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  1. Is use of fall risk-increasing drugs in an elderly population associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors for hip fracture are well studied because of the negative impact on patients and the community, with mortality in the first year being almost 30% in the elderly. Age, gender and fall risk-increasing drugs, identified by the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden......, are well known risk factors for hip fracture, but how multimorbidity level affects the risk of hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs is to our knowledge not as well studied. This study explored the relationship between use of fall risk-increasing drugs in combination with multimorbidity...... level and risk of hip fracture in an elderly population. METHODS: Data were from Östergötland County, Sweden, and comprised the total population in the county aged 75 years and older during 2006. The odds ratio (OR) for hip fracture during use of fall risk-increasing drugs was calculated by multivariate...

  2. Low Adiponectin Levels and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking.......001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P

  3. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  4. Risk of cancer in an occupationally exposed cohort with increased level of chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerhovsky, Z; Landa, K; Rössner, P; Brabec, M; Zudova, Z; Hola, N; Pokorna, Z; Mareckova, J; Hurychova, D

    2001-01-01

    We used cytogenetic analysis to carry out a cohort study in which the major objective was to test the association between frequency of chromosomal aberrations and subsequent risk of cancer. In spite of the extensive use of the cytogenetic analysis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in biomonitoring of exposure to various mutagens and carcinogens on an ecologic level, the long-term effects of an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals are still uncertain. Few epidemiologic studies have addressed this issue, and a moderate risk of cancer in individuals with an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations has been observed. In the present study, we analyzed data on 8,962 cytogenetic tests and 3,973 subjects. We found a significant and strong association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and cancer incidence in a group of miners exposed to radon, where a 1% increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations was followed by a 64% increase in risk of cancer (p < 0.000). In contrast, the collected data are inadequate for a critical evaluation of the association with exposure to other chemicals. PMID:11171523

  5. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity, COPD or coronary heart disease mor- tality, and all-cause mortality were estimated from com- bined effects of level and decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Risks were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models for individuals grouped...... by combinations of baseline predicted FEV1 and quartiles of slope. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % con¿dence intervals (CI) were estimated using strati¿ed analysis by gender, smoking status, and baseline age (B45 and [45). For COPD morbidity, quartiles of increasing FEV1 decline increased HRs (95 % CI......) for individuals with FEV1 at or above the lower limit of normal (LLN) but below 100 % predicted, reaching 5.11 (2.58–10.13) for males, 11.63 (4.75–28.46) for females, and 3.09 (0.88–10.86) for never smokers in the quartile of steepest decline. Signi¿cant increasing trends were also observed for mortality...

  6. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Stephanie J; Herbert, Joe; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, Megan R; Goodyer, Ian; Croudace, Tim; Murray, Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. This has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women: one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine specificity of effects of maternal social phobia, a third group of children were also examined whose mothers had generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Children provided salivary cortisol samples in the morning, afternoon and at bedtime across 3 time-blocks surrounding the school start: a month before starting school (baseline), the first week at school (stress response), and the end of the first school term (stress recovery). Child behavioural inhibition at 14 months was assessed to explore the influence of early temperament on later stress responses. All children displayed an elevation in morning and afternoon cortisol from baseline during the first week at school, which remained elevated until the end of the first term. Children in the social phobia group, however, also displayed an equivalent elevation in bedtime cortisol, which was not observed for comparison children or for children of mothers with GAD. Children in the social phobia group who were classified as 'inhibited' at 14 months displayed significantly higher afternoon cortisol levels overall. A persistent stress response to school in the morning and afternoon is typical for all children, but children of mothers with social phobia also display atypical elevations in evening cortisol levels when at school--signalling longer-term disruption of the circadian rhythm in HPA axis activity. This is the first study to report HPA axis disruption in children at increased risk of developing social phobia. Future research should determine whether this represents a

  7. Spondylolisthesis adjacent to a cervical disc arthroplasty does not increase the risk of adjacent level degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, David Christopher; Cawley, Derek Thomas; Roscop, Cecile; Mazas, Simon; Coudert, Pierre; Boissiere, Louis; Obeid, Ibrahim; Vital, Jean-Marc; Pointillart, Vincent; Gille, Olivier

    2018-03-31

    To understand whether a spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranial to a cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) construes a risk of adjacent level disease (ALD). A retrospective review of 164 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up of a cervical disc arthroplasty was performed. Multi-level surgeries, including hybrid procedures, were included. Multiple implant types were included. The two inter-vertebral discs (IVD) cranial of the CDA were monitored for evidence of radiologic degeneration using the Kettler criteria. The rate of ALD in CDA found in this series was 17.8%, with most affecting the immediately adjacent IVD (27.4 and 7.6%, respectively p = 0.000). Pre-operative mild spondylolisthesis adjacent to a planned CDA was not found to be a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. Those with a degenerative spondylolisthesis are at higher risk of ALD (33%) than those with a non-degenerative cause for their spondylolisthesis (11%). Post-operative CDA alignment, ROM or induced spondylolisthesis do not affect the rate of ALD in those with an adjacent spondylolisthesis. Patients with ALD experience significantly worse 5-year pain and functional outcomes than those unaffected by ALD. A pre-operatively identified mild spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranially adjacent to a planned CDA is not a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  8. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pobesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High level of work stressors increase the risk of mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots

  10. Lower cervical levels: Increased risk of early dysphonia following anterior cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ji-Huan; Li, Xiao-Dan; Deng, Liang; Xiao, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to re-evaluate the incidence of early dysphonia after anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS) and to determine the related risk factors. Patients underwent ACSS between January 2011 and December 2013 at two sites were identified retrospectively from hospital's patient databases. A total of 233 cases were included in this study. Dysphonia developed 1 month postoperatively was recorded. Follow-up was conducted in all positive-response patients. Those reporting severe or persistent voice symptoms were referred to otolaryngologists for further assessments and (or) treatments. Pre and intraoperative factors were collected to determine their relationships with dysphonia one month postoperatively. 45 patients developed dysphonia at one month, including 23 males and 22 females, yielding to an incidence of 19.3%. 34 cases resolved themselves in 3 months, leaving the remaining 11 patients considered to be severe or persistent cases. However, 10 of them recovered spontaneously in the next 9 months, while the last case received vocal cord medialization and returned to almost normal speech function at 18 months. In univariate analysis, only approaching level involving C6-C7 or (and) C7-T1 was significantly associated with postoperative dysphonia (Pdysphonia following ACSS was relatively high and approaching at lower cervical levels was an independent predictive factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. FeNO levels increase with degree of sensitisation in apprentices at risk of occupational asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P; Mével, H; Penven, E; Zmirou-Navier, D; Barbaud, A; Bohadana, A; Paris, C

    2017-11-01

    Atopy has emerged as a major determinant of airway inflammation. To examine whether early markers of occupational asthma increase with degree of sensitisation. This study was a prospective follow-up study of apprentices in baking, pastry-cooking and hairdressing during their 2-year apprenticeship. Four visits were conducted to administer a standardised questionnaire, a methacholine challenge test to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and to measure fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Degree of sensitisation was estimated based on the number of positive skin prick tests (SPTs) for 12 common allergens. Mixed-effect models were applied to examine the association between the degree of sensitisation and FeNO levels, BHR and eosinophilic status (more than 3% of cells in nasal lavage fluid). Of the 441 apprentices who agreed to take part in the study, 417 had at least one SPT session providing usable results. Degree of sensitization was related to BHR and FeNO levels. Compared to non-sensitised subjects, FeNO levels were 83% higher (P < 0.01) in highly sensitised subjects and 30% higher (P < 0.01) in weakly sensitised subjects. However, the degree of sensitisation was not predictive of the evolution of these markers. Degree of sensitisation is related to early markers of airway inflammation.

  12. Increased plasma soluble uPAR level is a risk marker of respiratory cancer in initially cancer-free individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne A; Hansen, Tine Willum; Ladelund, Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable plasma biomarker associated with inflammation and disease. This study tested the association between suPAR levels and incident respiratory, gastrointestinal or other types of cancer in initially cancer-free individuals...... with respiratory, gastrointestinal and other cancer types, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels were associated with increased risk of incident respiratory cancer and other types of cancer, but not gastrointestinal cancers, independently of established risk factors, CRP and leukocyte numbers. Impact.......RESULTS: suPAR levels ranged from 0.6-22 ng/ml, and median suPAR level was 4.01 ng/ml. 1 ng/ml increase in baseline suPAR was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.23-2.11, P

  13. An Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) to Increase Safety and Security Levels in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M; Ur Rahman, Khalil; Ul Hassan, Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    The main idea of this research is to develop an Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) based on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). The article highlights the essential features and functions of ORMS. The basic models and modules such as, Reliability Data Update Model (RDUM), running time update, redundant system unavailability update, Engineered Safety Features (ESF) unavailability update and general system update have been described in this study. ORMS not only provides quantitative analysis but also highlights qualitative aspects of risk measures. ORMS is capable of automatically updating the online risk models and reliability parameters of equipment. ORMS can support in the decision making process of operators and managers in Nuclear Power Plants

  14. An Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) to Increase Safety and Security Levels in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, M.; Rahman, Khalil Ur; Hassan, Mehmood Ul

    2013-12-01

    The main idea of this research is to develop an Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) based on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). The article highlights the essential features and functions of ORMS. The basic models and modules such as, Reliability Data Update Model (RDUM), running time update, redundant system unavailability update, Engineered Safety Features (ESF) unavailability update and general system update have been described in this study. ORMS not only provides quantitative analysis but also highlights qualitative aspects of risk measures. ORMS is capable of automatically updating the online risk models and reliability parameters of equipment. ORMS can support in the decision making process of operators and managers in Nuclear Power Plants.

  15. Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Levels, LPA Risk Genotypes, and Increased Risk of Heart Failure in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sough to test whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels and corresponding LPA risk genotypes (low number of kringle IV type 2 repeats, rs3798220 and rs10455872, minor allele carriers) are associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein...

  16. Defining a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level that predicts increased risk of penile implant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habous, Mohamad; Tal, Raanan; Tealab, Alaa; Soliman, Tarek; Nassar, Mohammed; Mekawi, Zenhom; Mahmoud, Saad; Abdelwahab, Osama; Elkhouly, Mohamed; Kamr, Hatem; Remeah, Abdallah; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ralph, David; Mulhall, John

    2018-02-01

    To re-evaluate the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor for penile implant infection by exploring the association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and penile implant infection rates and to define a threshold value that predicts implant infection. We conducted a multicentre prospective study including all patients undergoing penile implant surgery between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative management were identical for the entire cohort. Univariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implant infection. The HbA1c levels were analysed as continuous variables and sequential analysis was conducted using 0.5% increments to define a threshold level predicting implant infection. Multivariable analysis was performed with the following factors entered in the model: DM, HbA1C level, patient age, implant type, number of vascular risk factors (VRFs), presence of Peyronie's disease (PD), body mass index (BMI), and surgeon volume. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to define the optimal HbA1C threshold for infection prediction. In all, 902 implant procedures were performed over the study period. The mean patient age was 56.6 years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.0%, with 81% of men having a HbA1c level of >6%. In all, 685 (76%) implants were malleable and 217 (24%) were inflatable devices; 302 (33.5%) patients also had a diagnosis of PD. The overall infection rate was 8.9% (80/902). Patients who had implant infection had significantly higher mean HbA1c levels, 9.5% vs 7.8% (P HbA1c level, we found infection rates were: 1.3% with HbA1c level of 9.5% (P HbA1c level, whilst a high-volume surgeon had a protective effect and was associated with a reduced infection risk. Using ROC analysis, we determined that a HbA1c threshold level of 8.5% predicted infection with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 65%. Uncontrolled DM is associated with increased risk of infection after penile implant surgery

  17. Low serum mannose-binding lectin level increases the risk of death due to pneumococcal infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisen, Damon P; Dean, Melinda M; Boermeester, Marja A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown associations between low mannose-binding lectin (MBL) level or variant MBL2 genotype and sepsis susceptibility. However, MBL deficiency has not been rigorously defined, and associations with sepsis outcomes have not been subjected to multivariable analysis....

  18. Increased serological cancer-associated biomarker levels at large bowel endoscopy and risk of subsequent primary cancer (†)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolris, Martin H; Piper, Thomas B; Hammer, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frequently, subjects offered colonoscopy due to symptoms of colorectal neoplasia are diagnosed with diverticula. The symptoms may, however, also be related to extra-colonic neoplasia. The present retrospective study evaluated a possible association between increased levels of predefined...... biomarkers in subjects diagnosed with diverticula and risk of developing a primary malignant disease. Methods: During 2004/2005, about 4509 subjects were included in a multicenter study with collection of blood samples before bowel endoscopy. The aim was to evaluate a relation between the protein biomarkers...... was calculated. The relation with the four biomarkers was divided into three groups: 0 = none increased; 1 = one increased and 2 = two or more increased. Results: In the observation period, 148 subjects developed a primary malignant disease. Univariable analyzes of the biomarker levels showed that CEA, TIMP-1...

  19. An exploration of Glb1 Homologue AntibodyLevels in Children at Increased Risk for Type 1 Diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M.; Mojibian, M.; Barriga, K.; Scott, F.W.; Fasano, A.; Rewers, M.; Norris, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To determine whether Glb1 homologue antibodies are associated with islet autoimmunity (IA) in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D), and to investigate their relation with putative environmental correlates of T1D. Methods We selected a sample from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a prospective study of children at increased risk for T1D. Cases were those who were positive for insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), or insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2) autoantibodies on two consecutive visits and either diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or still autoantibody positive when selected. Controls were from the same increased risk group, of similar age as the cases but negative for autoantibodies. Sera from 91 IA cases and 82 controls were analyzed in a blinded manner for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Glb1 homologue by ELISA. Results Adjusting for family history of T1D and HLA-DR4 positivity, Glb1 homologue antibodies were not associated with IA case status (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.99 – 1.03). Adjusting for age, family history of T1D, and HLA-DR4 positivity, Glb1 homologue antibody levels were inversely associated with breast-feeding duration (beta = −0.08, p = 0.001) and directly associated with current intake of foods containing gluten (beta = 0.24, p = 0.007) in IA cases but not in controls. Zonulin, a biomarker of gut permeability, was directly associated with Glb1 homologue antibody levels in cases (beta = 0.73, p = 0.003) but not in controls. Conclusion Differences in correlates of Glb1 antibodies in IA cases and controls suggest an underlying difference in mucosal immune response. PMID:19622083

  20. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroula Proitsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD.We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n=10,578. We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013. Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10-8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5 × 10-8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]=1.005, 95% CI 0.82-1.24, p = 0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR=0.901, 95% CI 0.65-1.25, p=0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR=1.104, 95% CI 0.89-1.37, p=0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR=0.954, 95% CI 0.76-1.21, p=0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol. Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance.Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and

  1. High Normal Uric Acid Levels Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Diabetes in Lean, Normoglycemic Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Vinker, Shlomo; Dinour, Dganit; Leiba, Merav; Twig, Gilad; Holtzman, Eliezer J; Leiba, Adi

    2016-10-01

    The risk associated with serum uric acid (SUA) levels within the normal range is unknown, especially among lean and apparently healthy adults. Evaluating whether high-normal SUA levels, 6.8 mg/dL and below, are associated with an increased diabetes risk, compared with low-normal SUA. This was a cohort study with 10 years of followup involving all clinics of the largest nationally distributed Health Maintenance Organization in Israel. Participants included 469,947 examinees, 40-70 years old at baseline, who had their SUA measured during 2002. We excluded examinees who had hyperuricemia (SUA > 6.8 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose, overweight or obesity and chronic cardiovascular or renal disorders. The final cohort was composed of 30 302 participants. Participants were followed up to a new diagnosis of diabetes during the study period. Odds ratio of developing diabetes among participants with high-normal baseline SUA were compared with low-normal (2 ≤ uric acid lean women when compared with those with low-normal values.

  2. Increased circulating D-lactate levels predict risk of mortality after hemorrhage and surgical trauma in baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhian, Babak; Kröpfl, Albert; Hölzenbein, Thomas; Khadem, Anna; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl

    2012-05-01

    Patients with hemorrhagic shock and/or trauma are at risk of developing colonic ischemia associated with bacterial translocation that may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose noninvasively. The present retrospective study was designed to determine whether circulating plasma D-lactate is associated with mortality in a clinically relevant two-hit model in baboons. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in anesthetized baboons (n = 24) by controlled bleeding (mean arterial pressure, 40 mmHg), base excess (maximum -5 mmol/L), and time (maximum 3 h). To mimic clinical setting more closely, all animals underwent a surgical trauma after resuscitation including midshaft osteotomy stabilized with reamed femoral interlocking nailing and were followed for 7 days. Hemorrhagic shock/surgical trauma resulted in 66% mortality by day 7. In nonsurvivor (n = 16) hemorrhagic shock/surgical trauma baboons, circulating D-lactate levels were significantly increased (2-fold) at 24 h compared with survivors (n = 8), whereas the early increase during hemorrhage and resuscitation declined during the early postresuscitation phase with no difference between survivors and nonsurvivors. Moreover, D-lactate levels remained elevated in the nonsurvival group until death, whereas it decreased to baseline in survivors. Prediction of death (receiver operating characteristic test) by D-lactate was accurate with an area under the curve (days 1-3 after trauma) of 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.93). The optimal D-lactate cutoff value of 25.34 μg/mL produced sensitivity of 73% to 99% and specificity of 50% to 83%. Our data suggest that elevation of plasma D-lactate after 24 h predicts an increased risk of mortality after hemorrhage and trauma.

  3. Cancer risk in humans predicted by increased levels of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes: Nordic study group on the health risk of chromosome damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Brøgger, A; Hansteen, I L

    1994-01-01

    Cytogenetic assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have been used extensively to survey the exposure of humans to genotoxic agents. The conceptual basis for this has been the hypothesis that the extent of genetic damage in PBL reflects critical events for carcinogenic processes in target...... tissues. Until now, no follow-up studies have been performed to assess the predictive value of these methods for subsequent cancer risk. In an ongoing Nordic cohort study of cancer incidence, 3182 subjects were examined between 1970 and 1988 for chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange.......0009) in CA strata with regard to subsequent cancer risk. The point estimates of the standardized incidence ratio in the three CA strata were 0.9, 0.7, and 2.1, respectively. Thus, an increased level of chromosome breakage appears to be a relevant biomarker of future cancer risk....

  4. Micro-level social and structural factors act synergistically to increase HIV risk among Nepalese female sex workers.

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    Deuba, Keshab; Anderson, Sarah; Ekström, Anna Mia; Pandey, Satish Raj; Shrestha, Rachana; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-08-01

    Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries. In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers. This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nepal. This quantitative study included 610 FSWs who were recruited using two-stage cluster sampling from September to November 2012 in 22 Terai Highway districts of Nepal. Rapid HIV tests and face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect biological and behavioural information. A count of physical (sexual violence and other undesirable events), social (poor social support and condom negotiation skills), and economic (unprotected sex to make more money) factors that operate at the micro-level was calculated to test the additive relationship to unprotected sex. The HIV prevalence was 1%; this is presumably representative, with a large sample of FSWs in Nepal. The prevalence of unprotected sex with clients was high (24%). For each additional adverse physical, social, and economic condition, the probability of non-use of condoms with clients increased substantially: one problem = 12% (psocial, and economic environments increased the risk of unprotected sex among Nepalese FSWs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Low uric acid level increases the risk of infectious mononucleosis and this effect is more pronounced in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Meng, Zhaowei; Gong, Lu; Pang, Chongjie; Li, Xue; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Liu, Na; Hu, Tianpeng; Zhang, Qing; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to Epstein-Barr virus infection is common. Uric acid (UA) is an important endogenous antioxidant. To the best of our knowledge, the association between UA and IM has not been comprehensively investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association in Chinese patients. A total of 95 patients (47 men and 48 women) with IM were recruited, along with 95 healthy controls. Clinical data were classified by patient sex. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was adopted to determine the cut-off values of UA for IM diagnosis and prediction. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of UA for IM were analyzed by binary logistic regression. The UA levels were significantly lower in IM patients compared with those in controls. In addition, UA levels in men were significantly higher compared with those in women. The ROC curve demonstrated good diagnostic and predictive values of UA for IM in both sexes. The UA cut-off values were 326.00 and 243.50 µmol/l for diagnosing IM in men and women, respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 76.596 and 80.208%, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed a significant risk of IM in the low UA quartiles in both sexes. Following adjustments, the ORs even increased. Women with low UA levels appeared to be more susceptible to IM. For example, the crude ORs in quartile 1 were 24.000 and 52.500 for men and women, respectively, and the respective adjusted ORs were 31.437 and 301.746 (all P<0.01). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the inverse association between UA and IM, suggesting a progressive decrease of antioxidant reserve in IM. Moreover, low UA was suggestive of IM, particularly in women. PMID:29285370

  6. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G

    2011-01-01

    levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial...

  7. Increasing levels of free thyroxine as a risk factor for a first venous thrombosis: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Bregje; Squizzato, Alessandro; Huijgen, Roeland; van Zanten, Anton P.; Fliers, Eric; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Büller, Harry R.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.

    2010-01-01

    A hypercoagulable state exists in hyperthyroidism, but the association with venous thrombosis (VT) is not fully explored. We aimed to investigate VT risk for different plasma levels of thyroid hormones and thyroid antibodies. We used a case-control study on leg vein thrombosis conducted between

  8. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  9. An increase level of acylation stimulating protein is correlated with metabolic risk markers in North Indian obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Supriya; Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Gupta, Vandana; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sachan, Rekha

    2017-12-01

    The present study was to investigate the association between serum acylation stimulating protein (ASP) level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian obese women. This is a case control study, total n=322 women aged between 20 and 45 years (n=162 with metabolic syndrome & n=160 without metabolic syndrome) were recruited for the study according to National Cholesterol Education Program Treatment Panel (NCEPATP) guidelines. Serum ASP level were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicated that circulating ASP and other metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose etc) were significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome (WmetS) than in women without syndrome (WometS) (pwomen with metabolic syndrome. Conclusively circulating ASP was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity related disorders in North Indian obese women. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low serum magnesium levels are associated with increased risk of fractures: a long-term prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor Kwadzo; Whitehouse, Michael Richard; Blom, Ashley William; Laukkanen, Jari Antero

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium, which is an essential trace element that plays a key role in several cellular processes, is a major component of bone; however, its relationship with risk of major bone fractures is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association of baseline serum magnesium concentrations with risk of incident fractures. We analyzed data on 2245 men aged 42-61 years in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study, with the assessment of serum magnesium measurements and dietary intakes made at baseline. Hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for incident total (femoral, humeral, and forearm) and femoral fractures were assessed. During a median follow-up of 25.6 years, 123 total fractures were recorded. Serum magnesium was non-linearly associated with risk of total fractures. In age-adjusted Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% CIs) for total fractures in a comparison of the bottom quartile versus top quartile of magnesium concentrations was 2.10 (1.30-3.41), which persisted on adjustment for several established risk factors 1.99 (1.23-3.24). The association remained consistent on further adjustment for renal function, socioeconomic status, total energy intake, and several trace elements 1.80 (1.10-2.94). The corresponding adjusted HRs for femoral fractures were 2.56 (1.38-4.76), 2.43 (1.30-4.53) and 2.13 (1.13-3.99) respectively. There was no evidence of an association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of any fractures. In middle-aged Caucasian men, low serum magnesium is strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of fractures. Further research is needed to assess the potential relevance of serum magnesium in the prevention of fractures.

  11. High serum YKL-40 level in a cohort of octogenarians is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. S.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2007-01-01

    YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages, neutrophils, chondrocytes, endothelial-, vascular smooth muscle- and cancer cells. Interleukin (IL)-6 stimulates YKL-40 production in human in vivo studies. High serum YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with inflammatory diseases and cancer. We...... studied whether serum YKL-40 was associated with systemic low-level inflammation, an immune risk phenotype, and mortality in relatively healthy 80-year old humans. Serum YKL-40, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in octogenarians (n...

  12. A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bonnefond, Amélie; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine

    2009-01-01

    with increased FPG (beta = 0.06 mmol/l, P = 7.6 x 10(-29), N = 16,094), type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08-1.22, P = 6.3 x 10(-5), cases N = 6,332) and risk of developing hyperglycemia or diabetes over a 9-year period (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.06-1.36, P = 0......In genome-wide association (GWA) data from 2,151 nondiabetic French subjects, we identified rs1387153, near MTNR1B (which encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2)), as a modulator of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). In European populations, the rs1387153 T allele is associated.......005, incident cases N = 515). RT-PCR analyses confirm the presence of MT2 transcripts in neural tissues and show MT2 expression in human pancreatic islets and beta cells. Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway....

