose between two risky gambles or bid on a single gamble. Consistent with previous work, we found that people exhibited systematic preference reversals between choices and bids. For two gambles matched in expected value, people systematically chose the higher probability option but provided a higher bid for the option that offered the greater amount to win. This effect was accompanied by a shift in fixations of the two attributes, with people fixating on probabilities more during choices and on amounts more during bids. Our results suggest that the construction of value during decision making under risk depends on task context partly because the task differentially directs attention at probabilities vs. amounts. Since recent work demonstrates that neural correlates of value vary with visual fixations, our results also suggest testable hypotheses regarding how task context modulates the neural computation of value to generate preference reversals.

  1. An Empirical Research on Marketing Strategies of Different Risk Preference Merchant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Holiday merchandise has unique demand characteristics, unofficial start data, and a limited life cycle. In an intensely competitive market, individual merchants are able to get more sales opportunities if they display their products earlier. In this study, a time-variant variance and time-variant expected market demand model are introduced to investigate the order strategies that are used by risk-averse holiday merchants. Our results show that risk preference, market uncertainty, and market power have a significant effect on the merchant’s market strategies. Risk-averse merchants prefer to enhance forecast accuracy rather than using an early-display advantage. They can even give up their early-display advantage if they are faced with increased market uncertainty and small market power. Compared with the fixed purchase cost, the time-sensitive purchase cost can stimulate the merchant to purchase in advance, but this can decrease the merchant’s profit. Consequently, risk-averse merchants always display their merchandise later, decrease the order quantity, and, finally, miss the market opportunity.

  2. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  3. The Arousing Risk: Influences of positive and negative arousal on preferences for economic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Galentino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Standard economic models explain decision making under risk as a utility maximization process. Developments in cognitive psychology and neuroeconomics showed the volatility of such conceptualization highlighting human bounded rationality and discussing the role of decision maker’s affective state (basic reactions to any emotionally charged event) in cognitive evaluation of risk (risk as feeling). In particular, an affective-based evaluation of choice options may determine whether decision mak...

  4. Physician and patient benefit–risk preferences from two randomized long-acting injectable antipsychotic trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz EG

    2016-10-01

    regarded as unimportant.Conclusion: Improvement in positive symptoms was the most important attribute. Patients and physicians preferred LAIs over oral antipsychotics, with physicians showing a greater preference for 3-month over 1-month LAI. Physicians and patients were willing to accept reduced efficacy in exchange for switching a patient from an oral formulation to a LAI. Keywords: benefit–risk assessment, long-acting injectable, patient preference, physician preference, schizophrenia, survey

  5. Randomness in preference orderings, outcomes and attribute tastes: An application to journey time risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    estimate a mean ‘reliability ratio’ (ratio of the value of standard deviation of journey time to the value of scheduled journey time) of 2.07, against a median of 0.85. The properties of the distribution of the reliability ratio suggest a predominant behaviour of aversion to journey time risk.......Within the broad area of probabilistic modelling of individual discrete choice, we develop three strands of discussion. First, we outline a theoretical framework for the modelling of individual discrete choice under risk, distinguishing between three specific sources of randomness; in preference...... orderings, in outcomes, and in attribute tastes. Second, we apply this theoretical modelling framework to the domain of journey time risk (or ‘reliability’), a subject which has acquired prominence in the transportation policies of many countries. Third, we apply the modelling framework empirically, based...

  6. The role of taste in alcohol preference, consumption and risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Pickering, Gary J

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review. Ethanol, the compound common to all alcoholic beverages, is generally aversive as it primarily elicits bitterness and irritation when ingested. Individuals who experience orosensations (both taste and chemesthetic) more intensely tend to report lower liking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Additionally, a preference for sweetness is likely associated with a paternal history of alcohol use disorders. However, conflicting findings in the literature are common and may be partially attributable to differences in the methods used to access orosensory responsiveness and taste phenotypes. We conclude that while taste is a key driver in alcohol preference, intake and use disorder, no single taste-related factor can adequately predict alcohol behaviour. Areas for further research and suggestions for improved methodological and analytical approaches are highlighted.

  7. Comparing expressed and revealed preferences for risk reduction: different hazards and question frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniels, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies often note the wide differences that exist in costs per death avoided across US federal programs and regulatory contexts. This paper explores two new, related explanations for these differences. First, it argues that the patterns of revealed preferences (public allocations) may be related to public values, which are measured here through subjects' expressed preference responses to a contingent valuation survey regarding risk reduction. Subjects' expressed values are compared to actual (and proposed) costs of safety regulations for a similar set of hazards. The authors discover strong congruence in the ranking of expressed values and actual values. Second, the paper presents the results of a subsequent survey that investigates why the patterns observed in the first survey might occur. It suggests that one reason for the observed similarities between revealed and expressed preferences may be in how choices are framed. The paper hypothesizes that both subjects and decision makers may frame valuation decisions in the same way: as percentage changes from the reference point provided by the base rate of deaths for that hazard

  8. The benefits, risks and costs of privacy: patient preferences and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenbarg, David E; Asche, Carl; Ramsahai, Shweta; Duling, Joy; Ren, Jinma

    2017-05-01

    Multiple surveys show that patients want medical privacy; however, there are costs to maintaining privacy. There are also risks if information is not shared. A review of previous surveys found that most surveys asked questions about patient's privacy concerns and willingness to share their medical information. We found only one study that asked about sharing medical information for better care and no survey that asked patients about the risk, cost or comparison between medical privacy and privacy in other areas. To fill this gap, we designed a survey to: (1) compare medical privacy preferences to privacy preferences in other areas; (2) measure willingness to pay the cost of additional privacy measures; and (3) measure willingness to accept the risks of not sharing information. A total of 834 patients attending physician offices at 14 sites completed all or part of an anonymous questionnaire. Over 95% of patients were willing to share all their medical information with their treating physicians. There was no difference in willingness to share between primary care and specialty sites including psychiatry and an HIV clinic. In our survey, there was no difference in sharing preference between standard medical information and information with additional legal protections including genetic testing, drug/alcohol treatment and HIV results. Medical privacy was ranked lower than sharing social security and credit card numbers, but was deemed more private than other information including tax returns and handgun purchases. There was no statistical difference for any questions by site except for HIV/AIDS clinic patients ranking privacy of the medical record more important than reducing high medical costs and risk of medical errors (p risks to keep medical information hidden. Patients were very willing to share medical information with their providers. They were able to see the importance of sharing medical information to provide the best possible care. They were unwilling to

  9. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  10. Patient-stated preferences regarding volume-related risk mitigation strategies for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Mangione, Thomas W; Brunelli, Steven M; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-08-07

    Larger weight gain and higher ultrafiltration rates have been associated with poorer outcomes among patients on dialysis. Dietary restrictions reduce fluid-related risk; however, adherence is challenging. Alternative fluid mitigation strategies include treatment time extension, more frequent dialysis, adjunct peritoneal dialysis, and wearable ultrafiltration devices. No data regarding patient preferences for fluid management exist. A survey was designed, tested, and administered to assess patient-stated preferences regarding fluid mitigation. A written survey concerning fluid-related symptoms, patient and treatment characteristics, and fluid management preferences was developed. The cross-sectional survey was completed by 600 patients on hemodialysis at 18 geographically diverse ambulatory facilities. Comparisons of patient willingness to engage in volume mitigation strategies across fluid symptom burden, dietary restriction experience, and patient characteristics were performed. Final analyses included 588 surveys. Overall, if allowed to liberalize fluid intake, 44.6% of patients were willing to extend treatment time by 15 minutes. Willingness to extend treatment time was incrementally less for longer treatment extensions; 12.2% of patients were willing to add a fourth weekly treatment session, and 13.5% of patients were willing to participate in nocturnal dialysis three nights per week. Patients more bothered by their fluid restrictions (versus less bothered) were more willing to engage in fluid mitigation strategies. Demographic characteristics and symptoms, such as cramping and dyspnea, were not consistently associated with willingness to engage in the proposed strategies. More than 25% of patients were unsure of their dry weights and typical interdialytic weight gains. Patients were generally averse to treatment time extension>15 minutes. Patients more bothered (versus less bothered) by their prescribed fluid restrictions were more willing to engage in volume

  11. Patients' Preferences Related to Benefits, Risks, and Formulations of Schizophrenia Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Bennett; Markowitz, Michael; Mohamed, Ateesha F; Johnson, F Reed; Alphs, Larry; Citrome, Leslie; Bridges, John F P

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify patients' preferences related to benefits and risks of antipsychotic treatments for schizophrenia and to assess the relative importance of treatment attributes and adherence. Treatment-related preferences among U.S. residents with a self-reported physician diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed via a discrete-choice experiment. Patients chose between competing hypothetical scenarios characterized by improvements in positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and social functioning; incidence of weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), hyperprolactinemia, and hyperglycemia; and medication formulation. Preferences were estimated by using a random-parameters logit model, and the impact of adherence was estimated with conditional logit models. The final sample consisted of 271 patients. Complete improvement in positive symptoms was the most preferred outcome (relative importance score of 10.0), followed by elimination of hyperglycemia (3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.6-4.6), improvement in negative symptoms (3.0, CI=1.6-4.3), reduced weight gain (2.6, CI=1.2-4.0), avoidance of hyperprolactinemia (1.7, CI=.9-2.6), improved social functioning (1.5, CI=.4-2.5), and avoidance of EPS (1.0, CI=.3-1.8). Patients judged a daily pill superior to monthly injections (p<.01) and monthly injections superior to injections every three months (p<.01) for adherent patients and monthly injections superior to a daily pill for nonadherent patients (p=.01). Persons who self-identified as having schizophrenia judged improvement in positive symptoms as the most important treatment benefit. Hyperglycemia was identified as the most important adverse event. Patients judged oral formulations to be better than monthly injections for adherent patients and monthly injections to be a better choice for nonadherent patients.

  12. A new active portfolio risk management for an electricity retailer based on a drawdown risk preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charwand, Mansour; Gitizadeh, Mohsen; Siano, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the deciding under uncertainty of an electricity retailer in order to maximise its total expected rate of return. The developed methodology is based on the modelling of the stochastic evolution of zonal prices that seeks to manage a portfolio of different contracts. Retailer's load and the price at each zone are forecasted using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and a clustering technique is used for scenario reduction. Supply sources include the pool, self-production facilities, forward and bilateral contracts. The risk of cost fluctuation due to uncertainties is explicitly modelled using the multi-scenario drawdown methodology. This risk function quantifies in aggregated format the frequency and magnitude of the portfolio drawdowns over planning horizon. In-sample and out-of-sample runs are performed for a portfolio allocation problem. Carried out experimental results on the basis of realistic data, show that imposing risk constraints improve the “real” performance of a portfolio management in out-of-sample runs. - Highlights: • A new drawdown-based method is introduced to retailer deciding under uncertainty. • This tool is used to assess the risk levels regarding retailer midterm strategies. • The methodology is based on the modeling of the stochastic evolution of zonal prices. • The risk function quantifies the frequency and magnitude of the portfolio drawdowns. • In-sample and out-of-sample runs are performed for a portfolio allocation problem.

  13. The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mansouri, Shamma; Ojha, Shreesh; Al Maamari, Elyazia; Al Ameri, Mouza; Nurulain, Syed M; Bahi, Amine

    2014-09-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that brain CB2 cannabinoid receptors play a major role in alcohol reward. In fact, the implication of cannabinoid neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of ethanol (EtOH) is becoming increasingly evident. The CB2 receptor agonist, β-caryophyllene (BCP) was used to investigate the role of the CB2 receptors in mediating alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (EtOH-CPP) and sensitivity in mice. The effect of BCP on alcohol intake was evaluated using the standard two-bottle choice drinking method. The mice were presented with increasing EtOH concentrations and its consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was measured following the EtOH preference tests. Finally, the effect of BCP on alcohol reward and sensitivity was tested using an unbiased EtOH-CPP and loss of righting-reflex (LORR) procedures, respectively. BCP dose-dependently decreased alcohol consumption and preference. Additionally, BCP-injected mice did not show any difference from vehicle mice in total fluid intake in a 24-hour paradigm nor in their intake of graded concentrations of saccharin or quinine, suggesting that the CB2 receptor activation did not alter taste function. More importantly, BCP inhibited EtOH-CPP acquisition and exacerbated LORR duration. Interestingly, these effects were abrogated when mice were pre-injected with a selective CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630. Overall, the CB2 receptor system appears to be involved in alcohol dependence and sensitivity and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient Preferences in Regulatory Benefit-Risk Assessments: A US Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F Reed; Zhou, Mo

    Demands for greater transparency in US regulatory assessments of benefits and risks, together with growing interest in engaging patients in Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision making, have resulted in several recent regulatory developments. Although Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) and Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) have established patient-engagement initiatives, CDRH has proposed guidelines for considering quantitative data on patients' benefit-risk perspectives, while CDER has focused on a more qualitative approach. We summarize two significant studies that were developed in collaboration and consultation with CDER and CDRH. CDER encouraged a patient advocacy group to propose draft guidance on engaging patient and caregiver stakeholders in regulatory decision making for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. CDRH sponsored a discrete-choice experiment case study to quantify obese respondents' perspectives on "meaningful benefits." CDRH and CDER issued draft guidance in May and June 2015, respectively, on including patient-preference data in regulatory submissions. Both organizations face challenges. CDER is working on integrating qualitative data into existing evidence-based review processes and is exploring options for therapeutic areas not included on a priority list. CDRH has adopted an approach that requires patient-preference data to satisfy standards of valid scientific evidence. Although that strategy could facilitate integrating patient perspectives directly with clinical data on benefits and harms, generating such data requires building capacity. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk aversion, time preference and health production: theory and empirical evidence from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between risk aversion and discount rates on the one hand and height and weight on the other. It studies this link in the context of poor households in Cambodia. Evidence is based on an original dataset that contains both experimental measures of risk taking and impatience along with anthropometric measurements of children and adults. The aim of the paper is to (i) explore the importance of risk and time preferences in explaining undernutrition and (ii) compare the evidence stemming from poor households to strikingly similar findings from industrialized countries. It uses an inter-generational approach to explain observed correlations in adults and children that is inspired by the height premium on labor markets. Parents can invest in the health capital of their child to increase future earnings and their consumption when old: better nutrition during infancy translates into better human capital and better wages, and ultimately better financial means to take care of elderly parents. However this investment is subject to considerable uncertainty, since parents neither perfectly foresee economic conditions when the child starts earning nor fully observe the ability to transform nutritional investments into long-term health capital. As a result, risk taking households have taller and heavier children. Conversely, impatience does not affect child health. In the case of adults, only weight and the body mass index (BMI), but not height, are positively and moderately correlated with risk taking and impatience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Puente B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz de la Puente, Elizabeth Romero-Alejo, José Miguel Vela, Manuel Merlos, Daniel Zamanillo, Enrique Portillo-Salido Department of Pharmacology, Drug Discovery and Preclinical Development, ESTEVE, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically

  17. One size does not fit all: HIV testing preferences differ among high-risk groups in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Mtuy, Tara; Brown, Derek S; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximize the effectiveness of "Seek, Test, and Treat" strategies for curbing the HIV epidemic, new approaches are needed to increase the uptake of HIV testing services, particularly among high-risk groups. Low HIV testing rates among such groups suggest that current testing services may not align well with the testing preferences of these populations. Female bar workers and male mountain porters have been identified as two important high-risk groups in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. We used conventional survey methods and a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a preference elicitation method increasingly applied by economists and policy-makers to inform health policy and services, to analyze trade-offs made by individuals and quantify preferences for HIV testing services. Bivariate descriptive statistics were used to analyze differences in survey responses across groups. Compared to 486 randomly selected community members, 162 female bar workers and 194 male Kilimanjaro porters reported 2-3 times as many lifetime sexual partners (p porters preferred testing in venues where antiretroviral therapy was readily available. Both high-risk groups were less averse to traveling longer distances to test compared to their community counterparts. These results expose systematic differences in HIV testing preferences across high-risk populations compared to their community peers. Tailoring testing options to the preferences of high-risk populations should be evaluated as a means of improving uptake of testing in these populations.

  18. Selectively bred crossed high-alcohol-preferring mice drink to intoxication and develop functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization during free-choice ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines and demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. In this report, we investigated the relationship between free-choice drinking, intoxication, tolerance, and sensitization in cHAP mice. We hypothesized that initially mice would become ataxic after drinking alcohol, but that increased drinking over days would be accompanied by increasing tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol (EtOH). Male and female cHAP mice had free-choice access to 10% EtOH and water (E), while Water mice (W) had access to water alone. In experiment 1, the first drinking experience was monitored during the dark portion of the cycle. Once E mice reached an average intake rate of ≥1.5 g/kg/h, they, along with W mice, were tested for footslips on a balance beam, and BECs were assessed. In experiments 2, 3, and 4, after varying durations of free-choice 10% EtOH access (0, 3, 14, or 21 days), mice were challenged with 20% EtOH and tested for number of footslips on a balance beam or locomotor stimulant response. Blood was sampled for BEC determination. We found that cHAP mice rapidly acquire alcohol intakes that lead to ataxia. Over time, cHAP mice developed behavioral tolerance to the ataxic effects of alcohol, paralleled by escalating alcohol consumption. However, locomotor sensitization did not develop following 14 days of free-choice EtOH access. Overall, we observed increases in free-choice drinking with extended alcohol access paralleled by increases in functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization. These data support our hypothesis that escalating free-choice drinking over days in cHAP mice is driven by tolerance to alcohol's behavioral effects. These data are the first to demonstrate that escalating free-choice consumption is accompanied by increasing alcohol tolerance. In

  19. The relationship between weight loss and time and risk preference parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Akemi; Nakamura, Ryota; Furukawa, Masakazu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Nishimura, Shuzo; Kosugi, Shinji

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of intervention (specifically, intervention by telephone and mails, known as 'tele-care') relative to self-help as a weight-loss method. The question of whether there is a correlation between changes in two preference parameters--time discounting (i.e. impatience) and risk aversion--and the level of commitment was examined. The study, spanning a period of 24 weeks in 2006-2007, comprised 118 participants, each of whom was randomly assigned to either the tele-care or the self-help group. A public-health nurse provided support through telephone and mail communications to the tele-care group, aiming to reduce their calorie intake and increase exercise via this intervention. There was a significant decrease in the body weight of the participants of the tele-care group from the baseline; however, there were no significant differences in the weight loss, median time discounting or risk aversion between the two groups. The subsequent analysis for weight loss with changes in time and risk parameters revealed a significant difference in the weight loss in the time-discounting-loss and risk-aversion-gain groups. From the results of the multiple regression analysis, the time discounting was noted to be associated with age, initial BMI and marital status among men, and risk aversion was associated with age and job status among women. There is a possibility that a decrease in time discounting and increase in risk aversion might correlate with the weight loss or effectiveness of commitment in this trial. This study suggests that time discounting and risk aversion may be useful in anti-obesity efforts, since they are accurate criteria of behavioural patterns associated with weight problems. © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  20. Parents’ literacy skills, reading preferences, and the risk of dyslexia in Year 1 students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łockiewicz Marta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the familial risk of dyslexia in Year 1 school beginners, whose parents had been diagnosed as dyslexic or exhibited symptoms of the specific difficulties in reading and writing without a formal opinion issued by a counselling centre. We found that both a dyslexia report and specific reading and writing difficulties with no formal diagnosis manifested by a family member, and parents’ reading preferences, predicted the risk of dyslexia in Year 1 children. Moreover, the children at familiar risk of dyslexia, as compared with their peers at no risk, later began to babble, were less apt at self-help and liked drawing less at the age of 2-3 years, and experienced more problems with drawing a circle at the age of 3. Additionally, during Year 1 of education, they performed poorer in fine motor skills, linguistic perception and sound deletion, visual functions and attention. Such symptoms can be observed by parents and teachers during the child’s play and educational activities. Early intervention can enhance the child’s readiness to school entry, and facilitate effective and satisfactory learning, increasing their further educational opportunities and the quality of life.

  1. Influence of the novel histamine H₃ receptor antagonist ST1283 on voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Schwed, Stephan J; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Growing evidence supports a role for the central histaminergic system to have a modulatory influence on drug addiction in general and alcohol-use disorders in particular through histamine H3 receptors (H3R). In the present study, the effects of systemic injection of the newly synthesized H3R antagonist ST1283 on ethanol (EtOH) voluntary intake and EtOH-conditioned reward in mice have been investigated. Oral EtOH, saccharin, and quinine intake was assessed in a two-bottle choice paradigm using escalating concentrations of alcohol or tastant solutions. EtOH-induced place preference (CPP), EtOH-induced locomotor activity, and blood ethanol concentration (BEC) were also measured. Following administration of the H3R antagonist (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), there was a significant dose-dependent decrease in alcohol consumption and preference. Importantly, vehicle- and ST1283 (5 mg/kg)-treated mice showed similar consumption and preference to increasing concentration of both sweet and bitter tastes. More interestingly, systemic administration of ST1283 inhibited EtOH-CPP and EtOH-enhanced locomotion. This inhibition was blocked when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(alpha)-methyl-histamine (10 mg/kg). Finally, vehicle- and ST1283-treated mice had similar BECs. Our results show that ST1283 may decrease voluntary EtOH consumption and EtOH-CPP by altering its reinforcing effects, suggesting a novel role for histamine signaling in regulation of alcoholism. Lastly, the results add to the growing literature on H3R modulation in the pharmacotherapy of EtOH addiction.

  2. At risk of being risky: The relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Rudolph

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts relates to a group mean difference in risk perception − a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18–21. The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.”

  3. At risk of being risky: the relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Marc D.; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Cohen, Alexandra O.; Breiner, Kaitlyn; Steinberg, Laurence; Bonnie, Richard J.; Scott, Elizabeth S.; Taylor-Thompson, Kim A.; Chein, Jason; Fettich, Karla C.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Galván, Adriana; Casey, BJ; Fair, Damien A.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10–25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts) relates to a group mean difference in risk perception – a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18–21). The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.” PMID:28279917

  4. Quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: First count, then hunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia ePanteleeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the vital situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants. In the first (preliminary experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different size, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37±003 to 4±0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m 2per min in the vicinity of anthills and ants’ routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents.. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs 15, 5 vs 30 and 10 vs 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  5. Priority of a Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relation with a Normal Distribution in Meteorological Disaster Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Gong, Zaiwu

    2017-10-10

    As meteorological disaster systems are large complex systems, disaster reduction programs must be based on risk analysis. Consequently, judgment by an expert based on his or her experience (also known as qualitative evaluation) is an important link in meteorological disaster risk assessment. In some complex and non-procedural meteorological disaster risk assessments, a hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation (HFLPR) is often used to deal with a situation in which experts may be hesitant while providing preference information of a pairwise comparison of alternatives, that is, the degree of preference of one alternative over another. This study explores hesitation from the perspective of statistical distributions, and obtains an optimal ranking of an HFLPR based on chance-restricted programming, which provides a new approach for hesitant fuzzy optimisation of decision-making in meteorological disaster risk assessments.

  6. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  7. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Manning

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning. Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG] versus usual care (individual consultations treatment. Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Ninety six chose FBTG while 97 chose usual care. A questionnaire, the hospital database and patients’ folders were used to collect data. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. STATA 11.0 was used for descriptive statistics and to compare the two groups. Results: The subjects’ mean age was 50.4 years, 78% were women and of low education levels and income, and 41.5% had type 2 diabetes, 83.4% hypertension and 69.5% high cholesterol. Mean (s.d. HbA1c was 9.1 (2.0%, systolic BP 145.6 (21.0 mmHg, diastolic BP 84.5 (12.0 mmHg, cholesterol 5.4 (1.2 mmol/L, body mass indicator (BMI 39.3 (7.3 kg/m2 and waist circumference 117 (12.6 cm. These figures were undesirable although pharmacological treatment for diabetes and hypertension was in place. Only 14% were physically active, while TV viewing was > 2h/day. Mean daily intake of fruit and vegetables (2.2 portions/day was low while added sugar (5 teaspoons and sugar-sweetened beverages (1.3 glasses were high. Usual care patients had a higher smoking prevalence, HbA1c, number of NCD risk factors and refined carbohydrate intake, and a lower fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion: Treatment seekers were typically middle-aged, low income women with various modifiable and intermediate risk factors for NCDs. Patients choosing usual care could have more NCD risks. Keywords: Non-communicable diseases; primary health care; family

  8. Models and mosaics: investigating cross-cultural differences in risk perception and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E U; Hsee, C K

    1999-12-01

    In this article, we describe a multistudy project designed to explain observed cross-national differences in risk taking between respondents from the People's Republic of China and the United States. Using this example, we develop the following recommendations for cross-cultural investigations. First, like all psychological research, cross-cultural studies should be model based. Investigators should commit themselves to a model of the behavior under study that explicitly specifies possible causal constructs or variables hypothesized to influence the behavior, as well as the relationship between those variables, and allows for individual, group, or cultural differences in the value of these variables or in the relationship between them. This moves the focus from a simple demonstration of cross-national differences toward a prediction of the behavior, including its cross-national variation. Ideally, the causal construct hypothesized and shown to differ between cultures should be demonstrated to serve as a moderator or a mediator between culture and observed behavioral differences. Second, investigators should look for converging evidence for hypothesized cultural effects on behavior by looking at multiple dependent variables and using multiple methodological approaches. Thus, the data collection that will allow for the establishment of conclusive causal connections between a cultural variable and some target behavior can be compared with the creation of a mosaic.

  9. The adoption of switchgrass and miscanthus by farmers: Impact of liquidity constraints and risk preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocqueho, G.; Jacquet, F.

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is expected to become a key feedstock for renewable energy production. However, the potential supply strongly depends on farmers' willingness to grow the new perennial energy crops. Many economic assessments have been led at the farm level, all based on the standard net present value approach. This paper looks into the effect of farmers' liquidity constraints and risk preferences on switchgrass and miscanthus adoption by farmers. We study the problem of the land allocation between a traditional cropping system and an innovative one in a static framework, using four intertemporal choice models. We find that, in central France agronomic and economic conditions, switchgrass and miscanthus result to be less profitable in terms of annualised net margin than the usual rape/wheat/barley rotation. Nevertheless, they can be highly competitive as diversification crops when appropriate contracts are offered to farmers, despite the additional liquidity they require.

  10. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Helen H. [Iowa State University, Department of Economics, 578 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail hhjensen@iastate.edu

    2006-07-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  11. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Helen H. . E-mail hhjensen@iastate.edu

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends

  12. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  13. Linking infant-directed speech and face preferences to language outcomes in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droucker, Danielle; Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six infants were tested at ages 6, 8, 12, and 18 months. Infants heard 2 ID and 2 adult-directed (AD) speech passages paired with either a checkerboard or a face. The authors assessed expressive language at 12 and 18 months and general functioning at 12 months using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (Mullen, 1995). Both infant groups preferred ID to AD speech and preferred faces to checkerboards. SIBS-TD demonstrated higher expressive language at 18 months than did SIBS-A, a finding that correlated with preferences for ID speech at 12 months. Although both groups looked longer to face stimuli than to the checkerboard, the magnitude of the preference was smaller in SIBS-A and predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months in this group. Infants' preference for faces contributed to risk-group membership in a logistic regression analysis. Infants at heightened risk of ASD differ from typically developing infants in their preferences for ID speech and faces, which may underlie deficits in later language development and social communication.