  13. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... hemodynamic and arterial stiffness indices. RESULTS: We observed a positive correlation of fibulin-1 levels with age (r=0.38; p=0.033), glycated hemoglobin (r=0.80; p=0.003), creatinine (r=0.35; p=0.045), and fibrinogen (r=0.39; p=0.027). Glomerular filtration rate and fibulin-1 were inversely correlated (r......=-0.57; p=0.022). There was a positive correlation between fibulin-1 and central pulse pressure (r=0.44; p=0.011) and central augmentation pressure (r=0.55; p=0.001). In a multivariable regression model, diabetes, creatinine, fibrinogen and central augmentation pressure were independent predictors...

  14. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M

    2017-03-08

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring ( n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference ( p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure ( p = 0.003), and glucose levels ( p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight ( p zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  15. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  16. Women with high early pregnancy urinary iodine levels have an increased risk of hyperthyroid newborns: the population-based Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Marco; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Visser, Willy; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Visser, W Edward; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Bongers-Schokking, Jacoba J; Ross, H Alec; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Peeters, Robin P

    2014-04-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in thyroid dysfunction and has been associated with adverse obstetric and foetal effects, leading to worldwide salt iodization programmes. As nowadays 69% of the world's population lives in iodine-sufficient regions, we investigated the effects of variation in iodine status on maternal and foetal thyroid (dys)function in an iodine-sufficient population. Urinary iodine, serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and TPO-antibody levels were determined in early pregnancy (13·3 (1·9) week; mean (SD)) in 1098 women from the population-based Generation R Study. Newborn cord serum TSH and FT4 levels were determined at birth. The median urinary iodine level was 222·5 μg/l, indicating an iodine-sufficient population. 30·8% and 11·5% had urinary iodine levels 500 μg/l, respectively. When comparing mothers with urinary iodine levels 500 vs ≤500 μg/l, there were no differences in the risk of maternal increased or decreased TSH, hypothyroxinaemia or hyperthyroidism. Mothers with urinary iodine levels >500 μg/l had a higher risk of a newborn with decreased cord TSH levels (5·6 ± 1·4 (mean ± SE) vs 2·1 ± 0·5%, P = 0·04), as well as a higher risk of a hyperthyroid newborn (3·1 ± 0·9 vs 0·6 ± 0·3%, P = 0·02). These mothers had newborns with higher cord FT4 levels (21·7 ± 0·3 vs 21·0 ± 0·1 pm, P = 0·04). Maternal urinary iodine levels iodine-sufficient population, higher maternal urinary iodine levels are associated with an increased risk of a hyperthyroid newborn. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Alcohol Consumption at Any Level Increases Risk of Injury Caused by Others: Data from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Clausen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Alcohol use is a well-known risk factor for injury. However, information is needed about alcohol drinking patterns and the risk of injury among older adults in low- and middle-income countries as this population grows. We aimed to examine the influence of drinking patterns on the burden of injury and investigate factors associated with different types of injury in older populations in six emerging economies. Methods Data from more than 37,0 adults aged 50 years and older were included from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1 conducted in six emerging economies, namely, China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. We investigated past-year reported injuries from falls, traffic accidents, and being hit or stabbed. Alcohol drinking patterns were measured as lifetime abstinence, ever but not past- week use, and gender-specific past-week low-risk and high-risk use. We stratified by gender and used logistic regression models to observe the association between alcohol drinking pattern and risk of injury by controlling for other factors. Results During the year prior to interview, 627 (2.2% subjects reported bodily injury resulting from a car accident, 1,156 (4.2% from a fall, and 339 (.9% from being hit or stabbed during the past year. For women, only being a high-risk drinker increased the risk of being hit or stabbed, whereas for men, all levels of drinking were associated with an increased risk of being hit or stabbed. We observed a higher risk of being hit or stabbed from past-week high-risk drinking among women (odds ratio [OR] = 6.09, P < 0.01 than among men (OR = 3.57, P < 0.01. We observed no association between alcohol drinking pattern and injury due to car accidents for either women or men. Conclusions The risk of experiencing injury due to violence increased with level of alcohol exposure of the victim. The increase in alcohol use in emerging economies calls for further study into the consequences of

  18. Increased amino acids levels and the risk of developing of hypertriglyceridemia in a 7-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Mook-Kanamori, D. O.; Römisch-Margl, W.; Kastenmüller, G.; Prehn, C.; Petersen, A. K.; Illig, T.; Gieger, C.; Wang-Sattler, R.; Meisinger, C.; Peters, A.; Adamski, J.; Suhre, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, five branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were shown to be associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Aim We set out to examine whether amino acids are also associated with the development of hypertriglyceridemia. Materials and methods We determined the serum amino acids concentrations of 1,125 individuals of the KORA S4 baseline study, for which follow-up data were available also at the KORA F4 7 years later. After exclusion for hypertriglyceridemia...

  19. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mohorko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR. Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances.

  20. D-Dimer Levels before HIV Seroconversion Remain Elevated Even after Viral Suppression and Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-AIDS Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Freiberg

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying the excess risk of non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected people is unclear. HIV associated inflammation/hypercoagulability likely plays a role. While antiretroviral therapy (ART may return this process to pre-HIV levels, this has not been directly demonstrated. We analyzed data/specimens on 249 HIV+ participants from the US Military HIV Natural History Study, a prospective, multicenter observational cohort of >5600 active duty military personnel and beneficiaries living with HIV. We used stored blood specimens to measure D-dimer and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 at three time points: pre-HIV seroconversion, ≥6 months post-HIV seroconversion but prior to ART initiation, and ≥6 months post-ART with documented HIV viral suppression on two successive evaluations. We evaluated the changes in biomarker levels between time points, and the association between these biomarker changes and future non-AIDS events. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 28 incident non-AIDS diseases. At ART initiation, the median CD4 count was 361cells/mm3; median duration of documented HIV infection 392 days; median time on ART was 354 days. Adjusted mean percent increase in D-dimer levels from pre-seroconversion to post-ART was 75.1% (95% confidence interval 24.6-148.0, p = 0.002. This increase in D-dimer was associated with a significant 22% increase risk of future non-AIDS events (p = 0.03. Changes in IL-6 levels across time points were small and not associated with future non-AIDS events. In conclusion, ART initiation and HIV viral suppression does not eliminate HIV associated elevation in D-dimer levels. This residual pathology is associated with an increased risk of future non-AIDS diseases.

  1. The SNP at −592 of human IL-10 gene is associated with serum IL-10 levels and increased risk for human papillomavirus cervical lesion development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Poveda Kirvis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV persistence are characterized by high levels of IL-10 at cervix. We have determined whether polymorphisms of IL-10 gene promoter might be associated with increased risk of squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions (SICL and whether exist significative differences of IL-10 mRNA expression at cervix and systemic and serum IL-10 protein between SICL cases and non-Cervical Lesions (NCL. Methods Peripheral blood samples from SICL (n = 204 and NCL (n = 166 were used to detect IL-10 promoter polymorphisms at loci -592A/C (rs1800872, -819C/T (rs1800871, -1082A/G (rs1800896, -1352A/G (rs1800893, by allelic discrimination and to evaluate serum IL-10 protein. Cervical epithelial scrapings from NCL and biopsies from SICLs were used for HPV-typing and to evaluate IL-10 mRNA expression level. The systemic and local IL-10 mRNA expression levels were measured by real time-PCR. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of the selected polymorphisms were analyzed by logistic regression, adjusting by age and HPV-genotype, to determine the association with SICL. Results No significant differences were found between genotype frequencies at loci −819, -1082, and −1352. Individuals carrying at least one copy of risk allele A of polymorphism −592 had a two-fold increased risk of developing SICL [adjusted odds ratio (OR, 2.02 (95% CI, 1.26-3.25, p = 0.003], compared to NCL. The IL-10 mRNA expression and serum IL-10 protein, were significantly higher in SICL cases (p  Conclusions The −592 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of SICL and can serve as a marker of genetic susceptibility to SICL among Mexican women. According to IL-10 levels found in SICL, IL-10 can be relevant factor for viral persistence and progression disease.

  2. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks - 2005 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric D. Steffler; Eric D. Steffler; Mark M. Rashid; Frank A. McClintock; Richard L Williamson; Mili Selimotic

    2005-01-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material-structure combinations that are ductile. This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure. This report summarizes work progress through the fourth quarter of FY-05 (year 1 of a second 3-year funding period)

  3. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database.We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed.During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163. These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels.The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Economic inequality increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Hannay, Jason W

    2017-05-02

    Rising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments ( n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes. This effect of unequal distributions on risk taking was driven by upward social comparisons. Next, we estimated economic risk taking in daily life using large-scale data from internet searches. Risk taking was higher in states with greater income inequality, an effect driven by inequality at the upper end of the income distribution. Results suggest that inequality may promote poor outcomes, in part, by increasing risky behavior.

  5. High plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in elderly Japanese patients are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independently from markers of coagulation activation and endothelial cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, K; Duell, P B; Matsuo, T; Sakata, T; Kato, H; Shimada, K; Miyata, T

    2001-08-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in many populations, but the relationship between homocyst(e)ine and CVD in Japanese subjects has been unclear. It has been hypothesized that the link between homocyst(e)ine and CVD may be mediated in part by activation of coagulation and endothelial cell injury in the elderly Japanese subjects. To further evaluate this hypothesis, the present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the relationships among plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, risk of CVD, and markers of coagulation (fibrinogen, FVII, F1+2, FVIIa and FXIIa) and endothelial cell damage (vWF and thrombomodulin) in 146 elderly Japanese subjects (79 healthy controls and 67 patients with CVD). The geometric mean (range) of plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations was 10.2 (3.2--33) micromol/l in 79 Japanese healthy elderly subjects. As expected, healthy female and male elderly subjects had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 2.5 and 5.3 micromol/; higher, respectively, compared to healthy young control subjects (n=62). Healthy young and elderly men had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 1.7 and 4.5 micromol/l higher, respectively, compared to values in women. This higher plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in the elderly subjects were negatively correlated with levels of folic acid, albumin and total cholesterol, but were not significantly related to markers of coagulation or endothelial cell-damage. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses suggested that high homocyst(e)ine levels were independently related to CVD risk. In addition, levels of FVIIa, and F1+2 were significantly higher in elderly Japanese patients with CVD compared to elderly subjects without CVD, but were unrelated to plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. In summary, elevated plasma concentrations of homocyst(e)ine, FVIIa, and F1+2 were associated with increased risk of CVD in elderly male and female Japanese subjects, but the association between homocyst

  6. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Monagas, M; Andres-Lacueva, C; Casas, R; Urpí-Sardà, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of cocoa-containing products may confer cardiovascular protection, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies on the effects of cocoa on different cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients. Forty-two high-risk volunteers (19 men and 23 women, mean age 69.7 ± 11.5 years) were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. All received 40g of cocoa powder with 500 mL of skimmed milk/day(C + M) or only 500 mL/day of skimmed milk (M) for 4 weeks in a random order. Before and after each intervention period, plasma lipids, oxLDL and antioxidant vitamin concentrations were measured, as well as urinary cocoa polyphenols metabolites derived from phase II and microbial metabolisms. Compared to M, C + M intervention increases HDLc [2.67 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.58-4.73; P = 0.008)] and decreases oxLDL levels [-12.3 U/L (CI,-19.3 to -5.2;P = 0.001)]. No changes between intervention groups were observed in vitamins B1, B6, B12, C and E, or folic acid concentrations. In addition, subjects who showed higher increments in urinary cocoa polyphenol metabolites exhibited significant increases in HDLc and significant decreases in oxLDL levels (P Consumption of cocoa power with milk modulates the lipid profile in high-risk subjects for CHD. In addition, the relationship observed between the urinary excretion of cocoa polyphenol metabolites and plasma HDLc and oxLDL levels suggests a beneficial role for cocoa polyphenols in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Partner-level substance use associated with increased sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in San Francisco, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert E; Turner, Caitlin; Hern, Jaclyn; Santos, Glenn-Milo

    2017-07-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) and is associated with individual-level sexual risk behaviors. However, few studies have explored the relationship between substance use and HIV risk behaviors within partnerships. We examined partner-level data between MSM participants (n=23) and their sexual partners (n=52). We used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression to assess the relationship between partner-level substance use during their last sexual encounter with each partner, and engaging in condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and serodiscordant CAI. In multivariable analyses, participants had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of CAI when the participant (AOR=22.2, 95%CI=2.5-199.5) or their partners used any drugs (AOR=21.8, 95%CI=3.3-144.3); their partners (AOR=5.7, 95%CI=1.7-19.3) or both participant and partner had concordant use of methamphetamine (AOR=10.5, 95%CI=2.2-50.6); or when both used poppers (AOR=11.4, 95%CI=1.5-87). There were higher odds of SDCAI if the participant binge drank (AOR=4, 95%CI=1.01-15.8), used more than one substance (AOR=15.8, 95%CI=1.9-133), or used other drugs (AOR=4.8, 95%CI=1.3-18.4); if their partner used poppers (AOR=7.6, 95%CI=1.5-37.6), or used more than one substance (AOR=7.9, 95%CI=1.9-34.1); and when both participant and partner had concordant use of poppers (AOR=4.4, 95%CI=1.2-16.8). This study observed significant relationship between substance use and HIV risk behaviors within partnerships. Specifically, when either the participant, the partner, or both used any drugs there was an increased odds of sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest that partner-level substance use behaviors should be taken in account when developing sexual risk reduction interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Bota, Maria; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Zaridze, David G; Perrin, Paul; Fitzpatrick, John; Burnett, Arthur L; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Literature searches were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer, and placebo-controlled randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) that reported data on PSA and/or prostate cancer cases were retained. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. Twenty estimates were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary relative risk (SRR) of prostate cancer for an increase of 5 nmol/L of testosterone of 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96, 1.02) without heterogeneity (I² = 0%). Based on 26 trials, the overall difference in PSA levels after onset of use of TRT was 0.10 ng/mL (-0.28, 0.48). Results were similar when conducting heterogeneity analyses by mode of administration, region, age at baseline, baseline testosterone, trial duration, type of patients and type of TRT. The SRR of prostate cancer as an adverse effect from 11 TRT trials was 0.87 (95% CI 0.30; 2.50). Results were consistent across studies. Prostate cancer appears to be unrelated to endogenous testosterone levels. TRT for symptomatic hypogonadism does not appear to increase PSA levels nor the risk of prostate cancer development. The current data are reassuring, although some caution is essential until multiple studies with longer follow-up are available. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Blood Pressure Is the Determinant for the Increased Risk for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Subjects with Elevated Glycated Hemoglobin Levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung-Geun; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is known to be an important vascular complication of diabetes. Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is considered as an important cause of stroke in Asians. We aimed to analyze the risk for ICAS assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in different groups of young Korean subjects divided by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. This study included 10,437 participants without history of cardiovascular diseases (81.3% men, mean age 43 years) from a health screening program, in whom TCD ultrasonography was used to detect greater than 50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the SONIA (Stroke Outcomes and Neuroimaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis) trial. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to HbA1c levels: HbA1c < 5.7%, 5.7 ≤ HbA1c < 6.5%, and HbA1c ≥ 6.5% or under medication for diabetes. Among the participants, 3.0% of the subjects had ICAS. The subjects with ICAS tended to have higher mean HbA1c level compared with those without ICAS (5.8 ± .8 versus 5.7 ± .6, P = .063). The proportion of subjects with ICAS significantly increased as the HbA1c increased from the first to the third group (2.8%, 3.0%, 4.6%, P for linear trend = .022). In logistic regression analysis with ICAS as the dependent variable, the group with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% showed significantly increased odds ratio for ICAS with subjects with HbA1c < 5.7% as the reference after adjustment for confounding variables (1.575, 95% confidence interval 1.056-2.347). However, this significance disappeared with inclusion of presence of hypertension in the model. The risk for ICAS assessed by TCD was increased in young Korean subjects with HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. However, this significance was attenuated after adjustment for presence of hypertension, suggesting the importance of hypertension in ICAS. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased fibulin-1 plasma levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients: possible contribution to the link between PCOS and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, E; Tropea, A; Russo, G; Notaristefano, G; Messana, C; Alesiani, O; Fabozzi, S M; Lanzone, A; Apa, R

    2018-04-21

    To investigate a possible relation between fibulin-1 plasma levels and PCOS. ELISA quantitative determination of human fibulin-1. 50 women with PCOS and 40 control patients who attended the Unit of Human Reproductive Pathophysiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, were enrolled. Ultrasonographic pelvic examinations, hormonal profile assays, oral tolerance test OGTT, lipid profile and ELISA quantitative determination of human fibulin-1 were performed. Fibulin-1 levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in PCOS patients than in matched control women. No statistically significant positive correlation was found between fibulin-1 and AUCi, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, LDL, AMH, androstenedione and FAI, whereas a statistically significant positive correlation was found between fibulin-1 and 17OHP (p = 0.016) in the PCOS group. However, multivariable linear regression analysis showed that 17 OH P did not independently predict fibulin-1 levels (p = 0.089). Our data could contribute to explain the hypothesized increased cardiovascular risk and vascular damage in patients with PCOS. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in cardiometabolic disorders associated with PCOS is mandatory to identify new therapeutic strategies to eventually prevent the progression of cardiovascular diseases in these patients.

  11. Elevated Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Increases Risk of Post-partum Depression by Decreasing Prefrontal Cortex BDNF and 5-HT Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Xinyi; Zhao, Yuhang; Liu, Aihua; Zhao, Tong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is a common mental disease in the perinatal period that profoundly affects mothers and their offspring. Some clinical studies have found that PPD is related to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs); however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Female C57BL/6 mice immunized with adenovirus encoding the cDNA of the full-length mTPO (mTPO-Ad) were used to establish the isolated TPOAb-positive mouse model in the present study. Maternal depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and tail suspension test (TST) post-partum. The serum TPOAb titer was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before pregnancy and post-partum. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex, the mRNA and protein expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured, serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), and total thyroxine (TT4) levels were determined by ELISA. Compared with the controls, the mice immunized with mTPO-Ad displayed depressive behaviors, with a significantly lower sucrose preference (SP) at the 12-h time point and a longer immobility time in the FST and TST, which were accompanied by a lower expression of BDNF and 5-HT but no change in the TT4 concentration in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that elevated TPOAb may increase the risk of subsequent PPD and decrease the concentration of BDNF and 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex.

  12. Short repeats in the heme oxygenase 1 gene promoter is associated with increased levels of inflammation, ferritin and higher risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mónica; Leiva, Elba; Arredondo-Olguín, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the HO1 genotype, ferritin levels and the risk of type-2 diabetes and inflammation. Eight hundred thirty-five individuals were evaluated and classified according to their nutritional status and the presence of type-2 diabetes: 153 overweight (OW); 62 obese (OB); 55 type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM); 202 OWDM; 239 OBDM and 124 controls (C). We studied biochemical (glycemia, insulin, lipid profile, liver enzyme, creatinine, hsCRP), hematological (hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin receptor and serum Fe and ferritin) and oxidative stress (SOD, GHS and TBARS) parameters. We determined heme oxygenase activity and the (GT)n polymorphism in its gene promoter. Individuals with diabetes, independent of nutritional status, showed high levels of ferritin and HO activity compared to control subjects. Allelic frequency was not different between the groups (Chi(2), NS) however, genotypes were different (Chi(2), P1). The SS (short-short) genotype was higher in all DM individuals compared to controls and MM was higher in controls. SM (short-medium) genotype was an independent risk factor for DM in logistic regression analysis. We observed high risk for type-2 diabetes mellitus in the presence of SM genotype and high levels of ferritin (OR adjusted: 2.7; 1.9-3.6; p1; compared to control group). It was also significantly related to inflammation. The SM genotype in HO1 gene promoter and ferritin levels were associated with higher risk for type-2 diabetes and for having a higher marker of inflammation, which is the main risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Dias Teixeira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis (VL endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triacylglycerol (TAG, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003. The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05 and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05. An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα gene (n = 248 revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014. High TAG (P = 0.021 and VLDL-C (P = 0.023 levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006 levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.

  14. Extreme Levels of HbA1c Increase Incident ESRD Risk in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Competing Risk Analysis in National Cohort of Taiwan Diabetes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether HbA1c is a predictor of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 2 diabetes patients remains unclear. This study evaluated relationship between HbA1c and ESRD in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients aged ≥ 30 years who were free of ESRD (n = 51 681) were included from National Diabetes Care Management Program from 2002–2003. Extended Cox proportional hazard model with competing risk of death served to evaluate association between HbA1c level and ESRD. Results A total of 2613 (5.06%) people developed ESRD during a follow-up period of 8.1 years. Overall incidence rate of ESRD was 6.26 per 1000 person-years. Patients with high levels of HbA1c had a high incidence rate of ESRD, from 4.29 for HbA1c of  6.0%–6.9% to 10.33 for HbA1c ≥ 10.0% per 1000 person-years. Patients with HbA1c HbA1c  of 6.0%–6.9%. A J-shaped relationship between HbA1c level and ESRD risk was observed. After adjustment, patients with HbA1c HbA1c of 6.0%–6.9%. Conclusions Diabetes care has focused on preventing hyperglycemia, but not hypoglycemia. Our study revealed that HbA1c level ≥ 7.0% was linked with increased ESRD risk in type 2 diabetes patients, and that HbA1c HbA1c targets and improve outcomes without increasing the risk to this population. Clinicians need to pay attention to HbA1c results on diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26098901

  15. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Bodil Ohlsson; Marju Orho-Melander; Peter M. Nilsson

    2017-01-01

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination...

  16. Lower adiponectin levels at first trimester of pregnancy are associated with increased insulin resistance and higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the associations between adiponectin levels and 1) the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, β-cell function, and compensation indices in a prospective cohort representative of the general population of pregnant women. We performed anthropometric measurements and collected blood samples at 1st (6-13 weeks) and 2nd (24-28 weeks) trimesters. Diagnosis of GDM was made at 2nd trimester based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). Insulin was measured (ELISA; Luminex) to estimate homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), β-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUC(insulin/glucose)), and β-cell compensation (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2). Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Among the 445 participants included in this study, 38 women developed GDM. Women who developed GDM had lower 1st-trimester adiponectin levels (9.67 ± 3.84 vs. 11.92 ± 4.59 µg/mL in women with normal glucose tolerance). Lower adiponectin levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM (OR, 1.12 per 1 µg/mL decrease of adiponectin levels; P = 0.02, adjusted for BMI and HbA1c at 1st trimester). Adiponectin levels at 1st and 2nd trimesters were associated with HOMA-IR (both: r = -0.22, P insulin/glucose). Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements.

  17. Does training practice nurses to carry out physical health checks for people with severe mental illness increase the level of screening for cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sheila; Hinks, Philippa; Gray, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Compared to the general population, people with severe mental illness (SMI) have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Authors of clinical guidelines advise annual screening for CVD risk factors with appropriate lifestyle counselling. There are seven recommended elements of this health check: blood pressure, body mass index (or waist circumference), blood glucose, serum cholesterol, diet advice, exercise recommendations and smoking cessation guidance. To establish whether training practice nurses increases the proportion of patients with SMI who are screened for CVD risk factors and given lifestyle advice in primary care. A before-and-after audit of 400 patients on the SMI registers in five primary care centres in Northampton, England. Following the training, the proportion of patients with SMI who received all elements of the health check significantly increased (pre-training: n = 33, 8%, 95% CI = 6-11; post-training: n = 60, 15%, 95% CI = 12-19; RR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.22-2.72, p = .01). Training practice nurses about CVD prevention in people with SMI may be effective in increasing the proportion of patients in this group who receive a comprehensive health check.

  18. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The exponential rise of induced seismicity with increasing stress levels in the Groningen gas field and its implications for controlling seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, S. J.; Oates, S. J.; van Elk, J.

    2018-06-01

    Induced seismicity typically arises from the progressive activation of recently inactive geological faults by anthropogenic activity. Faults are mechanically and geometrically heterogeneous, so their extremes of stress and strength govern the initial evolution of induced seismicity. We derive a statistical model of Coulomb stress failures and associated aftershocks within the tail of the distribution of fault stress and strength variations to show initial induced seismicity rates will increase as an exponential function of induced stress. Our model provides operational forecasts consistent with the observed space-time-magnitude distribution of earthquakes induced by gas production from the Groningen field in the Netherlands. These probabilistic forecasts also match the observed changes in seismicity following a significant and sustained decrease in gas production rates designed to reduce seismic hazard and risk. This forecast capability allows reliable assessment of alternative control options to better inform future induced seismic risk management decisions.

  20. Low serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level is associated with increased risk of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Patrick; Horvath, Alexandra; Nordlund, Arto; Wallin, Anders; Svensson, Johan

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is important for the adult brain, but little is known of the role of IGF-I in Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD). A prospective study of 342 patients with subjective or objective mild cognitive impairment recruited at a single memory clinic. We determined whether serum IGF-I concentrations at baseline were associated with the risk of all-cause dementia, AD, or VaD. Patients developing mixed forms of AD and VaD were defined as suffering from VaD. The statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. During the follow-up (mean 3.6 years), 95 (28%) of the patients developed all-cause dementia [AD, n=37 (11%) and VaD, n=42 (12%)]. Low as well as high serum IGF-I (quartile 1 or 4 vs. quartiles 2-3) did not associate with all-cause dementia [crude hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-2.08 and crude HR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.63-1.75, respectively] or AD (crude HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.35-1.79 and crude HR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.43-2.06, respectively]. In contrast, low serum IGF-I concentrations were associated with increased risk of VaD (quartile 1 vs. quartiles 2-3, crude HR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.13-4.36). The latter association remained significant also after adjustment for multiple covariates. In a memory clinic population, low serum IGF-I was a risk marker for subsequent VaD whereas low IGF-I did not associate with the risk of AD. High serum IGF-I was not related to the risk of conversion to dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum levels of the interferon-gamma-inducing cytokine interleukin-18 are increased in individuals at high risk of developing type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, F; Conget, I; Di Marco, R

    2001-01-01

    and thought to be involved in its pathogenesis. Because increased production of IFN-gamma could be secondary to a dysregulated synthesis of IL-18, we compared the circulating levels of IL-18 in patients with newly diagnosed Type I diabetes with those of non-diabetic first-degree relatives and healthy control...

  2. Do abnormal serum lipid levels increase the risk of chronic low back pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Heuch

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP, but it is not known if there is any causal relationship.The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP, both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline.Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995-1997 and HUNT 3 (2006-2008 surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30-69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP.Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85-1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94-1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides. Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72-0.95 per mmol/l.Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a higher pain intensity.

  3. Fractures and the increased risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C-F; Lai, E C-C; Yeh, M-K

    2018-06-01

    Aims A high rate of suicide has been reported in patients who sustain fractures, but the association remains uncertain in the context of other factors. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fractures and the risk of suicide in this contextual setting. Patients and Methods We performed a case-control study of patients aged 40 years or older who died by suicide between 2000 and 2011. We included patients' demographics, physical and mental health problems, and socioeconomic factors. We performed conditional logistic regression to evaluate the associations between fractures and the risk of suicide. Results We included a total of 34 794 patients who died by suicide and 139 176 control patients. We found that fractures as a homogenous group (adjusted odds ratios (aOR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43 to 1.53), and specifically pelvic (aOR 2.04; 95% CI 1.68 to 2.47) and spinal fractures (aOR 1.53; 95% CI 1.43 to 1.64), were associated with a higher risk of suicide. In addition, we found that patients who had a lower income, had never married, had lower levels of educational attainment, or had coexistent physical and mental conditions such as anxiety, mood disorders, and psychosis-related disorders had a higher risk of suicide. Conclusion Fractures, specifically those of the hip and spine, were associated with an increased risk of suicide. The findings suggest that greater clinical attention should be given to this risk in patients with fractures, especially for those with additional risk factors. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:780-6.

  4. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Nathalie; Williams, Paul T.; Lamendella, Regina; Faghihnia, Nastaran; Grube, Alyssa; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Zeneng; Knight, Rob; Jansson, Janet K.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2016-12-20

    Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51–53 %E)v. lower CHO (39–40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine andγ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high-v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by highv. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.

  5. Association of TNF-α but not IL-1β levels with the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection increased the risk of peptic ulcer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Mehdi; Habibzadeh, Maryam; Karkhah, Ahmad; Shokri-Shirvani, Javad; Barari, Ladan; Nouri, Hamid Reza

    2018-02-15

    Peptic ulcer is a lesion in the mucosa of the digestive tract affecting many people all around the world. Recent investigations have indicated that produced inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in response to gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori play an important role in the development of peptic ulcer. With regard to the significance of these cytokines in peptic ulcer development and the high prevalence of this disease in the developing countries, this study aimed to investigate the association of TNF-α and IL-1β with peptic ulcer in the presence of H. pylori. This case-control study enrolled 61 patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) as cases and 59 people without peptic ulcer (NPUD) as controls. Blood samples and endoscopic biopsies were collected. H. pylori infection was confirmed by using rapid urease test (RUT), specific IgG measurement and histopathological examination. Then, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were evaluated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seropositivity of H. pylori was 62.5% in the studied population, while by considering RUT and histopathological examination along with specific-IgG antibody, H. pylori infection decreased to 56.7%. In addition, H. pylori infection was significantly (OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.17-0.82; P = .02) associated with peptic ulcer development. The TNF-α level in PUD and infected H. pylori subjects was significantly higher than that of control and un-infected H. pylori individuals. However, no significant difference of IL1β level was observed between PUD and control groups as well as between H. pylori infected and un-infected individuals. Interestingly, IL-1β level in PUD patients without H. pylori infection was significantly higher than infected ones. Moreover, a significant correlation between specific-IgG antibody with TNF-α level was observed. Taken together, our results showed that increased level of TNF-α could probably play pivotal role in pathogenesis of peptic ulcer

  6. Perceived need to increase physical activity levels among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional analysis within a community-based diabetes prevention project FIN-D2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vähäsarja Kati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased physical activity is a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes prevention. The perception of a need to change is considered essential in behaviour change processes. However, the existing literature on individuals’ perceived need to change health behaviour is limited. In order to improve understanding of diabetes prevention through increased physical activity levels (PAL, we assessed factors associated with perceiving a need to increase PAL among adults at high risk of diabetes. Methods Opportunistic screening was used within a primary-care based lifestyle intervention covering 10 149 men and women at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained at baseline visits. The explored determinants were demographic, anthropometric/clinical, behavioural and psychosocial characteristics, along with four categories of PAL awareness. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results 74% of men (n = 2 577 and 76% of women (n = 4 551 perceived a need to increase their PAL. The participants most likely to perceive this need were inactive, had a larger waist circumference, rated their PAL as insufficient, and were at the contemplation stage of change. Smoking, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and a family history of diabetes were not associated with this perception. The likelihood was also greater among women with less perceived fitness and less education. Demographic factors other than education did not determine participants’ perceived need to increase PAL. PAL overestimators were less likely to perceive the need to increase their PAL than realistic inactive participants. Conclusions Subjective rather than objective health factors appear to determine the perception of a need to increase PAL among adults at high risk of diabetes. Client perceptions need to be evaluated in health counselling in order to facilitate a change in PAL. Practical descriptions of the associations between metabolic risk factors, PAL, and

  7. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  8. Increased cancer risk in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Hayran, Mutlu; Guven, Deniz Can; Yılmaz, Tolga Birtan; Taheri, Sahand; Akman, Abdullah C; Bilgin, Emre; Hüseyin, Beril; Berker, Ezel

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have noted a possible association between periodontal diseases and the risk of various cancers. We assessed cancer risk in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe periodontitis by a periodontist between 2001 and 2010 were identified from the hospital registry. Patients younger than 35 years of age or with a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. The age- and gender-standardized incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cases by the number of expected cases from Turkish National Cancer Registry 2013 data. A total of 280 patients were included (median age 49.6, 54% female). Median follow-up was 12 years. Twenty-five new cancer cases were observed. Patients with periodontitis had 77% increased risk of cancer (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.58, p = .004). Women with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of breast cancer (SIR 2.40, 95% CI 0.88-5.33) and men with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (SIR 3.75, 95% CI 0.95-10.21) and hematological cancers (SIR 6.97, 95% CI 1.77-18.98). Although showing a causal association necessitates further investigation, our results support the idea that periodontitis might be associated with increased cancer risk, particularly with hematological, breast and prostate cancers.

  9. Increased suicidal risk among smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Sapir, Anna Piccone; Shaked, Ginette; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients display a high suicidal risk, although this risk is difficult to predict. One of the variables associated with increased suicide risk is smoking. In the present study, we assessed the suicidal risk in schizophrenia patients, smokers and nonsmokers. We also evaluated the impact of various variables such as psychotic symptoms, impulsivity, and extra-pyramidal side effects on suicidal risk. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures, including the suicidal risk scale (SRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale, and the Simpson Angus Scale for extrapyramidal side effects. The effect of smoking on the various measures, especially suicidal risk, was examined. Schizophrenia patients who smoke obtained higher PANSS scores (both total score and positive and negative subscales), but did not differ on the Simpson Angus scale of extrapyramidal side effects. They also exhibited higher suicide risk as reflected by higher scores on the SRS, and a trend for higher impulsivity as measured by the impulsivity control scale. Women that smoked had higher SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking and a history of suicide attempt predicted in our regression analysis a higher SRS score. When conducting separate analyses for the male and female patients, the significant contributors were the PANSS total score among the males and the number of pack-years among the female patients. Despite hints toward the role of smoking in suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia, especially among female patients, more studies are needed to elucidate the association between smoking and suicidality in schizophrenia patients.

  10. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittom?ki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breas...

  11. Cryptorchidism and increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Miao, Maohua; Liang, Hong; Ehrenstein, Vera; Wang, Ziliang; Yuan, Wei; Li, Jiong

    2018-01-01

    Male congenital malformations as cryptorchidism may contribute to the development of neurodevelopmental disorders directly or via shared familial genetic and/or environmental factors, but the evidence is sparse. Using population-based health registries, we conducted a cohort study of all liveborn singleton boys in Denmark during 1979-2008. Boys with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were categorized into the exposed cohort and the other boys into the unexposed comparison cohort. The outcomes were diagnoses of any neurodevelopmental disorders and their subtypes. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs), taking into consideration several potential confounders. Among 884,083 male infants, 27,505 received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism during follow-up. Boys with cryptorchidism were more likely to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (HR = 1.77; 95%confidence interval [CI]:1.59,1.97), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (HR = 1.24; 95% CI:1.13,1.35), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08,1.26), anxiety (HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01,1.17), and other behavioral/emotional disorders (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.08,1.26) compared to boys without cryptorchidism. The observed risks of intellectual disability, ASD, and ADHD were increased further in boys with bilateral cryptorchidism. Except for anxiety, cryptorchid boys had higher risks of neurodevelopmental disorders than their non-cryptorchid full brothers. The observed increased risks were similar among boys who underwent orchiopexy, as well as among those with shorter waiting times for this surgery. Cryptorchidism may be associated with increased risks of intellectual disability, ASD, ADHD, and other behavioral/emotional disorders. Cryptorchidism and neurodevelopmental disorders may have shared genetic or in-utero/early postnatal risk factors, which need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  13. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  14. Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2018-02-27

    Effectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the "nation as a body" metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between-subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high vs. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results revealed an interaction effect such that metaphoric (vs. literal) framing increased perceived risk susceptibility in the high-severity condition only. Further analyses revealed that perceived risk susceptibility and negative affect mediated the path between the two-way interaction and policy support and behavioral intentions regarding Zika prevention. Overall, these findings complement prior work on the influence of metaphoric framing on risk perceptions, while offering practical insights for risk communicators seeking to communicate about Zika and other zoonotic diseases. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Increasing tsunami risk awareness via mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelawat, N.; Suppasri, A.; Latcharote, P.; Imamura, F.; Abe, Y.; Sugiyasu, K.

    2017-02-01

    In the information and communication technology era, smartphones have become a necessity. With the capacity and availability of smart technologies, a number of benefits are possible. As a result, designing a mobile application to increase tsunami awareness has been proposed, and a prototype has been designed and developed. The application uses data from the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami. Based on the current location determined by a GPS function matched with the nearest point extracted from the detailed mesh data of that earlier disaster, the application generates the inundation depth at the user’s location. Thus, not only local people but also tourists visiting the affected areas can understand the risks involved. Application testing has been conducted in an evacuation experiment involving both Japanese and foreign students. The proposed application can be used as a supplementary information tool in tsunami evacuation drills. It also supports the idea of smart tourism: when people realize their risks, they possess risk awareness and hence can reduce their risks. This application can also be considered a contribution to disaster knowledge and technology, as well as to the lessons learned from the practical outcome.

  16. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...... population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13......,525 females, initially examined between 1964 and 1992 with examinations repeated at intervals from 1-10 years, were followed until 1995 for all-cause mortality. Relative mortality risk in smokers versus never-smokers was calculated within periods of five calendar years and compared throughout the study period...

  17. Acrolein exposure is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Conklin, Daniel J; Riggs, Daniel W; Myers, John A; O'Toole, Timothy E; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; Ramos, Kenneth S; Srivastava, Sanjay; Higdon, Deirdre; Tollerud, David J; DeFilippis, Andrew; Becher, Carrie; Wyatt, Brad; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Rai, Shesh N; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Xie, Zhengzhi; Yeager, Ray; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-08-06

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite-3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133(+)) and late (AC133(-)) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3-HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3-HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C-reactive protein were associated with 3-HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent

    2015-01-01

    IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...

  19. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  20. Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael; Nordenvall, Anna S; Nordenström, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise

    2015-02-01

    Hypospadias (aberrant opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis) occurs in 1 per 300 newborn boys. It has been previously unknown whether this common malformation is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity later in life. Studies of individuals with hypospadias also provide an opportunity to examine whether difference in androgen signaling is related to neurodevelopmental disorders. To elucidate the mechanisms behind a possible association, we also studied psychiatric outcomes among brothers of the hypospadias patients. Registry study within a national cohort of all 9,262 males with hypospadias and their 4,936 healthy brothers born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009. Patients with hypospadias and their brothers were matched with controls by year of birth and county. The following outcomes were evaluated (1) any psychiatric (2) psychotic, (3) mood, (4) anxiety, (5) eating, and (6) personality disorders, (7) substance misuse, (8) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (9) autism spectrum disorders (ASD), (10) intellectual disability, and (11) other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood. Patients with hypospadias were more likely to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.8-3.8), ASD (1.4; 1.2-1.7), ADHD (1.5; 1.3-1.9), and behavioral/emotional disorders (1.4; 1.2-1.6) compared with the controls. Brothers of patients with hypospadias had an increased risk of ASD (1.6; 1.3-2.1) and other behavioral/emotional disorders with onset in childhood (1.2; 0.9-1.5) in comparison to siblings of healthy individuals. A slightly higher, although not statistically significant, risk was found for intellectual disability (1.3; 1.0-1.9). No relation between other psychiatric diagnosis and hypospadias was found. This is the first study to identify an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in patients with hypospadias, as well as an increased risk for ASD in their brothers, suggesting a common familial (genetic and

  1. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  2. Do building wakes increase ground level concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.J.; Melbourne, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the EPRI Plume Rise and Downwash Project to develop and evaluate new mathematical algorithms representing plume rise and downwash, physical model studies were performed on the plume dispersion from Combustion Turbine Unit 4, (CT 4), at the Jersey Central Power and Light Sayreville Generating Station, Sayreville, New Jersey. Studies were performed both in neutral and stably stratified model atmospheric boundary layer conditions with the primary objective being to determine the behavior of the combustion turbine plume under high and low ambient wind speed conditions within the wake region produced by the combustion turbine itself. Field measurements were also performed at the site and to this end a base case wind direction of β = 335 degree was chosen for both the field and model studies in an attempt to minimize the effects of other building wakes on the plume. This paper looks at the flow and dispersion characteristics with and without these large structures in the model in an attempt to explain why the differences in concentration levels occurred

  3. Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Sofie; Gade, Elisabeth; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2015-01-01

    in girls with early menarche compared to girls without early menarche (7.4 vs. 4.5%), OR = 1.71 (1.31-2.22), p increased by 8% (1-15%), p = 0...... in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twins. CONCLUSION: Early menarche is associated with increased risk of asthma among Danish female twins independently of BMI, age, physical activity, educational level and smoking. Results indicate a complex relationship possibly mediated through innate and non...

  4. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  5. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  6. Increased Baseline C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Are Associated with Increased Risk of Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Benfield, Thomas; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) increases rapidly during an infection. We tested the hypothesis that chronic low-level increases in CRP are associated with an increased risk of infectious disease. METHODS: We studied 9660 individuals from a prospective general...... population cohort, including 3592 in whom infectious disease developed, and another 60 896 individuals from a cross-sectional general population study, of whom 13 332 developed infectious disease; 55% were women, and the mean age was 57 years. Hospital diagnoses of infections in 1977-2010 were based....... RESULTS: Individuals with CRP >3 mg/L had 1.2 and 1.7 times increased risk of infectious disease, in the prospective general population cohort and the cross-sectional general population study, respectively, compared with individuals with CRP

  7. Financing increasing flood risk: evidence from millions of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, B.; Koks, E. E.; Husby, T. G.; Ward, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on the accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on the ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information can contribute to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case-study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood prone areas has been higher than in not flood prone areas. We also find that property values in flood prone areas are lower than those in not flood prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  8. Increasing flood exposure in the Netherlands: implications for risk financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, B.; Koks, E. E.; Husby, T. G.; Ward, P. J.

    2014-05-01

    The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on an accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information provides valuable input to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood-prone areas has been higher than in non-flood-prone areas. We also find that property values in flood-prone areas are lower than those in non-flood-prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood-prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  9. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral

  10. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  11. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li Qing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine. For males, the relative risk (RR was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of

  12. Topiramate increases the risk of valproic acid-induced encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Chu, Kon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Moon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang Kun

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic encephalopathy is a rare but serious complication of valproic acid (VPA) therapy that usually presents with impaired consciousness or increased seizure frequency. Although it has been suggested that topiramate (TPM) increases the risk of VPA-induced encephalopathy, the additional risk in patients receiving TPM therapy has not been evaluated. We reviewed all adult patients who took VPA between January 2005 and February 2009 at the Seoul National University Hospital and identified patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy based on clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) data. Information on sex, age, serum ammonia level, serum VPA level, liver function test, and EEG was collected from patient registry and medical data. We enrolled 8,372 patients who received VPA therapy and 1,236 patients who received VPA/TPM combination therapy. We identified 11 patients with VPA-induced encephalopathy (0.13%), 7 of whom received a combination therapy of VPA and TPM. The odds ratio of VPA-induced encephalopathy with TPM over that without TPM was 10.16. There were no significant differences in sex distribution, number of antiepileptic agents, ammonia level, VPA serum level, underlying diseases, dosage of VPA, duration of VPA treatment, treatment of encephalopathy, and outcomes between the two groups. Our study showed that the prevalence of VPA-induced encephalopathy is approximately 0.1% among patients treated with VPA and that the risk of this condition, although still low, can increase by approximately 10 times in the presence of TPM therapy. Based on these results, we suggest that TPM should be carefully used in patients receiving VPA treatment. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Hypospadias and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Landén, Mikael; Nordenvall, Anna; Nordenström, Anna; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Frisén, Louise

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias (aberrant opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis) occurs in 1 per 300 newborn boys. It has been previously unknown whether this common malformation is associated with increased psychiatric morbidity later in life. Studies of individuals with hypospadias also provide an opportunity to examine whether difference in androgen signaling is related to neurodevelopmental disorders. To elucidate the mechanisms behind ...

  14. Increased Flooding Risk - Accelerating Threat and Stakeholder Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, L. P.; Ezer, T.; De Young, R.; McShane, M. K.; McFarlane, B.

    2012-12-01

    projects, and "…subsidence …. is not well-documented". Studies sponsored by the City of Norfolk for example suggest massive tidal barriers. Flood insurance - Flood insurance is available only from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), not from private insurers. NFIP has a current deficit of about 18B, which is estimated to increase by about 2B annually. The rates are subsidized and do not reflect the true risk of coastal flooding and do not incorporate the likelihood of future sea-level rise. In effect, the subsidy promotes increased building on the coast, leading to increased deficits in the tax-payer financed program. Risk-based flood insurance pricing would lead to less coastal development, therefore decreasing the tax base of the community. Stakeholder needs - Planning for increased flooding due to sea level rise extends 50 to 100 years given the lifetime of infrastructure. Planners need guidance and error estimates. To make adequate predictions for users we must understand the various components of sea level rise including subsidence, global sea level rise and regional and local dynamic sea level rise. Predictions of regional sea level rise will be presented in the context of existing infrastructure such as NASA research facilities and the city of Norfolk, Virginia.

  15. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Wu

    Full Text Available The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  16. The increased risk of joint venture promotes social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    The joint venture of many members is common both in animal world and human society. In these public enterprizes, highly cooperative groups are more likely to while low cooperative groups are still possible but not probable to succeed. Existent literature mostly focuses on the traditional public goods game, in which cooperators create public wealth unconditionally and benefit all group members unbiasedly. We here institute a model addressing this public goods dilemma with incorporating the public resource foraging failure risk. Risk-averse individuals tend to lead a autarkic life, while risk-preferential ones tend to participate in the risky public goods game. For participants, group's success relies on its cooperativeness, with increasing contribution leading to increasing success likelihood. We introduce a function with one tunable parameter to describe the risk removal pattern and study in detail three representative classes. Analytical results show that the widely replicated population dynamics of cyclical dominance of loner, cooperator and defector disappear, while most of the time loners act as savors while eventually they also disappear. Depending on the way that group's success relies on its cooperativeness, either cooperators pervade the entire population or they coexist with defectors. Even in the later case, cooperators still hold salient superiority in number as some defectors also survive by parasitizing. The harder the joint venture succeeds, the higher level of cooperation once cooperators can win the evolutionary race. Our work may enrich the literature concerning the risky public goods games.

  17. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  18. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  19. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  20. Placental Chorangiosis: Increased Risk for Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariska S. Petersen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with Class C diabetes who presented for nonstress testing at 36 weeks and 4 days of gestation with nonreassuring fetal heart tones (NRFHT and oligohydramnios. Upon delivery, thrombosis of the umbilical cord was grossly noted. Pathological analysis of the placenta revealed chorangiosis, vascular congestion, and 40% occlusion of the umbilical vein. Chorangiosis is a vascular change of the placenta that involves the terminal chorionic villi. It has been proposed to result from longstanding, low-grade hypoxia in the placental tissue and has been associated with such conditions such as diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, and hypertensive conditions in pregnancy. To characterize chorangiosis and its associated obstetric outcomes we identified 61 cases of “chorangiosis” on placental pathology at Henry Ford Hospital from 2010 to 2015. Five of these cases were omitted due to lack of complete records. Among the 56 cases, the cesarean section rate was 51%, indicated in most cases for nonreassuring fetal status. Thus, we suggest that chorangiosis, a marker of chronic hypoxia, is associated with increased rates of cesarean sections for nonreassuring fetal status because of long standing hypoxia coupled with the stress of labor.

  1. Extreme Bilirubin Levels as a Causal Risk Factor for Symptomatic Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease.......In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease....

  2. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  3. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.

  4. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Schwartz, Alan R; Gilman, Robert H; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Miranda, J Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-06-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93-100, 2016.-Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular complications, it is unclear how worsening hypoxemia of any degree affects cardiometabolic risk factors in high-altitude populations. We studied the relationship between daytime resting oxyhemoglobin saturation and cardiometabolic risk factors in adult participants living in Puno, Peru (3825 m above sea level). We used multivariable logistic regression models to study the relationship between having a lower oxyhemoglobin saturation and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants (mean age 55 years, 52% male) had information available on pulse oximetry and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Average oxyhemoglobin saturation was 90% (interquartile range 88%-92%) and 43 (4.5%) had excessive erythrocytosis. Older age, decreased height-adjusted lung function, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with having an oxyhemoglobin saturation ≤85%. When adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, having excessive erythrocytosis, and site, we found that each 5% decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation was associated with a higher adjusted odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.72, p 2 mass units (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00-1.67, p < 0.05), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51, p < 0.04), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥3 mg/L (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96, p < 0.01). In high-altitude populations in Puno, Peru, a higher BMI and lower pulmonary function were

  5. Heightened fire risk in Indonesia in response to increasing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K.; Baethgen, W.; Verchot, L. V.; Gutierrez-Velez, V.; Pinedo-Vasquez, M.