  14. Chronic free-choice drinking in crossed high alcohol preferring mice leads to sustained blood ethanol levels and metabolic tolerance without evidence of liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David; Buckingham, Amy; Ross, Ruth Ann; Halcomb, Meredith; Grahame, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines, and we demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking that are reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. Therefore, this line may provide an unprecedented opportunity to learn about the consequences of excessive voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption, including metabolic tolerance and liver pathology. Cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction plays a prominent role in driving both metabolic tolerance and EtOH-induced liver injury. In this report, we sought to characterize cHAP drinking by assessing whether pharmacologically relevant BEC levels are sustained throughout the active portion of the light-dark cycle. Given that cHAP intakes and BECs are similar to those observed in mice given an EtOH liquid diet, we assessed whether free-choice exposure results in metabolic tolerance, hepatic enzyme induction, and hepatic steatosis. In experiment 1, blood samples were taken across the dark portion of a 12:12 light-dark cycle to examine the pattern of EtOH accumulation in these mice. In experiments 1 and 2, mice were injected with EtOH following 3 to 4 weeks of access to water or 10% EtOH and water, and blood samples were taken to assess metabolic tolerance. In experiment 3, 24 mice had 4 weeks of access to 10% EtOH and water or water alone, followed by necropsy and hepatological assessment. In experiment 1, cHAP mice mean BEC values exceeded 80 mg/dl at all sampling points and approached 200 mg/dl during the middle of the dark cycle. In experiments 1 and 2, EtOH-exposed mice metabolized EtOH faster than EtOH-naïve mice, demonstrating metabolic tolerance (p alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These results demonstrate that excessive intake by cHAP mice results in sustained BECs throughout the active period, leading to the development of metabolic tolerance and evidence of CYP2E1 induction

  15. Directional preference and functional outcomes among subjects classified at high psychosocial risk using STarT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Young, Michelle; Grigsby, David; McClenahan, Brian; McGill, Troy

    2018-03-14

    Physiotherapy has an important role in managing patients with non-specific low back pain who experience elevated psychosocial distress or risk for chronic disability. In terms of evidence-based physiotherapy practice, cognitive-behavioural approaches for patients at high psychosocial risk are the recommended management to improve patient treatment outcomes. Evidence also suggests that directional preference (DP) is an important treatment effect modifier for prescribing specific exercises for patients to improve outcomes. Little is known about the influence of treatment techniques based on DP on outcomes for patients classified as high psychosocial risk using the Subgroups for Targeted Treatment (STarT) Back Screening Tool. This study aimed to examine the association between functional status (FS) at rehabilitation discharge for patients experiencing low back pain classified at high STarT psychosocial risk and whose symptoms showed a DP versus No-DP. High STarT risk patients (n = 138) completed intake surveys, that is, the lumbar FS of Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc., and STarT, and were evaluated for DP by physiotherapists credentialed in McKenzie methods. The FS measure of Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc., was repeated at discharge. DP and No-DP prevalence rates were calculated. Associations between first-visit DP and No-DP and change in FS were assessed using univariate and multivariate regression models controlling for 11 risk-adjusted variables. One hundred nine patients classified as high STarT risk had complete intake and discharge FS and DP data. Prevalence rate for DP was 65.1%. A significant and clinically important difference (7.98 FS points; p = .03) in change in function at discharge between DP and No-DP was observed after controlling for all confounding variables in the final model. Findings suggest that interventions matched to DP are effective for managing high psychological risk patients and may provide physiotherapists with an

  16. Preferences for breast cancer risk reduction among BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers: a discrete-choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede, Alexander; Mansfield, Carol A; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Price, Melanie A; Snyder, Carrie; Lynch, Henry T; Friedman, Sue; Amelio, Justyna; Posner, Joshua; Narod, Steven A; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Evans, D Gareth

    2017-09-01

    Unaffected women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations face difficult choices about reducing their breast cancer risk. Understanding their treatment preferences could help us improve patient counseling and inform drug trials. The objective was to explore preferences for various risk-reducing options among women with germline BRCA1/2 mutations using a discrete-choice experiment survey and to compare expressed preferences with actual behaviors. A discrete-choice experiment survey was designed wherein women choose between hypothetical treatments to reduce breast cancer risk. The hypothetical treatments were characterized by the extent of breast cancer risk reduction, treatment duration, impact on fertility, hormone levels, risk of uterine cancer, and ease and mode of administration. Data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Women were also asked to express their preference between surgical and chemoprevention options and to report on their actual risk-reduction actions. Women aged 25-55 years with germline BRCA1/2 mutations who were unaffected with breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through research registries at five clinics and a patient advocacy group. Between January 2015 and March 2016, 622 women completed the survey. Breast cancer risk reduction was the most important consideration expressed, followed by maintaining fertility. Among the subset of women who wished to have children in future, the ability to maintain fertility was the most important factor, followed by the extent of risk reduction. Many more women said they would take a chemoprevention drug than had actually taken chemoprevention. Women with BRCA1/2 mutations indicated strong preferences for breast cancer risk reduction and maintaining fertility. The expressed desire to have a safe chemoprevention drug available to them was not met by current chemoprevention options.

  17. a Study of Risk Preferences and Perceptions of Weather Variability of Smallholder Subsistence Farmers in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Michelson, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the global population reached seven billion people. According to Foley et al. (2011) nearly one billion still suffer from chronic hunger. World population is expected to increase by another 9-11 billion by 2050. As demand for food grows, the world food system faces three primary challenges: to ensure that the current population of seven billion is adequately fed, to double food production to meet future population growth, and to achieve both in an environmentally sustainable way. As pressures on the global food system grow, sub-Saharan presents a special set of opportunities and challenges. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder adoption of productivity-increasing agricultural technologies has proved a pervasive challenge and staple grain yields in the region lag significantly behind the rest of the world. National policies and internationally-funded initiatives such as the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) have proposed to close the agricultural yield gap through promotion of small farmer adoption of technologies that increase production efficiency, such as improved seeds, fertilizer and irrigation. However, research has found that even when these productivity-enhancing technologies are provided at subsidized costs, many projects report take-up rates well below 100%. In order to understand why farmers are not making investments to improve staple crop yields, it is critical to investigate the nature of the problem of the low take-up rate. Possible hypotheses include: credit constraints, opportunity costs, and farmer risk and/or time preferences that lead them to delay investment. Our project in Mwandama, Malawi uses techniques from prospect theory and expected utility theory to provide insight into farmer decision-making around technology adoption. We build on past research conducted in Ethiopia, India and Uganda, which has found that poor farmers systematically underweight the likelihood of good outcomes. We use a new methodology

  18. Individual Differences in Subjective Utility and Risk Preferences: The Influence of Hedonic Capacity and Trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Jonathon R; Paulus, Martin P

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not). We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points). Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve), while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway that is separate

  19. Individual Differences in Subjective Utility and Risk Preferences: The Influence of Hedonic Capacity and Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon R. Howlett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not. We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points. Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve, while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway

  20. Individual Differences in Subjective Utility and Risk Preferences: The Influence of Hedonic Capacity and Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Jonathon R.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not). We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points). Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve), while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway that is separate

  1. Role of the Dopaminergic System in the Acquisition, Expression and Reinstatement of MDMA-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Adolescent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Roger-Sánchez, Concepción; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Aguilar, María A.; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Background The rewarding effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA) have been demonstrated in conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures, but the involvement of the dopaminergic system in MDMA-induced CPP and reinstatement is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the effects of the DA D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg), the DA D2 antagonist Haloperidol (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), the D2 antagonist Raclopride (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg) and the dopamine release inhibitor CGS 10746B (3 and 10 mg/kg) on the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of a CPP induced by 10 mg/kg of MDMA were evaluated in adolescent mice. As expected, MDMA significantly increased the time spent in the drug-paired compartment during the post-conditioning (Post-C) test, and a priming dose of 5 mg/kg reinstated the extinguished preference. The higher doses of Haloperidol, Raclopride and CGS 10746B and both doses of SCH 23390 blocked acquisition of the MDMA-induced CPP. However, only Haloperidol blocked expression of the CPP. Reinstatement of the extinguished preference was not affected by any of the drugs studied. Analysis of brain monoamines revealed that the blockade of CPP acquisition was accompanied by an increase in DA concentration in the striatum, with a concomitant decrease in DOPAC and HVA levels. Administration of haloperidol during the Post-C test produced increases in striatal serotonin, DOPAC and HVA concentrations. In mice treated with the higher doses of haloperidol and CGS an increase in SERT concentration in the striatum was detected during acquisition of the CPP, but no changes in DAT were observed. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that, in adolescent mice, the dopaminergic system is involved in the acquisition and expression of MDMA-induced CPP, but not in its reinstatement. PMID:22916213

  2. Does natural disaster influence people's risk preference and trust? An experiment from cyclone prone coast of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Natural catastrophic events may have enormous negative effects on economic growth. People affected by the disaster might be risk averse because of anxiety about the future uncertainty of economic returns. The purpose of this empirical study is to highlight the effect of natural disasters...... (specifically coastal cyclonic storm surges) on individuals' risk preference and level of trust. This study also aims to disentangle risk propensity from trust. It reveals that natural disasters can significantly reduce people's risk-taking attitudes, whereas the catastrophic events have no influence...... on trusting behavior. The study suggests that risk attitudes are significantly negatively correlated with trust....

  3. Precision Oncology and Genetic Risk Information: Exploring Patients' Preferences and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Jada Hamilton is an Assistant Member at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, as well as an Assistant Attending Psychologist in the Behavioral Sciences Service, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and in the Clinical Genetics Service, Department of Medicine at Memorial Hospital in New York, New York.  She leads a program of research at the intersection of behavioral science, cancer prevention, and genomics, with the goal of translating advances in genetic and genomic medicine into improved cancer care that is of high quality, aligned with patient preferences, and ultimately improves public health.  Dr. Hamilton is also currently leading a study to assess how patients and their families respond to inherited risk information that is revealed as part of tumor sequencing (funded through a Mentored Research Scholar Grant from the American Cancer Society), as well as studies to evaluate alternative models for offering genetic counseling and testing to patients with cancer, and to examine the effects of novel breast cancer genetic risk feedback on patients’ decision-making, psychological, and behavioral outcomes. Prior to joining the faculty of Memorial Sloan Kettering, Dr. Hamilton received a BA in Genetics and Psychology from Ohio Wesleyan University (2004), an MA and PhD in Social and Health Psychology from Stony Brook University (2006, 2009), and an MPH from the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University (2010).  She also completed a postdoctoral fellowship as part of the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program.

  4. A study investigating the travel habits and preferences of older Australian adults with a falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Annie; Thurtell, Andrew; Clemson, Lindy; Kendig, Hal

    2011-12-01

      To investigate the travel habits and preferences of city-dwelling older Australians with a falls risk, and factors influencing outings.   A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted with 96 community-dwelling adults with a falls risk.   The mean age of participants was 78.2 years (SD 5.33). The majority were women (77%). Most (75%) went on five or more outings per week (mean 6.9 outings). Men drove more than women (41% vs 31%). Shopping was the most common reason for outings. Walking was the most frequent mode of travel, and buses were both the easiest and most difficult. Factors that enabled bus travel included bus stop location, good services and cheap fares. Primary reasons for restricting outings were poor health, transport barriers, neighbourhood safety and personal motivation.   These older adults went out nearly every day. Findings can be used to improve transport services for older people. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  5. The effects of anticipated regret on risk preferences of social and problem gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Tochkov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated regret is an important determinant in risky decision making, however only a few studies have explored its role in problem gambling. This study tested for differences in the anticipation of regret among social and problem gamblers and examined how these differences affect risk preferences in a gambling task. The extent of problem gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen and participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the risky feedback condition, the feeling of regret was avoided by choosing the risky gamble, whereas in the safe feedback condition the safe gamble was the regret-minimizing option. Problem gambling was associated with the choice of the risky gamble in both conditions indicating less sensitivity to anticipated regret. It was also associated with risk seeking across feedback conditions when the stakes of winning and loosing were higher. These findings suggest that less regret or the poor anticipation of regret might contribute to excessive gambling and thus need to be addressed in cognitive treatments of problem gambling.

  6. Inhibition of urokinase plasminogen activator “uPA” activity alters ethanol consumption and conditioned place preference in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Maamari E

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Elyazia Al Maamari,* Mouza Al Ameri, Shamma Al Mansouri, Amine Bahi*Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA, is a serine protease implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Using its specific inhibitor, B428, we and others have characterized the role of uPA in the rewarding properties of psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, but none have examined the role of uPA in ethanol use disorders. Therefore, in the current study, we extended our observations to the role of uPA in ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference. The general aim of the present series of experiments was to investigate the effects of the administration of the B428 on voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol conditioned reward. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol intake between vehicle- and 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg B428-administered mice. For this purpose, the mice were presented with an ethanol solution (2.5%–20% and water, at each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was also measured. Systemic administration of B428 dose-dependently decreased ethanol intake and preference. Additionally, B428 mice did not differ from vehicle mice in their intake of graded solutions of tastants, suggesting that the uPA inhibition did not alter taste function. Also, ethanol metabolism was not affected following B428 injection. More importantly, 1.5 g/kg ethanol-induced conditioned place preference acquisition was blocked following B428 administration. Taken together, our results are the first to implicate uPA inhibition in the regulation of ethanol consumption and preference, and suggest that uPA may be considered as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and

  7. The novel non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonist DL77 reduces voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine; Sadek, Bassem; Nurulain, Syed M; Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    It has become clear that histamine H3 receptors (H3R) have been implicated in modulating ethanol intake and preference in laboratory animals. The novel non-imidazole H3R antagonist DL77 with excellent selectivity profile shows high in-vivo potency as well as in-vitro antagonist affinity with ED50 of 2.1 ± 0.2 mg/kg and pKi=8.08, respectively. In the present study, and applying an unlimited access two-bottle choice procedure, the anti-alcohol effects of the H3R antagonist, DL77 (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg; i.p.), were investigated in adult mice. In this C57BL/6 line, effects of DL77 on voluntary alcohol intake and preference, as well as on total fluid intake were evaluated. Results have shown that DL77, dose-dependently, reduced both ethanol intake and preference. These effects were very selective as both saccharin and quinine, used to control for taste sensitivity, and intakes were not affected following DL77 pre-application. More importantly, systemic administration of DL77 (10 mg/kg) during acquisition inhibited ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (EtOH-CPP) as measured using an unbiased protocol. The anti-alcohol activity observed for DL77 was abrogated when mice were pretreated with the selective H3R agonist R-(α)-methyl-histamine (RAMH) (10 mg/kg), or with the CNS penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR) (10mg/kg). These results suggest that DL77 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol. Therefore, signaling via H3R is essential for ethanol-related consumption and conditioned reward and may represent a novel therapeutic pharmacological target to tackle ethanol abuse and alcoholism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low dose diagnostic radiation does not increase cancer risk in cancer prone mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D., E-mail: dboreham@nosm.ca [Northern Ontario School of Medicine, ON (Canada); Phan, N., E-mail: nghiphan13@yahoo.com [Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lemon, J., E-mail: lemonja@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The increased exposure of patients to low dose diagnostic ionizing radiation has created concern that these procedures will result in greater risk of carcinogenesis. However, there is substantial evidence that shows in many cases that low dose exposure has the opposite effect. We have investigated whether CT scans can modify mechanisms associated with carcinogenesis in cancer-prone mice. Cancer was induced in Trp53+/- mice with an acute high dose whole-body 4 Gy γ-radiation exposure. Four weeks following the cancer-inducing dose, weekly whole-body CT scans (10 mGy/scan, 75 kVp X-rays) were given for ten consecutive weeks adding an additional radiation burden of 0.1 Gy. Short-term biological responses and subsequent lifetime cancer risk were investigated. Five days following the last CT scan, there were no detectable differences in the spontaneous levels of DNA damage in blood cells (reticulocytes). In fact, CT scanned mice had significantly lower constitutive levels of oxidative DNA damage and cell death (apoptosis), compared to non-CT scanned mice. This shows that multiple low dose radiation exposures modified the radio response and indicates protective processes were induced in mice. In mice treated with the multiple CT scans following the high cancer-inducing 4 Gy dose, tumour latency was increased, significantly prolonging lifespan. We conclude that repeated CT scans can reduce the cancer risk of a prior high-dose radiation exposure, and delay the progression of specific types of radiation-induced cancers in Trp53+/-mice. This research shows for the first time that low dose exposure long after cancer initiation events alter risk and reduce cancer morbidity. Cancer induction following low doses does not follow a linear non-threshold model of risk and this model should not be used to extrapolate risk to humans following low dose exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. The relation of risk-taking propensity, professional preferences and the approach to the selection of future profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić-Marković Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that risk-taking individuals choose professions that involve a high level of uncertainty, change or flexibility. The aim of this research was to study the relation between risk-taking propensity and professional preferences, as well as between different indicators of the approach to the selection of future profession and risk-taking propensity. The study was conducted on the sample of 583 students attending the final grade of secondary school. For the assessment of risk-taking propensity we used a modified version of the Evaluation of Risk scale (EVAR, while professional interests were investigated by the Test of Professional Orientation (TPO. In addition, we analysed certain indicators of the approach to the selection of profession that were interesting in the context of career counselling, namely: duration of the selection of profession, the number of professional preferences and readiness to make a professional choice. The results have shown that risk-taking propensity is significantly correlated with professional preferences where risk is an important job feature (such as professions in the field of security as well as with the professions where risk is an important part of success (such as sports. It has also been shown that risk-taking individuals assess themselves as more ready to make decisions on their own professional choice. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that risk-taking propensity is an important characteristic that should be taken into account when studying professional preferences and the approach to the selection of future profession in adolescents.

  10. In Sickness but Not in Wealth: Field Evidence on Patients' Risk Preferences in Financial and Health Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo M; Miraldo, Marisa; Stavropoulou, Charitini

    2016-05-01

    We present results from a hypothetical framed field experiment assessing whether risk preferences significantly differ across the health and financial domains when they are elicited through the same multiple price list paired-lottery method. We consider a sample of 300 patients attending outpatient clinics in a university hospital in Athens during the Greek financial crisis. Risk preferences in finance were elicited using paired-lottery questions with hypothetical payments. The questions were adapted to the health domain by framing the lotteries as risky treatments in hypothetical health care scenarios. Using maximum likelihood methods, we estimated the degree of risk aversion, allowing for the estimates to be dependent on domain and individual characteristics. The subjects in our sample, who were exposed to both health and financial distress, tended to be less risk averse in the financial domain than in the health domain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Towards a Practical and Scientifically Sound Tool for Measuring Time and Risk Preferences in Pension Savings Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, Jan; Riedl, A.; Smeets, Paul

    We present a recently developed experimental method to estimate individuals’ time and risk preferences and test it for its suitability in the pension context. Participants allocate money between an account that pays out at an earlier date and an account that pays out at later dates. Money allocated

  12. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Technology Use, Preferences, and Capacity in Injured Patients at Risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cory M; Van Eaton, Erik G; Russo, Joan E; Kelly, Victoria C; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Darnell, Doyanne A; Whiteside, Lauren K; Wang, Jin; Parker, Lea E; Payne, Thomas H; Mooney, Sean D; Bush, Nigel; Zatzick, Douglas F

    2017-01-01

    This investigation comprehensively assessed the technology use, preferences, and capacity of diverse injured trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A total of 121 patients participating in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of stepped collaborative care targeting PTSD symptoms were administered baseline one-, three-, and six-month interviews that assessed technology use. Longitudinal data about the instability of patient cell phone ownership and phone numbers were collected from follow-up interviews. PTSD symptoms were also assessed over the course of the six months after injury. Regression analyses explored the associations between cell phone instability and PTSD symptoms. At baseline, 71.9% (n = 87) of patients reported current cell phone ownership, and over half (58.2%, n = 46) of these patients possessed basic cell phones. Only 19.0% (n = 23) of patients had no change in cell phone number or physical phone over the course of the six months postinjury. In regression models that adjusted for relevant clinical and demographic characteristics, cell phone instability was associated with higher six-month postinjury PTSD symptom levels (p risk for the development of PTSD have unique technology use patterns, including high rates of cell phone instability. These observations should be strongly considered when developing technology-supported interventions for injured patients with PTSD.

  14. Mice lacking the synaptic adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 display moderate hyperactivity and defective novel object preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon eChoi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2–/– mice display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar but not novel environment and novel object recognition deficit with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2–/– dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory.

  15. Older Adults' Perceptions of and Preferences for a Fall Risk Assessment System: Exploring Stages of Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Colleen; Rantz, Marilyn; Back, Jessie; Jun, Jung Sim; Skubic, Marjorie; Miller, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    Aging in place is a preferred and cost-effective living option for older adults. Research indicates that technology can assist with this goal. Information on consumer preferences will help in technology development to assist older adults to age in place. The study aim was to explore the perceptions and preferences of older adults and their family members about a fall risk assessment system. Using a qualitative approach, this study examined the perceptions, attitudes, and preferences of 13 older adults and five family members about their experience living with the fall risk assessment system during five points in time. Themes emerged in relation to preferences and expectations about the technology and how it fits into daily routines. We were able to capture changes that occurred over time for older adult participants. Results indicated that there was acceptance of the technology as participants adapted to it. Two themes were present across the five points in time-safety and usefulness. Five stages of acceptance emerged from the data from preinstallation to 2 years postinstallation. Identified themes, stages of acceptance, and design and development considerations are discussed.

  16. Does exposure to lahars risk affect people's risk-preferences and other attitudes? Field data from incentivized experiments and surveys in Arequipa - Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, C.; Bchir, M. A.; Willinger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Many individuals are exposed to risks which are either difficult to insure or hard to mitigate, such as tsunamis, floods, volcanic eruption,... Little is known about how exposure to such risks shapes individuals' risk-preferences. Are they more (less) risk-averse than people who are unexposed to such hazard risk? We provide empirical evidence about this question for the case of individuals exposed to lahars risk. Lahars are sediments laden flows from volcanic origin. We compare the risk-attitude of people exposed - versus non-exposed ones - to lahars risk. The originality of our approach is that we combine standard survey data to behavioural data collected by means of incentivized experiments. We collected data in various locations of the city of Arequipa (Peru), a densely populated area down the volcano El Misti. Participants in our experiment were identified as (non-)exposed to lahars risk based on risk zoning. Our survey questionnaire allows us to compare assessed exposure and the perceived exposure. We elicit risk-preference, time-preference, and trusting behaviour (a measure of social capital) for each respondent in addition to standard survey data. Our field experiment involved a total of 209 respondents from exposed and non-exposed areas. While respondents endow legitimacy in risk reduction (more than 74%) to a national authority (Defensa Civil) in charge of the management of risk in the city, more than 64% of them consider that they are not sufficiently informed about the behaviours to adopt in case of a disaster. Respondents are therefore poorly motivated to adopt initiatives of self-protection (23%) and express instead high expectations with respect to authorities' actions for decreasing their vulnerability (73%). The experimental data show that participants who live in exposed areas are not significantly more risk-averse than those living in non-exposed ones. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in time-preference between exposed and non

  17. Risk assessment of silica nanoparticles on liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice induced by fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianmei; He, Xiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Mei; Xu, Chenke; Yu, Rong

    2018-07-01

    This study aims to assess the effects and the mechanisms of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on hepatotoxicity in both normal and metabolic syndrome mouse models induced by fructose. Here, we found that SiNPs exposure lead to improved insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome mice, but markedly worsened hepatic ballooning, inflammation infiltration, and fibrosis. Moreover, SiNPs exposure aggravated liver injury in metabolic syndrome mice by causing serious DNA damage. Following SiNPs exposure, liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in metabolic syndrome mice were stimulated, which is accompanied by significantly increased malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as compared to normal mice. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that SiNPs were more readily deposited in the liver mitochondria of metabolic syndrome mice, resulting in more severe mitochondrial injury as compared to normal mice. We speculated that SiNPs-induced mitochondrial injury might be the cause of hepatic oxidative stress, which further lead to a series of liver lesions as observed in mice following SiNPs exposure. Based on these results, it is likely that SiNPs will increase the risk and severity of liver disease in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, SiNPs should be used cautiously in food additives and clinical settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Differences in Risk Preference and c-Fos Expression in Paraventricular Thalamic Nucleus of Rats During Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hironori; Onodera, Mariko; Ohara, Shinya; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Iijima, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Different biological requirements between males and females may cause sex differences in decision preference when choosing between taking a risk to get a higher gain or taking a lower but sure gain. Several studies have tested this assumption in rats, however the conclusion remains controversial because the previous real-world like gambling tasks contained a learning component to track a global payoff of probabilistic outcome in addition to risk preference. Therefore, we modified a simple gambling task allowing us to exclude such learning effect, and investigated the sex difference in risk preference of rats and its neural basis. The task required water deprived rats to choose between a risky option which provided four drops of water or no reward at a 50% random chance vs. a sure option which provided predictable amount x (x = 1, 2, 3, 4). The amount and the risk were explicitly instructed so that different choice conditions could be tested trial by trial without re-learning of reward contingency. Although both sexes correctly chose the sure option with the same level of accuracy when the sure option provided the best offer (x = 4), they exhibited different choice performances when two options had the same expected value (x = 2). Males and females both preferred to take risky choices than sure choices (risk seeking), but males were more risk seeking than females. Outcome-history analysis of their choice pattern revealed that females reduced their risk preference after losing risky choices, whereas males did not. Rather, as losses continued, reaction time for subsequent risky choices got shorter in males. Given that significant sex difference features mainly emerged after negative experiences, male and female rats may evaluate an unsuccessful outcome of their decision in different manners. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PV) was higher in the gambling task than for the control task in males while c-fos levels did not

  19. Long-Term Alcohol Drinking Reduces the Efficacy of Forced Abstinence and Conditioned Taste Aversion in Crossed High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David S; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Negative outcomes of alcoholism are progressively more severe as the duration of problem of alcohol use increases. Additionally, alcoholics demonstrate tendencies to neglect negative consequences associated with drinking and/or to choose to drink in the immediate presence of warning factors against drinking. The recently derived crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice, which volitionally drink to heavier intoxication (as assessed by blood ethanol [EtOH] concentration) than other alcohol-preferring populations, as well as spontaneously escalating their intake, may be a candidate to explore mechanisms underlying long-term excessive drinking. Here, we hypothesized that an extended drinking history would reduce the ability of 2 manipulations (forced abstinence [FA] and conditioned taste aversion [CTA]) to attenuate drinking. Experiment 1 examined differences between groups drinking for either 14 or 35 days, half of each subjected to 7 days of FA and half not, to characterize the potential changes in postabstinence drinking resulting from an extended drinking history. Experiment 2 used a CTA procedure to assess stimulus specificity of the ability of an aversive flavorant to decrease alcohol consumption. Experiment 3 used this taste aversion procedure to assess differences among groups drinking for 1, 14, or 35 days in their propensity to overcome this aversion when the flavorant was mixed with either EtOH or water. Experiment 1 demonstrated that although FA decreased alcohol consumption in mice with a 14-day drinking history, it failed to do so in mice drinking alcohol for 35 days. Experiment 2 showed that the addition of a flavorant only suppressed alcohol drinking if an aversion to the flavorant was previously established. Experiment 3 demonstrated that an extended drinking history expedited extinction of suppressed alcohol intake caused by a conditioned aversive flavor. These data show that a history of long-term drinking in cHAP mice attenuates the efficacy

  20. Effects of Zaprinast and Rolipram on Olfactory and Visual Memory in the Social Transmission of Food Preference and Novel Object Recognition Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuzan Akar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors in central nervous system has been investigated and shown to stimulate neuronal functions and increase neurogenesis in Alzheimer patients. The aim of this study is to investigate effect of PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast and PDE4 inhibitor rolipram on visual memory in novel object recognition (NOR test, on olfactory memory in social transmission of food preference (STFP test, and also on locomotion and anxiety in open field test in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg, rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, or physiological saline. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg significantly increased cued/non-cued food eaten compared to control group, while rolipram had a partial effect on retention trial of STFP test. Zaprinast (10 mg/kg and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg significantly increased ratio index (RI compared to control group in retention trial of NOR test. There was no significant effect of zaprinast and rolipram on total distance moved, speed, and center zone duration in open field test. Results of this study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced visual memory in NOR test, however zaprinast exerted a significant memory-enhancing effect compared to rolipram in STFP test in mice.

  1. At-Risk Learner Preference in Engineering/Technical Graphics: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated learner preferences of secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) Engineering/Technical Graphics students using the VARK Questionnaire. The VARK Questionnaire is an instrument that assists in determining students' dominant preferred learning styles, whether visual, aural, reading, or kinesthetic. This study…

  2. Who reaps the benefits, who bears the risks? Comparative optimism, comparative utility, and regulatory preferences for mobile phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mathew P; Eiser, J Richard; Harris, Peter R; Pahl, Sabine

    2007-06-01

    Although the issue of risk target (e.g., self, others, children) is widely acknowledged in risk perception research, its importance appears underappreciated. To date, most research has been satisfied with demonstrating comparative optimism, i.e., lower perceived risk for the self than others, and exploring its moderators, such as perceived controllability and personal exposure. Much less research has investigated how the issue of target may affect benefit perceptions or key outcomes such as stated preferences for hazard regulation. The current research investigated these issues using data from a public survey of attitudes toward mobile phone technology (N= 1,320). First, results demonstrated comparative optimism for this hazard, and also found moderating effects of both controllability and personal exposure. Second, there was evidence of comparative utility, i.e., users believed that the benefits from mobile phone technology are greater for the self than others. Third, and most important for policy, preferences for handset regulation were best predicted by perceptions of the risks to others but perceived benefits for the self. Results suggest a closer awareness of target can improve prediction of stated preferences for hazard regulation and that it would be profitable for future research to pay more attention to the issue of target for both risk and benefit perceptions.

  3. Self-esteem, interpersonal risk, and preference for e-mail to face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joinson, Adam N

    2004-08-01

    The media choices made by high and low self-esteem Internet users were studied using web-based methodology (n = 265). Participants were asked to rank four media (face-to-face, e-mail, letter, and telephone) in order of preference across four different communication scenarios designed to pose an interpersonal risk. The level of interpersonal risk posed by two of the scenarios (asking for a pay rise and asking for a date) were also experimentally manipulated by randomly allocating participants to a 25%, 50%, or 75% chance of rejection. Low self-esteem users (LSE) showed a significant preference toward e-mail communication compared to high self-esteem users (HSE). This pattern was reversed for face-to-face preferences. Similarly, a greater chance of rejection in a scenario led to e-mail being preferred to face-to-face communication. The results are discussed in light of both the strategic use of different media and the motivated Internet user.

  4. Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: an evaluation of attitudes towards risk and preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Fernández, Jesus; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; del Cura-González, Ma Isabel; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Abraira, Victor; Gil-LaCruz, Ana Isabel; García-Pérez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) expressed by people who attended the healthcare system as well as the association of attitude towards risk and other personal characteristics with their response. Methods Health-state preferences, measured by EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L), were combined with WTP for recovering a perfect health state. WTP was assessed using close-ended, iterative bidding, contingent valuation method. Data on demographic an...