    2016-12-01

    In Indonesia, drought driven fires occur typically during the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), such as those of 1997 and 2015 that resulted in months-long hazardous atmospheric pollution levels in Equatorial Asia and record greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, anomalously active fire seasons have also been observed in non-drought years. In this work, we investigated whether fires are impacted by temperature anomalies and if so, if the responses differ under contrasting precipitation regimes. Our findings show that when the July-October dry-season is anomalously dry, the sensitivity of fires to temperature anomalies is similar regardless of the sign of the anomalies. In contrast, in wet condition, fire risk increases sharply when the dry season is anomalously warm. We also present a characterization of near-term regional climate projections over the next few decades and the implications of continuing global temperature increase in future fire probability in Indonesia.

  6. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use...... with electrocardiographic documentation of VT/VF were included. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between SCA and OPD. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk-profile, disease severity, and current use of respiratory drugs. RESULTS...... is associated with an increased observed risk of SCA. The most increased risk was observed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk-profile, and in those who received SABA and, possibly, those who received AC at the time of SCA....

  7. Relationship Between Maternal Obesity And Increased Risk Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The incidence of obesity has risen over the past several decades and in spite of advancement in modern medicine, it remains a risk factor for maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between obesity (increased body mass index) and increased risk of preeclampsia. The possible ...

  8. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  9. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA......, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. RESULTS: Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation......, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8...

  10. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  11. Does Operational Risk Disclosure Quality Increase Operating Cash Flows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Nobanee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure and examine its impact on operating cash flow of banks listed on the UAE Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX and Dubai Financial Market (DFM during the period 2003-2016. The authors conducted content analysis of the annual reports to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure. In addition, they used dynamic panel data regressions to analyze the impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks. The results show a low degree of operational risk disclosure for all UAE banks, both Islamic and conventional. In addition, the results show no association between the levels of disclosure of operational risk and cash flow for all banks, conventional and Islamic. Operational risk disclosure of Islamic banks has not been examined by any prior researchers. In addition, this paper examines the potential impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks.

  12. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes

  13. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  14. Increased risk of hyperthyroidism among patients hospitalized with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F; Kessing, Lars V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hyperthyroidism has been associated with affective disorder in many cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal studies in this connection are scarce. We assessed whether hospitalization with depressive disorder or bipolar disorder was a risk factor for development of hyperthyroidism....... METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study using the Danish register data. The observational period was 1977--99. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admission with resulting index discharge diagnoses of depression, bipolar disorder, or osteoarthritis. The risks...... with depressive disorder did not have an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, whereas patients with bipolar disorder had an increased of risk on the margin of statistical significance, when compared to patients with osteoarthritis. Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly increased risk of hyperthyroidism...

  15. Increased Risk of Drug-Induced Hyponatremia during High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Jönsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the relationship between outdoor temperature in Sweden and the reporting of drug-induced hyponatremia to the Medical Products Agency (MPA. Methods: All individual adverse drug reactions (ADR reported to MPA from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2013 of suspected drug-induced hyponatremia and random controls were identified. Reports where the ADR had been assessed as having at least a possible relation to the suspected drug were included. Information on administered drugs, onset date, causality assessment, sodium levels, and the geographical origin of the reports was extracted. A case-crossover design was used to ascertain the association between heat exposure and drug-induced hyponatremia at the individual level, while linear regression was used to study its relationship to sodium concentration in blood. Temperature exposure data were obtained from the nearest observation station to the reported cases. Results: During the study period, 280 reports of hyponatremia were identified. More cases of drug-induced hyponatremia were reported in the warmer season, with a peak in June, while other ADRs showed an opposite annual pattern. The distributed lag non-linear model indicated an increasing odds ratio (OR with increasing temperature in the warm season with a highest odds ratio, with delays of 1–5 days after heat exposure. A cumulative OR for a lag time of 1 to 3 days was estimated at 2.21 at an average daily temperature of 20 °C. The change in sodium per 1 °C increase in temperature was estimated to be −0.37 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.02, −0.72. Conclusions: Warm weather appears to increase the risk of drug-induced hyponatremia

  16. Increased Risk of Gallstone Disease Following Colectomy for Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark-Christensen, Anders; Brandsborg, Søren; Laurberg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Objectives:Biochemical studies suggest that patients who have had a colectomy or restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) are at an increased risk of developing gallstone disease, but epidemiological studies are lacking. We evaluated the risk of gallstone disease follo...

  17. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Obj...

  18. Preoperative weight gain might increase risk of gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istfan, Nawfal W; Anderson, Wendy A; Apovian, Caroline M; Hess, Donald T; Forse, R Armour

    2011-01-01

    Weight loss improves the cardiovascular and metabolic risk associated with obesity. However, insufficient data are available about the health effects of weight gain, separate from the obesity itself. We sought to determine whether the changes in body weight before open gastric bypass surgery (OGB) would have a significant effect on the immediate perioperative hospital course. A retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients was performed to examine the effects of co-morbidities and body weight changes in the immediate preoperative period on the hospital length of stay and the rate of admission to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Of our class III obese patients undergoing OGB, 95% had ≥1 co-morbid condition and an overall SICU admission rate of 18%. Compared with the patients with no perioperative SICU admission, the patients admitted to the SICU had a greater degree of insulin resistance (homeostatic model analysis-insulin resistance 10.8 ± 1.3 versus 5.9 ± 0.5, P = .001), greater serum triglyceride levels (225 ± 47 versus 143 ± 8 mg/dL, P = .003), and had gained more weight preoperatively (.52 ± .13 versus .06 ± .06 lb/wk, P = .003). The multivariate analyses showed that preoperative weight gain was a risk factor for a longer length of stay and more SICU admissions lasting ≥3 days, as were a diagnosis of sleep apnea and an elevated serum triglyceride concentration. The results of the present retrospective study suggest that weight gain increases the risk of perioperative SICU admission associated with OGB, independent of the body mass index. Sleep apnea and elevated serum triglyceride levels were also important determinants of perioperative morbidity. In view of the increasing epidemic of obesity and the popularity of bariatric surgical procedures, we propose that additional clinical and metabolic research focusing on the understanding of the complex relationship among obesity, positive energy balance, weight gain, and perioperative

  19. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  20. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Catherine H.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Jun, Jonathan C.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93���100, 2016.���Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated...

  1. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Increased carboxyhemoglobin level during liver resection with inflow occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godai, Kohei; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Kuniyoshi, Tamotsu; Matsunaga, Akira; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Controlling stress responses associated with ischemic changes due to bleeding and ischemia/reperfusion injury is essential for anesthetic management. Endogenous carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is produced in the oxidative degradation of heme proteins by the stress-response enzyme heme oxygenase. Although the COHb level is elevated in critically ill patients, changes in endogenous COHb during anesthesia have not been well investigated. Therefore, we evaluated changes in endogenous COHb levels in patients undergoing liver resections with inflow occlusion. Levels of COHb were significantly increased after the Pringle maneuver. The inflow occlusion time in patients with increased COHb after the Pringle maneuver (∆COHb > 0.3 %) was significantly longer than in patients without increased COHb (∆COHb < 0.3 %) (P = 0.01). In addition, COHb changes were correlated with inflow occlusion time (P = 0.005, R(2) = 0.21). Neither total blood loss, transfusion volume of packed red blood cells, operation time, nor anesthetic time differed between patients with and without increased COHb. The results indicated that endogenous COHb levels were increased by inflow occlusion in patients undergoing liver resections, which suggests that changes in COHb may correlate with hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury induced by inflow occlusion.

  3. Serum apolipoprotein e level is not increased in Alzheimer's disease : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, A.J.C.; Knijff, P. de; Hofman, A.; Cruts, M.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Broeckhoven, C. van; Havekes, L.M.; Duijn, C.M. van

    1998-01-01

    The APOE*4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. It has been suggested that levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in plasma are increased in Alzheimer's disease. In this population-based study, we found that serum apoE levels were lower in

  4. Risk factor management in a contemporary Australian population at increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D J; Coller, J M; Gong, F F; McGrady, M; Prior, D L; Boffa, U; Shiel, L; Liew, D; Wolfe, R; Owen, A J; Krum, H; Reid, C M

    2017-11-14

    Effective management of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk factors offers longer, healthier lives and savings in health care. We examined risk factor management in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years. Exclusion criteria were known heart failure or cardiac abnormality on echocardiography or other imaging. Medical history, clinical examination, full blood examination and biochemistry (without lipids and HbA1c) were performed for 3847 participants on enrolment, and blood pressure, lipids and HbA1c were measured 1-2 years after enrolment for 3202 participants. Despite 99% of 3294 participants with hypertension receiving antihypertensive medication, half had blood pressures >140/90 mmHg. Approximately 77% of participants were overweight or obese, with one third obese. Additionally, 74% of participants at high cardiovascular disease risk had low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≥2 mmol/l, one third of diabetic participants had HbA1c >7%, 22% had estimated glomerular filtration rate management of modifiable risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Can stress in farm animals increase food safety risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostagno, Marcos H

    2009-09-01

    All farm animals will experience some level of stress during their lives. Stress reduces the fitness of an animal, which can be expressed through failure to achieve production performance standards, or through disease and death. Stress in farm animals can also have detrimental effects on the quality of food products. However, although a common assumption of a potential effect of stress on food safety exists, little is actually known about how this interaction may occur. The aim of this review was to examine the current knowledge of the potential impact of stress in farm animals on food safety risk. Colonization of farm animals by enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Campylobacter, and their subsequent dissemination into the human food chain are a major public health and economic concern for the food industries. This review shows that there is increasing evidence to demonstrate that stress can have a significant deleterious effect on food safety through a variety of potential mechanisms. However, as the impact of stress is difficult to precisely determine, it is imperative that the issue receives more research attention in the interests of optimizing animal welfare and minimizing losses in product yield and quality, as well as to food safety risks to consumers. While there is some evidence linking stress with pathogen carriage and shedding in farm animals, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully elucidated. Understanding when pathogen loads on the farm are the highest or when animals are most susceptible to infection will help identifying times when intervention strategies for pathogen control may be most effective, and consequently, increase the safety of food of animal origin.

  6. Influence of fatigue time and level on increases in postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Kevin M; Madigan, Michael L; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatigue time and fatigue level on the increases in postural sway during quiet standing. Centre of pressure-based measures of postural sway were collected both before and after fatiguing participants using three different fatigue levels and two different fatigue times. Results showed increasing fatigue time increased sway velocity and sway area, and increasing fatigue level increased sway velocity. Fatigue time effects are important to consider when applying laboratory-based findings to the field given that the fatigue time can differ substantially between the two. Fatigue level effects imply a dose - response relationship between localized muscle fatigue and risk of falling that can have important implications in work/rest cycle scheduling for occupations at risk of injurious falls.

  7. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  8. Risk Based Milk Pricing Model at Dairy Farmers Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Septiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The milk price from a cooperative institution to farmer does not fully cover the production cost. Though, dairy farmers encounter various risks and uncertainties in conducting their business. The highest risk in milk supply lies in the activities at the farm. This study was designed to formulate a model for calculating milk price at farmer’s level based on risk. Risks that occur on farms include the risk of cow breeding, sanitation, health care, cattle feed management, milking and milk sales. This research used the location of the farm in West Java region. There were five main stages in the preparation of this model, (1 identification and analysis of influential factors, (2 development of a conceptual model, (3 structural analysis and the amount of production costs, (4 model calculation of production cost with risk factors, and (5 risk based milk pricing model. This research built a relationship between risks on smallholder dairy farms with the production costs to be incurred by the farmers. It was also obtained the formulation of risk adjustment factor calculation for the variable costs of production in dairy cattle farm. The difference in production costs with risk and the total production cost without risk was about 8% to 10%. It could be concluded that the basic price of milk proposed based on the research was around IDR 4,250-IDR 4,350/L for 3 to 4 cows ownership. Increasing farmer income was expected to be obtained by entering the value of this risk in the calculation of production costs. 

  9. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  10. Genetic variants in CETP increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.D.; Falcone, G.J.; Phuah, C.L.; Radmanesh, F.; Brouwers, H.B.; Battey, T.W.; Biffi, A.; Peloso, G.M.; Liu, D.J.; Ayres, A.M.; Goldstein, J.N.; Viswanathan, A.; Greenberg, S.M.; Selim, M.; Meschia, J.F.; Brown, D.L.; Worrall, B.B.; Silliman, S.L.; Tirschwell, D.L.; Flaherty, M.L.; Kraft, P.; Jagiella, J.M.; Schmidt, H.; Hansen, B.M.; Jimenez-Conde, J.; Giralt-Steinhauer, E.; Elosua, R.; Cuadrado-Godia, E.; Soriano, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, K.M. van; Klijn, C.J.M.; Rannikmae, K.; Samarasekera, N.; Salman, R.A.; Sudlow, C.L.; Deary, I.J.; Morotti, A.; Pezzini, A.; Pera, J.; Urbanik, A.; Pichler, A.; Enzinger, C.; Norrving, B.; Montaner, J.; Fernandez-Cadenas, I.; Delgado, P.; Roquer, J.; Lindgren, A.; Slowik, A.; Schmidt, R.; Kidwell, C.S.; Kittner, S.J.; Waddy, S.P.; Langefeld, C.D.; Abecasis, G.; Willer, C.J.; Kathiresan, S.; Woo, D.; Rosand, J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C;

  11. Genetic variants in CETP increase risk of intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Falcone, Guido J.; Phuah, Chia Ling; Radmanesh, Farid; Brouwers, H. Bart; Battey, Thomas W K; Biffi, Alessandro; Peloso, Gina M.; Liu, Dajiang J.; Ayres, Alison M.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M.; Selim, Magdy; Meschia, James F.; Brown, Devin L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Silliman, Scott L.; Tirschwell, David L.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Kraft, Peter; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Elosua, Roberto; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; van Nieuwenhuizen, Koen M.; Klijn, Catharina J M; Rannikmae, Kristiina; Samarasekera, Neshika; Salman, Rustam Al Shahi; Sudlow, Catherine L.; Deary, Ian J.; Morotti, Andrea; Pezzini, Alessandro; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Pichler, Alexander; Enzinger, Christian; Norrving, Bo; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kittner, Steven J.; Waddy, Salina P.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Willer, Cristen J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In observational epidemiologic studies, higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) has been associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DNA sequence variants that decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene activity increase plasma HDL-C;

  12. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  13. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  14. Increased Correlation in Bear markets: A Downside Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Rachel; Koedijk, Kees; Kofman, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A number of studies have provided evidence of increased correlation in global financial market returns during bear markets. Others, however, have shown that some of this evidence may have been biased. We derive an alternative estimator for implied correlation based on portfolio downside risk measures that does not suffer from this bias. These unbiased quantile correlation estimates are directly applicable to portfolio optimization and to risk management techniques in general. This simple and ...

  15. Endozepine-4 levels are increased in hepatic coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano; Motta, Massimo; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2015-08-14

    To evaluate the serum levels of endozepine-4, their relation with ammonia serum levels, the grading of coma and the severity of cirrhosis, in patients with hepatic coma. In this study we included 20 subjects with Hepatic coma, 20 subjects with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 20 subjects control. All subjects underwent blood analysis, Child Pugh and Model for End - stage liver disease (MELD) assessment, endozepine-4 analysis. Subjects with hepatic coma showed significant difference in endozepine-4 (P blood ammonia concentration was noted to be raised in patients with hepatic coma, with the highest ammonia levels being found in those who were comatose. We also found a high correlation between endozepine-4 and ammonia (P < 0.001). In patients with grade IV hepatic coma, endozepine levels were significantly higher compared to other groups. This study suggests that an increased level of endozepine in subjects with higher levels of MELD was observed. In conclusion, data concerning involvement of the GABA-ergic system in HE coma could be explained by stage-specific alterations.

  16. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does physical activity increase the risk of unsafe sun exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Bright, Margaret; Knight, Libby; Perina, Heather; Vardon, Paul; Harper, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of self-reported participation in physical activity are encouraging and beneficial for health overall. However, the implications for sun safety need to be considered, particularly in Australia, which has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and sunburn to determine if there is a need for integration of sun safety in physical activity promotion. During the 2009/10 southern hemisphere summer, 7802 adults aged 18 to 74 years participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview survey which included a range of self-reported health measures including physical activity, sunburn, skin type, sun protection behaviour and demographic questions. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was undertaken to estimate the association between physical activity and sunburn. Those who reported doing any level of physical activity were significantly more likely to report having experienced sunburn in the past 12 months and on the last weekend, compared with those who did none, with the strongest association among those who undertook 7 hours or more. Each hour of physical activity was associated with a modest increase in the odds of experiencing sunburn in the previous 12 months (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.010-1.037) and weekend (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.023-1.065), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This study highlights the need for sun protection to be given more prominence in physical activity promotion in order to optimise health benefits without increasing the prevalence of sunburn and associated skin cancer risk.

  19. Association of Increased Prenatal Estrogen With Risk Factors for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The author previously described a theoretical cause of schizophrenia based on the effects of estrogenic endocrine disruption. In the current review, the author describes how increased estrogen during pregnancy increases susceptibility to certain viral infections associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. The review further discusses how prenatal estrogen exposure could explain associations of schizophrenia with autoimmune diseases, urban environments, and stress. Based on the associati...

  20. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Increasing stress on disaster risk finance due to large floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Feyen, Luc; Aerts, Jeroen; Mechler, Reinhard; Botzen, Wouter; Bouwer, Laurens; Pflug, Georg; Rojas, Rodrigo; Ward, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms. To date, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions, and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes and public adaptation funds, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. Here we show that extreme discharges are strongly correlated across European river basins and that these correlations can, or should, be used in national to continental scale risk assessment. We present probabilistic trends in continental flood risk, and demonstrate that currently observed extreme flood losses could more than double in frequency by 2050 under future climate change and socioeconomic development. The results demonstrate that accounting for tail dependencies leads to higher estimates of extreme losses than estimates based on the traditional assumption of independence between basins. We suggest that risk management for these increasing losses is largely feasible, and we demonstrate that risk can be shared by expanding risk transfer financing, reduced by investing in flood protection, or absorbed by enhanced solidarity between countries. We conclude that these measures have vastly different efficiency, equity and acceptability implications, which need to be taken into account in broader consultation, for which our analysis provides a basis.

  2. Efficiency of fisheries is increasing at the ecosystem level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Burgess, Matthew G; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem......Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly...... regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North...

  3. Comparative evaluation of risks at regional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, J.; Anguenot, F.; Hardy, S.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we give the risks for the population of the South-East part of France. The risks are given, in case of chronic intake for energy production (coal and uranium mines, oil refineries, electricity production), for natural and medical irradiation (X-ray radiography-radiotherapy) and for domestic risks (use of chemical products). In case of accidents, the risks are studied in the optic of territorial gestion: transport of dangerous products (natural gas-fuel-chemical products) fires or explosions in chemical manufactories, water pollution by manufactories and agricultural uses [fr

  4. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  5. Long working hours may increase risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Cho, Soo-Hun; Yoo, Min-Sang; Kim, Taeshik; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the association between long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS) in Korean adults. This study evaluated adult participants in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009). After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample size for this study model was 8,350. Subjects were asked about working hours and health status. Participants also completed physical examinations and biochemical measurement necessary for estimation of FRS. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between working hours and 10-year risk for CHD estimated by FRS. Compared to those who work 31-40 hr, significantly higher 10-year risk was estimated among subjects working longer hours. As working hours increased, odds ratio (OR) for upper 10 percent of estimated 10-year risk for CHD was increased up to 1.94. Long working hours are significantly related to risk of coronary heart disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Human Adenovirus 36 Infection Increased the Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei-Yan; Cao, Bing; Wang, Dong-Fang; Guo, Jing-Hui; Chen, Kai-Li; Shi, Mai; Yin, Jian; Lu, Qing-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36), as the key pathogen, was supposed and discussed to be associated with obesity. We searched the references on the association between HAdV-36 infection and obesity with the different epidemiological methods, to explore the relationship with a larger sample size by meta-analysis and compare the differences of epidemiological methods and population subsets by the subgroup analyses. We conducted literature search on the association between HAdV-36 infections and obesity in English or Chinese published up to July 1, 2015. The primary outcome was the HAdV-36 infection rate in the obese and lean groups; the secondary outcomes were the BMI level and BMI z-score in the HAdV-36 positive and negative groups. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the primary outcome; the standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the secondary and third outcomes. Prediction interval (PI) was graphically presented in the forest plot of the random effect meta-analyses. Metaregression analysis and subgroup analysis were performed. Finally 24 references with 10,191 study subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The obesity subjects were more likely to be infected with HAdV-36 compared to the lean controls (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.46, 2.74; PI: 0.59, 6.76; P infection for obesity were 1.77 (95%CI: 1.19, 2.63; PI: 0.44, 7.03; P = 0.005) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.67, 3.07; PI: 1.45, 3.54; P SMD of BMI was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.47; PI: −0.53, 1.08; P = 0.006) in the HAdV-36 positive subjects with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 86.5%; P infection was higher than those without HAdV-36 infection (SMD = 0.19; 95%CI: −0.31, 0.70; PI: −2.10, 2.49), which had no significantly statistical difference (P = 0.453). HAdV-36 infection increased the risk of obesity. HAdV-36 also increased the risk of weight gain in adults, which was not observed in children. PMID:26705235

  7. Risk based maintenance to increase safety and decrease costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Risk-Based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants for the last eight years by a team working through the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD). System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the Probabilistic Risk Analysis or Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed to meet the Individual Plant Evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for the Maintenance Rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low risk-significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. Pilot studies on risk-based testing indicate that about 60% of pumps and 25 to 30% of valves in plants are high safety-significant The reduction in inspection and testing reduces the person-rem exposure and resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publications by the ASME CRTD which are referenced. (author)

  8. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L

    2015-01-01

    to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer......AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage....... Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk...

  9. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  10. Does vital exhaustion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volden, Sasia; Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Hospital Discharge Register to detect registrations with type 2 diabetes until 2014. Results: A high degree of VE was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in both substudies. In the first substudy, the OR for developing type 2 diabetes was 2.56 (95% CI, 1.53; 4,29, P ...Background: There is evidence that both stress and depression have a causal relationship with type 2 diabetes suggesting that vital exhaustion (VE) too could be a risk factor. The association between VE and type 2 diabeteshas, however, not been investigated prospectively. Aim: To prospectively...... investigate whether VE is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a Danish population. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1991–1993). The degree of VE was measured among 9075 participants without type 1 or 2 diabetes at baseline. To detect type 2...

  11. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  12. Increased Suicide Risk in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Cohen, Arnon D; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2018-01-01

    Patients with skin disorders are considered at a higher risk of depression and anxiety than the background population. Patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) may be particularly affected. We explored the association between HS and depression, anxiety, and completed suicides in the Danish...... nonsignificant association with depression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13; 0.87-1.47]; P = 0.36 and hospitalization due to depression (1.32 [0.94-1.85]; P = 0.1083). To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have reported on the increased risk of completed suicide among HS patients...... national registries, expanding to include data on suicidal behavior, using both a cross-sectional and a cohort study design. Both designs included 7,732 patients with HS and a background population of 4,354,137. The cohort study revealed that HS patients had an increased risk of completed suicide after...

  13. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production

  14. Rare disaster information can increase risk-taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ben R.; Rakow, Tim; Yechiam, Eldad; Sambur, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The recent increase in the frequency and impact of natural disasters highlights the need to provide the public with accurate information concerning disaster prevalence. Most approaches to this problem assume that providing summaries of the nature and scale of disasters will lead people to reduce their exposure to risk. Here we present experimental evidence that such ex post `news reports’ of disaster occurrences can increase the tolerance for risk-taking (which implies that rare events are underweighted). This result is robust across several hundred rounds of choices in a simulated microworld, persists even when the long-run expected value of risky choices is substantially lower than safe choices, and is contingent on providing risk information about disasters that have been (personally) experienced and those that have been avoided (`forgone’ outcomes). The results suggest that augmenting personal experience with information summaries of the number of adverse events (for example, storms, floods) in different regions may, paradoxically, increase the appeal of a disaster-prone region. This finding implies a need to communicate long-term trends in severe climatic events, thereby reinforcing the accumulation of events, and the increase in their associated risks, across time.

  15. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Risk for Malaria Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes research done in Ghana examining a correlation between type 2 diabetes and a possible increased risk for malaria infection in adults. Dr. Manoj Menon, a medical officer in the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria in the Center for Global Health, discusses questions the study raises.