  5. Interactive effects of methylphenidate and alcohol on discrimination, conditioned place preference and motor coordination in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C; McGovern, Robin W; Bell, Guinevere H; Randall, Patrick K; Middaugh, Lawrence D; Patrick, Kennerly S

    2013-02-01

    Prior research indicates methylphenidate (MPH) and alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) interact to significantly affect responses humans and mice. The present studies tested the hypothesis that MPH and EtOH interact to potentiate ethanol-related behaviors in mice. We used several behavioral tasks including: drug discrimination in MPH-trained and EtOH-trained mice, conditioned place preference (CPP), rota-rod and the parallel rod apparatus. We also used gas chromatographic methods to measure brain tissue levels of EtOH and the D- and L-isomers of MPH and the metabolite, ethylphenidate (EPH). In discrimination, EtOH (1 g/kg) produced a significant leftward shift in the MPH generalization curve (1-2 mg/kg) for MPH-trained mice, but no effects of MPH (0.625-1.25 mg/kg) on EtOH discrimination in EtOH-trained mice (0-2.5 g/kg) were observed. In CPP, the MPH (1.25 mg/kg) and EtOH (1.75 g/kg) combination significantly increased time on the drug paired side compared to vehicle (30.7 %), but this was similar to MPH (28.8 %) and EtOH (33.6 %). Footslip errors measured in a parallel rod apparatus indicated that the drug combination was very ataxic, with footslips increasing 29.5 % compared to EtOH. Finally, brain EtOH concentrations were not altered by 1.75 g/kg EtOH combined with 1.25 mg/kg MPH. However, EtOH significantly increased D-MPH and L-EPH without changing L-MPH brain concentrations. The enhanced behavioral effects when EtOH is combined with MPH are likely due to the selective increase in brain D-MPH concentrations. These studies are consistent with observations in humans of increased interoceptive awareness of the drug combination and provide new clinical perspectives regarding enhanced ataxic effects of this drug combination.

  6. Dyadic social interaction of C57BL/6 mice versus interaction with a toy mouse: conditioned place preference/aversion, substrain differences, and no development of a hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Barbara S; Seidl, Simon S; Habazettl, Eva; Gruber, Bernadette E; Bregolin, Tanja; Zernig, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric diseases, including dependence syndromes (substance use disorders). Helping the addict reorient her/his behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. To study the neural basis of such a reorientation, we have developed several animal models in which the attractiveness of a dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction (DSI) can be compared directly with that of cocaine as a prototypical drug of abuse. Our models are based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In an ongoing effort to validate our experimental paradigms in C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this genus, we found the following: (a) DSI with a live mouse produced CPP, whereas an interaction with an inanimate mouse-like object (i.e. a 'toy mouse'; toy mouse interaction) led to conditioned place aversion - but only in the Jackson substrain (C57BL/6J). (b) In the NIH substrain (C57BL/6N), both DSI and toy mouse interaction produced individual aversion in more than 50% of the tested mice. (c) Four 15 min DSI episodes did not result in the development of an observable hierarchy, that is, dominance/subordination behavior in the overwhelming majority (i.e. 30 of 32) of the tested Jackson mouse pairs. Therefore, dominance/subordination does not seem to be a confounding variable in our paradigm, at least not in C57BL/6J mice. Respective data for NIH mice were too limited to allow any conclusion. The present findings indicate that (a) DSI with a live mouse produces CPP to a greater degree than an interaction with an inanimate object resembling a mouse and that (b) certain substrain differences with respect to CPP/aversion to DSI do exist between the Jax and NIH substrain of C57BL/6 mice. These differences have to be considered when choosing a proper mouse substrain model for investigating the neural basis of DSI reward versus

  7. Dyadic social interaction of C57BL/6 mice versus interaction with a toy mouse: conditioned place preference/aversion, substrain differences, and no development of a hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Barbara S.; Seidl, Simon S.; Habazettl, Eva; Gruber, Bernadette E.; Bregolin, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric diseases, including dependence syndromes (substance use disorders). Helping the addict reorient her/his behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. To study the neural basis of such a reorientation, we have developed several animal models in which the attractiveness of a dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction (DSI) can be compared directly with that of cocaine as a prototypical drug of abuse. Our models are based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In an ongoing effort to validate our experimental paradigms in C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this genus, we found the following: (a) DSI with a live mouse produced CPP, whereas an interaction with an inanimate mouse-like object (i.e. a ‘toy mouse’; toy mouse interaction) led to conditioned place aversion – but only in the Jackson substrain (C57BL/6J). (b) In the NIH substrain (C57BL/6N), both DSI and toy mouse interaction produced individual aversion in more than 50% of the tested mice. (c) Four 15 min DSI episodes did not result in the development of an observable hierarchy, that is, dominance/subordination behavior in the overwhelming majority (i.e. 30 of 32) of the tested Jackson mouse pairs. Therefore, dominance/subordination does not seem to be a confounding variable in our paradigm, at least not in C57BL/6J mice. Respective data for NIH mice were too limited to allow any conclusion. The present findings indicate that (a) DSI with a live mouse produces CPP to a greater degree than an interaction with an inanimate object resembling a mouse and that (b) certain substrain differences with respect to CPP/aversion to DSI do exist between the Jax and NIH substrain of C57BL/6 mice. These differences have to be considered when choosing a proper mouse substrain model for investigating the neural basis of DSI reward

  8. Effect of ASF (a Compound of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Behavioral Sensitization Induced by Ethanol and Conditioned Place Preference in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-chao Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ASF composed by semen and epimedium herbal is a traditional plant compound that is widely used in the treatment of insomnia. Studies have shown that saponins and flavonoids contained in semen can significantly decrease the content of excitatory neurotransmitter Glu in mice. And the total flavone of YinYangHuo can increase the release of GABA in the anterior periventricular system of rat and increase the affinity of GABA for the receptors GABAA. It can be inferred that their synergism may have effect on the neurotransmitter that causes behavioral sensitization and conditioned place preference in experimental animals and affects their drinking behaviors, which is the starting point of this research. The present study found that ASF can inhibit development and expression of behavioral sensitization induced by ethanol and the development of CPP in mice. We demonstrate the inhibition of ASF on behavioral sensitization partly due to its effect on the mesolimbic neurotransmitter system, including decreasing level of DA and Glu and increasing the content of GABA. It suggested that the ASF may have pharmacological effects in the treatment of alcohol addiction.

  9. Risk preferences in strategic wildfire decision making: A choice experiment with U.S. wildfire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Wibbenmeyer; Michael S. Hand; David E. Calkin; Tyron J. Venn; Matthew P. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Federal policy has embraced risk management as an appropriate paradigm for wildfire management. Economic theory suggests that over repeated wildfire events, potential economic costs and risks of ecological damage are optimally balanced when management decisions are free from biases, risk aversion, and risk seeking. Of primary concern in this article is how managers...

  10. Risk relievers and customer brand preference in the purchase of cars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen risk-relievers were found to be suitable in purchase of cars. The study purported to find out the more influencing risk reducers among the chosen seventeen risk relievers in purchase of cars. Secondly the study tries to find out the impact of risk relievers based on brand choice. Seven brands namely Maruti, Tata, ...

  11. Internet pornography viewing preference as a risk factor for adolescent Internet addiction: The moderating role of classroom personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandraki, Kyriaki; Stavropoulos, Vasileios; Burleigh, Tyrone L; King, Daniel L; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-05-23

    Background and aims Adolescent Internet pornography viewing has been significantly increased in the last decade with research highlighting its association with Internet addiction (IA). However, there is little longitudinal data on this topic, particularly in relation to peer context effects. This study aimed to examine age- and context-related variations in the Internet pornography-IA association. Methods A total of 648 adolescents, from 34 classrooms, were assessed at 16 years and then at 18 years to examine the effect of Internet pornography preference on IA in relation to the classroom context. IA was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998), Internet pornography preference (over other Internet applications) was assessed with a binary (yes/no) question, and classroom introversion and openness to experience (OTE) with the synonymous subscales within the Five Factor Questionnaire (Asendorpf & Van Aken, 2003). Results Three-level hierarchical linear models were calculated. Findings showed that viewing Internet pornography exacerbates the risk of IA over time, while classroom factors, such as the average level of OTE and introversion, differentially moderate this relationship. Discussion and conclusion The study demonstrated that the contribution of Internet pornography preference (as an IA risk factor) might be increased in more extroverted classrooms and decreased in OTE classrooms.

  12. Preferences for a third-trimester ultrasound scan in a low-risk obstetric population: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Fiona A; Crealey, Grainne E; Alderdice, Fiona A; McElnay, James C

    2015-10-01

    Establish maternal preferences for a third-trimester ultrasound scan in a healthy, low-risk pregnant population. Cross-sectional study incorporating a discrete choice experiment. A large, urban maternity hospital in Northern Ireland. One hundred and forty-six women in their second trimester of pregnancy. A discrete choice experiment was designed to elicit preferences for four attributes of a third-trimester ultrasound scan: health-care professional conducting the scan, detection rate for abnormal foetal growth, provision of non-medical information, cost. Additional data collected included age, marital status, socio-economic status, obstetric history, pregnancy-specific stress levels, perceived health and whether pregnancy was planned. Analysis was undertaken using a mixed logit model with interaction effects. Women's preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of a hypothetical scan and indirect willingness-to-pay estimates. Women had significant positive preference for higher rate of detection, lower cost and provision of non-medical information, with no significant value placed on scan operator. Interaction effects revealed subgroups that valued the scan most: women experiencing their first pregnancy, women reporting higher levels of stress, an adverse obstetric history and older women. Women were able to trade on aspects of care and place relative importance on clinical, non-clinical outcomes and processes of service delivery, thus highlighting the potential of using health utilities in the development of services from a clinical, economic and social perspective. Specifically, maternal preferences exhibited provide valuable information for designing a randomized trial of effectiveness and insight for clinical and policy decision makers to inform woman-centred care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Perception of preference and risk-taking in laparoscopy, transgastric, and rigid-hybrid transvaginal NOTES for cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulz, Michael C; Zerz, Andreas; Sagmeister, Markus; Roll, Thomas; Meyenberger, Christa

    2013-12-03

    Few data are available regarding patients' perceptions of new cholecystectomy (CC) techniques, in the context of the patients' risk behaviours. We investigated patients' preferences for transgastric pure natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES; transgastric NCC) and rigid-hybrid transvaginal NOTES CC (tvNCC) compared with the standard laparoscopic CC (SL-CC), and patients' risk behaviours. A total of 140 inpatients scheduled for elective laparoscopic CC were enrolled in this prospective single-centre study, from January 2009 to January 2010. Patients judged the potential advantages and disadvantages of transgastric NCC and tvNCC compared with SL-CC. The individual's risk behaviour was analysed by means of the validated 40-item Domain-Specific Risk Attitude Scale (DOSPERT). Of the 140 recruited patients, 57 (65% females; mean age 51.5 years) were analysed. Twenty-five percent of males opted for transgastric NCC and 75% opted for SL-CC. Among females, 10.8%, 37.8% and 51.4% opted for transgastric NCC, tvNCC and SL-CC, respectively. Faster convalescence was graded as the primary potential advantage of transgastric NCC, whereas the potential risk of long-term stomach injuries was considered a primary disadvantage. Females graded the reduction of hospital-acquired morbidity as the primary advantage of tvNCC. The risk assessment showed significantly more risk-taking behaviour in the recreational domain of life among patients who opted for innovative surgical techniques than among those opting for conventional surgery. Transgastric NCC is rarely accepted by females but accepted by a quarter of males. Females consider rigid-hybrid tvNCC and SL-CC similarly attractive. Despite promising new techniques, three-quarters of male and one half of female patients still prefer the standard laparoscopic CC.

  14. The vocational education setting for health promotion: a survey of students' health risk behaviours and preferences for help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, Billie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Paul, Christine; Walsh, Raoul

    2013-12-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood is a time of risky health behaviour initiation and experimentation. Smoking, risky drinking, poor nutrition and physical activity, and a lack of sun protection behaviour, often become established in early adulthood. Levels of health risk behaviours occurring amongst tertiary education and training students and their preferences for types of on-campus health promotion programs were examined. A cross-sectional pen-and-paper classroom survey was conducted at one Sydney-based TAFE New South Wales Institute campus in May 2010. The survey assessed demographics, smoking, alcohol use, sun protection, nutrition, physical activity and health promotion program preferences. Two hundred and twenty-four students participated (97% consent); the majority were aged 16-24 years (59%) and female (51%). Current smoking (35%), risky drinking (49%) and inadequate physical activity (88%) rates were high. Adequate vegetable intake (3.6%) and sun protection behaviours (5.4%) were low and 33% of students were overweight or obese. Popular health promotion programs included food and activity subsidies, practical skills classes and social outings. Participation in health risk behaviours among this sample was high. The setting of tertiary education and workplace training represents an opportunity for early intervention into risky health behaviours among young people. SO WHAT?: This study is the first to provide information on the prevalence of health risk behaviours and preferences for types of health promoting programs among students of an Australian community college. The results show that young adults regularly participate in multiple health risk behaviours, such as smoking, drinking, poor nutrition, physical activity and lack of sun protection.

  15. MCDA swing weighting and discrete choice experiments for elicitation of patient benefit-risk preferences: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Gelhorn, Heather; Sri Bhashyam, Sumitra; Poon, Jiat-Ling; Gries, Katharine S; Rentz, Anne; Marsh, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Multiple criteria decision analysis swing weighting (SW) and discrete choice experiments (DCE) are appropriate methods for capturing patient preferences on treatment benefit-risk trade-offs. This paper presents a qualitative comparison of the 2 methods. We review and critically assess similarities and differences of SW and DCE based on 6 aspects: comprehension by study participants, cognitive biases, sample representativeness, ability to capture heterogeneity in preferences, reliability and validity, and robustness of the results. The SW choice task can be more difficult, but the workshop context in which SW is conducted may provide more support to patients who are unfamiliar with the end points being evaluated or who have cognitive impairments. Both methods are similarly prone to a number of biases associated with preference elicitation, and DCE is prone to simplifying heuristics, which limits its application with large number of attributes. The low cost per patient of the DCE means that it can be better at achieving a representative sample, though SW does not require such large sample sizes due to exact nature of the collected preference data. This also means that internal validity is automatically enforced with SW, while the internal validity of DCE results needs to be assessed manually. Choice between the 2 methods depends on characteristics of the benefit-risk assessment, especially on how difficult the trade-offs are for the patients to make and how many patients are available. Although there exist some empirical studies on many of the evaluation aspects, critical evidence gaps remain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Uncommitted men match their risk taking to female preferences, while committed men do the opposite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenhuis, W.E.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that men are more risk prone than women; single men take more risks than men involved in a romantic relationship; and men increase their level of risk taking in the presence of observers. We extend the existing literature with two studies. Our first study demonstrates that

  17. Targeted deletion of the 9p21 noncoding coronary artery disease risk interval in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Zhu, Yiwen; May, Dalit; Afzal, Veena; Gong, Elaine; Attanasio, Catia; Blow, Matthew J.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2010-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in a 58kb interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide 1,2. The variants have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of CAD and other life?threatening vascular conditions since nearly a quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk alleles. However, the risk interval is devoid of protein?coding genes and the mechanism linking the region to CAD risk has remained enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the orthologous 70kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 affects cardiac expression of neighboring genes, as well as proliferation properties of vascular cells. Chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice are viable, but show increased mortality both during development and as adults. Cardiac expression of two genes near the noncoding interval, Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b, is severely reduced in chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice, indicating that distant-acting gene regulatory functions are located in the noncoding CAD risk interval. Allelespecific expression of Cdkn2b transcripts in heterozygous mice revealed that the deletion affects expression through a cis-acting mechanism. Primary cultures of chr4delta70kb/delta70kb aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited excessive proliferation and diminished senescence, a cellular phenotype consistent with accelerated CAD pathogenesis. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence that the CAD risk interval plays a pivotal role in regulation of cardiac Cdkn2a/b expression and suggest that this region affects CAD progression by altering the dynamics of vascular cell proliferation.

  18. Patient centered decision making: use of conjoint analysis to determine risk-benefit trade-offs for preference sensitive treatment choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leslie; Loucks, Aimee; Bui, Christine; Gipson, Greg; Zhong, Lixian; Schwartzburg, Amy; Crabtree, Elizabeth; Goodin, Douglas; Waubant, Emmanuelle; McCulloch, Charles

    2014-09-15

    Understanding patient preferences facilitates shared decision-making and focuses on patient-centered outcomes. Little is known about relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patient preferences for disease modifying therapies (DMTs). We use choice based conjoint (CBC) analysis to calculate patient preferences for risk/benefit trade-offs for hypothetical DMTs. Patients with RRMS were surveyed between 2012 and 2013. Our CBC survey mimicked the decision-making process and trade-offs of patients choosing DMTs, based on all possible DMT attributes. Mixed-effects logistic regression analyzed preferences. We estimated maximum acceptable risk trade-offs for various DMT benefits. Severe side-effect risks had the biggest impact on patient preference with a 1% risk, decreasing patient preference five-fold compared to no risk. (OR=0.22, pbenefit (OR=3.68, pbenefit trade-offs for attributes of all available DMTs. Evaluation of patient preferences is a key step in shared decision making and may significantly impact early drug initiation and compliance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of 7-NI and ODQ on memory in the passive avoidance, novel object recognition, and social transmission of food preference tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Furuzan; Mutlu, Oguz; Komsuoglu Celikyurt, Ipek; Bektas, Emine; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2014-03-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger that plays a critical role in learning and memory processes. Effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors on cognitive function remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a GC inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on different aspects of memory in passive avoidance (PA), novel object recognition (NOR), and social transmission of food preference (STFP) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated intraperitoneally with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3,10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly decreased second-day latency in PA test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased the ratio index in the NOR test. 7-NI and ODQ (10 mg/kg) decreased cued/non-cued food eaten in STFP test. Amount of time spent in center zone significantly increased in ODQ (10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) groups in open field test, but there was no effect on total distance moved and speed of animals. ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased number of entries into new compartments in exploratory activity apparatus, while 7-NI had no effect. Administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) before 7-NI reversed 7-NI-induced effects, supporting the role of NO in cognition. Our results confirm that inhibition of NO/cGMP/GS pathway might disturb emotional, visual, and olfactory memory in mice. Also, 7-NI and ODQ had anxiolytic effects in open field test, and ODQ also enhanced exploratory activity.

  20. Preferences for Home-Based HIV Testing Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV/AIDS: New Orleans, Louisiana, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William T; Zarwell, Meagan; Gruber, DeAnn

    2017-07-01

    Participants in the New Orleans arm of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance of Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV were asked about potential utilization of self-administered home-based tests for HIV. The majority (86%) would use a free home-based test if provided by mail and 99% would seek treatment based on a positive result. In addition, more than half of respondents would return test results in some format to the test provider, whereas most of the remaining participants preferred to discuss results only with their doctor. These findings point toward a potential method for advancing the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  1. Willingness to pay for a quality-adjusted life year: an evaluation of attitudes towards risk and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesus; Polentinos-Castro, Elena; del Cura-González, Ma Isabel; Ariza-Cardiel, Gloria; Abraira, Victor; Gil-LaCruz, Ana Isabel; García-Pérez, Sonia

    2014-07-03

    This paper examines the Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) expressed by people who attended the healthcare system as well as the association of attitude towards risk and other personal characteristics with their response. Health-state preferences, measured by EuroQol (EQ-5D-3L), were combined with WTP for recovering a perfect health state. WTP was assessed using close-ended, iterative bidding, contingent valuation method. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as usage of health services by the subjects were collected. The attitude towards risk was evaluated by collecting risky behaviors data, by the subject's self-evaluation, and through lottery games. Six hundred and sixty two subjects participated and 449 stated a utility inferior to 1. WTP/QALY ratios varied significantly when payments with personal money (mean €10,119; median €673) or through taxes (mean €28,187; median €915) were suggested. Family income, area income, higher education level, greater use of healthcare services, and the number of co-inhabitants were associated with greater WTP/QALY ratios. Age and female gender were associated with lower WTP/QALY ratios. Risk inclination was independently associated with a greater WTP/QALY when "out of pocket" payments were suggested. Clear discrepancies were demonstrated between linearity and neutrality towards risk assumptions and experimental results. WTP/QALY ratios vary noticeably based on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the subject, but also on their attitude towards risk. Knowing the expression of preferences by patients from this outcome measurement can be of interest for health service planning.

  2. Do Transaction Costs and Risk Preferences Influence Marketing Arrangements in the Illinois Hog Industry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, J.R.V.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of hog industry structure often invoke risk reduction and transaction costs explanations for empirical observations but fail to directly examine the core concepts of risk behavior and transaction costs theories. Using a more unified conceptual framework and unique survey and accounting data,

  3. Framing of risk and preferences for annual and multi-year flood insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W.J.W.; de Boer, J.; Terpstra, T.

    2013-01-01

    The decision of many individuals in floodplains to not purchase flood insurance may impair the risk-spreading function of flood insurance markets. This study estimates the effectiveness of risk communication frames and insurance policy conditions in increasing demand for flood insurance. It is

  4. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first “count,” then hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m2 per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents. PMID:23407476

  5. The interplay between ventro striatal BDNF levels and the effects of valproic acid on the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Manuel Alves; Escudeiro, Sarah Sousa; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Matos, Natália Castelo Branco; de Souza, Marcos Romário Matos; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Dantas, Leonardo Pimentel; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol addiction is a chronic, relapsing and progressive brain disease with serious consequences for health. Compulsive use of alcohol is associated with the capacity to change brain structures involved with the reward pathway, such as ventral striatum. Recent evidence suggests a role of chromatin remodeling in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and addictive-like behaviors. In addition, neuroadaptive changes mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be an interesting pharmacological target for alcoholism treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) (300mg/kg) on the conditioned rewarding effects of ethanol using conditioned place preference (CPP) (15% v/v; 2g/kg). Ethanol rewarding effect was investigated using a biased protocol of CPP. BDNF levels were measured in the ventral striatum. Ethanol administration induced CPP. VPA pretreatment did not reduce ethanol-CPP acquisition. VPA pretreatment increased BDNF levels when compared to ethanol induced-CPP. VPA pretreatment increased BDNF levels even in saline conditioned mice. Taken together, our results indicate a modulatory effect of VPA on the BDNF levels in the ventral striatum. Overall, this study brings initial insights into the involvement of neurotrophic mechanisms in the ventral striatum in ethanol-induced addictive-like behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic behavior under the influence of alcohol: an experiment on time preferences, risk-taking, and altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Corazzini

    Full Text Available We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects' risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic.

  7. Beverage preference and risk of alcohol-use disorders: a Danish prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    drinking 15-21 drinks per week of only beer and distilled spirits had a risk of 15.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-33.3) for AUD, whereas those whose total alcohol intake comprised more than 35% wine had a risk of 2.0 (CI: 0.7-5.2). Men drinking 15-21 drinks per week of only beer and distilled spirits...... had a risk of 3.1 (CI: 1.8-5.4), whereas those whose total alcohol intake comprised more than 35% wine had a risk of 0.8 (CI: 0.3-2.1). Consuming more than 35% beer increased the risk of AUD for women, whereas the percentage of distilled spirits intake did not influence the risk of AUD for either...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...

  8. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice. PMID:28926985

  9. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  10. The concentration of fear: mice's behavioural and physiological stress responses to different degrees of predation risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Beatriz; Planillo, Aimara; Navarro-Castilla, Álvaro; Barja, Isabel

    2018-02-01

    Predation is an unavoidable and dangerous fact in the lifetime of prey animals and some sign of the proximity of a predator may be enough to trigger a response in the prey. We investigated whether different degrees of predation risk by red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) evoke behavioural and physiological stress responses in wood mice ( Apodemus sylvaticus) . We examined the variation in mice responses due to individual factors (sex and reproductive status) and related them to the concentration of the volatile compounds from fox faeces over time. In our experiment, we introduced predation cues into four plots, each subjected to a different concentration treatment (0, 10, 50 and 100% concentration of fresh faeces of red fox), based on the following outline: initial odourless phase 0, phase1 in which predation treatment was renewed daily, and phase 2 in which we renewed the treatment only on the first day. Wood mice were live trapped during all three phases and the physiological response was measured non-invasively by analysing faecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in freshly collected faeces. Data were analysed by Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Overall, males were trapped less often than females, and reproductively active individuals from both sexes avoided traps more than non-reproductively active individuals, especially in medium- and high- concentration plots. Variations in FCM concentrations were explained by plot, the interaction between plot and treatment phase, and the interaction between the treatment phase and the reproductive status. During phase 1, we detected a significant rise in FCM levels that increased with predator faecal odour concentration. Additionally, reproductively active individuals showed a strong physiological response during both phases 1 and 2 in all plots, except the control plot. Our results indicated that wood mice are able to discriminate different degrees of predation risk, which allows them to trigger gradual changes in their

  11. Understanding kidney transplant patients' treatment choices: The interaction of emotion with medical and social influences on risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jean; Morgan, Myfanwy

    2016-04-01

    Following renal transplantation patients experience on-going immunosuppressant medication to reduce the risk of graft rejection. Over the long term the side effects of immunosuppressive drugs may affect graft survival and significantly increase risks of cancers, stroke and cardiovascular disease. To reduce these risks research is underway to develop a biomarker test to identify those patients who are likely to be 'tolerant' to their graft and therefore able to reduce immunosuppression. Biomarker tests may however incorrectly identify some patients as tolerant, thus jeopardising their graft. Following a quantitative assessment of risk preferences we undertook a qualitative study to investigate the range of influences that shaped the substantial variations found in the level of risk transplant recipients were hypothetically willing to take. In-depth interviews were carried out in the United Kingdom between May 2013 and July 2014 with 24 transplant recipients all of whom had stable kidney graft function. These interviews identified a range of factors that patients take into account when making risk assessments, including familial views, trust and the ritual of 'gift exchange' that permeates the social space of kidney transplantation. Our data support the notion that emotion is not part of a linear process, preceding and separate to reason, but is intertwined with personal understanding and perception of risk and involves a complex interplay between different influences on decision-making. Our data also support Lupton's view that risk judgements are shared and collective rather than located within the individual and suggests that patient choice rather than involving a purely rational weighing of medical benefit is often based on influences that may not accord with the framework nor intention of medical professionals and medical research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Absolute risk representation in cardiovascular disease prevention: comprehension and preferences of health care consumers and general practitioners involved in a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Rebecca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicating risk is part of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke, collectively referred to as cardiovascular disease (CVD. In Australia, health organisations have promoted an absolute risk approach, thereby raising the question of suitable standardised formats for risk communication. Methods Sixteen formats of risk representation were prepared including statements, icons, graphical formats, alone or in combination, and with variable use of colours. All presented the same risk, i.e., the absolute risk for a 55 year old woman, 16% risk of CVD in five years. Preferences for a five or ten-year timeframe were explored. Australian GPs and consumers were recruited for participation in focus groups, with the data analysed thematically and preferred formats tallied. Results Three focus groups with health consumers and three with GPs were held, involving 19 consumers and 18 GPs. Consumers and GPs had similar views on which formats were more easily comprehended and which conveyed 16% risk as a high risk. A simple summation of preferences resulted in three graphical formats (thermometers, vertical bar chart and one statement format as the top choices. The use of colour to distinguish risk (red, yellow, green and comparative information (age, sex, smoking status were important ingredients. Consumers found formats which combined information helpful, such as colour, effect of changing behaviour on risk, or comparison with a healthy older person. GPs preferred formats that helped them relate the information about risk of CVD to their patients, and could be used to motivate patients to change behaviour. Several formats were reported as confusing, such as a percentage risk with no contextual information, line graphs, and icons, particularly those with larger numbers. Whilst consumers and GPs shared preferences, the use of one format for all situations was not recommended. Overall, people across groups felt that risk

  13. Phenotypic effects of repeated psychosocial stress during adolescence in mice mutant for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin-1: a putative model of gene × environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbonnet, Lieve; O'Tuathaigh, Colm; Clarke, Gerard; O'Leary, Claire; Petit, Emilie; Clarke, Niamh; Tighe, Orna; Lai, Donna; Harvey, Richard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Waddington, John L

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of animal models by which the contributions of environmental and genetic factors to the pathobiology of psychosis can be investigated. This study examined the individual and combined effects of chronic social stress during adolescence and deletion of the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin-1 (NRG1) on adult mouse phenotype. Mice were exposed to repeated social defeat stress during adolescence and assessed for exploratory behaviour, working memory, sucrose preference, social behaviour and prepulse inhibition in adulthood. Thereafter, in vitro cytokine responses to mitogen stimulation and corticosterone inhibition were assayed in spleen cells, with measurement of cytokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA in frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. NRG1 mutants exhibited hyperactivity, decreased anxiety, impaired sensorimotor gating and reduced preference for social novelty. The effects of stress on exploratory/anxiety-related parameters, spatial working memory, sucrose preference and basal cytokine levels were modified by NRG1 deletion. Stress also exerted varied effect on spleen cytokine response to concanavalin A and brain cytokine and BDNF mRNA expression in NRG1 mutants. The experience of psychosocial stress during adolescence may trigger further pathobiological features that contribute to the development of schizophrenia, particularly in those with underlying NRG1 gene abnormalities. This model elaborates the importance of gene × environment interactions in the etiology of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased preference of surface ablation over laser in situ keratomileusis between 2008–2011 is correlated to risk of ecatasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisseiev E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elad Moisseiev,1,3 Tzahi Sela,2 Liza Minkev,2 David Varssano1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 2Care Vision, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelPurpose: To evaluate the trends in corneal refractive procedure selection for the correction of myopia, focusing on the relative proportions of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and surface ablation procedures.Methods: Only eyes that underwent LASIK or surface ablation for the correction of myopia between 2008–2011 were included in this retrospective study. Additional recorded parameters included patient age, preoperative manifest refraction, corneal thickness, and calculated residual corneal bed thickness. A risk score was given to each eye, based on these parameters, according to the Ectasia Risk Factor Score System (ERFSS, without the preoperative corneal topography.Results: This study included 16,163 eyes, of which 38.4% underwent LASIK and 61.6% underwent surface ablation. The risk score correlated with procedure selection, with LASIK being preferred in eyes with a score of 0 and surface ablation in eyes with a score of 2 or higher. When controlling for age, preoperative manifest refraction, corneal thickness, and all parameters, the relative proportion of surface ablation compared with LASIK was found to have grown significantly during the study period.Conclusions: Our results indicate that with time, surface ablation tended to be performed more often than LASIK for the correction of myopia in our cohort. Increased awareness of risk factors and preoperative risk assessment tools, such as the ERFSS, have shifted the current practice of refractive surgery from LASIK towards surface ablation despite the former's advantages, especially in cases in which the risk for ectasia is more than minimal (risk score 2 and higher.Keywords: surface ablation, LASIK, PRK, myopia correction, ectasia

  15. Older Americans' risk-benefit preferences for modifying the course of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, A Brett; Johnson, F Reed; Fillit, Howard; Mohamed, Ateesha F; Leibman, Christopher; Arrighi, H Michael; Grundman, Michael; Townsend, Raymond J

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive, ultimately fatal neurodegenerative illness affecting millions of patients, families, and caregivers. Effective disease-modifying therapies for AD are desperately needed, but none currently exist on the market. Thus, accelerating the discovery, development, and approval of new disease-modifying drugs for AD is a high priority for individuals, physicians, and medical decision makers. Potentially disease-modifying drugs likely will have significant therapeutic benefits but also may have treatment-related risks. We quantified older Americans' treatment-related risk tolerance by eliciting their willingness to accept the risk of treatment-related death or permanent severe disability in exchange for modifying the course of AD. A stated-choice survey instrument was administered to 2146 American residents 60 years of age and older. On average, subjects were willing to accept a 1-year risk of treatment-related death or permanent severe disability from stroke of over 30% for a treatment that prevents AD from progressing beyond the mild stage. Thus, most people in this age cohort are willing to accept considerable risks in return for disease-modifying benefits of new AD drugs. These results are consistent with other studies indicating that individuals view AD as a serious, life threatening illness that imposes heavy burdens on both patients and caregivers.

  16. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  17. Adaptive aspirations : Performance consequences of risk preferences at extremes and alternative reference groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, S.; Blettner, D.P.; Bettis, R.

    2011-01-01

    Goals or aspirations and their relationships to risk taking and performance are important issues in both psychology and strategic management. The concept of adaptive aspirations, as discussed in Cyert and March's Behavioral Theory of the Firm, has long been a topic of interest in both fields.

  18. Societal preferences in the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma: Balancing risk of death and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakban, Amir; Mohammadi, Tima; Lynd, Larry D; Mabbott, Don; Bouffet, Eric; Gastonguay, Louise; Zafari, Zafar; Malkin, David; Taylor, Michael; Marra, Carlo A

    2017-06-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent childhood brain cancer. Children with medulloblastoma typically receive a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The survival rate is high but survivors often have sequelae from radiotherapy of the entire developing brain and spinal cord. Ongoing genetic studies have suggested that decreasing the dose of radiation might be possible among children with favorable molecular variants; however, this may result in an increased disease recurrence. As such, there is a need to investigate the nature of trade-offs that individuals are willing to make regarding the treatment of medulloblastoma. We used best-worst scaling to estimate the importance of attributes affecting the general public's decision making around the treatment of medulloblastoma. After conducting focus groups, we selected three relevant attributes: (1) the accuracy of the genetic test; (2) the probability of serious adverse effects of the treatment(s); and (3) the survival rate. Using the paired method, we applied a conditional logit model to estimate preferences. In total, 3,006 respondents (51.3% female) with an average age of 43 years answered the questionnaires. All coefficients were statistically significantly different from zero and the attribute levels of adverse effects and the survival rate had the most impact on individuals' stated decision making. Overall, respondents showed high sensitivity to children experiencing disability particularly in the setting of a good prognosis. However, among children with poor prognostic molecular variants, participants showed tolerance about having a child with mild and partial disability compared to a low rate of survival. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Emergency Physician Attitudes, Preferences, and Risk Tolerance for Stroke as a Potential Cause of Dizziness Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata V. Kene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We evaluated emergency physicians’ (EP current perceptions, practice, and attitudes towards evaluating stroke as a cause of dizziness among emergency department patients. Methods: We administered a survey to all EPs in a large integrated healthcare delivery system. The survey included clinical vignettes, perceived utility of historical and exam elements, attitudes about the value of and requisite post-test probability of a clinical prediction rule for dizziness. We calculated descriptive statistics and post-test probabilities for such a clinical prediction rule. Results: The response rate was 68% (366/535. Respondents’ median practice tenure was eight years (37% female, 92% emergency medicine board certified. Symptom quality and typical vascular risk factors increased suspicion for stroke as a cause of dizziness. Most respondents reported obtaining head computed tomography (CT (74%. Nearly all respondents used and felt confident using cranial nerve and limb strength testing. A substantial minority of EPs used the Epley maneuver (49% and HINTS (head-thrust test, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and skew deviation testing (30%; however, few EPs reported confidence in these tests’ bedside application (35% and 16%, respectively. Respondents favorably viewed applying a properly validated clinical prediction rule for assessment of immediate and 30-day stroke risk, but indicated it would have to reduce stroke risk to <0.5% to be clinically useful. Conclusion: EPs report relying on symptom quality, vascular risk factors, simple physical exam elements, and head CT to diagnose stroke as the cause of dizziness, but would find a validated clinical prediction rule for dizziness helpful. A clinical prediction rule would have to achieve a 0.5% post-test stroke probability for acceptability.

  20. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two....... Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more...

  1. Not all streaks are the same: Individual differences in risk preferences during runs of gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Ball

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Runs of gains and losses are particularly salient to decision makers because of their perceived departure from randomness, as well as their immediate impact on the financial status of the decision makers. Past research has focused on decision making biases that relate to faulty conceptions of chance and luck, such as the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand effect. Participants in the current study bet on the outcomes of a long sequence of simulated coin tosses. Risk preferences were found to change as a function of run valence (i.e., losses vs. gains, run length, and financial status. Individuals were found to differ in the effect of all of these factors, in their responses to runs of gains and losses in sequential risky choice.

  2. Women's gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harm: differences by age and gambling risk status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Simone; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike

    2018-04-24

    Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour. Focusing on four gambling products in Australia-casino gambling, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), horse betting, and sports betting-women were asked about their frequency of participation, their product preferences, and perceptions of product harms. The sample was segmented a priori according to age and gambling risk status, and differences between groups were identified using Chi-square tests and ANOVAs. Thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data. Almost two thirds (n = 324, 63.7%) of women had engaged with one of the four products in the previous 12 months. Compared to other age groups, younger women aged 16-34 years exhibited a higher proportion of problem gambling, gambled more frequently, and across more products. While EGMs were the product gambled on most frequently by women overall, younger women were significantly more likely to bet on sports and gamble at casinos relative to older women. Qualitative data indicated that younger women engaged with gambling products as part of a "night out", "with friends", due to their "ease of access" and perceived "chance of winning big". There were significant differences in the perceptions of the harms associated with horse and sports betting according to age and gambling risk status, with younger women and gamblers perceiving these products as less harmful. This study highlights that there are clear differences in the gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harms between subgroups of women. A gendered approach will enable public

  3. Therapeutic Decisions in Atrial Fibrillation for Stroke Prevention: The Role of Aversion to Ambiguity and Physicians' Risk Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Luciano A; Stirling, Devin; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2018-04-09

    Knowledge-to-action gaps influence therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF). Physician-related factors are common, but the least studied. We evaluated the prevalence and determinants of physician-related factors and knowledge-to-action gaps among physicians involved in the management of AF patients. In this cross-sectional study, participants from 6 South American countries recruited during an educational program answered questions regarding 16 case scenarios of patients with AF and completed experiments assessing 3 outcome measures: therapeutic inertia, herding, and errors in risk stratification knowledge translated into action (ERSKTA) based on commonly used stratification tools (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years (double), Diabetes mellitus, previous Stroke/transient ischemic attack/thromboembolism (double), Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, and female gender (score of 0 for males and 1 for female) (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc) and Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥75 years, Diabetes mellitus, and previous Stroke/transient ischemic attack (double) (CHADS 2 )). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with the outcomes. Overall, 149 physicians were invited to participate, of which 88 (59.1%) completed the online assessment tool. Cardiology was the most frequent specialty (69.3%). Therapeutic inertia was present in 53 participants (60.2%), herding in 66 (75.0%), and ERSKTA in 46 (52.3%). Therapeutic inertia was inversely associated with willingness to take financial risks (odds ratio [OR] .72, 95% confidence interval [CI] .59-.89 per point in the financial risk propensity score), herding was associated with aversion to ambiguity in the medical domain (OR 5.35, 95% CI 1.40-20.46), and ERSKTA was associated with the willingness to take risks (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.15-2.50, per point in score). Among physicians involved in stroke prevention in AF, individual risk preferences and aversion to ambiguity lead

  4. Risk preferences in strategic wildfire decision making: a choice experiment with U.S. wildfire managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Hand, Michael S; Calkin, David E; Venn, Tyron J; Thompson, Matthew P

    2013-06-01

    Federal policy has embraced risa management as an appropriate paradigm for wildfire management. Economic theory suggests that over repeated wildfire events, potential economic costs and risas of ecological damage are optimally balanced when management decisions are free from biases, risa aversion, and risa seeking. Of primary concern in this article is how managers respond to wildfire risa, including the potential effect of wildfires (on ecological values, structures, and safety) and the likelihood of different fire outcomes. We use responses to a choice experiment questionnaire of U.S. federal wildfire managers to measure attitudes toward several components of wildfire risa and to test whether observed risa attitudes are consistent with the efficient allocation of wildfire suppression resources. Our results indicate that fire managers' decisions are consistent with nonexpected utility theories of decisions under risa. Managers may overallocate firefighting resources when the likelihood or potential magnitude of damage from fires is low, and sensitivity to changes in the probability of fire outcomes depends on whether probabilities are close to one or zero and the magnitude of the potential harm. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Decision making under uncertainty, therapeutic inertia, and physicians' risk preferences in the management of multiple sclerosis (DIScUTIR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Sempere, Angel Perez; Raptis, Roula; Prefasi, Daniel; Selchen, Daniel; Maurino, Jorge

    2016-05-04

    The management of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing by the introduction of new and more effective disease-modifying agents. The importance of risk stratification was confirmed by results on disease progression predicted by different risk score systems. Despite these advances, we know very little about medical decisions under uncertainty in the management of MS. The goal of this study is to i) identify whether overconfidence, tolerance to risk/uncertainty, herding influence medical decisions, and ii) to evaluate the frequency of therapeutic inertia (defined as lack of treatment initiation or intensification in patients not at goals of care) and its predisposing factors in the management of MS. This is a prospective study comprising a combination of case-vignettes and surveys and experiments from Neuroeconomics/behavioral economics to identify cognitive distortions associated with medical decisions and therapeutic inertia. Participants include MS fellows and MS experts from across Spain. Each participant will receive an individual link using Qualtrics platform(©) that includes 20 case-vignettes, 3 surveys, and 4 behavioral experiments. The total time for completing the study is approximately 30-35 min. Case vignettes were selected to be representative of common clinical encounters in MS practice. Surveys and experiments include standardized test to measure overconfidence, aversion to risk and ambiguity, herding (following colleague's suggestions even when not supported by the evidence), physicians' reactions to uncertainty, and questions from the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) related to risk preferences in different domains. By applying three different MS score criteria (modified Rio, EMA, Prosperini's scheme) we take into account physicians' differences in escalating therapy when evaluating medical decisions across case-vignettes. The present study applies an innovative approach by combining tools to assess medical decisions with experiments from

  6. Tissue accumulation of microplastics in mice and biomarker responses suggest widespread health risks of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yan; Lemos, Bernardo; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are a significant environmental health issue and increasingly greater source of concern. MPs have been detected in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil and even table salts. MPs exposure on marine organisms and humans has been documented, but information about the toxicity of MPs in mammal is limited. Here we used fluorescent and pristine polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) particles with two diameters (5 μm and 20 μm) to investigate the tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue-specific health risk of MPs in mice. Results indicated that MPs accumulated in liver, kidney and gut, with a tissue-accumulation kinetics and distribution pattern that was strongly depended on the MPs particle size. In addition, analyses of multiple biochemical biomarkers and metabolomic profiles suggested that MPs exposure induced disturbance of energy and lipid metabolism as well as oxidative stress. Interestingly, blood biomarkers of neurotoxicity were also altered. Our results uncovered the distribution and accumulation of MPs across mice tissues and revealed significant alteration in several biomarkers that indicate potential toxicity from MPs exposure. Collectively, our data provided new evidence for the adverse consequences of MPs.

  7. Scaffold preferences of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose-derived stem cells from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice influence the tissue engineering of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenburg, Gretel; Flade, Viktoria; Garbe, Annette I; Lauer, Günter; Labudde, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    We have analysed the growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from bone marrow, and of adipose derived stem cells (ASC) from murine abdominal fat tissue, of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic animals grown directly on two types of hydroxyapatite ceramic bone substitutes. BONITmatrix® and NanoBone® have specific mechanical and physiochemical properties such as porosity and an inner surface that influence cellular growth. Both MSC and ASC were separately seeded on 200mg of each biomaterial and cultured for 3 weeks under osteogenic differentiation conditions. The degree of mineralisation was assessed by alizarin red dye and the specific alkaline phosphatase activity of the differentiated cells. The morphology of the cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The osteoblastic phenotype of the cells was confirmed by analysing the expression of bone-specific genes (Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteonectin) by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Comparison of BONITmatrix® and NanoBone® showed cell type-specific preferences in terms of osteogenic differentiation. MSC-derived osteoblast-like cells spread optimally on the surface of NanoBone® but not BONITmatrix® granules. In contrast BONITmatrix® granules conditioned the growth of osteoblast-like cells derived from ASC. The osteoblastic phenotype of the cultured cells on all matrices was confirmed by specific gene expression. Our results show that the in vitro growth and osteogenic differentiation of murine MSC or ASC of GFP transgenic mice are distinctly influenced by the ceramic substratum. While NanoBone® granules support the proliferation and differentiation of murine MSC isolated from bone marrow, the growth of murine ASC is supported by BONITmatrix® granules. NanoBone® is therefore recommended for use as scaffold in tissue engineering that requires MSC, whereas ASC can be combined with BONITmatrix® for

  8. Elevated Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Increases Risk of Post-partum Depression by Decreasing Prefrontal Cortex BDNF and 5-HT Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Xinyi; Zhao, Yuhang; Liu, Aihua; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is a common mental disease in the perinatal period that profoundly affects mothers and their offspring. Some clinical studies have found that PPD is related to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs); however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Female C57BL/6 mice immunized with adenovirus encoding the cDNA of the full-length mTPO (mTPO-Ad) were used to establish the isolated TPOAb-positive mouse model in the present study. Maternal depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and tail suspension test (TST) post-partum. The serum TPOAb titer was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before pregnancy and post-partum. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex, the mRNA and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured, serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), and total thyroxine (TT4) levels were determined by ELISA. Compared with the controls, the mice immunized with mTPO-Ad displayed depressive behaviors, with a significantly lower sucrose preference (SP) at the 12-h time point and a longer immobility time in the FST and TST, which were accompanied by a lower expression of BDNF and 5-HT but no change in the TT4 concentration in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that elevated TPOAb may increase the risk of subsequent PPD and decrease the concentration of BDNF and 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex.

  9. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  10. A qualitative analysis exploring preferred methods of peer support to encourage adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Christina M; McEvoy, Claire T; Moore, Sarah E; Prior, Lindsay; Lawton, Julia; Kee, Frank; Cupples, Margaret E; Young, Ian S; Appleton, Katherine; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V

    2018-02-05

    Epidemiological and randomised controlled trial evidence demonstrates that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, methods used to support dietary change have been intensive and expensive. Peer support has been suggested as a possible cost-effective method to encourage adherence to a MD in at risk populations, although development of such a programme has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use mixed-methods to determine the preferred peer support approach to encourage adherence to a MD. Qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative methods (questionnaire and preference scoring sheet) were used to determine preferred methods of peer support. Sixty-seven high CVD risk participants took part in 12 focus groups (60% female, mean age 64 years) and completed a questionnaire and preference scoring sheet. Focus group data were transcribed and thematically analysed. The mean preference score (1 being most preferred and 5 being least preferred) for group support was 1.5, compared to 3.4 for peer mentorship, 4.0 for telephone peer support and 4.0 for internet peer support. Three key themes were identified from the transcripts: 1. Components of an effective peer support group: discussions around group peer support were predominantly positive. It was suggested that an effective group develops from people who consider themselves similar to each other meeting face-to-face, leading to the development of a group identity that embraces trust and honesty. 2. Catalysing Motivation: participants discussed that a group peer support model could facilitate interpersonal motivations including encouragement, competitiveness and accountability. 3. Stepping Stones of Change: participants conceptualised change as a process, and discussed that, throughout the process, different models of peer support might be more or less useful. A group-based approach was the preferred method of peer support to encourage a population at high

  11. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    : Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more...... frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. CONCLUSIONS...

  12. Genetic background and 227Thorium as risk factors in biologically based models for induction of bone cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, W.F.; Rosemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the potential for the biologically based two-stage clonal expansion model to make statements about the influence of genetic factors on the steps in the model. We find evidence that the different susceptibility of BALB/C and CBA/Ca mice to bone cancer after 227 Thorium injection may be mostly due to different promotional responses to radiation. In BALB/C x CBA/Ca back-crossed mice, we analyzed the specific contribution of two individual loci in the carcinogenic process. This analysis suggests that the two high- or low-risk alleles are acting on promotion or on the background parameters, but not on radiation-induced initiation. Taken together with the comparison of CBA/Ca and BALB/C mice, this hints at the possibility that the two loci are candidates for modifying radiation-induced promotion. (orig.)

  13. A community-engaged approach to quantifying caregiver preferences for the benefits and risks of emerging therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Holly L; Hollin, Ilene; Fischer, Ryan; Bridges, John F P

    2014-05-01

    There is growing agreement that regulators performing benefit-risk evaluations should take patients' and caregivers' preferences into consideration. The Patient-Focused Drug Development Initiative at the US Food and Drug Administration offers patients and caregivers an enhanced opportunity to contribute to regulatory processes by offering direct testimonials. This process may be advanced by providing scientific evidence regarding treatment preferences through engagement of a broad community of patients and caregivers. In this article, we demonstrate a community-engaged approach to measure caregiver preferences for potential benefits and risks of emerging therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). An advocacy oversight team led the community-engaged study. Caregivers' treatment preferences were measured by using best-worst scaling (BWS). Six relevant and understandable attributes describing potential benefits and risks of emerging DMD therapies were identified through engagement with advocates (n = 5), clinicians (n = 9), drug developers from pharmaceutical companies and academic centers (n = 11), and other stakeholders (n = 5). The attributes, each defined across 3 levels, included muscle function, life span, knowledge about the drug, nausea, risk of bleeds, and risk of arrhythmia. Cognitive interviewing with caregivers (n = 7) was used to refine terminology and assess acceptability of the BWS instrument. The study was implemented through an online survey of DMD caregivers, who were recruited in the United States through an advocacy group and snowball sampling. Caregivers were presented with 18 treatment profiles, identified via a main-effect orthogonal experimental design, in which the dependent variable was the respondents' judgment as to the best and worst feature in each profile. Preference weights were estimated by calculating the relative number of times a feature was chosen as best and as worst, which were then used to estimate relative attribute

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) and Preferences for Risk Information among High School Students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgsson, Susanne; Sahlin, Ellika; Iwarsson, Moa; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Gustavsson, Peter; Iwarsson, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) was recently introduced for prenatal testing of genetic disorders. Cell-free fetal DNA is present in maternal blood during pregnancy and enables detection of fetal chromosome aberrations in a maternal blood sample. The public perspective to this new, simple method has not been illuminated. The views of young people (i.e. future parents) are important to develop suitable counseling strategies regarding prenatal testing. The aim was to explore Swedish high school students' attitudes, knowledge and preferences regarding NIPT. A questionnaire was completed by 305 students recruited from one high school in Stockholm, November and December 2014. Most students (80 %) considered prenatal testing as good. The majority (65 %) was positive or very positive towards NIPT and 62 % stated that they potentially would like to undergo the test if they or their partner was pregnant. The vast majority (94 %) requested further information about NIPT. Most students (61 %) preferred verbal information, whereas 20 % preferred information via the Internet. The majority of the high school students was positive towards prenatal testing and most was positive towards NIPT. Further, information was requested by the vast majority before making a decision about NIPT. Most of the students preferred verbal information and to a lesser extent information via the Internet. The attitudes, knowledge and preferences for risk information concerning NIPT in young adults are important, in order to increase knowledge on how to educate and inform future parents.

  15. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  16. Repeated superovulation increases the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases by accelerating ovarian aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinjin; Lai, Zhiwen; Shi, Liangyan; Tian, Yong; Luo, Aiyue; Xu, Zheyuan; Ma, Xiangyi; Wang, Shixuan

    2018-05-22

    Superovulation procedures and assisted reproductive technologies have been widely used to treat couples who have infertility problems. Although generally safe, the superovulation procedures are associated with a series of complications, such as ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome, thromboembolism, and adnexal torsion. The role of long-term repeated superovulation in ovarian aging and especially in associated disorders such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases is still unclear. In this study, we sought to determine if repeated superovulation by ten cycles of treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin/human chorionic gonadotropin could affect ovarian reserve, ovarian function, bone density and heart function. Ovarian reserve and function were reflected by the size of the primordial follicle pool, anti-Mullerian hormone expressions, hormone levels and fertility status. Furthermore, we examined bone density and heart function by microCT and cardiovascular ultrasonography, respectively. After repeated superovulation, the size of the primordial follicle pool and the expression of anti-mullerian hormone decreased, along with the concentrations of estrogen and progesterone. Mice exposed to repeated superovulation showed an obvious decrease in fertility and fecundity. Furthermore, both bone density and heart ejection fraction significantly decreased. These results suggest that repeated superovulation may increase the risk of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases by accelerating ovarian aging.

  17. The Combination of Marketed Antagonists of α1b-Adrenergic and 5-HT2A Receptors Inhibits Behavioral Sensitization and Preference to Alcohol in Mice: A Promising Approach for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Trovero

    Full Text Available Alcohol-dependence is a chronic disease with a dramatic and expensive social impact. Previous studies have indicated that the blockade of two monoaminergic receptors, α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A, could inhibit the development of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse, a hallmark of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in rodents. Here, in order to develop a potential therapeutic treatment of alcohol dependence in humans, we have blocked these two monoaminergic receptors by a combination of antagonists already approved by Health Agencies. We show that the association of ifenprodil (1 mg/kg and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg (α1-adrenergic and 5-HT2 receptor antagonists marketed as Vadilex ® and Periactine ® in France, respectively blocks behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in C57Bl6 mice and to alcohol in DBA2 mice. Moreover, this combination of antagonists inhibits alcohol intake in mice habituated to alcohol (10% v/v and reverses their alcohol preference. Finally, in order to verify that the effect of ifenprodil was not due to its anti-NMDA receptors property, we have shown that a combination of prazosin (0.5 mg/kg, an α1b-adrenergic antagonist, Mini-Press ® in France and cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg could also reverse alcohol preference. Altogether these findings strongly suggest that combined prazosin and cyproheptadine could be efficient as a therapy to treat alcoholism in humans. Finally, because α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade also inhibits behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants, opioids and tobacco, it cannot be excluded that this combination will exhibit some efficacy in the treatment of addiction to other abused drugs.

  18. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue Exendin-4 attenuates the nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release, conditioned place preference as well as the expression of locomotor sensitization in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Egecioglu

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal peptide glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is known to regulate consummatory behavior and is released in response to nutrient ingestion. Analogues of this peptide recently emerged as novel pharmacotherapies for treatment of type II diabetes since they reduce gastric emptying, glucagon secretion as well as enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The findings that GLP-1 targets reward related areas including mesolimbic dopamine areas indicate that the physiological role of GLP-1 extends beyond food intake and glucose homeostasis control to include reward regulation. The present series of experiments was therefore designed to investigate the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, Exendin-4 (Ex4, on established nicotine-induced effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system in mice. Specifically, we show that treatment with Ex4, at a dose with no effect per se, attenuate nicotine-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release as well as the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In accordance, Ex4 also blocks nicotine-induced expression of locomotor sensitization in mice. Given that development of nicotine addiction largely depends on the effects of nicotine on the mesolimbic dopamine system these findings indicate that the GLP-1 receptor may be a potential target for the development of novel treatment strategies for nicotine cessations in humans.

  19. Targeting factor VIII expression to platelets for hemophilia A gene therapy does not induce an apparent thrombotic risk in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C K; Mattson, J G; Weiler, H; Shi, Q; Montgomery, R R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Platelet-Factor (F) VIII gene therapy is a promising treatment in hemophilia A. This study aims to evaluate if platelet-FVIII expression would increase the risk for thrombosis. Targeting FVIII expression to platelets does not induce or elevate thrombosis risk. Platelets expressing FVIII are neither hyper-activated nor hyper-responsive. Background Targeting factor (F) VIII expression to platelets is a promising gene therapy approach for hemophilia A, and is successful even in the presence of inhibitors. It is well known that platelets play important roles not only in hemostasis, but also in thrombosis and inflammation. Objective To evaluate whether platelet-FVIII expression might increase thrombotic risk and thereby compromise the safety of this approach. Methods In this study, platelet-FVIII-expressing transgenic mice were examined either in steady-state conditions or under prothrombotic conditions induced by inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation. Native whole blood thrombin generation assay, rotational thromboelastometry analysis and ferric chloride-induced vessel injury were used to evaluate the hemostatic properties. Various parameters associated with thrombosis risk, including D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, tissue fibrin deposition, platelet activation status and activatability, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates, were assessed. Results We generated a new line of transgenic mice that expressed 30-fold higher levels of platelet-expressed FVIII than are therapeutically required to restore hemostasis in hemophilic mice. Under both steady-state conditions and prothrombotic conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation, supratherapeutic levels of platelet-expressed FVIII did not appear to be thrombogenic. Furthermore, FVIII-expressing platelets were neither hyperactivated nor hyperactivatable upon agonist activation. Conclusion We conclude that, in mice, more than 30-fold higher levels of

  20. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith G. M. Jelsma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p<0.05. Results. Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more frequently reported by women with children. Abstaining from snacking was identified as a challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Conclusions. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women.

  1. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2016-01-01

    We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was conducted to gather information from pregnant European women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). In three European countries 21 interviews were conducted, followed by 71 questionnaires in six other European countries. Content analysis and descriptive and chi-square statistics were applied (p challenge for the majority of women, especially for those without children. Women preferred to obtain support from their partner, as well as health professionals and valued flexible lifestyle programs. Healthcare professionals need to inform overweight pregnant women about their personal risk, discuss lifestyle modification, and assist in weight management. Lifestyle programs should be tailored to the individual, taking into account barriers experienced by overweight first-time mothers and multipara women.

  2. The kissing-loop motif is a preferred site of 5' leader recombination during replication of SL3-3 murine leukemia viruses in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Mikkelsen, J G; Schmidt, J

    1999-01-01

    , and the upstream part of the 5' untranslated region, enabled us to map recombination sites, guided by distinct scattered nucleotide differences. In 30 of 44 analyzed sequences, recombination was mapped to a 33-nucleotide similarity window coinciding with the kissing-loop stem-loop motif implicated in dimerization...... of the diploid genome. Interestingly, the recombination pattern preference found in replication-competent viruses from T-cell tumors is very similar to the pattern previously reported for retroviral vectors in cell culture experiments. The data therefore sustain the hypothesis that the kissing loop, presumably...

  3. Genetic Factors Interact With Tobacco Smoke to Modify Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Humans and Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Ellinghaus, David; Rémy, Gaëlle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of tobacco smoke in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We investigated interactions between genes and smoking (gene-smoking interactions) that affect risk for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a case-only study of patients...... chamber, or ambient air (controls). Intestines were collected and analyzed histologically and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: We identified 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for which the association between the SNP and IBD were modified by smoking behavior (meta...... to smoke. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of 55 Immunochip-wide datasets, we identified 64 SNPs whose association with risk for IBD is modified by tobacco smoking. Gene-smoking interactions were confirmed in mice with disruption of Il10 and Nod2-variants of these genes have been associated with risk for IBD...

  4. Food Seeking in a Risky Environment: A Method for Evaluating Risk and Reward Value in Food Seeking and Consumption in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Sarah H; McAuley, Clare V; Rawlinson, Sasha; Guiney, Natalie; Andrews, Zane B

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus. We then assessed parameters of the interaction with the food reward. Fasted mice or mice treated with ghrelin showed increased consumption and increased time spent in the food zone immediately around the food reward compared to ad libitum fed mice or mice treated with saline. However, fasted mice treated with IP glucose before exposure to the behavioral arena showed reduced time in the food zone compared to fasted controls, indicating that acute metabolic signals can modify the assessment of safety in food seeking in a risky environment. The tests described in this study will be useful in assessing risk processing and incentive salience of food reward, which are intrinsic components of food acquisition outside of the laboratory environment, in a range of genetic and pharmacological models.