  16. Increasing Risk Awareness: The Coastal Community Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jody A.; Sempier, Tracie; Swann, LaDon

    2012-01-01

    As the number of people moving to the Gulf Coast increases, so does the risk of exposure to floods, hurricanes, and other storm-related events. In an effort to assist communities in preparing for future storm events, the Coastal Community Resilience Index was created. The end result is for communities to take actions to address the weaknesses they…

  17. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  18. Peculiarities of territorial governing in the area of increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchinskas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The area of Ignalina NPP can be evaluated from the standpoint of governing as the area of increased risk territory (zone), so the local administration should acquire a specific status. The results of expert examination show insufficient efficiency of the administration's activity, it's orientation to quantitative results. An objective fund is necessary for the supporting the local administration and population of this area. (author)

  19. People with Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Increased Risk of Eye Damage from UV Light Leer en Español: Algunas Personas Están en Mayor Riesgo de Sufrir Daño Ocular por los Rayos UV Written By: Shirley Dang Apr. 30, 2014 Everyone of any age and any degree of skin pigmentation is susceptible to UV damage. Children are ...

  20. Patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk for osteoporosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2012-10-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis may be at an increased risk of low bone density because of malabsorption of vitamin D and calcium, poor diet, pain, alcoholism, and smoking. We investigated the rates of osteoporosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis compared to matched controls.

  1. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-07-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be

  2. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks

  3. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapo Mughini-Gras

    Full Text Available Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans.We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999-2015 for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264 were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1-2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA and Statistics Netherlands (CBS allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09-2.10 among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed <60 years of age. Such increased risk concerned specifically the ascending/transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38-3.09 after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73-4.76. Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade

  4. Transgenic cells with increased plastoquinone levels and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Richard T.; Subramanian, Sowmya; Cahoon, Edgar

    2016-12-27

    Disclosed herein are transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST) protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase (DXS) protein, or a combination of two or more thereof. In particular examples, the disclosed transgenic cells have increased plastoquinone levels. Also disclosed are methods of increasing cell growth rates or production of biomass by cultivating transgenic cells expressing a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a PDH protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding an HST protein, a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a DXS protein, or a combination of two or more thereof under conditions sufficient to produce cell growth or biomass.

  5. Communicating Flood Risk with Street-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, B. F.; Matthew, R.; Houston, D.; Cheung, W. H.; Karlin, B.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Luke, A.; Contreras, S.; Goodrich, K.; Feldman, D.; Basolo, V.; Serrano, K.; Reyes, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world face significant and growing flood risks that require an accelerating adaptation response, and fine-resolution urban flood models could serve a pivotal role in enabling communities to meet this need. Such models depict impacts at the level of individual buildings and land parcels or "street level" - the same spatial scale at which individuals are best able to process flood risk information - constituting a powerful tool to help communities build better understandings of flood vulnerabilities and identify cost-effective interventions. To measure understanding of flood risk within a community and the potential impact of street-level models, we carried out a household survey of flood risk awareness in Newport Beach, California, a highly urbanized coastal lowland that presently experiences nuisance flooding from high tides, waves and rainfall and is expected to experience a significant increase in flood frequency and intensity with climate change. Interviews were completed with the aid of a wireless-enabled tablet device that respondents could use to identify areas they understood to be at risk of flooding and to view either a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood map or a more detailed map prepared with a hydrodynamic urban coastal flood model (UCI map) built with grid cells as fine as 3 m resolution and validated with historical flood data. Results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the UCI and FEMA maps at communicating the spatial distribution of flood risk, gender differences in how the maps affect flood understanding, and spatial biases in the perception of flood vulnerabilities.

  6. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter

    2007-03-01

    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Smoking increases the risk of early meniscus repair failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Ryan; Schmitt, Laura C; Flanigan, David C; Magnussen, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study is to determine whether patients who smoke cigarettes at the time of surgery are at significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure relative to non-smokers. Retrospective chart review identified 64 current smokers within a series of 444 consecutive patients who underwent meniscus repair during a 7 years period. Fifty-two of these 64 smokers were available for follow-up and were matched by age, sex, and ACL status with non-smokers from the same cohort. Records of these 104 patients with a total of 120 meniscus repairs were reviewed to identify meniscus repair failure (defined as repeat surgery on the index meniscus) during the median 13-month (range: 3-79 months) follow-up period. The smoking and non-smoking groups were similar in age, sex, ACL status, BMI, meniscus repair technique, and meniscus involved. Meniscus repair failure occurred in 19 of the 112 menisci in 104 patients, for an overall failure risk of 17 %. Of the 19 failures, 14 occurred in 79 repaired medial menisci (18 % failure risk) and 5 occurred in 33 repaired lateral menisci (15 % failure risk). Meniscus repair failure occurred in significantly more smokers (15 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -27 % failure risk) than non-smokers (4 failures in 56 menisci in 52 patients -7 % failure risk) (p = 0.0076). Smoking is associated with significantly increased risk of early meniscus repair failure as defined by the incidence of repeat surgery on the index meniscus. III.

  8. Increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among upstream petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Riise, Trond; Bjørge, Tone; Moen, Bente E; Bråtveit, Magne; Christiani, David C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cancer risk, particularly oesophageal cancer, among male upstream petroleum workers offshore potentially exposed to various carcinogenic agents. Methods Using the Norwegian Registry of Employers and Employees, 24 765 male offshore workers registered from 1981 to 2003 was compared with 283 002 male referents from the general working population matched by age and community of residence. The historical cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Male offshore workers had excess risk of oesophageal cancer (RR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.8) compared with the reference population. Only the adenocarcinoma type had a significantly increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 7.0), mainly because of an increased risk among upstream operators (RR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 14.5). Upstream operators did not have significant excess of respiratory system or colon cancer or mortality from any other lifestyle-related diseases investigated. Conclusion We found a fourfold excess risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma among male workers assumed to have had the most extensive contact with crude oil. Due to the small number of cases, and a lack of detailed data on occupational exposure and lifestyle factors associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, the results must be interpreted with caution. Nevertheless, given the low risk of lifestyle-related cancers and causes of death in this working group, the results add to the observations in other low-powered studies on oesophageal cancer, further suggesting that factors related to the petroleum stream or carcinogenic agents used in the production process might be associated with risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:19858535

  9. Recognising and managing increased HIV transmission risk in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kroon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programmes have improved maternalhealth outcomes and reduced the incidence of paediatric HIV, resulting in improved childhealth and survival. Nevertheless, high-risk vertical exposures remain common and areresponsible for a high proportion of transmissions. In the absence of antiretrovirals (ARVs,an 8- to 12-hour labour has approximately the same 15% risk of transmission as 18 monthsof mixed feeding. The intensity of transmission risk is highest during labour and delivery;however, the brevity of this intra-partum period lends itself to post-exposure interventions toreduce such risk. There is good evidence that infant post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP reducesintra-partum transmission even in the absence of maternal prophylaxis. Recent reports suggestthat infant combination ARV prophylaxis (cARP is more efficient at reducing intra-partumtransmission than a single agent in situations of minimal pre-labour prophylaxis. Guidelinesfrom the developed world have incorporated infant cARP for increased-risk scenarios. Incontrast, recent guidelines for low-resource settings have rightfully focused on reducingpostnatal transmission to preserve the benefits of breastfeeding, but have largely ignored thepotential of augmented infant PEP for reducing intra-partum transmissions. Minimal prelabourprophylaxis, poor adherence in the month prior to delivery, elevated maternal viralload at delivery, spontaneous preterm labour with prolonged rupture of membranes andchorioamnionitis are simple clinical criteria that identify increased intra-partum transmissionrisk. In these increased-risk scenarios, transmission frequency may be halved by combiningnevirapine and zidovudine as a form of boosted infant PEP. This strategy may be important toreduce intra-partum transmissions when PMTCT is suboptimal.

  10. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  11. Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huib A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Falling in older persons is a frequent and serious clinical problem. Several drugs have been associated with increased fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the incidence of falls after withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of fall-risk-increasing drugs

  12. Circulating soluble Fas levels and risk of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedkhanov, Arslan; Lenner, Per; Muti, Paola; Rinaldi, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Berrino, Franco; Hallmans, Göran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Guller, Seth; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Micheli, Andrea; Ma, Yuehong; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    Dysregulation of apoptosis, specifically overexpression of soluble Fas (sFas), has been proposed to play a role in the development of ovarian cancer. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate serum sFas as a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer risk. The association between serum sFas levels and the risk of ovarian cancer was examined in a case-control study nested within three prospective cohorts in New York (USA), Umeå (Sweden), and Milan (Italy). Case subjects were 138 women with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2 months and 13.2 years after the initial blood donation. Control subjects were 263 women who were free of cancer, and matched the case on cohort, menopausal status, age, and enrollment date. Serum sFas levels were determined using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Serum sFas levels were similar in women subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer (median, 6.5 ng/mL; range, 4.4 – 10.2) and in controls (median, 6.8 ng/mL; range, 4.5 – 10.1). Statistically significant trends of increasing serum sFas with age were observed among cases (r = 0.39, p < 0.0001) and controls (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001). Compared to women in the lowest third, women in the highest third of serum sFas were not at increased risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounders (odd ratio (OR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42 – 1.82). The results suggest that serum sFas may not be a suitable marker for identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer

  13. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A. [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Xiao, Rui [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ali, Sayed [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  14. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A.; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed

    2018-01-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  15. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Summer L; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed; Zhu, Xiaowei

    2018-02-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation.

  16. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  17. 12 CFR 652.70 - Risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk-based capital level is the sum of the following amounts: (a) Credit and interest rate risk. The... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level. 652.70 Section 652.70 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE...

  18. Increasing Effectiveness and Efficiency Through Risk-Based Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Shaw and Henry McKay, both University of Chicago professors, began using maps to understand juvenile delinquency better in Chicago, IL.36 In the...André-Michel Guerry’s Ordonnateur Statistique: The First Statistical Calculator?,” The American Statistician 66, no. 3 (August 1, 2012): 195–200...micro or macro levels using basic inferential statistics .”91 5. Protecting Civil Rights and Liberties It is also important to note that a risk

  19. Endometriosis increases the risk of obstetrical and neonatal complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlac, Janne Foss; Hartwell, Dorthe; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess obstetrical complications and neonatal outcomes in women with endometriosis as compared with women without endometriosis. National cohort including all delivering women and their newborns in Denmark 1997-2014. Data were extracted from the Danish Health Register and the Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression analysis provided odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sub-analyses were made for primiparous women with a singleton pregnancy and for women with endometriosis who underwent gynecological surgery before pregnancy. In 19 331 deliveries, women with endometriosis had a higher risk of severe preeclampsia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-2.0), hemorrhage in pregnancy (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.0-2.5), placental abruption (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.3), placenta previa (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.5-4.3), premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.8), and retained placenta (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.6). The neonates had increased risks of preterm birth before 28 weeks (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.6), being small for gestational age (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6), being diagnosed with congenital malformations (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.3-1.4), and neonatal death (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1). Results were similar in primiparous women with a singleton pregnancy. Gynecological surgery for endometriosis before pregnancy carried a further increased risk. Women with endometriosis had a significantly higher risk of several complications, such as preeclampsia and placental complications in pregnancy and at delivery. The newborns had increased risk of being delivered preterm, having congenital malformations, and having a higher neonatal death rate. Pregnant women with endometriosis require increased antenatal surveillance. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Proximity to vacant buildings is associated with increased fire risk in Baltimore, Maryland, homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachterle, Stephen E; Bishai, David; Shields, Wendy; Stepnitz, Rebecca; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-04-01

    Fires and burns are a leading cause of unintentional injury death in the USA. Although it has been anecdotally reported that vacant dwellings are at a higher risk for fire, the association between vacancy and fire risk at the individual household level has not been empirically measured. In this cross-sectional study, geocoded residential vacant properties (VP) and fire events are analysed in Baltimore City at the census tract level and the individual household level. On average, a 10% increase in the proportion of vacancies in a census tract was associated with a 9.9% increase in fires (95% CI: 5% to 15%). Random-effects Poisson models, controlling for housing and neighbourhood conditions, found contagion effects. The risk of fire in an occupied dwelling increased by 8% (95% CI: 1% to 10%) for every vacant structure within 10 m, and the risk of fire decreased by half (95% CI: 45% to 62%) for every km between an occupied dwelling and vacant building. Close proximity to VP was associated with trash fires within dwellings (p=0.039) and structure fires (p=0.012). We believe that this is the first study to demonstrate increased risk posed by nearby VP at the household level, confirming earlier ecological analyses of the role of VP as strong correlates of home fires. Measurement of this risk can motivate property owners, policy makers and insurers to invest in risk reduction measures that include building maintenance and trash removal.

  1. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  2. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  3. Increased nuchal translucency thickness and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, Signe G; Pedersen, L H; Miltoft, Caroline B

    2016-01-01

    spectrum disorders (ASD), cerebral palsy, epilepsy and febrile seizures was obtained from national patient registries. RESULTS: There was no excess risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among euploid children with first-trimester NT 95(th) -99(th) percentile. For children with NT > 99(th) percentile...... in the risk of cerebral palsy (OR, 1.91 (95% CI, 0.61-5.95), 0.47%), epilepsy (OR, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.63-3.66), 0.78%) or febrile seizures (OR, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.44-1.16), 2.65%). CONCLUSIONS: In a large unselected cohort of euploid children, there was no increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders among those......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and neurodevelopmental disorders in euploid children. METHODS: This study included 222 505 euploid children who had undergone routine first-trimester screening during fetal life. Children were divided...

  4. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection. National infectious disease surveillance records (1999–2015) for Dutch residents aged ≥20 years when diagnosed with salmonellosis (n = 14,264) were linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Salmonella-infected patients were laboratory-confirmed under medical consultation after 1–2 weeks of illness. These datasets also contained information on Salmonella serovar and type of infection. Colon cancer risk (overall and per colon subsite) among patients with a diagnosed Salmonella infection was compared with expected colon cancer risk in the general population. Data from the nationwide registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) allowed assessing potential effects of age, gender, latency, socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and tumor features. We found that compared to the general population, colon cancer risk was significantly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.54; 95%CI 1.09–2.10) among patients with Salmonella infection diagnosed transverse colon (SIR 2.12; 95%CI 1.38–3.09) after S. Enteritidis infection (SIR 2.97; 95%CI 1.73–4.76). Salmonellosis occurred more frequently among colon cancer patients with pre-infectious IBD, a known risk factor for colon cancer. Colon tumors of patients with a history of Salmonella infection were mostly of low grade. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with severe

  5. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195

  6. Obesity increases risk of ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Tolerance of soil flagellates to increased NaCl levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The ability of heterotrophic flagellates to survive and adapt to increasing salinities was investigated in this study. Whole soil samples were subjected to salinities corresponding to marine conditions and clonal cultures were used to perform growth and adaptation experiments at a wide range...... of different salinities (0-50 ppm). More morphotypes tolerant to elevated NaCl levels were found in road verge soil that was heavily exposed to de-icing salt than in less exposed soils, though there were fewer tolerant than intolerant morphotypes in all soils examined. Heterotrophic flagellates isolated...... on a freshwater medium from a non-exposed soil were unable to thrive at salinities above 15 ppt, and showed reduced growth rates even at low salt salinities (1-5 ppt). The findings suggest that heterotrophic soil flagellates are less tolerant to NaCl than their aquatic relatives, possibly due to their long...

  8. Extreme Geohazards: Reducing the Disaster Risk and Increasing Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter; Stein, Seth; Brocklebank, Sean; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Marsh, Stuart; Campus, Paola

    2013-04-01

    Extreme geohazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Exposure of human assets to geohazards has increased dramatically in recent decades, and the sensitivity of the built environment and the embedded socio-economic fabric have changed. We are putting the urban environment, including megacities, in harm's way. Paradoxically, innovation during recent decades, in particular, urban innovation, has increased the disaster risk and coupled this risk to the sustainability crisis. Only more innovation can reduce disaster risk and lead us out of the sustainability crisis. Extreme geohazards (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis) that occurred regularly throughout the last few millennia mostly did not cause major disasters because population density was low and the built environment was not sprawling into hazardous areas to the same extent as today. Similar extreme events today would cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. The Geohazards Community of Practice of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) with support from the European Science Foundation is preparing a white paper assessing the contemporary disaster risks associated with extreme geohazards and developing a vision for science and society to engage in deliberations addressing this risk (see http://www.geohazcop.org/projects/extgeowp). Risk awareness and monitoring is highly uneven across the world, and this creates two kinds of problems. Firstly, potential hazards are much more closely monitored in wealthy countries than in the developing world. But the largest hazards are global in nature, and it is critical to get as much forewarning as possible to develop an effective response. The disasters and near-misses of the past show that adherence to scientific

  9. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods The...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA.......Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods...... The study was based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) dataset. 432,168 primary THAs from 1995 to 2009 were included (Denmark: 83,853, Finland 78,106, Norway 88,455, and Sweden 181,754). Adjusted survival analyses were performed using Cox regression models with revision due to infection...

  10. Low risk of concussions in top-level karate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Cierna, Dusana; Regueiro, Patricia; Inman, David; Roman, Franco; Abarca, Benjamin; Barrientos, Mercé; Saavedra, Miguel A

    2017-02-01

    Although it is well known that injuries occur in combat sports, the true incidence of concussions is not clearly defined in the literature for karate competition. To determine the incidence of concussions in top-level (World Karate Federation World Championships) karate competition. Injuries that took place in 4 consecutive World Karate Championships (from 2008 to 2014) were prospectively registered. A total of 4625 fights (2916 in the male category and 1709 in the female category) were scrutinised, and concussions were identified and analysed separately for frequency (rate per fight) and injury risk. A total of 4 concussions were diagnosed by the attending physicians after carrying out athlete examinations. Globally, there was 1 concussion in every 1156 fights, or 0.43/1000 athlete-exposures (AE). In male athletes, the rate of concussion was 1/5832 min of fighting, and in female athletes, it was 1/6836 min. OR for concussion in women is 0.57 (95% CI 0.06 to 5.47; z=0.489; p=0.6249) and risk ratio for concussions in men is RR 1.478 (95% CI 0.271 to 8.072), p=0.528, representing a higher risk of definite concussions in men than in women, but not statistically significant. There is not a significantly higher risk of concussions in team competition (no weight limit) when compared with individual competition (held with strict weight limits for each category). The risk of concussions in top-level karate competition is low, with a tendency for an increased risk for men and for competition without weight limits, but not statistically significant with respect to women or individual competition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Taking risk assessment and management to the next level - 59395

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jerel; Morton, Russel Lee; Castillo, Carlos; Dyer, George; Johnson, Natalie; McSwain, James T.; Kruskall, Gary Nick

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A multi-level (facility and programmatic) risk assessment was conducted for the facilities in the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Readiness in Technical Base and Facilities (RTBF) Program and results were included in a new Risk Management Plan (RMP), which was incorporated into the fiscal year (FY) 2010 Integrated Plans. Risks, risk events, probability, consequence(s), and mitigation strategies were identified and captured, for most scope areas (i.e., risk categories) during the facilitated risk workshops. Risk mitigations (i.e., efforts in addition to existing controls) were identified during the facilitated risk workshops when the risk event was identified. Risk mitigation strategies fell into two broad categories: threats or opportunities. Improvement projects were identified and linked to specific risks they mitigate, making the connection of risk reduction through investments for the annual Site Execution Plan. Due to the amount of that was collected, analysis to be performed, and reports to be generated, a Risk Assessment/ Management Tool (RAMtool) database was developed to analyze the risks in real-time, at multiple levels, which reinforced the site-level risk management process and procedures. The RAMtool database was developed and designed to assist in the capturing and analysis of the key elements of risk: probability, consequence, and impact

  12. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  13. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  14. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  15. Increased risk of migraine in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A.; Mallbris, L.; Gislason, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis and migraine are common conditions with potential overlap of pathophysiological mechanisms. Both these diseases have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk but little is known about their interplay. Objective: We sought to investigate the link between psoriasis...... and adjusted incidence rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression models. Results: The study comprised a total of 5,379,859 individuals, including 53,006 and 6831 patients with mild and severe psoriasis, respectively, and 6243 patients with psoriatic arthritis. Fully adjusted incidence rate ratios...... for migraine were 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45), 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.86), and 1.92 (95% confidence interval 1.65-2.22) for mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis, respectively. Stratification for sex revealed increased risk of migraine in both male and female...

  16. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  17. Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E. Andra; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Neefjes, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. Methods and findings We performed a nationwide registry-b...

  18. Betel nut chewing associated with increased risk of arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang

    2017-11-01

    Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Risk for Malaria Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast describes research done in Ghana examining a correlation between type 2 diabetes and a possible increased risk for malaria infection in adults. Dr. Manoj Menon, a medical officer in the Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria in the Center for Global Health, discusses questions the study raises.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases; Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  20. Increased mortality risk in women with depression and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; Lucas, Michel; Sun, Qi; van Dam, Rob M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Ascherio, Alberto; Hu, Frank B.

    2011-01-01

    Context Both depression and diabetes have been associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality. However, data evaluating the joint effects of these two conditions on mortality are sparse. Objectives To evaluate the individual and joint effects of depression and diabetes on all-cause and CVD mortality in a prospective cohort study. Design, Settings and Participants A total of 78282 female participants in the Nurses' Health Study aged 54-79 years at baseline in 2000 were followed until 2006. Depression was defined as having self-reported diagnosed depression, treatment with antidepressant medications, or a score indicating severe depressive symptomatology, i.e., a five-item Mental Health Index score ≤52. Self-reported type 2 diabetes was confirmed using a supplementary questionnaire. Main outcome measures All-cause and CVD-specific mortality. Results During 6 years of follow-up (433066 person-years), 4654 deaths were documented, including 979 deaths from CVD. Compared to participants without either condition, the age-adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval, CI) for all-cause mortality were 1.76 (1.64-1.89) for women with depression only, 1.71 (1.54-1.89) for individuals with diabetes only, and 3.11 (2.70-3.58) for those with both conditions. The corresponding age-adjusted relative risks of CVD mortality were 1.81 (1.54-2.13), 2.67 (2.20-3.23), and 5.38 (4.19-6.91), respectively. These associations were attenuated after multivariate adjustment for other demographic variables, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, and major comorbidities (including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, heart diseases, stroke and cancer) but remained significant, with the highest relative risks for all-cause and CVD mortality found in those with both conditions (2.07 [95% CI, 1.79-2.40] and 2.72 [95% CI, 2.09-3.54], respectively). Furthermore, the combination of depression with a long duration of diabetes

  1. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H. Jr.; Rosario, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  2. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Min-Pei, E-mail: lingmp@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chao; Liu, Chia-Chyuan [Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chueh, Miao-Ju [Industrial Safety and Health Association of the ROC, Taipei 11670, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Council of Labor Affairs, Taipei 22143, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are

  3. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lin, Wei-Chao; Liu, Chia-Chyuan; Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chueh, Miao-Ju; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. ► The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). ► According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. ► The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are confident that our risk management strategy can be effectively reduced engineered NM industries risks for

  4. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapoorna, N; Rao, G Venkateswara; Reddy, N S; Rambabu, P; Rao, K R S Samabasiva

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The etiology of this occurrence in HIV infections is controversial. This problem seems to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. In AIDS, the main suggested risk factors for the development of osteoporosis are use of protease inhibitors, longer duration of HIV infection, lower body weight before antiretroviral therapy, high viral load. Variations in serum parameters like osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, levels of elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, concentration of vitamin-D metabolites, lactate levels, bicarbonate concentrations, amount of alkaline phosphatase are demonstrated in the course of development of osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL/RANK system is final mediator of bone remodeling. Bone mineral density (BMD) test is of added value to assess the risk of osteoporosis in patients infected with AIDS. The biochemical markers also aid in this assessment. Clinical management mostly follows the lines of treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

  5. Increased bleeding risk during percutaneous coronary interventions by arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndrepepa, Gjin; Groha, Philipp; Lahmann, Anna L; Lohaus, Raphaela; Cassese, Salvatore; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Kufner, Sebastian; Mayer, Katharina; Bernlochner, Isabell; Byrne, Robert A; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the association between arterial hypertension and bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of arterial hypertension on bleeding risk of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI is unknown. This study included 14,180 patients who underwent PCI. Bleeding was defined using the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria. Arterial hypertension was defined as treatment with antihypertensive drugs or a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure value >90 mm Hg documented on at least 2 occasions. The primary outcome was bleeding rate within 30 days of PCI. Overall, 11,066 patients (78.0%) had arterial hypertension. Bleeding events occurred in 1,232 patients with arterial hypertension and 278 patients without arterial hypertension (11.1% vs 8.9%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.46, P arterial hypertension and 175 patients without arterial hypertension (6.6% vs 5.6%: OR = 1.19 [1.01-1.41], P = 0.049). Non-access-site bleeding occurred in 502 patients with and 103 patients without arterial hypertension (4.5% vs 3.3%; OR = 1.39 [1.12-1.72], P = 0.003). After adjustment, arterial hypertension was significantly associated with any bleeding (adjusted OR = 1.41 [1.19-1.67], P arterial hypertension increased the risk of non-access-site bleeding (P = 0.002), whereas systolic blood pressure at the time of PCI increased the risk of access site bleeding (P = 0.018). Arterial hypertension is associated with increased risk of bleeding during PCI procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yu-Chieh; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chou, Pesus; Huang, Yung-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation/chemoradiotherapy-induced carotid stenosis and cerebrovascular events in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) can cause severe disability and even death. This study aimed to estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in this patient population over more than 10 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: The study cohorts consisted of all patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of NPC (n = 1094), whereas patients hospitalized for an appendectomy during 1997 and 1998 (n = 4376) acted as the control group and surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard model was performed as a means of comparing the stroke-free survival rate between the two cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. Results: Of the 292 patients with ischemic strokes, 62 (5.7%) were from the NPC cohort and 230 (5.3%) were from the control group. NPC patients ages 35–54 had a 1.66 times (95% CI, 1.16–2.86; p = 0.009) higher risk of ischemic stroke after adjusting for patient characteristics, comorbidities, geographic region, urbanization level of residence, and socioeconomic status. There was no statistical difference in ischemic stroke risk between the NPC patients and appendectomy patients ages 55–64 years (hazard ratio = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56–1.33; p = 0.524) after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions: Young NPC patients carry a higher risk for ischemic stroke than the general population. Besides regular examinations of carotid duplex, different irradiation strategies or using new technique of radiotherapy, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy, should be considered in young NPC patients.