  5. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  6. GEP analysis validates high risk MDS and acute myeloid leukemia post MDS mice models and highlights novel dysregulated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerenne, Laura; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Said, Mohamed; Gorombei, Petra; Le Pogam, Carole; Guidez, Fabien; de la Grange, Pierre; Omidvar, Nader; Vanneaux, Valérie; Mills, Ken; Mufti, Ghulam J; Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Noguera, Maria Elena; Pla, Marika; Fenaux, Pierre; Padua, Rose Ann; Chomienne, Christine; Krief, Patricia

    2016-01-27

    In spite of the recent discovery of genetic mutations in most myelodysplasic (MDS) patients, the pathophysiology of these disorders still remains poorly understood, and only few in vivo models are available to help unravel the disease. We performed global specific gene expression profiling and functional pathway analysis in purified Sca1+ cells of two MDS transgenic mouse models that mimic human high-risk MDS (HR-MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) post MDS, with NRASD12 and BCL2 transgenes under the control of different promoters MRP8NRASD12/tethBCL-2 or MRP8[NRASD12/hBCL-2], respectively. Analysis of dysregulated genes that were unique to the diseased HR-MDS and AML post MDS mice and not their founder mice pointed first to pathways that had previously been reported in MDS patients, including DNA replication/damage/repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, immune responses, and canonical Wnt pathways, further validating these models at the gene expression level. Interestingly, pathways not previously reported in MDS were discovered. These included dysregulated genes of noncanonical Wnt pathways and energy and lipid metabolisms. These dysregulated genes were not only confirmed in a different independent set of BM and spleen Sca1+ cells from the MDS mice but also in MDS CD34+ BM patient samples. These two MDS models may thus provide useful preclinical models to target pathways previously identified in MDS patients and to unravel novel pathways highlighted by this study.

  7. GEP analysis validates high risk MDS and acute myeloid leukemia post MDS mice models and highlights novel dysregulated pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guerenne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the recent discovery of genetic mutations in most myelodysplasic (MDS patients, the pathophysiology of these disorders still remains poorly understood, and only few in vivo models are available to help unravel the disease. Methods We performed global specific gene expression profiling and functional pathway analysis in purified Sca1+ cells of two MDS transgenic mouse models that mimic human high-risk MDS (HR-MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML post MDS, with NRASD12 and BCL2 transgenes under the control of different promoters MRP8NRASD12/tethBCL-2 or MRP8[NRASD12/hBCL-2], respectively. Results Analysis of dysregulated genes that were unique to the diseased HR-MDS and AML post MDS mice and not their founder mice pointed first to pathways that had previously been reported in MDS patients, including DNA replication/damage/repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, immune responses, and canonical Wnt pathways, further validating these models at the gene expression level. Interestingly, pathways not previously reported in MDS were discovered. These included dysregulated genes of noncanonical Wnt pathways and energy and lipid metabolisms. These dysregulated genes were not only confirmed in a different independent set of BM and spleen Sca1+ cells from the MDS mice but also in MDS CD34+ BM patient samples. Conclusions These two MDS models may thus provide useful preclinical models to target pathways previously identified in MDS patients and to unravel novel pathways highlighted by this study.

  8. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  9. The Schizophrenia-Associated BRD1 Gene Regulates Behavior, Neurotransmission, and Expression of Schizophrenia Risk Enriched Gene Sets in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Per; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Vardya, Irina; Rajkumar, Anto Praveen; Mørk, Arne; Paternoster, Veerle; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Pallesen, Jonatan; Fryland, Tue; Dyrvig, Mads; Hauberg, Mads Engel; Lundsberg, Birgitte; Fejgin, Kim; Nyegaard, Mette; Jensen, Kimmo; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Mors, Ole; Didriksen, Michael; Børglum, Anders Dupont

    2017-07-01

    The schizophrenia-associated BRD1 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator whose comprehensive chromatin interactome is enriched with schizophrenia risk genes. However, the biology underlying the disease association of BRD1 remains speculative. This study assessed the transcriptional drive of a schizophrenia-associated BRD1 risk variant in vitro. Accordingly, to examine the effects of reduced Brd1 expression, we generated a genetically modified Brd1 +/- mouse and subjected it to behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular, and integrative genomic analyses with focus on schizophrenia-relevant parameters. Brd1 +/- mice displayed cerebral histone H3K14 hypoacetylation and a broad range of behavioral changes with translational relevance to schizophrenia. These behaviors were accompanied by striatal dopamine/serotonin abnormalities and cortical excitation-inhibition imbalances involving loss of parvalbumin immunoreactive interneurons. RNA-sequencing analyses of cortical and striatal micropunches from Brd1 +/- and wild-type mice revealed differential expression of genes enriched for schizophrenia risk, including several schizophrenia genome-wide association study risk genes (e.g., calcium channel subunits [Cacna1c and Cacnb2], cholinergic muscarinic receptor 4 [Chrm4)], dopamine receptor D 2 [Drd2], and transcription factor 4 [Tcf4]). Integrative analyses further found differentially expressed genes to cluster in functional networks and canonical pathways associated with mental illness and molecular signaling processes (e.g., glutamatergic, monoaminergic, calcium, cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP], dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa [DARPP-32], and cAMP responsive element binding protein signaling [CREB]). Our study bridges the gap between genetic association and pathogenic effects and yields novel insights into the unfolding molecular changes in the brain of a new schizophrenia model that incorporates genetic risk at three levels: allelic

  10. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Lower-Risk Patients With Aortic Stenosis: Is It Justified to Be the Preferred Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghani, Mohammad; Serruys, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation underwent progressive improvements until it became the default therapy for inoperable patients, and a recommended therapy in high-risk operable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. In the lower-risk patient strata, a currently costly therapy that still has important complications with questionable durability is competing with the established effective and still-improving surgical replacement. This report tries to weigh the clinical evidence, the recent technical improvements, the durability, and the cost-effectiveness claims supporting the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in intermediate-low risk patients. The importance of appropriate patients' risk stratification and a more comprehensive approach to estimate that risk are also emphasized in the present report. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Loss of dysbindin-1, a risk gene for schizophrenia, leads to impaired group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K Bhardwaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The expression of dysbindin-1, a protein coded by the risk gene dtnbp1, is reduced in the brains of schizophrenia patients. Evidence indicates a role of dysbindin-1 in dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. Glutamatergic transmission and plasticity at excitatory synapses is critically regulated by G-protein coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR family members, that have been implicated in schizophrenia. Here, we report a role of dysbindin-1 in hippocampal group 1 mGluR (mGluRI function in mice. In hippocampal synaptoneurosomal preparations from sandy (sdy mice, that have a loss of function mutation in dysbindin-1 gene, we observed a striking reduction in mGluRI agonist [(S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine] (DHPG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. This mGluR-ERK1/2 deficit occurred in the absence of significant changes in protein levels of the two members of the mGluRI family (i.e., mGluR1 and mGluR5 or in another mGluRI signaling pathway, i.e., protein kinase C (PKC. Aberrant mGluRI-ERK1/2 signaling affected hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the sdy mutants as DHPG-induced long-term depression (LTD at CA1 excitatory synapses was significantly reduced. Behavioral data suggest that the mGluRI hypofunction may underlie some of the cognitive abnormalities described in sdy mice as the administration of CDPPB (3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl benzamide, a positive allosteric modulator of mGluR5, rescued short-term object recognition and spatial learning and memory deficits in these mice. Taken together, our data suggest a novel role of dysbindin-1 in regulating mGluRI functions.

  12. Can property values capture changes in environmental health risks? Evidence from a stated preference study in Italy and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignet, Dennis; Alberini, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Hedonic models are a common nonmarket valuation technique, but, in practice, results can be affected by omitted variables and whether homebuyers respond to the assumed environmental measure. We undertake an alternative stated preference approach that circumvents these issues. We examine how homeowners in the United Kingdom and Italy value mortality risk reductions by asking them to choose among hypothetical variants of their home that differ in terms of mortality risks from air pollution and price. We find that Italian homeowners hold a value of a statistical life (VSL) of €6.4 million, but U.K. homeowners hold a much lower VSL (€2.1 million). This may be because respondents in the United Kingdom do not perceive air pollution where they live to be as threatening, and actually live in cities with relatively low air pollution. Italian homeowners value a reduction in the risk of dying from cancer more than from other causes, but U.K. respondents do not hold such a premium. Lastly, respondents who face higher baseline risks, due to greater air pollution where they live, hold a higher VSL, particularly in the United Kingdom. In both countries, the VSL is twice as large among individuals who perceive air pollution where they live as high. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Does information form matter when giving tailored risk information to patients in clinical settings? A review of patients’ preferences and responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Harris, Claire Noble, Victoria Lowers Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Neoliberal emphasis on “responsibility” has colonized many aspects of public life, including how health care is provided. Clinical risk assessment of patients based on a range of data concerned with lifestyle, behavior, and health status has assumed a growing importance in many health systems. It is a mechanism whereby responsibility for self (preventive care can be shifted to patients, provided that risk assessment data is communicated to patients in a way which is engaging and motivates change. This study aimed to look at whether the form in which tailored risk information was presented in a clinical setting (for example, using photographs, online data, diagrams etc., was associated with differences in patients’ responses and preferences to the material presented. We undertook a systematic review using electronic searching of nine databases, along with handsearching specialist journals and backward and forward citation searching. We identified eleven studies (eight with a randomized controlled trial design. Seven studies involved the use of computerized health risk assessments in primary care. Beneficial effects were relatively modest, even in studies merely aiming to enhance patient–clinician communication or to modify patients’ risk perceptions. In our paper, we discuss the apparent importance of the accompanying discourse between patient and clinician, which appears to be necessary in order to impart meaning to information on “risk,” irrespective of whether the material is personalized, or even presented in a vivid way. Thus, while expanding computer technologies might be able to generate a highly personalized account of patients’ risk in a time efficient way, the need for face-to-face interactions to impart meaning to the data means that these new technologies cannot fully address the

  14. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-deficiency increases risk of diabetes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence suggest innate immune response pathways to be involved in the development of obesity-associated diabetes although the molecular mechanism underling the disease is unknown. Recent observations suggest that saturated fatty acids can act as a ligand for toll-like receptor (TLR 4, which is thought to mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is an adapter protein for TLR/IL-1 receptor signaling, which is involved in the activation of inflammatory pathways. To evaluate molecular mechanisms linking obesity-associated diabetes down-stream of TLR4, we investigated physiological role of MyD88 in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we found MyD88-deficient mice fed a HFD had increased circulating levels of insulin, leptin and cholesterol, as well as liver dysfunction (increased induction of ALT levels, increased activation of JNK and cleavage of PARP, which were linked to the onset of severe diabetes. On the other hand, TNF-alpha would not be involved in HFD-induced diabetes in MyD88-deficient mice, because TNF-alpha level was attenuated in MyD88-deficient mice fed with HFD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present finding of an unexpected role for MyD88 in preventing diabetes may provide a potential novel target/strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  15. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  16. Insulin-Requiring Versus Noninsulin-Requiring Diabetes and Thromboembolic Risk in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: PREFER in AF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patti, G.; Lucerna, M.; Cavallari, F.; Ricottini, E.; Renda, G.; Pecen, Ladislav; Romeo, F.; Le Heuzey, J.Y.; Zamorano, J.; Kirchhof, P.; De Caterina, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 0735-1097 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : CHA2DS2-VASc score * registry * risk prediction * stroke * systemic embolism Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Cardiac and Cardiovascular systems Impact factor: 19.896, year: 2016

  17. β-Adrenergic Receptor Mediation of Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Extinguished Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice: Roles for β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranjkovic, Oliver; Hang, Shona; Baker, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Stress can trigger the relapse of drug use in recovering cocaine addicts and reinstatement in rodent models through mechanisms that may involve norepinephrine release and β-adrenergic receptor activation. The present study examined the role of β-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the stressor-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-induced (15 mg/kg i.p.) conditioned place preference in mice. Forced swim (6 min at 22°C) stress or activation of central noradrenergic neurotransmission by administration of the selective α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist 2-[(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-1H-isoindole (BRL-44,408) (10 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement in wild-type, but not β- adrenergic receptor-deficient Adrb1/Adrb2 double-knockout, mice. In contrast, cocaine administration (15 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reinstatement in both wild-type and β-adrenergic receptor knockout mice. Stress-induced reinstatement probably involved β2 adrenergic receptors. The β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist -(isopropylamino)-1-[(7-methyl-4-indanyl)oxy]butan-2-ol (ICI-118,551) (1 or 2 mg/kg i.p.) blocked reinstatement by forced swim or BRL-44,408, whereas administration of the nonselective β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) or the β2 adrenergic receptor-selective agonist clenbuterol (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.) induced reinstatement. Forced swim-induced, but not BRL-44,408-induced, reinstatement was also blocked by a high (20 mg/kg) but not low (10 mg/kg) dose of the β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist betaxolol, and isoproterenol-induced reinstatement was blocked by pretreatment with either ICI-118,551 or betaxolol, suggesting a potential cooperative role for β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors in stress-induced reinstatement. Overall, these findings suggest that targeting β-adrenergic receptors may represent a promising pharmacotherapeutic strategy for preventing drug relapse, particularly in cocaine addicts whose drug use is stress

  18. Consumer and product-specific characteristics influencing the effect of nutrition, health and risk reduction claims on preferences and purchase behavior - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Johann; Hamm, Ulrich

    2018-08-01

    The research on nutrition, health, and risk reduction claims (NHR claims) shows a lack of consensus as to whether these claims have a positive or negative effect on consumer's preferences and purchase behavior. This issue has been highlighted by many authors. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to find reasons for contradictory results. First, a theoretical framework was developed which divided the determinants of the effects of NHR claims on consumers' preferences and purchase behavior into consumer and product-specific characteristics. Additionally, a categorization for the different NHR claim types was constructed to make the studies comparable. Afterwards, the scientific literature from the 1980s until May 2017 was scanned and 66 articles were found to be relevant. Consumer-specific characteristics such as nutrition knowledge, health motivation, familiarity, and socio-demographic characteristics were found to influence the NHR claim effect. Important product-specific characteristics were the perceived healthiness of the food product, the interaction between the product and the nutrient in the NHR claim, and the interaction between the claimed benefit and the NHR claim type. The consumer's nutrition knowledge and the product's perceived healthiness were deemed to be the most promising determinants for further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What are retail investors' risk-return preferences towards renewable energy projects? A choice experiment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salm, Sarah; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Citizens own nearly half the renewable energy generation capacity in Germany and have been important drivers of the country's energy transition. In contrast to citizens' important role in financing renewable energies, the energy policy and economics literature has traditionally focused on other investors, such as incumbent energy firms. To close this gap, this paper reports on a large-scale survey of 1,990 German retail investors. Conducting a choice experiment with the subset of 1,041 respondents who expressed an interest in investing in community renewable energy projects, we present a unique dataset allowing for new insights in risk-return expectations of retail investors. We find that apart from return on investment, respondents are particularly sensitive to the minimum holding period and the issuer of community renewable energy investment offerings. A minimum holding period of 10 years implies a risk premium of 2.76% points. A subsequent segmentation analysis shows that two groups of potential community renewable energy investors with different risk-return expectations can be identified: “local patriots” and “yield investors”. In contrast to professional investors, a majority of retail investors use simple decision rules such as calculating payback time or relying on their gut feeling when making investments. - Highlights: • Out of 1,990 retail investors surveyed, 1,041 express interest to invest in renewables. • Two target segments are identified, “local patriots” and “yield investors”. • “Local patriots” are willing to forgo return on investment in local projects. • Solar photovoltaic is most popular technology, followed by wind and small hydro. • Majority of investors use simple payback calculation or decide intuitively.

  20. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  1. Take a stand on your decisions, or take a sit: posture does not affect risk preferences in an economic task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. O’Brien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and emotional states can affect our decision-making processes, even when these states are seemingly insignificant to the decision at hand. We examined whether posture and postural threat affect decisions in a non-related economic domain. Healthy young adults made a series of choices between economic lotteries in various conditions, including changes in body posture (sitting vs. standing and changes in elevation (ground level vs. atop a 0.8-meter-high platform. We compared three metrics between conditions to assess changes in risk-sensitivity: frequency of risky choices, and parameter fits of both utility and probability weighting parameters using cumulative prospect theory. We also measured skin conductance level to evaluate physiological response to the postural threat. Our results demonstrate that body posture does not significantly affect decision making. Secondly, despite increased skin conductance level, economic risk-sensitivity was unaffected by increased threat. Our findings indicate that economic choices are fairly robust to the physiological and emotional changes that result from posture or postural threat.

  2. Take a stand on your decisions, or take a sit: posture does not affect risk preferences in an economic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2014-01-01

    Physiological and emotional states can affect our decision-making processes, even when these states are seemingly insignificant to the decision at hand. We examined whether posture and postural threat affect decisions in a non-related economic domain. Healthy young adults made a series of choices between economic lotteries in various conditions, including changes in body posture (sitting vs. standing) and changes in elevation (ground level vs. atop a 0.8-meter-high platform). We compared three metrics between conditions to assess changes in risk-sensitivity: frequency of risky choices, and parameter fits of both utility and probability weighting parameters using cumulative prospect theory. We also measured skin conductance level to evaluate physiological response to the postural threat. Our results demonstrate that body posture does not significantly affect decision making. Secondly, despite increased skin conductance level, economic risk-sensitivity was unaffected by increased threat. Our findings indicate that economic choices are fairly robust to the physiological and emotional changes that result from posture or postural threat.

  3. Cellular Functions of the Autism Risk Factor PTCHD1 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tora, David; Gomez, Andrea M; Michaud, Jean-Francois; Yam, Patricia T; Charron, Frédéric; Scheiffele, Peter

    2017-12-06

    The gene patched domain containing 1 ( PTCHD1 ) is mutated in patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and has been hypothesized to contribute to Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and synapse formation. We identify a panel of Ptchd1-interacting proteins that include postsynaptic density proteins and the retromer complex, revealing a link to critical regulators of dendritic and postsynaptic trafficking. Ptchd1 knock-out (KO) male mice exhibit cognitive alterations, including defects in a novel object recognition task. To test whether Ptchd1 is required for Shh-dependent signaling, we examined two Shh-dependent cell populations that express high levels of Ptchd1 mRNA: cerebellar granule cell precursors and dentate granule cells in the hippocampus. We found that proliferation of these neuronal precursors was not altered significantly in Ptchd1 KO male mice. We used whole-cell electrophysiology and anatomical methods to assess synaptic function in Ptchd1-deficient dentate granule cells. In the absence of Ptchd1, we observed profound disruption in excitatory/inhibitory balance despite normal dendritic spine density on dentate granule cells. These findings support a critical role of the Ptchd1 protein in the dentate gyrus, but indicate that it is not required for structural synapse formation in dentate granule cells or for Shh-dependent neuronal precursor proliferation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The mechanisms underlying neuronal and cellular alterations resulting from patched domain containing 1 ( Ptchd1 ) gene mutations are unknown. The results from this study support an association with dendritic trafficking complexes of Ptchd1. Loss-of-function experiments do not support a role in sonic hedgehog-dependent signaling, but reveal a disruption of synaptic transmission in the mouse dentate gyrus. The findings will help to guide ongoing efforts to understand the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders arising from Ptchd1 deficiency. Copyright

  4. The effect of risk perception on public preferences and willingness to pay for reductions in the health risks posed by toxic cyanobacterial blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Peter D; Hanley, Nick; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Mearns, Kathryn; Tyler, Andrew N; Carvalho, Laurence; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2012-06-01

    Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria are an increasingly common occurrence in inland and coastal waters used for recreational purposes. These mass populations pose serious risks to human and animal health and impose potentially significant economic costs on society. In this study, we used contingent valuation (CV) methods to elicit public willingness to pay (WTP) for reductions in the morbidity risks posed by blooms of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in Loch Leven, Scotland. We found that 55% of respondents (68% excluding protest voters) were willing to pay for a reduction in the number of days per year (from 90, to either 45 or 0 days) that cyanobacteria pose a risk to human health at Loch Leven. The mean WTP for a risk reduction was UK£9.99-12.23/household/year estimated using a logistic spike model. In addition, using the spike model and a simultaneous equations model to control for endogeneity bias, we found the respondents' WTP was strongly dependent on socio-demographic characteristics, economic status and usage of the waterbody, but also individual-specific attitudes and perceptions towards health risks. This study demonstrates that anticipated health risk reductions are an important nonmarket benefit of improving water quality in recreational waters and should be accounted for in future cost-benefit analyses such as those being undertaken under the auspices of the European Union's Water Framework Directive, but also that such values depend on subjective perceptions of water-related health risks and general attitudes towards the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk-prone individuals prefer the wrong options on a rat version of the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalan, Marion; Ahmed, Serge H; Dellu-Hagedorn, Françoise

    2009-10-15

    Decision making in complex and conflicting situations, as measured in the widely used Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), can be profoundly impaired in psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction, and also in healthy individuals for whom immediate gratification prevails over long-term gain. The cognitive processes underlying these deficits are poorly understood, in part due to a lack of suitable animal models assessing complex decision making with good construct validity. We developed a rat gambling task analogous to the IGT that tracks, for the first time, the ongoing decision process within a single session in an operant cage. Rats could choose between various options. Disadvantageous options, as opposed to advantageous ones, offered bigger immediate food reward but were followed by longer, unpredictable penalties (time-out). The majority of rats can evaluate and deduce favorable options more or less rapidly according to task complexity, whereas others systematically choose disadvantageously. These interindividual differences are stable over time and do not depend on task difficulty or on the level of food restriction. We find that poor decision making does not result from a failure to acquire relevant information but from hypersensitivity to reward and higher risk taking in anxiogenic situations. These results suggest that rats, as well as human poor performers, share similar traits to those observed in decision-making related psychiatric disorders. These traits could constitute risk factors of developing such disorders. The rapid identification of poor decision makers using the rat gambling task should promote the discovery of the specific brain dysfunctions that cause maladapted decision making.

  6. Selegiline Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Mice Lacking the CD157/BST1 Gene, a Risk Factor for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoka Kasai

    2017-05-01

    , and selegiline nonsignificantly ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors in CD157 KO mice. In the social interaction and preference tests, repeated mirtazapine ameliorated the high anxiety and low sociability of CD157 KO mice, whereas selegiline did not. These results indicate that selegiline has antidepressant and mild anxiolytic effects in CD157 KO mice, and suggest that it is an effective antiparkinsonian drug for depressive and anxiety symptoms in PD patients with a CD157 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP.

  7. Female preference and predation risk models can explain the maintenance of a fallow deer (Dama dama lek and its 'handy' location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Apollonio

    Full Text Available We tested the predictions of three models (female preference; hotspot; predator avoidance on lek formation in the fallow deer population of San Rossore, Tuscany. We collected behavioural observations in two leks and radiotracking data on 67 deer over 7 years. Two deer sub-populations were present in the northern and southern sides of the area, respectively, the two sectors being delimited by a river and including one lek each. Predictions were tested for one lek (SG, located in the south-side where we set up our 7-year radiotracking program. Data from a second lek (FO, north-side were used to test those predictions which imply the occurrence of multiple leks in the same population. We showed that the majority of females made one single visit to one lek, only during the rut. The lek was located outside areas of higher female traffic and home range overlap, and females increased home range sizes during the rut to reach it. Twilight routes of females never crossed the lek; instead, females walked atypical routes and at a faster pace to reach the lek and mate. The distance between the two leks was higher than the average diameter of female home ranges, and only one lek was present within female home ranges. Males reached the lek one month before the arrival of females, corroborating that lekking is a female-initiated process (females moving towards large clumped male aggregations rather than a male-initiated process (males moving towards female hotspots. Our results supported the female preference model, and rejected the predictions of the hotspot model. Also, leks were located far from areas with higher predation risk, supporting the predator avoidance model. The position of lek SG resulted 'handy' at the sub-population level because of the optimal trade-off between travel costs for females to reach it and avoidance of human predators.

  8. Female Preference and Predation Risk Models Can Explain the Maintenance of a Fallow Deer (Dama dama) Lek and Its ‘Handy’ Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Marco; De Cena, Fabio; Bongi, Paolo; Ciuti, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We tested the predictions of three models (female preference; hotspot; predator avoidance) on lek formation in the fallow deer population of San Rossore, Tuscany. We collected behavioural observations in two leks and radiotracking data on 67 deer over 7 years. Two deer sub-populations were present in the northern and southern sides of the area, respectively, the two sectors being delimited by a river and including one lek each. Predictions were tested for one lek (SG), located in the south-side where we set up our 7-year radiotracking program. Data from a second lek (FO, north-side) were used to test those predictions which imply the occurrence of multiple leks in the same population. We showed that the majority of females made one single visit to one lek, only during the rut. The lek was located outside areas of higher female traffic and home range overlap, and females increased home range sizes during the rut to reach it. Twilight routes of females never crossed the lek; instead, females walked atypical routes and at a faster pace to reach the lek and mate. The distance between the two leks was higher than the average diameter of female home ranges, and only one lek was present within female home ranges. Males reached the lek one month before the arrival of females, corroborating that lekking is a female-initiated process (females moving towards large clumped male aggregations) rather than a male-initiated process (males moving towards female hotspots). Our results supported the female preference model, and rejected the predictions of the hotspot model. Also, leks were located far from areas with higher predation risk, supporting the predator avoidance model. The position of lek SG resulted ‘handy’ at the sub-population level because of the optimal trade-off between travel costs for females to reach it and avoidance of human predators. PMID:24599036

  9. Interplay between DISC1 and GABA signaling regulates neurogenesis in mice and risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Young; Liu, Cindy Y; Zhang, Fengyu; Duan, Xin; Wen, Zhexing; Song, Juan; Feighery, Emer; Lu, Bai; Rujescu, Dan; St Clair, David; Christian, Kimberly; Callicott, Joseph H; Weinberger, Daniel R; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li

    2012-03-02

    How extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors interact to regulate continuous neurogenesis in the postnatal mammalian brain is unknown. Here we show that regulation of dendritic development of newborn neurons by Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires neurotransmitter GABA-induced, NKCC1-dependent depolarization through a convergence onto the AKT-mTOR pathway. In contrast, DISC1 fails to modulate early-postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis when conversion of GABA-induced depolarization to hyperpolarization is accelerated. Extending the period of GABA-induced depolarization or maternal deprivation stress restores DISC1-dependent dendritic regulation through mTOR pathway during early-postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, DISC1 and NKCC1 interact epistatically to affect risk for schizophrenia in two independent case control studies. Our study uncovers an interplay between intrinsic DISC1 and extrinsic GABA signaling, two schizophrenia susceptibility pathways, in controlling neurogenesis and suggests critical roles of developmental tempo and experience in manifesting the impact of susceptibility genes on neuronal development and risk for mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Introduction of peanuts in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy: a prospective, double-blinded assessment of risk, of diagnostic tests, and an analysis of patient preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, P; Graham, F; Killer, K; Paradis, J; Paradis, L; Des Roches, A

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of peanut allergy in younger siblings of children with peanut allergy has been reported between 7% and 8.5%, but the anaphylactic risk at the time of introduction is currently unknown, which limits our ability to best counsel parents on this issue. To determine the risk of anaphylaxis and working parameters of allergy testing in this context. One hundred and fifty-four peanut-naïve younger siblings of peanut-allergic children underwent double-blinded skin testing, followed by parent-led peanut introduction. Questionnaires were dispensed to parents to investigate preferences with regard to peanut introduction in this subgroup. Eight participants (5.2%) presented unequivocal IgE-mediated reactions to peanut upon introduction, including five anaphylaxes. These participants were significantly older compared to the rest of the cohort (median 4.0 vs 1.9 years, P = 0.04). The negative predictive value of skin prick test with peanut extract and peanut butter and of specific IgE was 99%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Six peanut-tolerant participants had positive peanut allergy tests. The option of introducing at home without prior skin testing was associated with high levels of anxiety (median 8.4 on 10-point Likert scale) when compared to supervised introduction (median 3.8, P siblings of children with peanut allergy, and parents are reluctant to introduce at home without testing. Allergy testing prior to introduction is negative in over 90% of cases and carries a high negative predictive value. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice lacking the CD157/BST1 gene, a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eLopatina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD157, known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyl cyclase that supports the survival and function of B-lymphocytes and hematopoietic or intestinal stem cells. Although CD157/Bst1 is a risk locus in Parkinson’s disease (PD, little is known about the function of CD157 in the nervous system and contribution to PD progression. Here, we show that no apparent motor dysfunction was observed in young knockout (CD157-/- male mice under less aging-related effects on behaviors. CD157-/- mice exhibited anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors compared with wild-type mice. These behaviors were rescued through treatment with anti-psychiatric drugs and oxytocin. CD157 was weakly expressed in the amygdala and c-Fos immunoreactivity was less evident in CD157-/- mice than in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CD157 plays a role as a neuro-regulator and suggest a potential role in pre-motor symptoms in PD.

  12. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  13. Effect of Diet High in Coconut Oil on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in ApoE Knockout and Wild Type Mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Objective: We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease in both control and proatherosclerotic mice consuming diets high in coconut oil. Methods...evaluated by a pathologist blinded to treatment. Results: There were no differences in the average weight gain or amount of diet consumed regardless of...genotype or diet consumed . Similarly, there were no differences in total cholesterol, HDL, and triglyceride in any of the groups. Statistically

  14. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler E Schartel

    Full Text Available Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable. We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1 mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2 consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3 consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  15. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald

    2007-02-13

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle of 129 versus B6 mice. Detailed histological examination, however, reveals that this UCP1 is in mitochondria of brown adipocytes interspersed between muscle bundles. Indeed, the number of UCP1-positive brown fat cells in intermuscular fat in 129 mice is >700-fold higher than in B6 mice. These brown fat cells are subject to further up-regulation of UCP1 after stimulation with a beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice.

  16. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I.; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2007-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle ...