  7. Bidi smokers at increased risk of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2005-01-01

    Source articles were searched for using Medline, the Cochrane Library and within the references lists of identified articles. Articles were selected that included data enabling construction of 2 x 2 tables to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For each study, two-way contingency tables were constructed, based on exposure frequency distributions, for cases and controls. Unadjusted OR and 95% CI were recalculated based on the reported data using standard procedures. Separate contingency tables were made for bidi smoking, cigarette smoking and both types of smoking if the data were available in the same article. The overall OR combined across all studies, and its 95% CI, was calculated using a random-effects model for bidi and cigarette smoking. Tests for publication bias and heterogeneity were conducted. Confounding factors, for example, betel quid chewing or alcohol use, were not included in the meta-regression model. An increased risk of oral cancer was found for bidi smokers compared with people who had never smoked (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.0-5.0) whereas no significant pattern of risk was found for cigarette smokers (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8). There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled OR estimate. The results clearly indicate that bidi smokers are at increased risk of oral cancer. It is important that this information be incorporated into smoking prevention and cessation efforts, particularly in the urban poor and rural mass in south Asian countries where bidi smoking is widespread.

  8. Splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Hsu, Chung Y; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Splenectomy may be necessary to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with thrombocytopenia; however, whether performing a splenectomy on patients without SLE increases the subsequent risk of SLE remains unknown. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the association between splenectomy and SLE. We conducted a cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Institute Research Database to identify 10,298 patients with received a splenectomy between 2000 and 2006 and 41,192 participants without received a splenectomy who were selected by frequency matched based on sex, age, and the index year. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of developing SLE associated with splenectomy compared with patients who did not receive a splenectomy. During the study period, the overall incidence density rate of SLE was higher in the splenectomy cohort than in the non-splenectomy cohort (adjusted HR 10.55; 95 % CI 50.55-20.05). The incidence density rates of SLE in women and men who received a splenectomy were higher than those of patients who did not receive a splenectomy. Non-traumatic splenectomy increases the subsequent risk of SLE. The risk of SLE should be considered before performing a splenectomy, particularly in women and younger patients.

  9. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset’s returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset’s return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations. PMID:28553012

  10. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2017-06-01

    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset's returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset's return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations.

  11. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  12. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; von Stein, Richard T; Hossain, Muhammad M; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; German, Dwight C

    2014-03-01

    The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School's Alzheimer's Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54-5.82; P risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ε4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD.

  13. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ε4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD. PMID:24473795

  14. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenji; Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  15. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  16. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand H Lemasson

    Full Text Available Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  17. Schooling increases risk exposure for fish navigating past artificial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Bertrand H; Haefner, James W; Bowen, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.

  18. Is white-coat hypertension a harbinger of increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2014-09-01

    White-coat hypertension is defined by elevated office and normal out-of-office blood pressure (home or ambulatory) in untreated subjects. This condition is common in clinical practice and requires appropriate work-up for detection and management. Many studies have examined the relationship between white-coat hypertension and cardiovascular risk but with marked heterogeneity in the definitions and methodology applied. Thus, the results have been inconsistent leading to confusion in scientific research and clinical practice. Some but not all the relevant studies suggested that white-coat hypertension is associated with subclinical target-organ damage, yet the cross-sectional design of these studies and the fact that these indices are only surrogate end points do not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. In recent years, longitudinal studies have examined the prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most of them indicate that white-coat hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects present a moderate-in most cases not significant-increase in risk. Meta-analyses of raw data from large databases, such as the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO) and the International Database on HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDHOCO) allowed separate powered analyses in untreated subjects and provided a clearer picture regarding the modest risk associated with white-coat hypertension, especially in the long term. White-coat hypertension is regarded as an intermediate phenotype between normotension and hypertension associated with increased risk of developing sustained hypertension, and therefore requires regular follow-up using nonpharmacological measures.

  19. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-12-01

    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in multiple factors contribute to the perception of infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prospects of increasing the engineering level of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to main problems related to development and industrial introduction of NPP components corresponding to the perspective world-wide engineering level. The nearest task in this field is to elevate the engineering level of developed and being produced power equipment up to the level of similar equipment, manufactured by leading foreign companies

  1. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period and the challenge will be to develop a long-term proactive assessment approach to manage this challenge. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these coastal cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). In these cities we wish to avoid major flood events, with associated damage and potentially deaths and ultimately decline of the cities. Flood risks grow with sea-level rise as it raises extreme sea levels. As sea levels continue to rise, protection will have to be progressively upgraded. Even with this, the magnitude of losses when flood events do occur would increase as coastal cities expand, and water depths and hence unit damage increase with sea-level rise/subsidence. This makes it critical to also prepare for larger coastal flood disasters than we experience today and raises questions on the limits to adaptation. There is not an extensive literature or significant empirical information on the limits to adaptation in coastal cities. These limits are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment, a defence upgrade or something else. There are several types of potential limits that could be categorised into three broad types: • Physical

  2. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  3. An approach for determining the acceptable levels of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for determining the acceptable levels of risk with respect to nuclear energy. It was concluded that the Atomic Energy Control Board should identify the interest groups that affect its choice of an acceptable level of risk, determine their expectations, and balance the expectations of the various groups such that the resulting acceptable level of risk is still acceptable to the Board. This would be done by interviewing experts on the subject of nuclear safety, developing and pretesting a public questionnaire, and surveying the public on acceptable cost-risk combinations

  4. Possible risk factors for increased suicide following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross; de Zwaan, Martina; Engel, Scott; Roerig, James; Steffen, Kristine; Gordon, Kathryn H; Karr, Trisha; Lavender, Jason; Wonderlich, Steve

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that there may be elevated risk of suicide following bariatric surgery. Most of the data reported thus far has been cross-sectional and observational, and very little is known about the possible specific causal variables involved. The purpose of this report is to review this literature and to review possible risk factors for increased suicidal risk following bariatric surgery, to delineate future research directions. First a variety of medical, biological, and genetic factors, including the persistence or recurrence of medical comorbidities after bariatric surgery, the disinhibition and impulsivity secondary to changes in the absorption of alcohol, hypoglycemia, as well as pharmacokinetic changes that may affect the absorption of various medications including antidepressant medications are reviewed. Also reviewed are possible mediating factors involving changes in various peptidergic systems such as GLP-1 and Ghrelin. A number of psychosocial issues that might be involved are discussed, including lack of improvement in quality of life after surgery, continued or recurrent physical mobility restrictions, persistence or recurrence of sexual dysfunction and relationship problems, low self-esteem, and a history of child maltreatment. Inadequate weight loss or weight regain are also discussed. A number of possible contributing factors have been identified. Possible theoretical models involved and directions for research are suggested. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  5. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies

  7. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  8. Income inequality and schizophrenia: increased schizophrenia incidence in countries with high levels of income inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Kapadia, Amy S

    2014-03-01

    Income inequality is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. There is evidence that ecological-level socio-environmental factors may increase risk for schizophrenia. The aim was to investigate whether measures of income inequality are associated with incidence of schizophrenia at the country level. We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates for schizophrenia, reported between 1975 and 2011. For each country, national measures of income inequality (Gini coefficient) along with covariate risk factors for schizophrenia were obtained. Multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression was performed to investigate the relationship between Gini coefficients and incidence rates of schizophrenia controlling for covariates. One hundred and seven incidence rates (from 26 countries) were included. Mean incidence of schizophrenia was 18.50 per 100,000 (SD = 11.9; range = 1.7-67). There was a significant positive relationship between incidence rate of schizophrenia and Gini coefficient (β = 1.02; Z = 2.28; p = .02; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.03). Countries characterized by a large rich-poor gap may be at increased risk of schizophrenia. We suggest that income inequality impacts negatively on social cohesion, eroding social capital, and that chronic stress associated with living in highly disparate societies places individuals at risk of schizophrenia.

  9. Increased physical activity decreases periodontitis risk in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Anwar T.; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Rimm, Eric B.; Joshipura, Kaumudi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Increased physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may therefore affect incidence of periodontitis. Methods: We studied the association of physical activity, walking and periodontitis in 39,461 male, US based, health professionals, 40-75 years old at baseline, more than half of whom were dentists, being followed up continuously since 1986. Participants were free of periodontitis, coronary heart disease and stroke at the start of follow-up. Physical activity and periodontitis were measured by validated questionnaires (expressed in metabolic equivalents - METs); the first report of professionally diagnosed periodontitis was considered a case. Results: Periodontitis risk decreased by 3% for every 10-MET increase in average physical activity after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption and total calories (RR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). The inverse trend remained significant in the categorical analysis. Compared to men in the lowest quintile of physical activity, those in the highest quintile had a 13% lower risk of periodontitis (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-1.01, p-value, test for trend = 0.02). In a sub-sample of men with radiographs (n = 137) the physically active had less average bone loss (β = -0.29, p-value = 0.03) after multivariate adjustment compared to those inactive. Conclusions: In this large-scale prospective study, we found an inverse, linear association between sustained physical activity and periodontitis independent of known risk factors. The benefits of a physically active lifestyle may extend to periodontal health

  10. Are recreational SCUBA divers with asthma at increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustrup, Amalie S; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2017-10-01

    Asthma has traditionally been regarded as a contraindication to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving, although large numbers of patients with asthma dive. The aim of the review is to provide an update on current knowledge on potential disease-related hazards in SCUBA divers with asthma. Systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Seven studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review (comprising a total of 560 subjects). Five studies reported an increased risk for developing diving-related injuries in divers with asthma, based on case reports (n = 1), case history combined with objective assessment (n = 1), and dives and/or simulated dives (n = 3). The remaining studies (n = 2) were based on self-reported diving habits in divers suffering from asthma, obtained from anonymous questionnaires in diving magazines, reported no diving-related injuries among respondents. Due to limited evidence it is difficult to draw valid conclusions, but there are indications that recreational divers with asthma may be at increased risk for diving-related injuries compared to non-asthmatic divers. However, it is of at most importance to obtain further evidence from large-scale, well-designed studies.

  11. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Nuñez-Atahualpa, Lourdes; Figueroa-Sánchez, Mauricio; Gómez-Bañuelos, Eduardo; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Martín-Márquez, Beatriz Teresita; Martínez-García, Erika Aurora; Macias-Reyes, Héctor; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Navarro-Hernandez, Rosa Elena; Nuñez-Atahualpa, María Alejandra; Andrade-Garduño, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC) were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP), and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P < 0.001). Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P < 0.01), and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 0.02). The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r = 0.513, P = 0.001), CRP (r = 0.799, P < 0.001), TNFα (r = 0.642, P = 0.001), and IL-6 (r = 0.751, P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P < 0.001) and anti-CCP levels (P = 0.03). Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events. PMID:25821796

  12. Serum Levels of Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients without Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is cardiovascular events. We evaluated the relationship of anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody levels with increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in RA patients. Methods. Forty-five anti-CCP positive and 37 anti-CCP negative RA patients, and 62 healthy controls (HC were studied. All groups were assessed for atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and cIMT. Anti-CCP, C-reactive protein (CRP, and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. The anti-CCP positive RA patients showed increased cIMT compared to HC and anti-CCP negative (P<0.001. Anti-CCP positive versus anti-CCP negative RA patients, had increased AIP, TNFα and IL-6 (P<0.01, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c (P=0.02. The cIMT correlated with levels of anti-CCP (r=0.513, P=0.001, CRP (r=0.799, P<0.001, TNFα (r=0.642, P=0.001, and IL-6 (r=0.751, P<0.001. In multiple regression analysis, cIMT was associated with CRP (P<0.001 and anti-CCP levels (P=0.03. Conclusions. Levels of anti-CCP and CRP are associated with increased cIMT and cardiovascular risk supporting a clinical role of the measurement of cIMT in RA in predicting and preventing cardiovascular events.

  13. Increased DHT levels in androgenic alopecia have been selected for to protect men from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Shiva

    2014-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia, a condition characterized by increased levels of DHT could have been selected for due to the benefits that prostaglandin D2 (PGD(2)) has on the prostate. A DHT metabolite can increase the transcription of prostaglandin D2 synthase through estrogen receptor beta. The increase of PGD(2) can decrease the risk of prostate cancer and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, the mechanisms behind male pattern baldness may also curtail the advancement of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  15. Lifestyle Risk Factors Increase the Risk of Hospitalization for Sciatica: Findings of Four Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Euro, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Karppinen, Jaro; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raitakari, Olli T; Solovieva, Svetlana; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of lifestyle risk factors on the risk of hospitalization for sciatica and to determine whether overweight or obesity modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on hospitalization for sciatica. We included 4 Finnish prospective cohort studies (Health 2000 Survey, Mobile Clinic Survey, Helsinki Health Study, and Young Finns Study) consisting of 34,589 participants and 1259 hospitalizations for sciatica during 12 to 30 years of follow-up. Sciatica was based on hospital discharge register data. We conducted a random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis. After adjustment for confounding factors, current smoking at baseline increased the risk of subsequent hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-56%), whereas past smokers were no longer at increased risk. Obesity defined by body mass index increased the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 36% (95% CI 7%-74%), and abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference increased the risk by 41% (95% CI 3%-93%). Walking or cycling to work reduced the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% CI 4%-53%), and the effect was independent of body weight and other leisure activities, while other types of leisure activities did not have a statistically significant effect. Smoking and obesity increase the risk of hospitalization for sciatica, whereas walking or cycling to work protects against hospitalization for sciatica. Walking and cycling can be recommended for the prevention of sciatica in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deferral for low hemoglobin is not associated with increased risk of infection in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2017-01-01

    Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0.1 percentile......% CI, 0.88-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Neither Hb levels below deferral thresholds nor very low or declining Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. This is reassuring, because blood donation can lead to lower Hb levels....

  17. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  18. Increased Prolactin Levels Are Associated with Impaired Processing Speed in Subjects with Early Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects w...

  19. Thyroid cancer risk is not increased in diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    -inflammatory drugs might be associated with a significantly lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of an overall association between diabetes and thyroid cancer, but patients with diabetes duration <5 years have a significantly lower risk. Sulfonylurea may increase the risk of thyroid cancer.

  20. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children?s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 a...

  1. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (METHODS: In a cohort study, 1,202 deliveries among....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and...

  2. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    .72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (

  3. Fuel poverty increases risk of mould contamination, regardless of adult risk perception & ventilation in social housing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    . Increased risk perception and use of extractor fans did not modify the association between fuel poverty and mould contamination. This suggests that fuel poor populations may not benefit from energy efficiency interventions due to ineffective heating and ventilation practices of those occupants residing participating households. Our findings may be modified by a complex interaction between occupant behaviours and the built environment. We found that participant age, occupancy, SES, pets, drying washing indoors, geographic location, architectural design/age of the property, levels of insulation and type of heating regulated risk of mould contamination. Fuel poverty behaviours affected around a third of participating households and represent a risk factor for increased exposures to damp and mouldy conditions, regardless of adult risk perception, heating and ventilation practices. This requires multidisciplinary approach to assess the complex interaction between occupant behaviours, risk perception, the built environment and the effective use of heating and ventilation practices. Our findings have implications for housing policies and future housing interventions. Effective communication strategies focusing on awareness and perception of risk may help address indoor air quality issues. This must be supported by improved household energy efficiency with the provision of more effective heating and ventilation strategies, specifically to help alleviate those suffering from fuel poverty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased risk of hydrocephalus in long-term dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Cheng, Yu-Kai; Chou, Che-Yi; Liang, Chih-Chia; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-05-01

    The risk of hydrocephalus in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on dialysis has not been studied in depth. Using Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data, we identified 29 684 incident ESRD patients from 2000 to 2010, including 10 030 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 19 654 hemodialysis (HD) patients. The control cohort consisted of 118 736 people randomly selected from those without kidney disease, frequency matched with ESRD patients by age, sex and index year. We also established propensity score-matched cohorts with 10 014 PD and 10 014 HD patients. The incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) of hydrocephalus were calculated until the end of 2011. Incidence rates of hydrocephalus were greater in HD and PD patients than in controls (8.44 and 11.0 versus 4.11 per 10 000 person-years, respectively), with an adjusted HR of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-2.41] for all ESRD patients compared with controls. A higher proportion of hydrocephalus patients underwent surgical bypass to relieve hydrocephalus in ESRD patients than controls, 40.7% (46/113) versus 24.5% (67/273), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.11 (95% CI 1.33-3.36). Compared with controls, the adjusted HRs of communicating hydrocephalus for HD and PD patients were 1.77 (95% CI 1.22-2.55) and 2.51 (95% CI 1.61-3.89), respectively. The propensity score-matched analysis showed an HR of 0.72 (95% CI 0.42-1.23) for hydrocephalus in HD patients compared with PD patients. Patients with ESRD are at an increased risk of hydrocephalus. The risk difference between HD and PD patients is not significant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  5. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Biases in Farm-Level Yield Risk Analysis due to Data Aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finger, R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate biases in farm-level yield risk analysis caused by data aggregation from the farm-level to regional and national levels using the example of Swiss wheat and barley yields. The estimated yield variability decreases significantly with increasing level of aggregation, with crop yield

  7. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  8. Caesarean section greatly increases risk of scar endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nominato, Nilo Sérgio; Prates, Luis Felipe Victor Spyer; Lauar, Isabela; Morais, Jaqueline; Maia, Laura; Geber, Selmo

    2010-09-01

    To estimate the incidence of scar endometriosis after different surgical procedures. A retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with scar endometriosis between 1978 and 2003 was performed. Patient age, site of endometriosis, previous operations, time-gap between last surgery and onset of symptoms, nodule characteristics, and recurrence were evaluated. Age ranged from 16 to 48 years. Location varied according to the previous surgery: 46 caesarean section, one hysterectomy, one in abdominal surgery, 19 episiotomy, one was a relapse and two pelvic floor procedures, two women with no previous surgery. The incidence of scar endometriosis after caesarean section was significantly higher than after episiotomy (0.2 and 0.06%, respectively: p<0.00001) with a relative risk of 3.3. Pain was the most frequent symptom. The mean time between surgery and onset of symptoms was 3.7 years. Our findings confirm that scar endometriosis is a rare condition and indicate, probably for the first time, that caesarean section greatly increases the risk of developing scar endometriosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helry L. Candido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Living donor liver donation (LDLD is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS, left lobe (LL, and right lobe resections (RL were conducted in 492 (71.4%, 109 (15.8%, and 87 (12.6% donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2% developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1% versus 23/492 (4.5% and 6/109 (5.5%, resp., p<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p=0.008, smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p=0.012, and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p=0.004 were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors.

  10. Increased risk of abortion after genetic amniocentesis in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, C; Andersen, J W; Tabor, A

    1983-01-01

    Forty-seven twin pregnancies among 3676 patients who had a genetic amniocentesis between 1973 and 1979, are reported. The detection rate of twins at the time of amniocentesis was 62 per cent. Five (17 per cent) of the 29 women with detected twin pregnancy aborted spontaneously, these are compared...... in at least one sac aborted, while 3 of 20 twin pregnancies with one puncture in each sac aborted (15 per cent). One of 18 (6 per cent) twin pregnancies, where only one sac was punctured, because the twin pregnancies were undetected, aborted. Amniocentesis of both sacs in twin pregnancies seems associated...... with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The indications for amniocentesis in twin pregnancies should be critically evaluated....

  11. Drugs of abuse and increased risk of psychosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururajan, Anand; Manning, Elizabeth E; Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2012-12-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest that the abuse of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis and methamphetamine, has aetiological roles in the pathogenesis of psychosis and schizophrenia. Factors that may increase susceptibility to the propsychotic effects of these drugs include the age at which the abuse starts as well as family history of genetic polymorphisms relevant to the pathophysiology of this disorder. However, the neurobiological mechanisms involved in drug abuse-associated psychosis remain largely unclear. This paper presents an overview of the available evidence, including clinical, animal model, and molecular studies, with a focus on brain regions and neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine and glutamate, previously implicated in psychosis. It is clear that further studies are urgently needed to provide a greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the long-term and neurodevelopmental effects of cannabis and methamphetamine. A dialogue between basic science and clinical research may help to identify at-risk individuals and novel pathways for treatment and prevention.

  12. Problems and fall risk determinants of quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sang-I; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Hsuei-Chen; Yang, Yi-Ching; Tsauo, Jau-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Determine quality of life and its association with fall risk factors in older adults with increased risk of falling. A total of 597 community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults who were screened to have increased risk of falling participated in the present study. The fall risk factors included sociodemographics, physical and psychological function, Timed Up and Go, past fall/medical histories, fear of falling and medications. The Euro QOL EQ-5D was used to measure health-related quality of life. Pain/discomfort was the EQ-5D dimension most frequently reported to be impaired (35%), regardless of the level of fall risk or age groups, followed by mobility (25%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination, physiological function, up-and-go, fear of falling and psychotropic medication were independent predictors for total EQ-5D, explaining 68.37% of the variance. Logistic regression analysis showed that for the five EQ-5D dimensions, Geriatric Depression Scale and Up and Go time were the most common determinants. Pain/discomfort was the leading impairment, and greater Geriatric Depression Scale and longer up-and-go time were the main contributing factors in declines in quality of life in older adults with increased risk of falling. These factors are often modifiable, and their management might be considered a priority in falls prevention. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Effects of increasing dietary protein levels on growth, feed utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... The effect of different dietary protein levels on growth performance and on feed utilization of catfish. (Heterobranchus ... (Legendre, 1991) because of its taste, fast growth rate ..... diet containing 40% protein had high growth with low food intake and feed ... protein rate (45%) combined with a bad utilization of.

  14. Association between iron level, glucose impairment and increased DNA damage during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Salam; Rachidi, Samar; Shami, Nadine; Sharara, Iman; Cheikh-Ali, Khawla; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Salameh, Pascale; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Elevated circulating ferritin has been reported to increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). When high ferritin translates into high iron stores, iron excess is also a condition leading to free radical damage. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS) induced by iron status and GDM risk in non iron-supplemented pregnant women. This was a pilot observational study conducted on 93 non-anemic pregnant women. Iron status was assessed at the first trimester of gestation. Blood sampling was done at 24-28 weeks' gestation for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin and biological markers of oxidative damage tests. A significant increase in DNA damage was found in patients who developed GDM. Women with elevated DNA damage had a six-fold increased risk of developing GDM (Exp (B)=6.851, P=0.038; 95% CI [1.108-42.375]). The serum ferritin levels at first trimester were significantly correlated to lipid peroxidation (rho=0.24, p=0.012). The stratified analysis suggests that ferritin is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative stress (OS) and glucose intolerance. Moderate ferritin levels due to iron intake without iron-supplement, at early pregnancy is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative damage and glucose intolerance in pregnant women. Larger studies to evaluate the risk of food iron intake induced increased oxidative damage in offspring are warranted to propose nutrition advice regarding iron intake in women with a high risk of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-03-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10/sup -5//y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10/sup -5//y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10/sup -5//y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10/sup -5//y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one.

  16. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10 -5 /y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10 -5 /y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10 -5 /y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10 -5 /y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one. (author)

  17. Increased peripheral vascular disease risk progressively constrains perfusion adaptability in the skeletal muscle microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Joshua T.; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.; Tabone, Lawrence E.; d'Audiffret, Alexandre C.; Shrader, Carl D.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Brooks, Steven D.; Brock, Robert W.; Lombard, Julian H.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of progressive elevations in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) risk on microvascular function, we utilized eight rat models spanning “healthy” to “high PVD risk” and used a multiscale approach to interrogate microvascular function and outcomes: healthy: Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR); mild risk: SDR on high-salt diet (HSD) and SDR on high-fructose diet (HFD); moderate risk: reduced renal mass-hypertensive rats (RRM) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); high risk: obese Zucker rats (OZR) and Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSS). Vascular reactivity and biochemical analyses demonstrated that even mild elevations in PVD risk severely attenuated nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and caused progressive shifts in arachidonic acid metabolism, increasing thromboxane A2 levels. With the introduction of hypertension, arteriolar myogenic activation and adrenergic constriction were increased. However, while functional hyperemia and fatigue resistance of in situ skeletal muscle were not impacted with mild or moderate PVD risk, blood oxygen handling suggested an increasingly heterogeneous perfusion within resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Analysis of in situ networks demonstrated an increasingly stable and heterogeneous distribution of perfusion at arteriolar bifurcations with elevated PVD risk, a phenomenon that was manifested first in the distal microcirculation and evolved proximally with increasing risk. The increased perfusion distribution heterogeneity and loss of flexibility throughout the microvascular network, the result of the combined effects on NO bioavailability, arachidonic acid metabolism, myogenic activation, and adrenergic constriction, may represent the most accurate predictor of the skeletal muscle microvasculopathy and poor health outcomes associated with chronic elevations in PVD risk. PMID:26702145

  18. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  19. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... This result indicate that the Zn concentrations used in this study were not ... levels of phytase, the concentrations of Zn in the experimental diets of these studies ... combustion technique, as described by Sweeney (1989) using a LECO® ... Premix A. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. Choline Cl. 0.9. 0.9. 0.9. 1.1. 0.9.

  20. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase plasma irisin levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atici, Emine; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Menevse, Esma

    2017-11-28

    Background A recently discovered hormone, irisin is accepted to be significantly involved in the regulation of body weight. Thyroid functions may be, directly or indirectly, associated with irisin. Aim The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of experimental thyroid dysfunction on irisin levels in rats. Methods The study registered 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated to groups as follows: 1. Control; 2. Hypothyroidism induced by injection of 10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal propylthiouracil (PTU) for 3 weeks; 3. Hypothyroidism (PTU 2 weeks) + L-thyroxin (1.5 mg/kg/day for 1 week); 4. Hyperthyroidism induced in rats by 3-week thyroxin (0.3 mg/kg/day); 5. Hyperthyroidism + PTU. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected to quantify free triiodothyronine (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4) and irisin levels. Results FT3 and FT4 levels were reduced in hypothyroidism and were significantly elevated in hyperthyroidism (p hyperthyroidism groups (p hyperthyroidism, and that when hypothyroidism is corrected by thyroxin administration and hyperthyroidism by PTU injection, plasma irisin values go back to normal.

  1. Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Hatice; Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2017-05-05

    Inflammatory and immune processes can be triggered in vitiligo due to a decreased number of melanocytes and their anti-inflammatory effects. Because of the systemic nature of vitiligo, metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance and lipid profile disturbances as well as skin involvement may be observed in vitiligo. To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and vitiligo. Case-control study. The demographic, clinical and laboratory features in the subjects were compared according to presence of vitiligo and metabolic syndrome [patients (n=63) vs. gender-age matched controls (n=65) and metabolic syndrome positive (n=38) vs. negative (n=90)]. A logistic regression analysis was also used. We identified metabolic syndrome in 24 (38.1%) subjects with vitiligo and 14 (21.5%) subjects without vitiligo (p=0.04). Active vitiligo, segmental vitiligo, an increased duration of vitiligo and an increased percentage in the affected body surface area were determined to be independent predictors of metabolic syndrome [activity of vitiligo: p=0.012, OR (95% CI)=64.4 (2.5-1672); type of vitiligo: p=0.007, OR (95% CI)=215.1 (4.3-10725.8); duration of vitiligo: p=0.03, OR (95% CI)=1.4 (1.1-2.0); percentage of affected body surface area: p=0.07, OR (95% CI)=1.2 (0.98-1.5)]. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with vitiligo. The poor clinical features of vitiligo, such as active, extended and segmental vitiligo with an increased duration of time, are independent predictors for developing metabolic syndrome.

  2. Development of a low-level waste risk methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.; Falconer, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment method is presented for performance evaluation of low-level waste disposal facilities. The associated program package calculates the risk associated with postulated radionuclide release and transport scenarios. Risk is computed as the mathematical product of two statistical variables: the dose consequence of a given release scenario, and its occurrence probability. A sample risk calculation is included which demonstrates the method. This PRA method will facilitate evaluation of facility performance, including identification of high risk scenarios and their mitigation via optimization of site parameters. The method is intended to be used in facility licensing as a demonstration of compliance with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR Part 61, or in corresponding state regulations. The Low-Level Waste Risk Methodology is being developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  3. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  4. Diffusion-weighted MRI for detecting prostate tumour in men at increased genetic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Nandita M. de; Morgan, Veronica A.; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Sohaib, S. Aslam; Giles, Sharon L.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Castro, Elena; Hazell, Steven; Jafar, Maysam; Eeles, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    •Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening.•MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk.•Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Endorectal T2W + DW-MRI is potentially useful for prostate cancer screening. MRI is specific for detecting prostate cancer in men with increased genetic risk. Detection of prostate cancer in men at genetically low risk with MRI is limited. Diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI is invaluable in detecting prostate cancer. We determined its sensitivity and specificity and established interobserver agreement for detecting tumour in men with a family history of prostate cancer stratified by genetic risk. 51 men with a family history of prostate cancer underwent T2-W + DW-endorectal MRI at 3.0 T. Presence of tumour was noted at right and left apex, mid and basal prostate sextants by 2 independent observers, 1 experienced and the other inexperienced in endorectal MRI. Sensitivity and specificity against a 10-core sampling technique (lateral and medial cores at each level considered together) in men with >2× population risk based on 71 SNP analysis versus those with lower genetic risk scores was established. Interobserver agreement was determined at a subject level. Biopsies indicated cancer in 28 sextants in 13/51 men; 32 of 51 men had twice the population risk (>0.25) based on 71 SNP profiling. Sensitivity/specificity per-subject for patients was 90.0%/86.4% (high-risk) vs. 66.7%/100% (low-risk, observer 1) and 60.0%/86.3% (high-risk) vs. 33.3%/93.8% (low-risk, observer 2) with moderate overall inter-observer agreement (kappa = 0.42). Regional sensitivities/specificities for high-risk vs. low-risk for observer 1 apex 72.2%/100% [33.3%/100%], mid 100%/93.1% [100%/97.3%], base 16.7%/98.3% [0%/100%] and for observer 2 apex 36.4%/98.1% [0%/100%], mid 28.6%/96.5% [100%/100%], base 20%/100% [0%/97.3%] were poorer as they failed to detect

  5. Maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuying Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between maternal lipid levels and preterm birth (PTB. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between maternal dyslipidemia and PTB. Overall, three nested case-control studies and eight cohort studies were eligible. Effect estimates [odds ratio(OR/relative risk] were pooled using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and metaregression analyses were conducted to evaluate the sources of heterogeneity. Eleven studies involving 13,025 pregnant women were included. Compared with pregnant women with normal lipid levels, the women with elevated levels of lipids had an increased risk of PTB, and the pooled OR was 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.25–2.26]; meanwhile, women with lower levels of lipids also had a trend of an increased risk of PTB (OR=1.52, 95% CI=0.60–3.82. The pooled ORs for elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and lower levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.05–2.79, 1.55 (95% CI: 1.13–2.12, 1.19 (95% CI: 0.95–1.48, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.14–1.56, respectively. The present meta-analysis found that maternal dyslipidemia during pregnancy, either the elevated total cholesterol or triglycerides, was associated with an increased risk of PTB. These findings indicate that a normal level of maternal lipid during pregnancy may reduce the risk of PTB.

  6. Balancing Life with an Increased Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Nilbert, Mef; Bernstein, Inge

    2014-01-01

    led us to explore lived experiences in healthy mutation carriers with Lynch syndrome. Individual interviews were subjected to descriptive phenomenological analysis. Four constitutions, namely, family context, interpretation and transformation, approach to risk and balancing life at risk were...

  7. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    .72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (... pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period...

  8. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  9. Traumatic Stress Interacts With Bipolar Disorder Genetic Risk to Increase Risk for Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Fullerton, Janice M; Glowinski, Anne L; Benke, Kelly; Kamali, Masoud; Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Stapp, Emma K; Edenberg, Howard J; Roberts, Gloria M P; Ghaziuddin, Neera; Fisher, Carrie; Brucksch, Christine; Frankland, Andrew; Toma, Claudio; Shaw, Alex D; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Miller, Leslie; McInnis, Melvin G; Mitchell, Philip B; Nurnberger, John I

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions and is associated with high suicide risk. To explore the reasons for this link, this study examined the interaction between traumatic stress and BD polygenic risk score in relation to suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescent and young adult offspring and relatives of persons with BD (BD-relatives) compared with adolescent and young adult offspring of individuals without psychiatric disorders (controls). Data were collected from 4 sites in the United States and 1 site in Australia from 2006 through 2012. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare rates of ideation, attempts, and NSSI between BD-relatives (n = 307) and controls (n = 166) and to determine the contribution of demographic factors, traumatic stress exposure, lifetime mood or substance (alcohol/drug) use disorders, and BD polygenic risk score. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and mood and substance use disorders, BD-relatives were at increased risk for suicidal ideation and attempts but not for NSSI. Independent of BD-relative versus control status, demographic factors, or mood and substance use disorders, exposure to trauma within the past year (including bullying, sexual abuse, and domestic violence) was associated with suicide attempts (p = .014), and BD polygenic risk score was marginally associated with attempts (p = .061). Importantly, the interaction between BD polygenic risk score and traumatic event exposures was significantly associated with attempts, independent of demographics, relative versus control status, and mood and substance use disorders (p = .041). BD-relatives are at increased risk for suicide attempts and ideation, especially if they are exposed to trauma and have evidence of increased genetic vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  11. Increased concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 levels in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  12. Risks of low-level radiation - the evidence of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloag, D.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in estimating risks from very low levels of radiation and the use of dose-response models for cancer incidence are discussed with reference to the third BEIR Committee report on the Effects on Populations of Exposure to low levels of Ionizing Radiation (1980). Cancer risk estimates derived from different epidemiological studies are reviewed. They include atom bomb survivors, medically irradiated groups and occupational groups. (36 references). (author)

  13. RISK LEVEL ANALYSIS ON THE PREVENTIVE EROSION CAPACITY OF BRIDGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Deficiency of the Preventive Erosion Capacity (PEC) of a bridge pier is the main factor leading to bridge failures. In this paper, the PEC of bridge piers was analyzed using the stochastic analysis method. The definitions of the reliability and risk level of a bridge pier subjected to water erosion were proposed and a computational model for erosion depth and risk level in was suggested.

  14. INSTITUTIONAL OWNERSHIP LEVEL AND RISK-ADJUSTED RETURN

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah, Chioma; Li, Meng (Emma)

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the level of institutional ownership andrisk-adjusted return on stocks. We find a significant positive relationship between the level ofinstitutional ownership on a stock and its risk-adjusted return. This result holds both in the longrun and in shorter time periods. Our findings suggest that all things being equal, it is possible toobtain risk-adjusted return by going short on the stocks with low institutional ownership andgoing long on those with...

  15. Uric acid stones increase the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ching-Chia; Chien, Tsu-Ming; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Chou, Yii-Her

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of uric acid stones and their potential risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 401 patients (196 with uric acid stone and 205 without) were enrolled from our database of patients with urolithiasis. We analyzed the clinical demographic features, stone location, urine chemistries, and renal function. There was a significant difference (p uric acid group. Patients with uric acid stones had much lower pH of urine (p uric acid level (p = 0.002). Notably, those with uric acid stones had worse eGFR than those with non-uric acid stones. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age over 60 years (ORs = 9.19; 95% CI 3.5-24.3), female sex (ORs = 4.01; 95% CI 1.8-9.0), hyperuricemia (ORs = 8.47; 95% CI 1.6-43.5), and uric acid stone (OR = 2.86; 95% CI 1.2-6.7) were the independent predictors of poor prognoses in CKD. Therefore, an association exists between uric acid stones and higher prevalence of CKD. Patients with uric acid stones may need close monitoring of renal function during follow-up.

  16. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  17. Daytime napping and increased risk of incident respiratory diseases: symptom, marker, or risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-07-01

    We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. INCREASING EMPLOYMENT LEVELS THROUGH THE USE OF CREATIVE JOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Andreea HORDAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we want to raise awareness of how important is for an economy the existence of creative jobs. In the last years the employment rate has grown in the sector of creative jobs. This research came out due the need of creative jobs contribution to the development of an economy, in particular Romanian economy. In this paper we want to stress on the importance of creative industry and also to propose some solutions for increasing employment in this sectors , being well-known that creative industry is attractive to smart and talented people. Nevertheless, it is important to point out the development of IT as part of creative industry. Not at last, we will take in consideration the role that small and medium enterprises have, the impact of fiscal facilities in the economy and the need for appropriate financial instruments to support this kind of business.

  19. Does natural gas increase the indoor radon levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, H.A.; Shabaan, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    The natural gas is naturally occurring hydrocarbon consists mainly of methane and includes varying amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and other impurities such as: nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. It is used domestically and industrially as a preferable energy source compared to coal and oil. Because natural gas is found in deep underground natural formations or associated with other underground hydrocarbon reservoirs, there is a potential to contain radon as a contaminant. This work was designated to measure indoor radon concentrations in dwellings supplied with natural gas compared with those not supplied with it, where radon level was estimated using solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39). The results showed that radon concentration was significantly higher in dwellings supplied with natural gas, where it was 252.30 versus 136.19 Bqm -3 in dwelling not supplied with natural gas (P < 0.001). The mean values of radon exhalation rate was 0.02 ± 6.34 · 10 -4 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings supplied with natural gas and 0.01 +- 0.008 Bq · m -2 · h -1 in dwellings lacking it. In addition, a significant difference was observed in the mean annual effective doses (4.33 and 2.34 mSv · y -1 , respectively) between both groups. Conclusively, the data indicate that natural gas may represent a potential source of indoor radon

  20. Increased Pathological Worry Levels in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alopecia Areata (AA is a type of hair loss that has been considered to have associations with various psychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to compare pathological worry levels between patients with AA and healthy controls (HC. Material and Method: Sixty-three patients with AA and 90 HCs were included in the present study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The socio-demographic characteristics, some clinical characteristics, and the scores from the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ were compared between groups. Results: The demographic characteristics were found to be similar between groups except for gender. The family history of AA was significantly higher in the AA group. The mean score of PSWQ in the AA group was 44.02 ± 11.59, compared to 39.71 ± 7.77 in the HC group. The mean score of PSWQ was significantly higher in the AA group (t=-3.27, p= 0.001.Discussion: The present study is the first to compare pathological worry between patients with AA and HCs. We suggest that pathological worry should be more thoroughly investigated in patients with AA to improve their quality of life. Also, this can be an effective approach to targeting the patients who may develop anxiety disorder.

  1. Levelized cost-risk reduction prioritization of waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.; Young, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The prioritization of solid waste disposal options in terms of reduced risk to workers, the public, and the environment has recently generated considerable governmental and public interest. In this paper we address the development of a methodology to establish priorities for waste disposal options, such as incineration, landfills, long-term storage, waste minimization, etc. The study is one result of an overall project to develop methodologies for Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) of non-reactor nuclear facilities for the US Department of Energy. Option preferences are based on a levelized cost-risk reduction analysis. Option rankings are developed as functions of disposal option cost and timing, relative long- and short-term risks, and possible accident scenarios. We examine the annual costs and risks for each option over a large number of years. Risk, in this paper, is defined in terms of annual fatalities (both prompt and long-term) and environmental restoration costs that might result from either an accidental release or long-term exposure to both plant workers and the public near the site or facility. We use event timing to weigh both costs and risks; near-term costs and risks are discounted less than future expenditures and fatalities. This technique levels the timing of cash flows and benefits by converting future costs and benefits to present value costs and benefits. We give an example Levelized Cost-Benefit Analysis of incinerator location options to demonstrate the methodology and required data

  2. Global risk of big earthquakes has not recently increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Peter M; Stark, Philip B

    2012-01-17

    The recent elevated rate of large earthquakes has fueled concern that the underlying global rate of earthquake activity has increased, which would have important implications for assessments of seismic hazard and our understanding of how faults interact. We examine the timing of large (magnitude M≥7) earthquakes from 1900 to the present, after removing local clustering related to aftershocks. The global rate of M≥8 earthquakes has been at a record high roughly since 2004, but rates have been almost as high before, and the rate of smaller earthquakes is close to its historical average. Some features of the global catalog are improbable in retrospect, but so are some features of most random sequences--if the features are selected after looking at the data. For a variety of magnitude cutoffs and three statistical tests, the global catalog, with local clusters removed, is not distinguishable from a homogeneous Poisson process. Moreover, no plausible physical mechanism predicts real changes in the underlying global rate of large events. Together these facts suggest that the global risk of large earthquakes is no higher today than it has been in the past.

  3. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  4. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  5. Care for patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended description of the patient’s cardiovascular risk factors and a plan to reduce the risk. The aim of our study is to describe to what extent current care meets the requirement posed in the care stan...

  6. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pabdominal fat levels (78 vs. 38%, P=0.030) and in patients with BMI 30 or more compared with less than 30 kg/m (87 vs. 48%, P=0.033), but similar in patients with increased or normal waist circumference (67 vs. 56%, P=0.693). Average levels of abdominal fat, as assessed by abdominal BIA, are mainly present in female patients with NAFLD and are associated with a lower degree of insulin resistance. Increased abdominal fat as assessed by BIA and obesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  7. HUD INFORMATION SYSTEMS: Immature Software Acquisition Capability Increases Project Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... GAO has designated HUD's major program areas as high risk, in part because the department's information and financial management systems were poorly integrated, ineffective, and generally unreliable...

  8. Stormwater Volume Control to Prevent Increases in Lake Flooding and Dam Failure Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban expansion is not often considered a major factor contributing to dam failure. But if urbanization occurs without mitigation of the hydrologic impacts, the risk of dam failure will increase. Of particular concern are increases in the volume of storm runoff resulting from increases in the extent of impervious surfaces. Storm runoff volumes are not regulated for much the U.S, and where they are, the required control is commonly less than 100%. Unmitigated increases in runoff volume due to urbanization can pose a risk to dams. A recent technical advisory committee of Dane County has recommended that the county require 100% control of stormwater volumes for new developments. The primary motivation was to prevent increases in the water levels in the Yahara Lakes, slowly draining lakes that are highly sensitive to runoff volume. The recommendations included the use of "volume trading" to achieve efficient compliance. Such recommendations should be considered for other slowly draining lakes, including those created by artificial structures.

  9. Increase of Meningitis Risk in Stroke Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-Hong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeThe blood–brain barrier (BBB not only provides a physical obstruction but also recruits and activates neutrophils in cases of infection. Hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke reportedly induces the disruption of the BBB. However, few studies have reported a correlation between the incidence of meningitis in patients with a history of stroke. This study tested the hypothesis that patients with a history of stroke may be more vulnerable to meningitis.MethodsStroke and age-matched comparison (n = 29,436 and 87,951, respectively cohorts were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database (2000–2011. Correlations between the two cohorts were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression model, Kaplan–Meier curve, and log-rank tests.ResultsThe incidence of meningitis was higher in the stroke cohort compared to that in the comparison cohort [hazard ratio (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI, 2.23–3.74, p < 0.001]. After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the estimated HR in the stroke cohort was 2.55-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (CI, 1.94–3.37; p < 0.001. Notably, patients who had experienced hemorrhagic stroke had a higher incidence rate of meningitis than those with a history of ischemic stroke, except for patients older than 75 years (incidence rates in hemorrhagic/ischemic stroke patients, 3.14/1.48 in patients younger than 45 years, 1.52/0.41 in 45- to 64-year group, 1.15/0.90 in 65- to 74-year group, 0.74/0.93 in patients older than 75 years. Moreover, stroke patients who had undergone head surgery had the highest meningitis risk (adjusted HR, 8.66; 95% CI, 5.55–13.5; p < 0.001 followed by stroke patients who had not undergone head surgery (adjusted HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.57–2.82; p < 0.001.ConclusionOur results indicated that stroke patients have higher risks of meningitis. Compromised BBB integrity in stroke patients may lead to increased

  10. Levels and occupational health risk assessment of trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Ni and Cd) were determined in soils from a major automobile repair workshop located in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This was carried out to evaluate the potential occupational risk to operators working in and around the site. The mean of trace metal levels were: lead (14.52 mg/kg); ...

  11. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study...

  12. SSRIs increase risk of blood transfusion in patients admitted for hip surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Janneke Schutte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that an increased bleeding tendency can be caused by Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI use. We aimed to investigate the occurrence and risk of blood transfusion in SSRI users compared to non-SSRI users in a cohort of patients admitted for hip-surgery. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent planned or emergency hip surgery from 1996 to 2011 in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam. Primary outcome measure was risk of blood transfusion. Secondary outcome measures were pre- and postoperative hemoglobin level. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: One-hundred and fourteen SSRI users were compared to 1773 non-SSRI users. Risk of blood transfusion during admission was increased for SSRI users in multivariate analyses (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.5]. Also, pre-operative hemoglobin levels were lower in SSRI users (7.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L compared to non-SSRI users (8.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p  =  0.042, as were postoperative hemoglobin levels (6.2 ± 1.0 mmol/L vs. 6.4 ± 1.0 mmol/L respectively (p  =  0.017. CONCLUSIONS: SSRI users undergoing hip surgery have an increased risk for blood transfusion during admission, potentially explained by a lower hemoglobin level before surgery. SSRI use should be considered as a potential risk indicator for increased blood loss in patients admitted for hip surgery. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  13. Hormone replacement therapy increases the risk of cranial meningioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting.......We investigated the influence of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use on the risk of meningioma in a population-based setting....