  17. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus : An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille Nm

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: An explorative mixed methods,

  18. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was

  19. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  20. Preference for dry sex, condom use and risk of STI among HIV-negative black women in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruiter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of dry sex is reportedly common among young black women in South Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women’s preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 446 women completed a behavioural survey in isiXhosa which assessed demographic information, sexual behaviours, condom use behaviour and other potential correlates. In total, 159 (36.72% women indicated preferring dry sex. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that participants who preferred dry sex were more likely to report past STI episodes and to have a partner who also preferred dry sex. The findings indicate that dry sex behaviour was not directly associated with condom use and STI (CT, NG, and TV prevalence but may have been associated with relationships in which sexual preferences of the male partner were dominant.

  1. Fusobacterium nucleatum Alters Atherosclerosis Risk Factors and Enhances Inflammatory Markers with an Atheroprotective Immune Response in ApoE(null Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M Velsko

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association supports an association between periodontal disease (PD and atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD but does not as of yet support a causal relationship. Recently, we have shown that major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola are causally associated with acceleration of aortic atherosclerosis in ApoEnull hyperlipidemic mice. The aim of this study was to determine if oral infection with another significant periodontal pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum can accelerate aortic inflammation and atherosclerosis in the aortic artery of ApoEnull mice. ApoEnull mice (n = 23 were orally infected with F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 and euthanized at 12 and 24 weeks. Periodontal disease assessments including F. nucleatum oral colonization, gingival inflammation, immune response, intrabony defects, and alveolar bone resorption were evaluated. Systemic organs were evaluated for infection, aortic sections were examined for atherosclerosis, and inflammatory markers were measured. Chronic oral infection established F. nucleatum colonization in the oral cavity, induced significant humoral IgG (P=0.0001 and IgM (P=0.001 antibody response (12 and 24 weeks, and resulted in significant (P=0.0001 alveolar bone resorption and intrabony defects. F. nucleatum genomic DNA was detected in systemic organs (heart, aorta, liver, kidney, lung indicating bacteremia. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque area was measured and showed a local inflammatory infiltrate revealed the presence of F4/80+ macrophages and CD3+ T cells. Vascular inflammation was detected by enhanced systemic cytokines (CD30L, IL-4, IL-12, oxidized LDL and serum amyloid A, as well as altered serum lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides, chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL, in infected mice and altered aortic gene expression in infected mice. Despite evidence for systemic infection in several organs and modulation of known atherosclerosis risk factors, aortic

  2. Developmental exposure of mice to dioxin promotes transgenerational testicular inflammation and an increased risk of preterm birth in unexposed mating partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylon L Bruner-Tran

    Full Text Available TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, commonly known as dioxin is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Using a mouse model, we previously found that adult female mice exposed in utero to TCDD (F1 generation as well as multiple subsequent generations (F2-F4 exhibited reduced fertility and an increased incidence of spontaneous preterm birth. Additional studies revealed that male F1 mice with a similar in utero/developmental TCDD exposure also exhibited diminished fertility and conferred an increased risk of preterm birth to their unexposed mating partners. Herein, we extend these previous observations, reporting that reduced fertility in male F1 mice is linked to testicular inflammation which coincides with apoptosis of developing spermatocytes, sub-fertility and an increased risk of preterm birth in their unexposed mating partners. Significantly, in the absence of additional toxicant exposure, testicular inflammation and reduced fertility persisted in F2 and F3 males and their control mating partners also frequently exhibited spontaneous preterm birth. Although a steady, global decline in male fertility has been noted over the last few decades, the reasons for these changes have not been firmly established. Likewise, the PTB rate in the U.S. and other countries has paralleled industrial development, suggesting a possible relationship between environmental toxicant exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most current clinical strategies to prevent preterm birth are focused solely on the mother and have yielded limited benefits. In contrast, our studies strongly suggest that the preconception testicular health of the father is a critical determinant of pregnancy outcomes in mice. Future clinical studies should examine the potential contribution of the male to gestation length in women and whether efforts to reduce the incidence of preterm birth should be initiated in both parents prior to pregnancy.

  3. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  4. Other-regarding preferences and leadership styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  5. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  7. Risks of a fructose rich soft drink consumption on some biochemical parameters in Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmonem, H.A.; Ali, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of soft drinks, in particular carbonated beverages, has markedly increased in the last two to three decades. In fact, the carbonated beverages are the most popular refreshments among most of the world's population. The aim of this study was to assess the body weight gains and analyze some biochemical and hematological parameters in male and female Balb/c mice. Animals were provided with diluted coca cola (fructose rich soft drink) for 6 weeks and were matched against corresponding control animals. The control animals were maintained on tap water ad libitum and coca cola was diluted v/v by tap water. The results revealed that the percentages of body weight gains of male and female control animals were significantly higher than the corresponding mice provided with coca cola. Hemoglobin content (Hb, g/100ml blood), erythrocytes (RBCs), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), leucocytes (WBCs), granulocytes and blood platelet counts were significantly decreased in the groups of mice treated with the soft drink, compared to the control groups. However, significant increases were observed in lymphocytes in the treated groups. Consumption of the soft drink (coca cola) in both male and female animal groups exhibited significant increases of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-c and atherogenic index. Levels of serum calcium significantly decreased in both male and female treated mice than the corresponding control groups. Consumption of coca cola did not affect the levels of T3. This study suggests that consumption of high fructose soft drink may lead to many health problems

  8. Consumption of acidic water alters the gut microbiome and decreases the risk of diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kyle J; Daft, Joseph G; Tanner, Scott M; Hartmann, Riley; Khafipour, Ehsan; Lorenz, Robin G

    2014-04-01

    Infant formula and breastfeeding are environmental factors that influence the incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) as well as the acidity of newborn diets. To determine if altering the intestinal microbiome is one mechanism through which an acidic liquid plays a role in T1D, we placed non-obese diabetic (NOD)/ShiLtJt mice on neutral (N) or acidified H2O and monitored the impact on microbial composition and diabetes incidence. NOD-N mice showed an increased development of diabetes, while exhibiting a decrease in Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria from as early as 2 weeks of age. NOD-N mice had a decrease in the levels of Foxp3 expression in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells, as well as decreased CD4(+)IL17(+) cells, and a lower ratio of IL17/IFNγ CD4+ T-cells. Our data clearly indicates that a change in the acidity of liquids consumed dramatically alters the intestinal microbiome, the presence of protective Th17 and Treg cells, and the incidence of diabetes. This data suggests that early dietary manipulation of intestinal microbiota may be a novel mechanism to delay T1D onset in genetically pre-disposed individuals.

  9. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  10. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Material and methods: Own questionnaire was used concerning music preferences, consisting of the following genres: metal, rock, pop, jazz, hip-hop, reggae, film music, sung poetry, electronic music. The studied group comprised of 26 girls diagnosed with mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, eating disorders and behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. Exclusion criteria were the remaining diagnostic categories, especially active psychotic process and mental retardation as well as lack of understanding of the questionnaire questions or not being familiar with basic types of music. Among the patients aged 13–18 subject to inpatient stay at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź in the period 2013–2014 and consented to the study, the incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse, taking psychoactive substances and the presence of antisocial disorders were assessed. Questionnaire verification was carried out in a group of 30 people tested with a test–retest method with a two-week break; reliability was obtained: 0.89–1. Analysis was carried out with the use of Statistica 9.1 programme. Results: Among the teenage girls subject to inpatient stay, music preferences were not related in a statistically significant manner (p > 0.05 with a greater incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse and contact with psychoactive

  11. Acute cognitive impact of antiseizure drugs in naive rodents and corneal-kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Vanegas, Fabiola; Mau, Matthew J; Underwood, Tristan K; White, H Steve

    2016-09-01

    Some antiseizure drugs (ASDs) are associated with cognitive liability in patients with epilepsy, thus ASDs without this risk would be preferred. Little comparative pharmacology exists with ASDs in preclinical models of cognition. Few pharmacologic studies exist on the acute effects in rodents with chronic seizures. Predicting risk for cognitive impact with preclinical models may supply valuable ASD differentiation data. ASDs (phenytoin [PHT]; carbamazepine [CBZ]; valproic acid [VPA]; lamotrigine [LTG]; phenobarbital [PB]; tiagabine [TGB]; retigabine [RTG]; topiramate [TPM]; and levetiracetam [LEV]) were administered equivalent to maximal electroshock median effective dose ([ED50]; mice, rats), or median dose necessary to elicit minimal motor impairment (median toxic dose [TD50]; rats). Cognition models with naive adult rodents were novel object/place recognition (NOPR) task with CF-1 mice, and Morris water maze (MWM) with Sprague-Dawley rats. Selected ASDs were also administered to rats prior to testing in an open field. The effect of chronic seizures and ASD administration on cognitive performance in NOPR was also determined with corneal-kindled mice. Mice that did not achieve kindling criterion (partially kindled) were included to examine the effect of electrical stimulation on cognitive performance. Sham-kindled and age-matched mice were also tested. No ASD (ED50) affected latency to locate the MWM platform; TD50 of PB, RTG, TPM, and VPA reduced this latency. In naive mice, CBZ and VPA (ED50) reduced time with the novel object. Of interest, no ASD (ED50) affected performance of fully kindled mice in NOPR, whereas CBZ and LEV improved cognitive performance of partially kindled mice. Standardized approaches to the preclinical evaluation of an ASD's potential cognitive impact are needed to inform drug development. This study demonstrated acute, dose- and model-dependent effects of therapeutically relevant doses of ASDs on cognitive performance of naive mice and

  12. "Asset Pricing With Multiplicative Habit and Power-Expo Preferences"

    OpenAIRE

    William T. Smith; Qiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Multiplicative habit introduces an additional consumption risk as a determinant of equity premium, and allows time preference and habit strength, in addition to risk aversion, to affect "price of risk". A model combining multiplicative habit and power-expo preferences cannot be rejected.

  13. A High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet Induces Antioxidant Imbalance and Increases the Risk and Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Jarukamjorn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat liver is an important manifestation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD on mRNA levels and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, were determined in mouse livers and brains. The histomorphology of the livers was examined and the state of nonenzymatic reducing system was evaluated by measuring the glutathione system and the lipid peroxidation. Histopathology of the liver showed that fat accumulation and inflammation depended on the period of the HFFD-consumption. The levels of mRNA and enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx were raised, followed by the increases in malondialdehyde levels in livers and brains of the HFFD mice. The oxidized GSSG content was increased while the total GSH and the reduced GSH were decreased, resulting in the increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio in both livers and brains of the HFFD mice. These observations suggested that liver damage and oxidative stress in the significant organs were generated by continuous HFFD-consumption. Imbalance of antioxidant condition induced by long-term HFFD-consumption might increase the risk and progression of NAFLD.

  14. Presenting risk information to people with diabetes: evaluating effects and preferences for different formats by a web-based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrian; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Rhys; Ellner, Andrew L; Brown, Polly; Elwyn, Glyn

    2006-11-01

    Web-based patient information is widespread and information on the benefits and risks of treatments is often difficult to understand. We therefore evaluated different risk presentation formats - numerical, graphical and others - addressing the pros and cons of tight control versus usual treatment approaches for diabetes. Randomised controlled trial. Online. Publicity disseminated via Diabetes UK. People with diabetes or their carers. Control group information based on British Medical Journal 'Best Treatments'. Four intervention groups received enhanced information resources: (1) detailed numerical information (absolute/relative risk, numbers-needed-to-treat); (2) 'anchoring' to familiar risks or descriptions; (3) graphical (bar charts, thermometer scales, crowd figure formats); (4) combination of 1-3. Decision conflict scale (DCS, a measure of uncertainty); satisfaction with information; further free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Seven hundred and ten people visited the website and were randomised. Five hundred and eight completed the questionnaire for quantitative data. Mean DCS scores ranged from 2.12 to 2.24 for the five randomisation groups, indicating neither clear delay or vacillation about decisions (usually DCS>2.5) nor tending to make decisions (usually DCSOnline evaluation of different risk representation formats was feasible. There was a lack of intervention effects on quantitative outcomes, perhaps reflecting already well-informed participants from the Diabetes UK patient organisation. The large qualitative dataset included many comments about what participants found helpful as formats for communicating risk information. These findings assist the design of online decision aids and the representation of risk information. The challenge is to provide more information, in appropriate and clear formats, but without risking information overload. Interactive web designs hold much promise to achieve this.

  15. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R Adron

    2006-10-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 h) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin, but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest that this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability).

  16. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  17. Maternal intake of high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet during pregnancy causes transgenerational increase in mammary cancer risk in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen M; de Oliveira Andrade, Fabia; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Xiyuan; Macon, Madisa; Cruz, M Idalia; Benitez, Carlos; Wehrenberg, Bryan; Yin, Chao; Wang, Xiao; Xuan, Jianhua; de Assis, Sonia; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2017-07-03

    Maternal and paternal high-fat (HF) diet intake before and/or during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk in several preclinical models. We studied if maternal consumption of a HF diet that began at a time when the fetal primordial germ cells travel to the genital ridge and start differentiating into germ cells would result in a transgenerational inheritance of increased mammary cancer risk. Pregnant C57BL/6NTac mouse dams were fed either a control AIN93G or isocaloric HF diet composed of corn oil high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids between gestational days 10 and 20. Offspring in subsequent F1-F3 generations were fed only the control diet. Mammary tumor incidence induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was significantly higher in F1 (p pregnancy induces a transgenerational increase in offspring mammary cancer risk in mice. The mechanisms of inheritance in the F3 generation may be different from the F1 generation because significantly more changes were seen in the transcriptome.

  18. Heterozygous mutations of FREM1 are associated with an increased risk of isolated metopic craniosynostosis in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisenka E L M Vissers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The premature fusion of the paired frontal bones results in metopic craniosynostosis (MC and gives rise to the clinical phenotype of trigonocephaly. Deletions of chromosome 9p22.3 are well described as a cause of MC with variably penetrant midface hypoplasia. In order to identify the gene responsible for the trigonocephaly component of the 9p22.3 syndrome, a cohort of 109 patients were assessed by high-resolution arrays and MLPA for copy number variations (CNVs involving 9p22. Five CNVs involving FREM1, all of which were de novo variants, were identified by array-based analyses. The remaining 104 patients with MC were then subjected to targeted FREM1 gene re-sequencing, which identified 3 further mutant alleles, one of which was de novo. Consistent with a pathogenic role, mouse Frem1 mRNA and protein expression was demonstrated in the metopic suture as well as in the pericranium and dura mater. Micro-computed tomography based analyses of the mouse posterior frontal (PF suture, the human metopic suture equivalent, revealed advanced fusion in all mice homozygous for either of two different Frem1 mutant alleles, while heterozygotes exhibited variably penetrant PF suture anomalies. Gene dosage-related penetrance of midfacial hypoplasia was also evident in the Frem1 mutants. These data suggest that CNVs and mutations involving FREM1 can be identified in a significant percentage of people with MC with or without midface hypoplasia. Furthermore, we present Frem1 mutant mice as the first bona fide mouse model of human metopic craniosynostosis and a new model for midfacial hypoplasia.

  19. Co-exposure to ultrafine particulate matter and ozone causes electrocardiogram changes indicative of increased arrhythmia risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have shown a relationship between acute air pollution exposure and increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the inherent complexity of air pollution, recent studies have focused on co-exposures to better understand potential interactions....

  20. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang Zhongchuan [Department of Anorectal Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Wen, E-mail: wzhang@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 {mu}M. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provided useful experimental

  1. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji; Wang Zhongchuan; Zhang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: ► A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. ► The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. ► We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. ► The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. ► It provided useful experimental evidences for diabetes-accelerate atherosclerosis. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for

  2. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  3. Assessing Women’s Preferences and Preference Modeling for Breast Reconstruction Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement S. Sun, MS

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: We recommend the risk-averse multiplicative model for modeling the preferences of patients considering different forms of breast reconstruction because it agreed most often with the participants in this study.

  4. Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Hill, Linda Z; Roberts, Amy L

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary...... tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk...

  5. Illegal and Legal Parrot Trade Shows a Long-Term, Cross-Cultural Preference for the Most Attractive Species Increasing Their Risk of Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, José L.; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981–2005) on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals), using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech), and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws) were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries. PMID:25225808

  6. Cost analysis of the Dutch obstetric system: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth--a prospective non-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Marijke Jc; Evers, Silvia Maa; Basten, Marloes Cm; Nijhuis, Jan G; Severens, Johan L

    2009-11-19

    In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. This study is a cost analysis based on the findings of a multicenter prospective non-randomised study comparing two groups of nulliparous women with different preferences for where to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting. Data were collected using cost diaries, questionnaires and birth registration forms. Analysis of the data is divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. In the group of home births, the total societal costs associated with giving birth at home were euro3,695 (per birth), compared with euro3,950 per birth in the group for short-stay hospital births. Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding the following cost categories 'Cost of contacts with health care professionals during delivery' (euro138.38 vs. euro87.94, -50 (2.5-97.5 percentile range (PR)-76;-25), p home' (euro1,551.69 vs. euro1,240.69, -311 (PR -485; -150), p home birth are euro4,364 per birth, and euro4,541 per birth for short-stay hospital births. The total costs associated with pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care are comparable for home birth and short-stay hospital birth. The most important differences in costs between the home birth group and the short-stay hospital birth group are associated with maternity care assistance, hospitalisation, and travelling costs.

  7. Cost Analysis of the Dutch Obstetric System: low-risk nulliparous women preferring home or short-stay hospital birth - a prospective non-randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhuis Jan G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, pregnant women without medical complications can decide where they want to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting with a midwife. However, a decrease in the home birth rate during the last decennium may have raised the societal costs of giving birth. The objective of this study is to compare the societal costs of home births with those of births in a short-stay hospital setting. Methods This study is a cost analysis based on the findings of a multicenter prospective non-randomised study comparing two groups of nulliparous women with different preferences for where to give birth, at home or in a short-stay hospital setting. Data were collected using cost diaries, questionnaires and birth registration forms. Analysis of the data is divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Results In the group of home births, the total societal costs associated with giving birth at home were €3,695 (per birth, compared with €3,950 per birth in the group for short-stay hospital births. Statistically significant differences between both groups were found regarding the following cost categories 'Cost of contacts with health care professionals during delivery' (€138.38 vs. €87.94, -50 (2.5-97.5 percentile range (PR-76;-25, p Conclusion The total costs associated with pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum care are comparable for home birth and short-stay hospital birth. The most important differences in costs between the home birth group and the short-stay hospital birth group are associated with maternity care assistance, hospitalisation, and travelling costs.

  8. Habitat Modeling and Preferences of Marine Mammals as Function of Oceanographic Characteristics: Development of Predictive Tools for Assessing the Risks and the Impacts Due to Sound Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    evaluate WEC projects in the perspective of the environmental cost-benefit analysis. Proceedings of the ISOPE 2011, Maui, Hawaii, USA 19-24 June, 2011...Function of Oceanographic Characteristics: Development of Predictive Tools for Assessing the Risks and the Impacts Due to Sound Emissions Dr...detections) and the available environmental predictors; - Creating the knowledge-based background about potential mitigation measures appropriate for

  9. Fast food consumer´s awareness about the health risks and factors leading to preference for this type of meals

    OpenAIRE

    BENÝŠKOVÁ, Ivetta

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of fast-food style meals increases the risk of occurrence of health problems that might result in some diseases called lifestyle diseases or diseases of civilization. Frequent fast food consumption and related inadequate eating habits lead to increased morbidity and mortality linked particularly to obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and other health problems even from early age. This thesis analyses the problems of eating at fast food restaurants and stands f...

  10. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  11. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  12. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  13. Thromboembolic Risk, Bleeding Outcomes and Effect of Different Antithrombotic Strategies in Very Elderly Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Sub-Analysis From the PREFER in AF (PREvention oF Thromboembolic Events-European Registry in Atrial Fibrillation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Giuseppe; Lucerna, Markus; Pecen, Ladislav; Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Cavallari, Ilaria; Kirchhof, Paulus; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2017-07-23

    Increasing age predisposes to both thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with atrial fibrillation; therefore, balancing risks and benefits of antithrombotic strategies in older populations is crucial. We investigated 1-year outcome with different antithrombotic approaches in very elderly atrial fibrillation patients (age ≥85 years) compared with younger patients. We accessed individual patients' data from the prospective PREFER in AF (PREvention oF thromboembolic events-European Registry in Atrial Fibrillation), compared outcomes with and without oral anticoagulation (OAC), and estimated weighed net clinical benefit in different age groups. A total of 6412 patients, 505 of whom were aged ≥85 years, were analyzed. In patients aged risk of major bleeding was higher than in younger patients, but similar in patients on OAC and in those on antiplatelet therapy or without antithrombotic treatment (4.0%/year versus 4.2%/year; P =0.77). OAC was overall associated with weighted net clinical benefit, assigning weights to nonfatal events according to their prognostic implication for subsequent death (-2.19%; CI, -4.23%, -0.15%; P =0.036). We found a significant gradient of this benefit as a function of age, with the oldest patients deriving the highest benefit. Because the risk of stroke increases with age more than the risk of bleeding, the absolute benefit of OAC is highest in very elderly patients, where it, by far, outweighs the risk of bleeding, with the greatest net clinical benefit in such patients. © 2017 The Authors and Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Phenotypic effects of maternal immune activation and early postnatal milieu in mice mutant for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, C; Desbonnet, L; Clarke, N; Petit, E; Tighe, O; Lai, D; Harvey, R; Waddington, J L; O'Tuathaigh, C

    2014-09-26

    Risk of schizophrenia is likely to involve gene × environment (G × E) interactions. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a schizophrenia risk gene, hence any interaction with environmental adversity, such as maternal infection, may provide further insights into the basis of the disease. This study examined the individual and combined effects of prenatal immune activation with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (Poly I:C) and disruption of the schizophrenia risk gene NRG1 on the expression of behavioral phenotypes related to schizophrenia. NRG1 heterozygous (NRG1 HET) mutant breeding pairs were time-mated. Pregnant dams received a single injection (5mg/kg i.p.) of Poly I:C or vehicle on gestation day 9 (GD9). Offspring were then cross-fostered to vehicle-treated or Poly I:C-treated dams. Expression of schizophrenia-related behavioral endophenotypes was assessed at adolescence and in adulthood. Combining NRG1 disruption and prenatal environmental insult (Poly I:C) caused developmental stage-specific deficits in social behavior, spatial working memory and prepulse inhibition (PPI). However, combining Poly I:C and cross-fostering produced a number of behavioral deficits in the open field, social behavior and PPI. This became more complex by combining NRG1 deletion with both Poly I:C exposure and cross-fostering, which had a robust effect on PPI. These findings suggest that concepts of G × E interaction in risk of schizophrenia should be elaborated to multiple interactions that involve individual genes interacting with diverse biological and psychosocial environmental factors over early life, to differentially influence particular domains of psychopathology, sometimes over specific stages of development. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flavor Dependent Retention of Remote Food Preference Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Kumar, Suraj; Singh, Vikram Pal; Das, Asish; Balaji, J

    2017-01-01

    Social Transmission of Food Preference (STFP) is a single trial non-aversive learning task that is used for testing non-spatial memory. This task relies on an accurate estimate of a change in food preference of the animals following social demonstration of a novel flavor. Conventionally this is done by providing two flavors of powdered food and later estimating the amount of food consumed for each of these flavors in a defined period of time. This is achieved through a careful measurement of leftover food for each of these flavors. However, in mice, only a small (~1 g) amount of food is consumed making the weight estimates error prone and thereby limiting the sensitivity of the paradigm. Using multiplexed video tracking, we show that the pattern of consumption can be used as a reliable reporter of memory retention in this task. In our current study, we use this as a measure and show that the preference for the demonstrated flavor significantly increases following demonstration and the retention of this change in preference during remote testing is flavor specific. Further, we report a modified experimental design for performing STFP that allows testing of change in preference among two flavors simultaneously. Using this paradigm, we show that during remote testing for thyme and basil demonstrated flavors, only basil demonstrated mice retain the change in preference while thyme demonstrated mice do not.

  16. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  17. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...

  18. Risks and opportunities for plastic surgeons in a widening cosmetic medicine market: future demand, consumer preferences, and trends in practitioners' services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Richard A; Saltz, Renato; Rohrich, Rod J; Kinney, Brian; Haeck, Phillip; Gold, Alan H; Singer, Robert; Jewell, Mark L; Eaves, Felmont

    2008-05-01

    The American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery launched a joint Cosmetic Medicine Task Force to address the growing trend of non-plastic surgeons entering the cosmetic medicine field. The task force commissioned two surveys in 2007 to determine consumer attitudes about choosing cosmetic medicine providers and to learn about the cosmetic services that plastic surgeons offer. The first survey obtained responses from 1015 women who had undergone a cosmetic procedure or were considering having one within 2 years. The second survey obtained responses from 260 members of the two societies. Compared with other practitioners, plastic surgeons enjoy higher rates of satisfaction among their patients who undergo noninvasive procedures. Injectables present a particularly promising market for plastic surgeons. Half of consumers surveyed said they were very concerned about complications associated with injectables, and generally, the higher the perceived risk of the procedure, the higher the likelihood that a patient would choose a plastic surgeon to perform it. In addition, injectables were among the noninvasive treatments most frequently being considered by consumers. However, almost half of consumers said that if they had a positive experience with a non-plastic surgeon core provider for a noninvasive procedure, that physician would likely be their first choice for a surgical procedure. These findings suggest that plastic surgeons, and especially those who are building young practices, must expand their offerings of nonsurgical cosmetic services to remain at the core of the cosmetic medicine field.

  19. Teachers' preferences towards textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Darko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the method named Conjoint analysis, and with the goal of determining teacher's preferences in the process of textbook selection, and also defining the prototype of quality textbook which will could be used in the classroom. With consideration of criteria defined in the previous researches on this topic, an continuing the work on those results, we will create clear hypothetical prototype of the textbook which will satisfy the teacher's preference.

  20. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  1. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  2. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  3. Breast cancer screening in an era of personalized regimens: a conceptual model and National Cancer Institute initiative for risk-based and preference-based approaches at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Sprague, Brian L; Barlow, William E; Haas, Jennifer S; Tosteson, Anna N A; D Schnall, Mitchell; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L; Conant, Emily F

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women's health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for "overdiagnosis," and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a "1-size-fits-all" guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women's risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  4. An Intra-Group Perspective on Leader Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Laustsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that followers’ preferences for dominant leadership vary according to two types of exploitation risks from other individuals within the group. Previous work demonstrates that contexts of inter-group war and peace make followers prefer dominant- and non-dominant-looking leaders......, respectively. We add an intra-group perspective to this literature. Four original studies demonstrate that contexts with high risks of free-riding and criminal behavior from other group members (i.e., horizontal exploitation) increase preferences for dominant-looking leaders, whereas contexts with high risks...... of unresponsive, self-interested behavior from leaders themselves (i.e., vertical exploitation) decrease preferences for dominant-looking leaders. Moreover, within this framework of intra-group exploitation risks we show that followers prefer leaders from another vis-à-vis their own ethnic coalition to look less...

  5. Endogenous nociceptin modulates diet preference independent of motivation and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Miwako; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P

    2009-04-20

    Previous studies show that the opioid peptide nociceptin stimulates food intake. Here, we studied nociceptin receptor knockout (NOP KO) mice in various behavioral paradigms designed to differentiate psychological and physiological loci at which endogenous nociceptin might control feeding. When presented a choice under food restriction, NOP KO mice displayed reduced preference for high sucrose diet, but lower intake of high fat diet under no-choice conditions. These responses were absent under ad libitum feeding conditions. Conditioned place preference to high fat diet under food-deprived conditions was unaltered in NOP KO mice, suggesting no difference in reward responses. Furthermore, operant food self-administration under a variety of conditions showed no genotype-dependent differences, suggesting no differences in the motivational properties of food. Taste reactivity to sucrose was unchanged in NOP KO mice, though NOP KO mice had altered aversive reactions to quinine solutions under ad libitum feeding, suggesting minor differences in the affective impact of palatable and unpalatable tastants. Although NOP KO mice re-fed following food-deprivation showed normal increases in plasma glucose and insulin, multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the relationship between these measures, body weight and plasma leptin was substantially disrupted in NOP KO, particularly in fasted mice. Additionally, the typical positive relationship between body weight and plasma leptin was considerably weaker in NOP KO mice. Together, these findings suggest that endogenous nociceptin differentially modulates diet preference depending on macronutrient content and homeostatic state, independently of the motivating, rewarding or orosensory properties of food, but may involve metabolic or postingestive processes.

  6. Farmers’ Preferences for Mobile Agro Advisory Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Prabha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu to understand the service preferences of the mobile agro advisory services offered by the public extension system. The agro advisories offered by the e-extension centre of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University were selected for the study. A sample of 200 respondents was selected employing proportionate random sampling method. The study was carried out in terms of dimensions viz., technical components, message frequency and timings, message physical dimension, message channel and message follow up. Results of the survey showed that among the technical components majority of the respondents opined that the information on advance warning of weather risks was very much adequate, the messages on plant protection were relevant and that the messages on advance warning of weather risks were timely. With reference to the message frequency, a majority preferred frequency of the messages on daily basis and preferred to receive messages during mornings.

  7. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  8. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  9. A long-term intake of a protein hydrolysate seems to increase the risk of encephalopathy in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo S Ferreira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations showed that Schistosoma mansoni infection aggravates protein malabsorption in undernourished mice and this can be reverted by administration of casein hydrolysate. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of ingestion of casein hydrolysate for long periods. Albino Swiss mice were divided into eight groups. Diets contained 5% (undernourished or 20% (controls casein levels. For each group there were sub-groups ingesting whole or hydrolysed casein for 12 weeks. Infection with S. mansoni developed in half of the animals under each diet. All undernourished mice developed malabsorption. Low albuminemia was detected in infected animals independently of the protein level in the diet. However, albuminemia was lower in infected controls than in undernourished non-infected mice, suggesting a deficient liver protein synthesis. Infected mice fed on a 20% protein hydrolysed diet exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rates. On the other hand, non-infected mice ingesting the same diet had the highest body weights. We are investigating the hypothesis that infected mice, even when fed normal diets, are unable to metabolise large amounts of amino acids due to the liver lesions related to schistosomiasis and as a result die of hepatic coma. In some of them, the excessive accumulation of ammonia in the blood enhances the outcome of an encephalopathy.

  10. Behavioral Characteristics of Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 46-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Saki; Kano, Makoto; Nonoyama, Keiko; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified Usp46, which encodes for ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46, as a quantitative trait gene affecting the immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test. The mutation that we identified was a 3-bp deletion coding for lysine (Lys 92), and mice with this mutation (MT mice), as well as Usp46 KO mice exhibited shorter TST immobility times. Behavioral pharmacology suggests that the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor is involved in regulating TST immobility time. In order to understand how far Usp46 controls behavioral phenotypes, which could be related to mental disorders in humans, we subjected Usp46 MT and KO mice to multiple behavioral tests, including the open field test, ethanol preference test, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex test, sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, marble burying test, and novel object recognition test. Although behavioral phenotypes of the Usp46 MT and KO mice were not always identical, deficiency of Usp46 significantly affected performance in all these tests. In the open field test, activity levels were lower in Usp46 KO mice than wild type (WT) or MT mice. Both MT and KO mice showed lower ethanol preference and shorter recovery times after ethanol administration. Compared to WT mice, Usp46 MT and KO mice exhibited decreased sucrose preference, took longer latency periods to bite pellets, and buried more marbles in the sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, and marble burying test, respectively. In the novel object recognition test, neither MT nor KO mice showed an increase in exploration of a new object 24 hours after training. These findings indicate that Usp46 regulates a wide range of behavioral phenotypes that might be related to human mental disorders and provides insight into the function of USP46 deubiquitinating enzyme in the neural system. PMID:23472206

  11. Behavioral characteristics of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Imai

    Full Text Available We have previously identified Usp46, which encodes for ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46, as a quantitative trait gene affecting the immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test. The mutation that we identified was a 3-bp deletion coding for lysine (Lys 92, and mice with this mutation (MT mice, as well as Usp46 KO mice exhibited shorter TST immobility times. Behavioral pharmacology suggests that the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptor is involved in regulating TST immobility time. In order to understand how far Usp46 controls behavioral phenotypes, which could be related to mental disorders in humans, we subjected Usp46 MT and KO mice to multiple behavioral tests, including the open field test, ethanol preference test, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex test, sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, marble burying test, and novel object recognition test. Although behavioral phenotypes of the Usp46 MT and KO mice were not always identical, deficiency of Usp46 significantly affected performance in all these tests. In the open field test, activity levels were lower in Usp46 KO mice than wild type (WT or MT mice. Both MT and KO mice showed lower ethanol preference and shorter recovery times after ethanol administration. Compared to WT mice, Usp46 MT and KO mice exhibited decreased sucrose preference, took longer latency periods to bite pellets, and buried more marbles in the sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, and marble burying test, respectively. In the novel object recognition test, neither MT nor KO mice showed an increase in exploration of a new object 24 hours after training. These findings indicate that Usp46 regulates a wide range of behavioral phenotypes that might be related to human mental disorders and provides insight into the function of USP46 deubiquitinating enzyme in the neural system.

  12. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  13. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  14. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...

  15. The effect of personal experience on choice-based preferences for wildfire protection programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis; Jose Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate homeowner preferences and willingness to pay for wildfire protection programs using a choice experiment with three attributes: risk, loss and cost. Preference heterogeneity among survey respondents was examined using three econometric models and risk preferences were evaluated by comparing willingness to pay for wildfire protection...

  16. Immunobiology of congenitally athymic-asplenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershwin, M.E.; Ahmed, A.; Ikeda, R.M.; Shifrine, M.; Wilson, F.

    1978-01-01

    A study has been made of congenitally athymic-asplenic mice obtained by the mating of nude by hereditarily asplenic (Dh/+) mice. The mice survived for up to 9 months, under specific pathogen-free conditions, with no evidence for increased risk of spontaneous neoplasia. Although lymphocyte surface markers and sera immunoglobulin levels of athymic-asplenic mice were similar to those of their nude and asplenic littermates, there were a number of major immunologic differences. The athymic-asplenic mice appeared more immunologically compromised than nude mice. There was an elevated rate of growth and a lower inoculated cell threshold needed for successful transplantation of a human malignant melanoma. There was no evidence for auto-antibody production in mice up to 9 months of age. Congenitally athymic-asplenic mice can be used for a variety of studies in which other immunologically deprived mouse mutants are desired. (author)

  17. Preferred breast cancer message sources and frames amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive study set out to verify the Kenyan women's knowledge of the various risk factors associated with breast cancer, their preferred framing of the breast cancer messages and their preferred channels for receiving those messages. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) women aged 20-64 years from the Kisumu ...

  18. Do wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) use food selection as a means to reduce heavy metal intake?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Brande, Greet Van Den

    2008-01-01

    Food preference of wood mice from two with heavy metals polluted sites and two unpolluted sites was tested under laboratory and field conditions with two-way choice experiments. In the laboratory, wood mice preferred to eat acorns from unpolluted sites over acorns from polluted sites. Previous...... experience with polluted food had no influence on food choice. Preference was negatively related to acorn metal content. Furthermore, the nutrient content of the acorn endosperm was consistently lower in polluted sites. We therefore conclude that wood mice used absolute metal concentration in the acorn...... selectively. Wood mice prefer unpolluted food items over polluted food items in laboratory trials but not in field situations....

  19. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  20. A Systematic Review to Identify the Use of Preference Elicitation Methods in Healthcare Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, Marieke Geertruida Maria; Janus, Sarah; van Til, Janine Astrid; Raisch, Dennis; van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preference elicitation methods help to increase patient-centred medical decision making (MDM) by measuring benefit and value. Preferences can be applied in decisions regarding reimbursement, including health technology assessment (HTA); market access, including benefit–risk assessment

  1. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  2. Emotions and Economic Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara; Ramachandran, Bharath

    2005-01-01

    We wish to examine critically the viewpoint that: a) economists take too narrow a view of rationality and do not recognize the role of emotions as a component of rationality and b) do not address the question of whether preferences are rational or not, and instead take them as just given. We trace the relationship between economics and emotions showing some economic dimensions of emotional states. We illustrate them with examples of economic behavior based on emotional reactions.

  3. Environmental enrichment for laboratory mice: preferences and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, Heleen Ariane van de

    1996-01-01

    Current laboratory housing systems have mainly been developed on the basis of ergonomic and economic factors. These systems provide adequate, basic physiological requirements of animals, but only marginally fulfil other needs, such as the performance of natural behaviour or social interactions.

  4. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  5. Modern Policyholder Preferences and Scenario-Based Projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ninna Reitzel

    This PhD thesis covers aspects of policyholder preferences and life insurance projections based on economic scenarios. Both topics are relevant to policyholders as well as to the life insurance and pension industry—and equally important, the topics give rise to a variety of interesting mathematical...... is important for designing competitive life insurance and savings products and for providing sound advice to policyholders. Preferences come in many shapes and forms. In this thesis, we focus on separation of risk and time preferences and preferences for smooth investment. The latter is modeled with something...

  6. Spatial learning of female mice: a role of the mineralocorticoid receptor during stress and the estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Ter Horst

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticosterone facilitates behavioral adaptation to a novel experience in a coordinate manner via mineralocorticoid (MR and glucocorticoid receptors (GR. Initially, MR mediates corticosterone action on appraisal processes, risk assessment and behavioral flexibility and then, GR activation promotes consolidation of the new information into memory. Here, we studied on the circular holeboard (CHB the spatial performance of female mice with genetic deletion of MR from the forebrain (MRCaMKCre and their wild type littermates (MRflox/flox mice over the estrous cycle and in response to an acute stressor. The estrous cycle had no effect on the spatial performance of MRflox/flox mice and neither did the acute stressor. However, the MRCaMKCre mutants needed significantly more time to find the exit and made more hole visit errors than the MRflox/flox mice, especially when in proestrus and estrus. In addition, stressed MRCaMKCre mice in estrus had a shorter exit latency than the control estrus MRCaMKCre mice. About 70% of the female MRCaMKCre and MRflox/flox mice used a hippocampal (spatial, extra maze cues rather than the caudate nucleus (stimulate-response, S-R, intra-maze cue strategy and this preference did neither change over the estrous cycle nor after stress. However, stressed MRCaMKCre mice using the S-R strategy needed significantly more time to find the exit hole as compared to the spatial strategy using mice suggesting that the MR could be needed for the stress-induced strategy switch towards a spatial strategy. In conclusion, the results suggest that loss of MR interferes with performance of a spatial task especially when estrogen levels are high suggesting a strong interaction between stress and sex hormones.

  7. Combined Effects of Acamprosate and Escitalopram on Ethanol Consumption in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ada Man-Choi; Qiu, Yanyan; Jia, Yun-Fang; Aguiar, Felipe S; Hinton, David J; Karpyak, Victor M; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2016-07-01

    Major depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatry comorbidities of alcohol use disorders (AUD). As negative emotions can trigger craving and increase the risk of relapse, treatments that target both conditions simultaneously may augment treatment success. Previous studies showed a potential synergistic effect of Food and Drug Administration approved medication for AUD acamprosate and the antidepressant escitalopram. In this study, we investigated the effects of combining acamprosate and escitalopram on ethanol (EtOH) consumption in stress-induced depressed mice. Forty singly housed C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable stress. In parallel, 40 group-housed male mice were subjected to normal husbandry. After 3 weeks, depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and EtOH consumption were assessed. For the next 7 days, mice were injected with saline, acamprosate (200 mg/kg; twice/d), escitalopram (5 mg/kg; twice/d), or their combination (n = 9 to 11/drug group/stress group). Two-bottle choice limited-access drinking of 15% EtOH and tap water was performed 3 hours into dark phase immediately after the daily dark phase injection. EtOH drinking was monitored for another 7 days without drug administration. Mice subjected to the chronic unpredictable stress paradigm for 3 weeks showed apparent depression- and anxiety-like behaviors compared to their nonstressed counterparts including longer immobility time in the forced swim test and lower sucrose preference. Stressed mice also displayed higher EtOH consumption and preference in a 2-bottle choice drinking test. During the drug administration period, the escitalopram-only and combined drug groups showed significant reduction in EtOH consumption in nonstressed mice, while only the combined drug group showed significantly reduced consumption in stressed mice. However, such reduction did not persist into the postdrug administration period. The combination of acamprosate and escitalopram suppressed

  8. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  9. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  10. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  11. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  12. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  13. Specificity in Sociality: Mice and Prairie Voles Exhibit Different Patterns of Peer Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Christensen, Jennifer D; Lee, Nicole S.; Blandino, Katrina L.

    2018-01-01

    Social behavior is often described as a unified concept, but highly social (group-living) species exhibit distinct social structures and may make different social decisions. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that often reside in extended family groups, and exhibit robust preferences for familiar social partners (same- and opposite-sex) during extended choice tests, although short-term preferences are not known. Mice (Mus musculus) are gregarious and colonial, but in brief laboratory tests of social preference they typically prefer social novelty. This preference for novel vs. familiar peers may represent a species-specific difference in social decision-making between mice and prairie voles. However, the tests used to measure preferences in each species differ markedly in duration and degree of contact, such that the behaviors cannot be directly compared. We assessed whether social preferences for novelty or familiarity differed between mice and prairie voles of both sexes when assessed with matching protocols: the sociability/social preference test (SPT) typically used in mice (short, no direct contact), and the partner preference test (PPT) used in voles (long, direct contact). A subset of voles also underwent a PPT using barriers (long, no direct contact). In the short SPT, behavior did not differ between species. In the longer test, pronounced partner preferences emerged in prairie voles, but mice exhibited no social preferences and rarely huddled. No sex differences were evident in either test. Direct physical contact was required for partner preferences in huddling time in voles, but preference for the partner chamber was evident with or without contact. Both prairie voles and mice are social, but they exhibit important differences in the specificity and extent of their social behavior. While mice are often used to study social approach and other behaviors, voles are a more suitable species for the study of selective social

  14. Specificity in Sociality: Mice and Prairie Voles Exhibit Different Patterns of Peer Affiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaliese K. Beery

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior is often described as a unified concept, but highly social (group-living species exhibit distinct social structures and may make different social decisions. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster are socially monogamous rodents that often reside in extended family groups, and exhibit robust preferences for familiar social partners (same- and opposite-sex during extended choice tests, although short-term preferences are not known. Mice (Mus musculus are gregarious and colonial, but in brief laboratory tests of social preference they typically prefer social novelty. This preference for novel vs. familiar peers may represent a species-specific difference in social decision-making between mice and prairie voles. However, the tests used to measure preferences in each species differ markedly in duration and degree of contact, such that the behaviors cannot be directly compared. We assessed whether social preferences for novelty or familiarity differed between mice and prairie voles of both sexes when assessed with matching protocols: the sociability/social preference test (SPT typically used in mice (short, no direct contact, and the partner preference test (PPT used in voles (long, direct contact. A subset of voles also underwent a PPT using barriers (long, no direct contact. In the short SPT, behavior did not differ between species. In the longer test, pronounced partner preferences emerged in prairie voles, but mice exhibited no social preferences and rarely huddled. No sex differences were evident in either test. Direct physical contact was required for partner preferences in huddling time in voles, but preference for the partner chamber was evident with or without contact. Both prairie voles and mice are social, but they exhibit important differences in the specificity and extent of their social behavior. While mice are often used to study social approach and other behaviors, voles are a more suitable species for the study of

  15. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  16. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  17. [Suicidality and musical preferences: a possible link?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Gladys; Desseilles, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Music is an important part of young people's lives. In this article, we attempt to answer two questions on the links between music et suicide. First, we examine if certain types of music favor suicidal process (ideation and acting out); and, secondly, we examine if music can constitute a tool to reduce the risk of suicide. Several factors possibly involved in links between musical preferences and the suicidal process are developed: the Velten effect and the musical mood induction procedure, the identification and the learning by imitation, the media influence as well as the individual characteristics. A multifactor approach is necessary to understand the complex and birectional links that unite musical preferences and suicide risk.

  18. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  19. Assessing Women's Preferences and Preference Modeling for Breast Reconstruction Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Clement S; Cantor, Scott B; Reece, Gregory P; Crosby, Melissa A; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K

    2014-03-01

    Women considering breast reconstruction must make challenging trade-offs amongst issues that often conflict. It may be useful to quantify possible outcomes using a single summary measure to aid a breast cancer patient in choosing a form of breast reconstruction. In this study, we used multiattribute utility theory to combine multiple objectives to yield a summary value using nine different preference models. We elicited the preferences of 36 women, aged 32 or older with no history of breast cancer, for the patient-reported outcome measures of breast satisfaction, psychosocial well-being, chest well-being, abdominal well-being, and sexual wellbeing as measured by the BREAST-Q in addition to time lost to reconstruction and out-of-pocket cost. Participants ranked hypothetical breast reconstruction outcomes. We examined each multiattribute utility preference model and assessed how often each model agreed with participants' rankings. The median amount of time required to assess preferences was 34 minutes. Agreement among the nine preference models with the participants ranged from 75.9% to 78.9%. None of the preference models performed significantly worse than the best performing risk averse multiplicative model. We hypothesize an average theoretical agreement of 94.6% for this model if participant error is included. There was a statistically significant positive correlation with more unequal distribution of weight given to the seven attributes. We recommend the risk averse multiplicative model for modeling the preferences of patients considering different forms of breast reconstruction because it agreed most often with the participants in this study.

  20. Expression of HIV gp120 protein increases sensitivity to the rewarding properties of methamphetamine in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P.; Hubbard, David T.; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection induce neuropathological changes in corticolimbic brain areas involved in reward and cognitive function. Little is known about the combined effects of methamphetamine and HIV infection on cognitive and reward processes. The HIV/gp120 protein induces neurodegeneration in mice, similar to HIV-induced pathology in humans. We investigated the effects of gp120 expression on associative learning, preference for methamphetamine and non-drug reinforcers, and sensitivity to the conditioned rewarding properties of methamphetamine in transgenic (tg) mice expressing HIV/gp120 protein (gp120-tg). gp120-tg mice learned the operant response for food at the same rate as non-tg mice. In the two-bottle choice procedure with restricted access to drugs, gp120-tg mice exhibited greater preference for methamphetamine and saccharin than non-tg mice, whereas preference for quinine was similar between genotypes. Under conditions of unrestricted access to methamphetamine, the mice exhibited a decreased preference for increasing methamphetamine concentrations. However, male gp120-tg mice showed a decreased preference for methamphetamine at lower concentrations than non-tg male mice. gp120-tg mice developed methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference at lower methamphetamine doses compared with non-tg mice. No differences in methamphetamine pharmacokinetics were found between genotypes. These results indicate that gp120-tg mice exhibit no deficits in associative learning or reward/motivational function for a natural reinforcer. Interestingly, gp120 expression resulted in increased preference for methamphetamine and a highly palatable non-drug reinforcer (saccharin) and increased sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced conditioned reward. These data suggest that HIV-positive individuals may have increased sensitivity to methamphetamine, leading to high methamphetamine abuse potential in this population. PMID

  1. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Cerium-144-induced lung gumors in two strains of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in the extrapolation of radiation cancer risk factors from one species or population to another is the choice of the risk model to use, either absolute or relative. The purpose of this study was to compare absolute and relative risk models in predicting the lung-tumor risks between a low lung-tumor incidence strain of mice and a high-incidence strain of mice. The conclusion from this study is that absolute risk is more accurate than relative risk for predicting lung tumor risk from high to low lung-tumor incidence strains of mice.

  3. Divergence and Convergence of Risky Decision Making Across Prospective Gains and Losses: Preferences and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g., framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion). However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g., reflection effect). We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences, and choice strategies (the reliance on option information) using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect), but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies-the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization). These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping.

  4. Prey preferences and prey acceptance in juvenile Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Bjorn; Savidge, Julie A.; Rodda, Gordon H.; Reed, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    On the Pacific island of Guam, control of the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) relies largely on methods that use mice as bait. Juvenile B. irregularis feed primarily on lizards and their eggs, but little is known about their prey preference. We conducted an experiment to investigate preferences for, and acceptance of, dead geckos, skinks, and neonatal mice, in juvenile B. irregularis ranging from 290 mm to ca. 700 mm snout-vent length (SVL). Snakes of all sizes showed a preference for geckos over skinks and neonatal mice. Geckos were the first prey chosen in 87% of 224 initial trials (56 snakes subjected to four trials each; 33% would be expected from a random choice). The smallest snakes had the most pronounced preference. Although many of the snakes accepted neonatal mice and/or skinks, some snakes of all sizes were reluctant to feed on anything but geckos, especially when well fed. We also addressed the hypothesis that repeated encounters with a particular prey type increase a snake's preference for that prey. Our study does not support this hypothesis. Our results suggest that control methods relying solely on rodent bait may be inefficient for targeting snakes < 700 mm SVL and that individual heterogeneity in prey preference may cause a significant part of this juvenile cohort to be completely refractory to capture with rodent bait, even if the bait is dead and small enough to be readily swallowed.

  5. Urocortin-1 within the centrally-projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus is critical for ethanol preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Giardino

    Full Text Available Converging lines of evidence point to the involvement of neurons of the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp containing the neuropeptide Urocortin-1 (Ucn1 in excessive ethanol (EtOH intake and EtOH sensitivity. Here, we expanded these previous findings by using a continuous-access, two-bottle choice drinking paradigm (3%, 6%, and 10% EtOH vs. tap water to compare EtOH intake and EtOH preference in Ucn1 genetic knockout (KO and wild-type (WT mice. Based on previous studies demonstrating that electrolytic lesion of the EWcp attenuated EtOH intake and preference in high-drinking C57BL/6J mice, we also set out to determine whether EWcp lesion would differentially alter EtOH consumption in Ucn1 KO and WT mice. Finally, we implemented well-established place conditioning procedures in KO and WT mice to determine whether Ucn1 and the corticotropin-releasing factor type-2 receptor (CRF-R2 were involved in the rewarding and aversive effects of EtOH (2 g/kg, i.p.. Results from these studies revealed that (1 genetic deletion of Ucn1 dampened EtOH preference only in mice with an intact EWcp, but not in mice that received lesion of the EWcp, (2 lesion of the EWcp dampened EtOH intake in Ucn1 KO and WT mice, but dampened EtOH preference only in WT mice expressing Ucn1, and (3 genetic deletion of Ucn1 or CRF-R2 abolished the conditioned rewarding effects of EtOH, but deletion of Ucn1 had no effect on the conditioned aversive effects of EtOH. The current findings provide strong support for the hypothesis that EWcp-Ucn1 neurons play an important role in EtOH intake, preference, and reward.

  6. Measuring customer preferences in the German statutory health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates consumer preferences in the German statutory health insurance market. It further aims to test whether preferences differ by age and health status. Evidence is provided by a discrete choice experiment conducted in 2014 using the six most important attributes in sickness fund competition and ten random generated choice sets per participant. Price is found to be the most important attribute followed by additional benefits, managed care programmes, and distance to nearest branch. Other positive attributes of sickness funds are found to balance out a higher price, which would allow a sickness fund to position itself as high quality. However, significant differences in preferences were found between age and health status group. In particular, compromised health is associated with higher preference for illness-related additional benefits and less distance to the lowest branch, but lower preference for a lower price. Based on these differences, a distinct sickness fund offer could be constructed that would allow passive risk selection.

  7. Citizen preference assessment for power supply visions using choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Jun; Tahara, Kiyotaka; Tanaka, Koji; Matsumoto, Shinya; Mizuno, Tateki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, citizen preferences for power supply visions were assessed using choice experiments. In particular, preferences for the composition of power generation including renewable energy and nuclear power were analyzed. We also investigated how the need and consciousness for electricity saving affected the preferences for power supply visions. The results indicated that a respondent group who felt negative about resuming the operations at nuclear power plants had discriminative preferences for attributes of the power supply visions, and that the priority of carbon dioxide emissions as a criterion for evaluating the power supply visions became lower when the composition of power generation was presented. Consciousness for electricity saving, as well as preferences for nuclear power generation, differed depending on regions of residence, while their relationship was similar among respondent groups who lived in the jurisdictional areas of the electric power companies that had experienced risks of demand-supply gaps. (author)

  8. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Noisy preferences in risky choice: A cautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sudeep; Loomes, Graham

    2017-10-01

    We examine the effects of multiple sources of noise in risky decision making. Noise in the parameters that characterize an individual's preferences can combine with noise in the response process to distort observed choice proportions. Thus, underlying preferences that conform to expected value maximization can appear to show systematic risk aversion or risk seeking. Similarly, core preferences that are consistent with expected utility theory, when perturbed by such noise, can appear to display nonlinear probability weighting. For this reason, modal choices cannot be used simplistically to infer underlying preferences. Quantitative model fits that do not allow for both sorts of noise can lead to wrong conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  12. Abdominal fat analyzed by DEXA scan reflects visceral body fat and improves the phenotype description and the assessment of metabolic risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyi; Wilson, Jenny L.; Khaksari, Mohammad; Cowley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between visceral fat content and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and liver steatosis. Obese mouse models are an excellent tool to study metabolic diseases; however, there are limited methods for the noninvasive measurement of fat distribution in mice. Although micromagnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography are the “gold standards” in the measurement of fat distribution, more economical and accessible methods are required. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is an effective method in characterizing fat content; however, it cannot discriminate between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots. We demonstrate that an evaluation of abdominal fat content measured by DEXA through the selection of one localized abdominal area strongly correlates with visceral fat content in C57BL/6J mice. We found that DEXA is able to measure fat pad volume ex vivo with high accuracy; however, the measurement of visceral fat in vivo shows an overestimation caused by subcutaneous tissue interference. The overestimation is almost constant for a wide range of values, and thus it is possible to correct the data for a more accurate estimation of visceral fat content. We demonstrate the utility of this technique in characterizing phenotypes of several obese mouse models (ob/ob, db/db, MC4R-KO, and DIO) and evaluating the effect of treatments on visceral fat content in longitudinal studies. Additionally, we also establish abdominal obesity as a potential biomarker for metabolic abnormalities (liver fat accumulation, insulin resistance/diabetes) in mice, similar to that described in humans. PMID:22761161

  13. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  14. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  15. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  16. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  17. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  18. CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J Mice Differ in Their Oral and Postoral Attraction to Glucose and Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Vural, Austin S; Ackroff, Karen

    2017-03-01

    A recent study indicated that CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J mice differ in their taste preferences for maltodextrin but display similar sucrose preferences. The present study revealed strain differences in preferences for the constituent sugars of sucrose. Whereas B6 mice preferred 8% glucose to 8% fructose in 2-day tests, the CAST mice preferred fructose to glucose. These preferences emerged with repeated testing which suggested post-oral influences. In a second experiment, 2-day choice tests were conducted with the sugars versus a sucralose + saccharin (SS) mixture which is highly preferred in brief access tests. B6 mice strongly preferred glucose but not fructose to the non-nutritive SS whereas CAST mice preferred SS to both glucose and fructose even when food restricted. This implied that CAST mice are insensitive to the postoral appetite stimulating actions of the 2 sugars. A third experiment revealed, however, that intragastric glucose and fructose infusions conditioned significant but mild flavor preferences in CAST mice, whereas in B6 mice glucose conditioned a robust preference but fructose was ineffective. Thus, unlike other mouse strains and rats, glucose is not more reinforcing than fructose in CAST mice. Their oral preference for fructose over glucose may be related to a subsensitive maltodextrin receptor or glucose-specific receptor which is stimulated by glucose but not fructose. The failure of CAST mice to prefer glucose to a non-nutritive sweetener distinguishes this strain from other mouse strains and rats. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Dietary resveratrol does not delay engraftment, sensitize to vincristine, or inhibit growth of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in NOD/SCID mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with translocation t(4;11) is a high-risk leukemia found in 60-85% of infants with ALL and is often refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics after relapse. Although resveratrol is able to kill high-risk leukemia in vitro, this agent has not been evaluated agai...

  20. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  1. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  2. Preferences, behaviour and the design of financial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfang, Maj-Britt

    of insurance customers may lower the premiums of the high-risk customers without aecting the premium level of the low-risk customers when a solvency capital requirement is imposed. The papers highlight how the risk preferences of individual consumers relate to the design of nancial contracts and the regulation......Today's insurance and nancial markets are characterized by and ever increasing complexity and product choice. How do we assist individual household consumers in making informed choices about their nancial positions in these markets? This thesis consists of ve separate research papers that are all...... in some way concerned with the design and regulation of nancial contracts in relation to consumer preferences under uncertainty. First, the design of mortgage products in relation to consumer preferences in a market with a stochastic interest rate is examined. We derive the (extreme) characteristics...

  3. Development and matching of binocular orientation preference in mouse V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Basabi; Shah, Nishal P

    2014-01-01

    Eye-specific thalamic inputs converge in the primary visual cortex (V1) and form the basis of binocular vision. For normal binocular perceptions, such as depth and stereopsis, binocularly matched orientation preference between the two eyes is required. A critical period of binocular matching of orientation preference in mice during normal development is reported in literature. Using a reaction diffusion model we present the development of RF and orientation selectivity in mouse V1 and investigate the binocular orientation preference matching during the critical period. At the onset of the critical period the preferred orientations of the modeled cells are mostly mismatched in the two eyes and the mismatch decreases and reaches levels reported in juvenile mouse by the end of the critical period. At the end of critical period 39% of cells in binocular zone in our model cortex is orientation selective. In literature around 40% cortical cells are reported as orientation selective in mouse V1. The starting and the closing time for critical period determine the orientation preference alignment between the two eyes and orientation tuning in cortical cells. The absence of near neighbor interaction among cortical cells during the development of thalamo-cortical wiring causes a salt and pepper organization in the orientation preference map in mice. It also results in much lower % of orientation selective cells in mice as compared to ferrets and cats having organized orientation maps with pinwheels.

  4. Development and Matching of Binocular Orientation Preference in Mouse V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabi eBhaumik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eye-specific thalamic inputs converge in the primary visual cortex (V1 and form the basis of binocular vision. For normal binocular perceptions, such as depth and stereopsis, binocularly matched orientation preference between the two eyes is required. A critical period of binocular matching of orientation preference in mice during normal development is reported in literature. Using a reaction diffusion model we present the development of RF and orientation selectivity in mouse V1 and investigate the binocular orientation preference matching during the critical period. At the onset of the critical period the preferred orientations of the modeled cells are mostly mismatched in the two eyes and the mismatch decreases and reaches levels reported in juvenile mouse by the end of the critical period. At the end of critical period 39% of cells in binocular zone in our model cortex is orientation selective. In literature around 40% cortical cells are reported as orientation selective in mouse V1. The starting and the closing time for critical period determine the orientation preference alignment between the two eyes and orientation tuning in cortical cells. The absence of near neighbor interaction among cortical cells during the development of thalmo-cortical wiring causes a salt and pepper organization in the orientation preference map in mice. It also results in much lower % of orientation selective cells in mice as compared to ferrets and cats having organized orientation maps with pinwheels.

  5. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans How PPO Plans Work A Medicare ... extra for these benefits. Related Resources Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  6. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  7. Patient values and preferences for antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation. A Narrative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Peter S; Ji, Angela Tianshu; Kapanen, Anita; McClean, Alison

    2017-06-02

    Guidelines recommend that patients' values and preferences should be considered when selecting stroke prevention therapy for atrial fibrillation (SPAF). However, doing so is difficult, and tools to assist clinicians are sparse. We performed a narrative systematic review to provide clinicians with insights into the values and preferences of AF patients for SPAF antithrombotic therapy. Narrative systematic review of published literature from database inception. 1) What are patients' AF and SPAF therapy values and preferences? 2) How are SPAF therapy values and preferences affected by patient factors? 3) How does conveying risk information affect SPAF therapy preferences? and 4) What is known about patient values and preferences regarding novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for SPAF? Twenty-five studies were included. Overall study quality was moderate. Severe stroke was associated with the greatest disutility among AF outcomes and most patients value the stroke prevention efficacy of therapy more than other attributes. Utilities, values, and preferences about other outcomes and attributes of therapy are heterogeneous and unpredictable. Patients' therapy preferences usually align with their values when individualised risk information is presented, although divergence from this is common. Patients value the attributes of NOACs but frequently do not prefer NOACs over warfarin when all therapy-related attributes are considered. In conclusion, patients' values and preferences for SPAF antithrombotic therapy are heterogeneous and there is no substitute for directly clarifying patients' individual values and preferences. Research using choice modelling and tools to help clinicians and patients clarify their SPAF therapy values and preferences are needed.

  8. Pavlovian conditioning of multiple opioid-like responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Camron D; Roberts, Kristofer W; Culbertson, Christopher S; Le, Alan; Evans, Christopher J; Fanselow, Michael S

    2009-07-01

    Conditional responses in rodents such as locomotion have been reported for drugs of abuse and similar to the placebo response in humans, may be associated with the expectation of reward. We examined several conditional opioid-like responses and the influence of drug expectation on conditioned place preference and concomitant conditional locomotion. Male C57BL/6J mice were conditioned with the selective mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0.2mg/kg, i.p.) in a novel context and subsequently given a vehicle injection. In separate experiments, locomotor activity, Straub tail, hot plate sensitivity, and conditioned place preference (CPP) were measured. Mice exhibited multiple conditional opioid-like responses including conditional hyperlocomotion, a conditional pattern of opioid-like locomotion, Straub tail, analgesia, and place preference. Modulating drug expectation via administration of fentanyl to "demonstrator" mice in the home cage did not affect the expression of conditioned place preference or the concomitant locomotor activity in "observer" mice. In summary, Pavlovian conditioning of an opioid in a novel context induced multiple conditional opioid-like behaviors and provides a model for studying the neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo response in mice.

  9. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  10. Renewables portfolio, individual preferences and social values towards RES technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontogianni, Areti; Tourkolias, Christos; Skourtos, Michalis

    2013-01-01

    The massive deployment of renewable energy sources represents a high priority for Greece in order to comply with the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources by 2020. In this perspective, Aegean islands especially Lesvos, are endowed with a considerable potential of a portfolio of renewables, a fact that the entrepreneurial interest has already been targeted. However, regulatory attempts for a massive penetration of renewables do not take seriously into account preferences and risk perceptions of local communities where the proposed projects are to be installed. The aim of this study is to investigate individual preferences and social values towards specific technologies of renewables in Lesvos island. We apply an open-ended contingent valuation survey in order to analyze factors shaping public attitudes towards a portfolio of renewable technologies and estimate the economic welfare (Willingness To Pay) of the preferred technologies. We argue that such information is relevant for energy policy design and the establishment of effective measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. - Highlights: ► We investigate individual preferences and attitudes towards a portfolio of RES technologies. ► We elicit public acceptance for investing in specific RES technologies. ► We analyze factors shaping public preferences of the preferred technologies. ► We estimate the economic welfare of the preferred technologies

  11. Women's preferences for children in Shifang County, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J

    1990-01-01

    Fertility preference being related to government policy in China, women generally understate their desired family size when questioned directly. A binomial probit model is, therefore, presented to estimate the probability that family-size preferences in Shifang County, Sichuan, China, are understated. The model provides estimates on the percentage of respondent understatement along with the number of children, women of different ages and social characteristics truly desire. Women's preferences for sons versus daughters are also examined. The study found that women desire on average 1/2 more children than that which they state. Understating was in greatest evidence among urban, educated, and younger women more sensitive to the government's 1-child policy. Preference for sons was found to be weaker than expected, yet strong nonetheless in rural areas among women desiring only 1 child. Sons are considered to cause more worry for parents in China due to an aggressive, risk-taking nature. Possible explanations for the decline of son preference include increasing familial costs for sons' betrothment and marriage, changing household structures, and increasing status of and job opportunities for women in Chinese society. In closing, the paper highlights that couples restrict marital fertility out of interest for national prosperity and the welfare of future generations, not personal preference for small families. Were government policy to relax, fertility would rise to preferred levels.

  12. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  13. Recent advances in fuzzy preference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Walle, B.; De Baets, B.; Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    Preference structures are well-known mathematical concepts having numerous applications in a variety of disciplines, such as economics, sociology and psychology. The generalization of preference structures to the fuzzy case has received considerable attention over the past years. Fuzzy preference structures allow a decision maker to express degrees of preference instead of the rigid classical yes-or-no preference assignment. This paper reports on the recent insights gained into the existence, construction and characterization of these fuzzy preference structures

  14. Do wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) use food selection as a means to reduce heavy metal intake?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beernaert, Joke; Scheirs, Jan; Brande, Greet van den; Leirs, Herwig; Blust, Ronny; Meulenaer, Bruno de; Camp, John van; Verhagen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Food preference of wood mice from two with heavy metals polluted sites and two unpolluted sites was tested under laboratory and field conditions with two-way choice experiments. In the laboratory, wood mice preferred to eat acorns from unpolluted sites over acorns from polluted sites. Previous experience with polluted food had no influence on food choice. Preference was negatively related to acorn metal content. Furthermore, the nutrient content of the acorn endosperm was consistently lower in polluted sites. We therefore conclude that wood mice used absolute metal concentration in the acorn, nutrient content, or both as a food selection cue. The results of the laboratory experiment could not be confirmed under field conditions. We hypothesized that search time constraints due to the presence of predators, competitors and/or other stress factors in the field have prevented the mice to forage selectively. - Wood mice prefer unpolluted food items over polluted food items in laboratory trials but not in field situations

  15. Both paternal exercise and healthy diet are required to protect offspring from high fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Paternal eating and physical activity behaviors peri-conception may influence offspring obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. A recent study showed that paternal exercise increased offspring susceptibility to obesity when the offspring consumed a high fat (HF) diet. However, it is not y...

  16. A model of alcohol drinking under an intermittent access schedule using group-housed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Smutek

    Full Text Available Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule, they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ∼ 10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors.

  17. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  18. The Allometry of Prey Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Björn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems. PMID:21998724

  19. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  20. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  1. Outbred CD1 mice are as suitable as inbred C57BL/6J mice in performing social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lawrence S; Wen, John H; Miyares, Laura; Lombroso, Paul J; Bordey, Angélique

    2017-01-10

    Inbred mouse strains have been used preferentially for behavioral testing over outbred counterparts, even though outbred mice reflect the genetic diversity in the human population better. Here, we compare the sociability of widely available outbred CD1 mice with the commonly used inbred C57BL/6J (C57) mice in the one-chamber social interaction test and the three-chamber sociability test. In the one-chamber task, intra-strain pairs of juvenile, non-littermate, male CD1 or C57 mice display a series of social and aggressive behaviors. While CD1 and C57 pairs spend equal amount of time socializing, CD1 pairs spend significantly more time engaged in aggressive behaviors than C57 mice. In the three-chamber task, sociability of C57 mice was less dependent on acclimation paradigms than CD1 mice. Following acclimation to all three chambers, both groups of age-matched male mice spent more time in the chamber containing a stranger mouse than in the empty chamber, suggesting that CD1 mice are sociable like C57 mice. However, the observed power suggests that it is easier to achieve statistical significance with C57 than CD1 mice. Because the stranger mouse could be considered as a novel object, we assessed for a novelty effect by adding an object. CD1 mice spend more time in the chamber with a stranger mouse than that a novel object, suggesting that their preference is social in nature. Thus, outbred CD1 mice are as appropriate as inbred C57 mice for studying social behavior using either the single or the three-chamber test using a specific acclimation paradigm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Patient preferences in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirostko B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Wirostko1, Kathleen Beusterien2, Jessica Grinspan2, Thomas Ciulla3, John Gonder4, Alexandra Barsdorf1, Andreas Pleil51Pfizer, New York, NY, USA; 2Oxford Outcomes, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Midwest Eye Institute, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Ivey Eye Institute, London, Ontario, Canada; 5Pfizer Inc, San Diego, CA, USAObjective: Accounting for patient preferences may be especially important in diabetes mellitus, given the challenge in identifying factors associated with treatment adherence. Although preference studies have been performed in diabetes, none have examined treatments used in diabetic retinopathy (DR. The objective of this study was to elicit patient preferences for attributes associated with antivascular endothelial growth factor, focal and panretinal laser, and steroid therapy used in DR management.Methods: A cross-sectional conjoint survey was administered to DR patients at three Canadian eye centers. The survey involved making tradeoffs among 11 DR treatment attributes, including the chance of improving vision and risks of adverse events over a 1-year treatment period. Attribute utilities were summed for each product profile to determine the most preferred treatment.Results: Based on the results from 161 patients, attributes affecting visual functioning, including improving visual acuity and reducing adverse events (eg, chance of cataracts, were more important than those not directly affecting vision (eg, administration. Overall, 52%, 20%, 17%, and 11% preferred the product profiles matching to the antivascular endothelial growth factor, steroid, focal laser, and panretinal laser therapies. Preferences did not vary substantially by previous treatment experience, age, or type of DR (macular edema, proliferative DR, both or neither, with the exception that more macular edema only patients preferred focal laser over steroid treatment (19% versus 14%, respectively.Conclusions: When considering the potential effects of treatment over a 1

  4. Adenylyl cyclase-5 in the dorsal striatum function as a molecular switch for the generation of behavioral preferences for cue-directed food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hannah; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yunjin; Kang, Minkyung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2014-11-07

    Behavioral choices in habits and innate behaviors occur automatically in the absence of conscious selection. These behaviors are not easily modified by learning. Similar types of behaviors also occur in various mental illnesses including drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating unconditioned preferred behaviors in food-choices. Mice lacking adenylyl cyclase-5 (AC5 KO mice), which is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum, consumed food pellets nearly one after another in cages. AC5 KO mice showed aversive behaviors to bitter tasting quinine, but they compulsively chose quinine-containing AC5 KO-pellets over fresh pellets. The unusual food-choice behaviors in AC5 KO mice were due to the gain of behavioral preferences for food pellets containing an olfactory cue, which wild-type mice normally ignored. Such food-choice behaviors in AC5 KO mice disappeared when whiskers were trimmed. Conversely, whisker trimming in wildtype mice induced behavioral preferences for AC5 KO food pellets, indicating that preferred food-choices were not learned through prior experience. Both AC5 KO mice and wildtype mice with trimmed whiskers had increased glutamatergic input from the barrel cortex into the dorsal striatum, resulting in an increase in the mGluR1-dependent signaling cascade. The siRNA-mediated inhibition of mGluR1 in the dorsal striatum in AC5 KO mice and wildtype mice with trimmed whiskers abolished preferred choices for AC5 KO food pellets, whereas siRNA-mediated inhibition of mGluR3 glutamate receptors in the dorsal striatum in wildtype mice induced behavioral preferences for AC5 KO food pellets, thus mimicking AC5 KO phenotypes. Our results show that the gain and loss of behavioral preferences for a specific cue-directed option were regulated by specific cellular factors in the dorsal striatum, such

  5. Role of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Narp in the Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Han, Sungho; Pearce, Anne M.; Cheng, KaiLun; Lee, JongAh J.; Johnson, Alexander W.; Wang, Chuansong; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Shaham, Yavin; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2013-01-01

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate an impaired extinction of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in extinction learning, we tested whether Narp cells in this region play a role in the extinction of morphine CPP. We found that intracranial injections of adenoassociated virus…

  6. Bedding material affects mechanical thresholds, heat thresholds and texture preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Francie; O’Hara, Crystal L.; Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that the bedding type animals are housed on can affect breeding behavior and cage environment. Yet little is known about its effects on evoked behavior responses or non-reflexive behaviors. C57BL/6 mice were housed for two weeks on one of five bedding types: Aspen Sani Chips® (standard bedding for our institute), ALPHA-Dri®, Cellu-Dri™, Pure-o’Cel™ or TEK-Fresh. Mice housed on Aspen exhibited the lowest (most sensitive) mechanical thresholds while those on TEK-Fresh exhibited 3-fold higher thresholds. While bedding type had no effect on responses to punctate or dynamic light touch stimuli, TEK-Fresh housed animals exhibited greater responsiveness in a noxious needle assay, than those housed on the other bedding types. Heat sensitivity was also affected by bedding as animals housed on Aspen exhibited the shortest (most sensitive) latencies to withdrawal whereas those housed on TEK-Fresh had the longest (least sensitive) latencies to response. Slight differences between bedding types were also seen in a moderate cold temperature preference assay. A modified tactile conditioned place preference chamber assay revealed that animals preferred TEK-Fresh to Aspen bedding. Bedding type had no effect in a non-reflexive wheel running assay. In both acute (two day) and chronic (5 week) inflammation induced by injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in the hindpaw, mechanical thresholds were reduced in all groups regardless of bedding type, but TEK-Fresh and Pure-o’Cel™ groups exhibited a greater dynamic range between controls and inflamed cohorts than Aspen housed mice. PMID:26456764

  7. Targeted disruption of the mouse Lipoma Preferred Partner gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervenne, Hilke B.V.K.; Crombez, Koen R.M.O.; Delvaux, Els L.; Janssens, Veerle; Ven, Wim J.M. van de; Petit, Marleen M.R.

    2009-01-01

    LPP (Lipoma Preferred Partner) is a zyxin-related cell adhesion protein that is involved in the regulation of cell migration. We generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Lpp gene and analysed the importance of Lpp for embryonic development and adult functions. Aberrant Mendelian inheritance in heterozygous crosses suggested partial embryonic lethality of Lpp -/- females. Fertility of Lpp -/- males was proven to be normal, however, females from Lpp -/- x Lpp -/- crosses produced a strongly reduced number of offspring, probably due to a combination of female embryonic lethality and aberrant pregnancies. Apart from these developmental and reproductive abnormalities, Lpp -/- mice that were born reached adulthood without displaying any additional macroscopic defects. On the other hand, Lpp -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited reduced migration capacity, reduced viability, and reduced expression of some Lpp interaction partners. Finally, we discovered a short nuclear form of Lpp, expressed mainly in testis via an alternative promoter.

  8. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  9. T1r3 taste receptor involvement in gustatory neural responses to ethanol and oral ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M; Norman, Meghan B; Lemon, Christian H

    2010-05-01

    Elevated alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced preference for sweet substances across species and may be mediated by oral alcohol-induced activation of neurobiological substrates for sweet taste. Here, we directly examined the contribution of the T1r3 receptor protein, important for sweet taste detection in mammals, to ethanol intake and preference and the neural processing of ethanol taste by measuring behavioral and central neurophysiological responses to oral alcohol in T1r3 receptor-deficient mice and their C57BL/6J background strain. T1r3 knockout and wild-type mice were tested in behavioral preference assays for long-term voluntary intake of a broad concentration range of ethanol, sucrose, and quinine. For neurophysiological experiments, separate groups of mice of each genotype were anesthetized, and taste responses to ethanol and stimuli of different taste qualities were electrophysiologically recorded from gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Mice lacking the T1r3 receptor were behaviorally indifferent to alcohol (i.e., ∼50% preference values) at concentrations typically preferred by wild-type mice (5-15%). Central neural taste responses to ethanol in T1r3-deficient mice were significantly lower compared with C57BL/6J controls, a strain for which oral ethanol stimulation produced a concentration-dependent activation of sweet-responsive NTS gustatory neurons. An attenuated difference in ethanol preference between knockouts and controls at concentrations >15% indicated that other sensory and/or postingestive effects of ethanol compete with sweet taste input at high concentrations. As expected, T1r3 knockouts exhibited strongly suppressed behavioral and neural taste responses to sweeteners but did not differ from wild-type mice in responses to prototypic salt, acid, or bitter stimuli. These data implicate the T1r3 receptor in the sensory detection and transduction of ethanol taste.

  10. Does radiation risk exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.

    1996-01-01

    Risk assessment and risk management are parts of a dynamic process with the objective to decide on the tolerability of risk and on measures to keep risk within accepted limits. It enables all relevant parties to express their concerns and preferences regarding the different options for the human action involved and regarding the relative importance of criteria to decide on the tolerability of risk. Risk assessment has three phases; problem definition, risk analysis and risk characterization. Risk analysis is primarily a technical and scientific endeavour. With regard to problem definition and ride characterization consultation between risk assessors and risk managers (and other parties concerned) is a must. (author)

  11. NMDA Receptors on Dopaminoceptive Neurons Are Essential for Drug-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Magdalena; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Bobula, Bartosz; Zajdel, Joanna; Jastrzębska, Kamila; Cieślak, Przemysław Eligiusz; Zygmunt, Magdalena; Sowa, Joanna; Smutek, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Engblom, David; Hess, Grzegorz; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Rodriguez Parkitna, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity of the brain's dopamine system plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior by regulating appetitive motivation and the control of reinforcement learning. In this study, we investigated drug- and natural-reward conditioned behaviors in a mouse model in which the NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of dopaminoceptive neurons was disrupted. We generated a transgenic mouse line with inducible selective inactivation of the NR1 subunit in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (the NR1(D1CreERT2) mice). Whole-cell recordings of spontaneous EPSCs on neurons in the nucleus accumbens confirmed that a population of neurons lacked the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the current. This effect was accompanied by impaired long-term potentiation in the nucleus accumbens and in the CA1 area of the ventral, but not the dorsal, hippocampus. Mutant mice did not differ from control animals when tested for pavlovian or instrumental conditioning. However, NR1(D1CreERT2) mice acquired no preference for a context associated with administration of drugs of abuse. In the conditioned place preference paradigm, mutant mice did not spend more time in the context paired with cocaine, morphine, or ethanol, although these mice acquired a preference for sucrose jelly and an aversion to naloxone injections, as normal. Thus, we observed that the selective inducible ablation of the NMDA receptors specifically blocks drug-associated context memory with no effect on positive reinforcement in general.

  12. NMDA Receptors on Dopaminoceptive Neurons Are Essential for Drug-Induced Conditioned Place Preference123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarski, Krzysztof; Bobula, Bartosz; Zygmunt, Magdalena; Smutek, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Hess, Grzegorz; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plasticity of the brain’s dopamine system plays a crucial role in adaptive behavior by regulating appetitive motivation and the control of reinforcement learning. In this study, we investigated drug- and natural-reward conditioned behaviors in a mouse model in which the NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of dopaminoceptive neurons was disrupted. We generated a transgenic mouse line with inducible selective inactivation of the NR1 subunit in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (the NR1D1CreERT2 mice). Whole-cell recordings of spontaneous EPSCs on neurons in the nucleus accumbens confirmed that a population of neurons lacked the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the current. This effect was accompanied by impaired long-term potentiation in the nucleus accumbens and in the CA1 area of the ventral, but not the dorsal, hippocampus. Mutant mice did not differ from control animals when tested for pavlovian or instrumental conditioning. However, NR1D1CreERT2 mice acquired no preference for a context associated with administration of drugs of abuse. In the conditioned place preference paradigm, mutant mice did not spend more time in the context paired with cocaine, morphine, or ethanol, although these mice acquired a preference for sucrose jelly and an aversion to naloxone injections, as normal. Thus, we observed that the selective inducible ablation of the NMDA receptors specifically blocks drug-associated context memory with no effect on positive reinforcement in general. PMID:27294197

  13. Modulation of aggression in male mice : Influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loo, PLP; Kruitwagen, CLJJ; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    Group housing of male laboratory mice often leads to welfare problems due to aggressive behaviour. From a welfare perspective, individual housing is not a preferred solution to these problems - and so we sought other ways of reducing aggression between male mice. Aggression peaks after disturbances

  14. Preferred names, preferred pronouns, and gender identity in the electronic medical record and laboratory information system: Is pathology ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L Imborek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs and laboratory information systems (LISs commonly utilize patient identifiers such as legal name, sex, medical record number, and date of birth. There have been recommendations from some EMR working groups (e.g., the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to include preferred name, pronoun preference, assigned sex at birth, and gender identity in the EMR. These practices are currently uncommon in the United States. There has been little published on the potential impact of these changes on pathology and LISs. Methods: We review the available literature and guidelines on the use of preferred name and gender identity on pathology, including data on changes in laboratory testing following gender transition treatments. We also describe pathology and clinical laboratory challenges in the implementation of preferred name at our institution. Results: Preferred name, pronoun preference, and gender identity have the most immediate impact on the areas of pathology with direct patient contact such as phlebotomy and transfusion medicine, both in terms of interaction with patients and policies for patient identification. Gender identity affects the regulation and policies within transfusion medicine including blood donor risk assessment and eligibility. There are limited studies on the impact of gender transition treatments on laboratory tests, but multiple studies have demonstrated complex changes in chemistry and hematology tests. A broader challenge is that, even as EMRs add functionality, pathology computer systems (e.g., LIS, middleware, reference laboratory, and outreach interfaces may not have functionality to store or display preferred name and gender identity. Conclusions: Implementation of preferred name, pronoun preference, and gender identity presents multiple challenges and opportunities for pathology.

  15. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco

    This paper reports experimental evidence on a stylized labor market. The experiment is designed as a sequence of three phases. In the first two phases, P1 and P2; agents face simple games, which we use to estimate subjects' social and reciprocity concerns, together with their beliefs. In the last......, for both principals and agents. Finally, we also see that social preferences explain, to a large extent, matching between principals and agents, since agents display a marked propensity to work for principals with similar social preferences...

  16. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  17. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  18. The value of customer preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-01-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed

  19. The invention of the indepence condition for preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Fishburn, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the history and interrelations of three central ideas in preference theory: the independence condition in decision making under risk, the sure-thing principle in decision making under uncertainty, and independence in consumer theory. Independence and the sure-thing principle are

  20. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  1. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  2. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  3. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...

  4. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  5. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A.; Wright, Timothy J.; Boot, Walter R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics. PMID:29033699

  6. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A; Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics.

  7. Measuring higher order ambiguity preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baillon (Aurélien); Schlesinger, H. (Harris); G. van de Kuilen (Gijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an

  8. Market mechanisms and customer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boethius, O. [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The paper relates to market mechanisms and customer preferences regarding alternative fuels for road transports. Globally, road transports are to 99% dependent on crude oil. According to the author, one third of the crude oil is consumed for road transports. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is discussed in this connection

  9. Lighting preferences in individual offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Gomes de Faria

    Full Text Available Abstract Workplaces with good daylighting offer visual comfort to users, give them a series of physiological and psychological benefits and allow good performance of visual activities, besides saving energy. However, this solution is not always adopted: lighting type preferences involve many variables besides the availability of daylight. This paper explores a case study through the analysis of questionnaire answers and computer simulations of a series of metrics related to quality of lighting with the aim of finding explanations for the lighting preferences of individual office users. The results show that, although the offices present good daylighting conditions and no glare potential, and users are satisfied with daylighting, these parameters are not sufficient to explain the predominant lighting preferences. The findings have also shown that there is no consensus about which parameters potentially cause visual comfort, while the parameters that cause discomfort are clearly identified. In addition, in this study, 49% of the preference for mixed lighting (daylight plus electrical light can be explained by the fact that mixed lighting produces better modeling than daylighting alone.

  10. Lichen species preference by reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  11. Birth Order and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert M.; Lynch, Janet

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between vocational preferences of adolescents and their birth order was examined. Firstborns were found to be overrepresented in the conventional and enterprising areas; later borns were found to be overrepresented in the social and investigative areas. (Author/GK)

  12. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  13. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  14. Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Brendl, C Miguel; Ariely, Dan

    2010-06-01

    According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (1999) distinction between unconscious liking and wanting, we hypothesize that people may have multiple representations of a preference toward an object even within a single context. Specifically, we propose that people can have different representations of an object's motivational value, or incentive value, versus its emotional value, or likability, even when the object is placed in the same context. Study 1 establishes a divergence between incentive value and likability of faces using behavioral measures. Studies 2A and 2B, using self-report measures, provide support for our main hypothesis that people are perfectly aware of these distinct representations and are able to access them concurrently at will. We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories.

  15. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  16. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Parental Decision-Making Preferences in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elliott Mark; Barg, Frances K; Cook, Noah; Black, Emily; Joffe, Steven

    2016-12-01

    To explore how characteristics of medical decisions influence parents' preferences for control over decisions for their seriously ill infants. In qualitative interviews, parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were asked to consider all medical decisions they could recall, and were prompted with decisions commonly encountered in the NICU. For each decision, parents were asked detailed questions about who made each decision, whom they would have preferred to make the decision, and why. Using standard qualitative methods, responses were coded and organized such that decision-level characteristics could be analyzed according to preferred decision-making role. Parents identified 2 factors that were associated with a preference to delegate decisions to the medical team (high degree of urgency, high level of required medical expertise) and 4 factors associated with a preference to retain parental control (high perceived risk, high personal experience with the decision, involvement of foreign bodily fluids, and similarity to decisions that they perceived as part of the normal parental role). Characteristics of decisions influence preferences for control over medical decisions among parents of patients in the NICU. These insights may guide improvements in physician-parent communication and consent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Teacher practices as predictors of children's classroom social preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Reuland, Meg M; Gregory, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Students who do not get along with their peers are at elevated risk for academic disengagement and school failure. Research has predominantly focused on factors within such children that contribute to their peer problems. This study considers whether teacher practices also predict social preference for children in that classroom. Participants were 26 elementary school teachers and 490 students in their classrooms followed for one school year. Results suggested that teachers who favored the most academically talented students in the fall had classrooms where children had lower average social preference in the spring after statistical control of children's fall social preference and externalizing behavior problems. Teachers who demonstrated emotionally supportive relationships with students in the fall had classrooms where children had greater possibility of changing their social preference from fall to spring. Although children with high externalizing behaviors tended to experience declining social preference over the course of the school year, teachers' learner-centered practices attenuated this progression. However, teachers' favoring of the most academically talented accentuated the negative relation between externalizing behaviors and social preference. Implications for school psychology practitioners are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic ablation of the GluK4 kainate receptor subunit causes anxiolytic and antidepressant-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catches, Justin S; Xu, Jian; Contractor, Anis

    2012-03-17

    There is a clear link between dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling and mood disorders. Genetic variants in the glutamate receptor gene GRIK4, which encodes the kainate receptor subunit GluK4, alter the susceptibility for depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that Grik4(-/-) mice have reduced anxiety and an antidepressant-like phenotype. In the elevated zero-maze, a test for anxiety and risk taking behavior, Grik4(-/-) mice spent significantly more time exploring the open areas of the maze. In anxiogenic tests of marble-burying and novelty-induced suppression of feeding, anxiety-like behavior was consistently reduced in knockout animals. In the forced swim test, a test of learned helplessness that is used to determine depression-like behavior, knockout mice demonstrated significantly less immobility suggesting that Grik4 ablation has an antidepressant-like effect. Finally, in the sucrose preference test, a test for anhedonia in rodents, Grik4(-/-) mice demonstrated increased sucrose preference. Expression of the GluK4 receptor subunit in the forebrain is restricted to the CA3 region of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus regions where KARs are known to modulate synaptic plasticity. We tested whether Grik4 ablation had effects on mossy fiber (MF) plasticity and found there to be a significant impairment in LTP likely through a loss of KAR modulation of excitability of the presynaptic MF axons. These studies demonstrate a clear anxiolytic and antidepressant phenotype associated with ablation of Grik4 and a parallel disruption in hippocampal plasticity, providing support for the importance of this receptor subunit in mood disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Divergence and Convergence of Risky Decision Making Across Prospective Gains and Losses: Preferences and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    People choose differently when facing potential gains than when facing potential losses. Clear gross differences in decision making between gains and losses have been empirically demonstrated in numerous studies (e.g., framing effect, risk preference, loss aversion). However, theories maintain that there are strong underlying connections (e.g., reflection effect). We investigated the relationship between gains and losses decision making, examining risk preferences, and choice strategies (the reliance on option information) using a monetary gamble task with interleaved trials. For risk preferences, participants were on average risk averse in the gains domain and risk neutral/seeking in the losses domain. We specifically tested for a theoretically hypothesized correlation between individual risk preferences across the gains and losses domains (the reflection effect), but found no significant relationship in the predicted direction. Interestingly, despite the lack of reflected risk preferences, cross-domain risk preferences were still informative of individual choice behavior. For choice strategies, in both domains participants relied more heavily on the maximizing strategy than the satisficing strategy, with increased reliance on the maximizing strategy in the losses domain. Additionally, while there is no mathematical reliance between the risk preference and strategy metrics, within both domains there were significant relationships between risk preferences and strategies—the more participants relied upon the maximizing strategy the more risk neutral they were (equating value and utility maximization). These results demonstrate the complexity of gains and losses decision making, indicating the apparent contradiction that their underlying cognitive/neural processes are both dissociable and overlapping. PMID:26733779