  14. Association of urinary metals levels with type 2 diabetes risk in coke oven workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bing; Feng, Wei; Wang, Jing; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Guo, Huan; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies indicated that occupationally exposed to metals could result in oxidative damage and inflammation and increase cardiovascular diseases risk. However, epidemiological studies about the associations of metals exposure with diabetes risk among coke oven workers were limited. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the potential associations of 23 metals levels with the risk of diabetes among coke oven workers. Methods: The analysis was conducted in a cross-sectional study including 1493 participants. Urinary metals and urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the associations of urinary metal levels with diabetes risk with adjustment for potential confounding factors including gender, age, BMI, education, smoking, drinking, physical activity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and urinary PAHs metabolites levels. Results: Compared with the normoglycemia group, the levels of urinary copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, and cadmium were significantly higher in the diabetes group (all p < 0.05). Participants with the highest tertile of urinary copper and zinc had 2.12 (95%CI: 1.12–4.01) and 5.43 (95%CI: 2.61–11.30) fold risk of diabetes. Similar results were found for hyperglycemia risk. Besides, participants with the highest tertile of manganese, barium, and lead had 1.65(1.22–2.23), 1.60(1.19–2.16) and 1.45(1.05–1.99) fold risk of hyperglycemia when compared with the lowest tertlie. Conclusion: The results indicated that the urinary copper and zinc levels were positively associated with the risk of diabetes and hyperglycemia among coke oven workers. Urinary manganese, barium and lead levels were also associated with increased risk of hyperglycemia independently of other traditional risk factors. These findings need further validation

  15. Setting the Threshold for Surgical Prevention in Women at Increased Risk of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Menon, Usha

    2018-01-01

    The number of ovarian cancer cases is predicted to rise by 14% in Europe and 55% worldwide over the next 2 decades. The current absence of a screening program, rising drug/treatment costs, and only marginal improvements in survival seen over the past 30 years suggest the need for maximizing primary surgical prevention to reduce the burden of ovarian cancer. Primary surgical prevention through risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) is well established as the most effective method for preventing ovarian cancer. In the UK, it has traditionally been offered to high-risk women (>10% lifetime risk of ovarian cancer) who have completed their family. The cost-effectiveness of RRSO in BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers older than 35 years is well established. Recently, RRSO has been shown to be cost-effective in postmenopausal women at lifetime ovarian cancer risks of 5% or greater and in premenopausal women at lifetime risks greater than 4%. The acceptability, uptake, and satisfaction with RRSO at these intermediate-risk levels remain to be established. Prospective outcome data on risk-reducing salpingectomy and delayed-oophorectomy for preventing ovarian cancer is lacking, and hence, this is best offered for primary prevention within the context and safe environment of a clinical trial. An estimated 63% of ovarian cancers occur in women with greater than 4% lifetime risk and 53% in those with 5% or greater lifetime-risk. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy can be offered for primary surgical prevention to women at intermediate risk levels (4%-5% to 10%). This includes unaffected women who have completed their family and have RAD51C, RAD51D, or BRIP1 gene mutations; first-degree relatives of women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer; BRCA mutation-negative women from high-risk breast-and-ovarian cancer or ovarian-cancer-only families. In those with BRCA1, RAD51C/RAD51D/MMR mutations and the occasional families with a history of ovarian cancer in their 40s, surgery needs to be

  16. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Buckley, Brian; Winnik, Bozena; O’Suilleabhain, Padraig; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Reisch, Joan; German, Dwight C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to pesticides has been reported to increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD), but identification of the specific pesticides is lacking. Three studies have found elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in postmortem PD brains. Objective To determine whether elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides are present in the serum of patients with PD. Design Case-control study. Setting An academic medical center. Participants Fifty patients with PD, 43 controls, and 20 patients with Alzheimer disease. Main Outcome Measures Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides in serum samples. Results β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was more often detectable in patients with PD (76%) compared with controls (40%) and patients with Alzheimer disease (30%). The median level of β-HCH was higher in patients with PD compared with controls and patients with Alzheimer disease. There were no marked differences in detection between controls and patients with PD concerning any of the other 15 organochlorine pesticides. Finally, we observed a significant odds ratio for the presence of β-HCH in serum to predict a diagnosis of PD vs control (odds ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–11.6) and PD vs Alzheimer disease (odds ratio, 5.20), which provides further evidence for the apparent association between serum β-HCH and PD. Conclusions These data suggest that β-HCH is associated with a diagnosis of PD. Further research is warranted regarding the potential role of β-HCH as a etiologic agent for some cases of PD. PMID:19597089

  17. Risk communication system for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hirosi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding and acceptance of the task of implementing high level radioactive waste disposal, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. First, text mining method was introduced to identify the core public interest, examining public comments on the technical report of high level radioactive waste disposal. Then we designed the dialog-mode contents based on the theory of norm activation by Schwartz. Finally, the discussion board was mounted on the web site. By constructing such web communication system which includes knowledge base contents, introspective contents, and interactive discussion board, we conducted the experiment for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The participants of the experiment increased their interest in the topics with which they were not familiar and actively posted their opinions on the BBS. The dialog-mode contents were significantly more effective than the knowledge-based contents in promoting introspection that brought people into a greater awareness of problems such as social dilemma. (author)

  18. Screening-Level Ecological Risk Assessment Methods, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-08-16

    This document provides guidance for screening-level assessments of potential adverse impacts to ecological resources from release of environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The methods presented are based on two objectives, namely: to provide a basis for reaching consensus with regulators, managers, and other interested parties on how to conduct screening-level ecological risk investigations at the Laboratory; and to provide guidance for ecological risk assessors under the Environmental Programs (EP) Directorate. This guidance promotes consistency, rigor, and defensibility in ecological screening investigations and in reporting those investigation results. The purpose of the screening assessment is to provide information to the risk managers so informed riskmanagement decisions can be made. This document provides examples of recommendations and possible risk-management strategies.

  19. Reducing Risk and Increasing Exploration Payoff with Symbiotic Rover Pairs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary explorations missions avoid the destinations that offer the greatest scientific payout because these destinations come with a risk too great for a primary...

  20. Increasing awareness in African American BSN students of the health risks of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Wanda; Kautz, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the perceived effectiveness of a program to increase awareness of the health risks of obesity among African-American students. Thirty (n = 30) senior level Bachelor of Science in Nursing students attending a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) took a knowledge test, then participated in an hour-long educational session on obesity. Following the session, the students completed a 10-item post-test to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in increasing awareness of obesity as a risk for heart disease and diabetes. The findings suggested a need to further educate African-American students on the consequences of obesity as well as recommendations to advance the science of personal and family risk awareness in nursing students.

  1. Risks of increased UV-B radiation: higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, W.; Hofmann, H.

    1994-01-01

    The question pursued within the Bavarian climate research programme (BayFORKLIM) in the present context was as follows: Does the fact that UV-B radiation increases with growing site elevation mean that the low sensitivity of predominantly alpine plants compared with that of lowland plants is attributable to their different genetic constitution, possibly as a result of selective pressure and/or de alpine species have a greater capacity to develop protective mechanisms? Pairs and triplets of species belonging to the same genus but occuring at different site elevations were grown from seeds in a greenhouse that is, without UV-B. In order to determine their capacity to adapt to UV-B radiation, some of the plants were additionally exposed to UV-B for 5-6 weeks prior to sensitivity testing. Sensitivity was tested by exposing the plants to additional UV-B of different intensities in test chambers. Visible damage, ranging from light bronzing or yellowing to withering, served as an assessment criterion. Levels of UV-B absorbing substances (phenylpropane species, usually flavonoids) were also measured in these plants. The results obtained permit the following conclusions: The greater UV-B resistance of alpine species compared with that of lowland species of the same genus is not attributable to their genetic constitution but rather to their superior adaptability. Superior resistance is in part due to a greater accumulation of UV-B absorbing substances. Distinct differences in sensitivity between different genera could lead to population shifts within ecosystems as a result of increased UV-B radiation. (orig./KW) [de

  2. Impact of urate level on cardiovascular risk in allopurinol treated patients. A nested case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gout gives rise to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs such as allopurinol, and allopurinol further potentially reduces the cardiovascular risk. Whether treatment to a target level of uric acid is requi...

  3. Association between Serum Osteopontin Levels and Cardiovascular Risk in Hypothyrodism

    OpenAIRE

    Türkan Mete; Gülhan Duman; Eda Melek Ertörer; Emre Bozkırlı; Okan Sefa Bakıner; Neslihan Başçıl Tütüncü

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiovascular effects of hypothyroidism are well known. Osteopontin (OPN) is a new inflammatory marker which was first isolated from the bone. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), a noninvasive technique to measure this endothelium-dependent function, has been used in several clinical studies to show cardiovascular risks. The aim of our study was to assess FMD value in hypothyroidism patients and to investigate whether plasma OPN level is a parameter which can predict cardiovascular risk...

  4. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  5. Prediabetes Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Testosterone Deficiency, Independent of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Liao, Wan-Chung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The association between type 2 diabetes and low testosterone has been well recognized. However, testosterone levels in men with prediabetes have been rarely reported. We aimed to investigate whether prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency. Methods This study included 1,306 men whose sex hormones was measured during a medical examination. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured; free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations were calculated by Vermeulen’s formula. Prediabetes was defined by impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired postprandial glucose (IPG), or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 5.7%-6.4%. Logistic regression was performed to obtain the odds ratios (OR) for subnormal total testosterone (prediabetic and diabetic men compared with normoglycemic individuals, while adjusting for age, BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Results Normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 577 (44.2%), 543 (41.6%), and 186 (14.2%) men, respectively. Prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of subnormal total testosterone compared to normoglycemic individuals (age-adjusted OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.38-2.54). The risk remained significant in all multivariate analyses. After adjusting for MetS, the OR in prediabetic men equals that of diabetic patients (1.49 versus 1.50). IFG, IPG, and HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% were all associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, with different levels of significance in multivariate analyses. However, neither prediabetes nor diabetes was associated with subnormal free testosterone in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, independent of obesity and MetS. After adjusting for MetS, the risk equals that of diabetes. Our data suggest that testosterone should be measured routinely in men with prediabetes. PMID:24069277

  6. Risk Levels of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Portuguese Recreational Freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Portuguese freshwater reservoirs are important socio-economic resources, namely for recreational use. National legislation concerning bathing waters does not include mandatory levels or guidelines for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. This is an issue of concern since cyanotoxin-based evidence is insufficient to change the law, and the collection of scientific evidence has been hampered by the lack of regulatory levels for cyanotoxins in bathing waters. In this work, we evaluate the profile of cyanobacteria and microcystins (MC in eight freshwater reservoirs from the center of Portugal, used for bathing/recreation, in order to determine the risk levels concerning toxic cyanobacteria occurrence. Three of the reservoirs did not pose a risk of MC contamination. However, two reservoirs presented a high risk in 7% of the samples according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for MC in bathing waters (above 20 µg/L. In the remaining three reservoirs, the risk concerning microcystins occurrence was low. However, they exhibited recurrent blooms and persistent contamination with MC up to 4 µg/L. Thus, the risk of exposure to MC and potential acute and/or chronic health outcomes should not be disregarded in these reservoirs. These results contribute to characterize the cyanobacterial blooms profile and to map the risk of toxic cyanobacteria and microcystins occurrence in Portuguese inland waters.

  7. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Shailesh; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven

    2017-01-01

    For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that investigated the association of endogenous total testosterone [continuous (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) and categorical (high vs. low)] and use of TTh with PCa events [1990–2016]. Emphasis was given to studies/analyses that reported magnitude of associations [odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) and hazard ratios (HRs)] from multivariable analyses to determine risk of PCa and their statistical significance. Most identified studies/analyses included observational and randomized placebo-controlled trials. This review was organized in three parts: (I) association of endogenous total testosterone (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) with PCa; (II) relationship of endogenous total testosterone (categorical high vs. low) with PCa; and (III) association of use of TTh with PCa in meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The first part included 31 observational studies [20 prospective (per 5 nmol/L increment) and 11 prospective and retrospective cohort studies (per 1 unit increment)]. None of the 20 prospective studies found a significant association between total testosterone (5 nmol/L increment) and increased- or decreased-risk of PCa. Two out of the 11 studies/analyses showed a significant decreased-risk of PCa for total testosterone per 1 unit increment, but also two other

  8. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Advani, Shailesh; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven

    2017-06-01

    For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that investigated the association of endogenous total testosterone [continuous (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) and categorical (high vs. low)] and use of TTh with PCa events [1990-2016]. Emphasis was given to studies/analyses that reported magnitude of associations [odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) and hazard ratios (HRs)] from multivariable analyses to determine risk of PCa and their statistical significance. Most identified studies/analyses included observational and randomized placebo-controlled trials. This review was organized in three parts: (I) association of endogenous total testosterone (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) with PCa; (II) relationship of endogenous total testosterone (categorical high vs. low) with PCa; and (III) association of use of TTh with PCa in meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The first part included 31 observational studies [20 prospective (per 5 nmol/L increment) and 11 prospective and retrospective cohort studies (per 1 unit increment)]. None of the 20 prospective studies found a significant association between total testosterone (5 nmol/L increment) and increased- or decreased-risk of PCa. Two out of the 11 studies/analyses showed a significant decreased-risk of PCa for total testosterone per 1 unit increment, but also two other

  9. Chronic Pancreatitis Correlates With Increased Risk of Cerebrovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tuck-Siu; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lin, Chi-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lai, Shih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to explore whether there is a relationship between chronic pancreatitis and cerebrovascular disease in Taiwan. Using the claims data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, we identified 16,672 subjects aged 20 to 84 years with a new diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis from 2000 to 2010 as the chronic pancreatitis group. We randomly selected 65,877 subjects aged 20 to 84 years without chronic pancreatitis as the nonchronic pancreatitis group. Both groups were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and the index year of diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. The incidence of cerebrovascular disease at the end of 2011 was measured. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to measure the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cerebrovascular disease risk associated with chronic pancreatitis and other comorbidities. The overall incidence of cerebrovascular disease was 1.24-fold greater in the chronic pancreatitis group than that in the nonchronic pancreatitis group (14.2 vs. 11.5 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI = 1.19–1.30). After controlling for confounding factors, the adjusted HR of cerebrovascular disease was 1.27 (95% CI = 1.19–1.36) for the chronic pancreatitis group as compared with the nonchronic pancreatitis group. Woman (adjusted HR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.31–1.51), age (every 1 year, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.04–1.05), atrial fibrillation (adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.02–1.48), chronic kidney disease (adjusted HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.31–1.67), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16–1.40), diabetes mellitus (adjusted HR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.72–1.92), hypertension (adjusted HR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.56–1.76), and peripheral atherosclerosis (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.06–1.51) were other factors significantly associated with cerebrovascular disease. Chronic pancreatitis is

  10. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  11. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    Full Text Available Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can

  12. Level of education and risk of heart failure: a prospective cohort study with echocardiography evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stefan; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Heitmann, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Aims With increasing socioeconomic disparity in cardiovascular risk factors, there is a need to assess the role of socioeconomic factors in chronic heart failure (CHF) and to what extent this is caused by modifiable risk factors. Methods and results In a prospective cohort of 18 616 men and women......-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for intermediary (8–10 years) and high level of education (>10 years) with low (women. After adjusting for updated cardiovascular risk factors, corresponding HRs were 0...... future hospital admission for CHF. Only a minor part of the excess risk was mediated through traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Strategies to reduce this inequality should be strengthened....

  13. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring: A CMMI Level 5 Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas....... Against this backdrop, we present an interpretive case study of how managers perceive and mitigate the risk areas in software development offshoring with a mature CMMI level 5 (Capability Maturity Model, Integrated) software company as the client. We find that managers perceive and mitigate most...

  14. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased fracture rate in women with breast cancer: a review of the hidden risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Body Jean-Jacques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with breast cancer, particularly individuals diagnosed at a relatively early age, have an increased incidence of fractures. Fractures can have serious clinical consequences including the need for major surgery, increased morbidity and mortality, increased cost of disease management, and reduced quality of life for patients. The primary cause of the increased fracture risk appears to be an accelerated decrease in bone mineral density (BMD resulting from the loss of estrogenic signaling that occurs with most treatments for breast cancer, including aromatase inhibitors. However, factors other than BMD levels alone may influence treatment decisions to reduce fracture risk in this setting. Our purpose is to review current evidence for BMD loss and fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer and discuss pharmacologic means to reduce this risk. Results Fracture risk during treatment for breast cancer may be influenced by the rate of BMD loss and the consequent rapid alterations in bone microarchitecture, in addition to the established fracture risk factors in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rapid decrease in BMD during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer may necessitate more aggressive pharmacotherapy than is indicated for healthy postmenopausal women who develop osteoporosis. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and other antiresorptive agents to preserve BMD during adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. In addition, some bisphosphonates (eg, zoledronic acid may also delay disease recurrence in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant benefit in addition to preserving BMD and potentially preventing fractures. Conclusions It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment (eg, as in the WHO FRAX algorithm will more accurately identify both women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and women with breast cancer who require

  16. Increased genetic risk for obesity in premature coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Stewart, Alexandre F R; McPherson, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether obesity confers risk for CAD independently of associated risk factors including diabetes mellitus. We have carried out a Mendelian randomization study using a genetic risk score (GRS) for body mass index (BMI) based on 35 risk alleles to investigate this question in a population of 5831 early onset CAD cases without diabetes mellitus and 3832 elderly healthy control subjects, all of strictly European ancestry, with adjustment for traditional risk factors (TRFs). We then estimated the genetic correlation between these BMI and CAD (rg) by relating the pairwise genetic similarity matrix to a phenotypic covariance matrix between these two traits. GRSBMI significantly (P=2.12 × 10(-12)) associated with CAD status in a multivariate model adjusted for TRFs, with a per allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 (95% CI 1.042-1.076). The addition of GRSBMI to TRFs explained 0.75% of CAD variance and yielded a continuous net recombination index of 16.54% (95% CI=11.82-21.26%, P<0.0001). To test whether GRSBMI explained CAD status when adjusted for measured BMI, separate models were constructed in which the score and BMI were either included as covariates or not. The addition of BMI explained ~1.9% of CAD variance and GRSBMI plus BMI explained 2.65% of CAD variance. Finally, using bivariate restricted maximum likelihood analysis, we provide strong evidence of genome-wide pleiotropy between obesity and CAD. This analysis supports the hypothesis that obesity is a causal risk factor for CAD.

  17. Does alcohol increase the risk of preterm delivery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjúrður Fróði; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and preterm delivery. Women attending routine antenatal care at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 1989–1991 and 1992–1996 were eligible. We included 18,228 singleton pregnancies in the analyses. We obtained prospective...... information on alcohol intake at 16 and 30 weeks of gestation, other lifestyle factors, maternal characteristics, and obstetrical risk factors from self-administered questionnaires and hospital files. For women with alcohol intake of 1–2, 3–4, 5–9, and >=10 drinks/week the risk ratio (RR) of preterm delivery...

  18. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Simeon L.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Phillips, Tony; Watters, George M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish) in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level), with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an uncertain future

  19. Nine-year risk of depression diagnosis increases with increasing self-reported concussions in retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P football and 2001 SF-36 PCS

  20. Maternal SSRI exposure increases the risk of autistic offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, S; Emamhadi, M R; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, S

    2017-01-01

    , childhood, children, neurodevelopment were identified using databases PubMed and PMC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. Cochran's Q statistic-value (Q), degree of freedom (df), and I(2) indices (variation in odds ratio [OR] attributable to heterogeneity) were calculated to analyze the risk...

  1. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S

    2016-01-01

    with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...

  2. Subjective expected utility with non-increasing risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that assumptions about risk aversion, usually studied under the presupposition of expected utility maximization, have a surprising extra merit at an earlier stage of the measurement work: together with the sure-thing principle, these assumptions imply subjective expected utility

  3. Drugged Driving: Increased Traffic Risks Involving Licit and Illicit Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…

  4. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  5. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  6. Care for patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boheemen, C. van; Geffen, K. van; Philbert, D.; Bos, M.; Dis, I. van; Strijbis, A.; Bouvy, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: In 2009, a national standard of care for vascular risk management (VRM) was developed. This standard, which was sent to all general practitioners (GPs), contains requirements for optimal care. One requirement is the formulation of a written individual-care plan which contains an extended

  7. CIA increases cybersecurity Integrated approach to digital risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The article gives an overview of activities of the cybersecurity group, which was set up in order to go a step further. They have launched a project to manage cybersecurity. The underlying principle is a general pattern that determines policies and the responsibilities for risk management.

  8. Predictors for increasing eligibility level among home help service users in the Japanese long-term care insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kuniyasu; Sasou, Kenji; Fujita, Makoto; Yamada, Sumio

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study described the prevalence of possible risk factors for increasing eligibility level of long-term care insurance in home help service users who were certified as support level 1-2 or care level 1-2 in Japan. Data were collected from October 2011 to November 2011. Variables included eligibility level, grip strength, calf circumference (CC), functional limitations, body mass index, memory impairment, depression, social support, and nutrition status. A total of 417 subjects (109 males and 308 females, mean age 83 years) were examined. There were 109 subjects with memory impairment. When divided by cut-off values, care level 2 was found to have higher prevalence of low grip strength, low CC, and depression. Some potentially modifiable factors such as muscle strength could be the risk factors for increasing eligibility level.

  9. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  10. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  11. Risk assessments for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    The risks associated with the disposal of high level wastes derive from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The assessment of these risks requires a methodology for risk analysis, an identification of the radioactive sources, and a method by which to express the relative hazard of the various radionuclides that comprise the high level waste. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out after a review of previous work in the area of probabilistic risk assessment. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. At the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected thirty-five year nuclear power program is determined

  12. Temporal aspects of increases in eye-neck activation levels during visually deficient near work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hans O; Camilla, Lodin; Forsman, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    In an experimental study two levels of oculomotor load were induced via optical trial lenses. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Sixty-six subjects with a median age of 36 (range 19-47, std 8) viewed a black and white Gabor grating (5 c/deg) for two 7-min periods monocularly through a 0 D lens or binocularly through -3.5 D lenses. The effect of time was separately regressed to EMG in two different subgroups of responders: a High-Oculomotor-Load (HOL) and a Low-Oculomotor-Load (LOL) group. A linear regression model was fitted on group level with exposure time on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y-axis. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the -D blur condition for only the HOL subgroup of responders: 0.926 + Time(min 1-7) × 0.088 (p = 0.002, r(2)=0.865). There was no obvious sign of this activity to level off or to stabilize. These results suggest that professional information technology users that are exposed to a high level of oculomotor load, during extended times, are at an increased risk of exhibiting an increased trap.m. activity.

  13. Past and future drivers of increased erosion risk in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, T.; Plant, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    We use hourly observations of water levels from two tide gauges and wave data from three buoys to assess their relative contribution to past and potential future changes in the erosion risk for Dauphin Island, a barrier island located off the coastline of Alabama. Topographic information (i.e. beach slopes and dune toe and crest heights) is obtained from the most recent lidar survey conducted in the area in July 2013. Water levels and wave parameters (i.e. significant wave height and peak period) from the two tide gauges and three wave buoys are merged into single records spanning the period from 1981 to 2013. The Stockdon et al. (2006) run-up model is used to estimate the 2% exceedance values of wave run-up maxima, which are then combined with the observed water levels at the representative tide gauge site to obtain total water levels (TWLs). With this information we assess the relative contribution of geocentric sea level rise, vertical land-movement, and long-term changes in the wave parameters to the observed increase in erosion risk. The latter is approximated using the concept of impact hours per year (IHPY; Ruggiero 2013) at dune toe and dune crest elevation thresholds derived from the lidar data. Wahl et al. (2014) recently discovered a significant increase in the amplitude of the seasonal sea level cycle in the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we explore the potential of these changes, and similar developments in the seasonal cycle of the wave data and corresponding IHPY, to affect coastal erosion. Such intra-annual signals with longer-term variations have not been included in most earlier studies in favour of analysing the effects of annually averaged long-term trends. Finally, scenarios of potential future changes of all relevant parameters are used to explore their relative contribution to further increase in the coastal erosion risk over the next few decades.

  14. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Comparing Canadian and American cybersecurity awareness levels: Educational strategies to increase public awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Amy

    Cybersecurity awareness is an important issue that affects everyone who uses a computer or a mobile device. Canada and the United States both recognize the value of mitigating cybersecurity risks in terms of national safety, economic stability and protection of their citizens. The research performed compared the levels of cybersecurity awareness in Canadian and American Internet users. Canadian and American users were equally aware of cybersecurity measures, but were not implementing best practices to keep themselves safe. The research suggested users needed to understand why a cybersecurity measure was important before being motivated to implement it. Educational strategies were reviewed in both Canada and the United States and it was determined that although there were significant resources available, they were not being utilized by both the educators and the public. In order to increase cybersecurity awareness levels, nations should focus on increasing the public's awareness by using various types of messaging, such as cartoons, in media. One possible consideration is a compulsory awareness model before accessing the Internet. Cybersecurity topics should be included in the curriculum for students at all levels of education and a focus on providing training and resources to teachers will help increase the cybersecurity knowledge of children and youth.

  16. Clusterin levels are increased in Alzheimer's disease and influence the regional distribution of Aβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Clarke, Polly; Love, Seth

    2017-05-01

    Clusterin, also known as apoJ, is a lipoprotein abundantly expressed within the CNS. It regulates Aβ fibril formation and toxicity and facilitates amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier. Genome-wide association studies have shown variations in the clusterin gene (CLU) to influence the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore whether clusterin modulates the regional deposition of Aβ, we measured levels of soluble (NP40-extracted) and insoluble (guanidine-HCl-extracted) clusterin, Aβ40 and Aβ42 by sandwich ELISA in brain regions with a predilection for amyloid pathology-mid-frontal cortex (MF), cingulate cortex (CC), parahippocampal cortex (PH), and regions with little or no pathology-thalamus (TH) and white matter (WM). Clusterin level was highest in regions with plaque pathology (MF, CC, PH and PC), approximately mirroring the regional distribution of Aβ. It was significantly higher in AD than controls, and correlated positively with Aβ42 and insoluble Aβ40. Soluble clusterin level rose significantly with severity of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and in MF and PC regions was highest in APOE ɛ4 homozygotes. In the TH and WM (areas with little amyloid pathology) clusterin was unaltered in AD and did not correlate with Aβ level. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of clusterin and the regional levels of insoluble Aβ42; however, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 declined with insoluble Aβ42 level in a region-dependent manner, being lowest in regions with predilection for Aβ plaque pathology. Under physiological conditions, clusterin reduces aggregation and promotes clearance of Aβ. Our findings indicate that in AD, clusterin increases, particularly in regions with most abundant Aβ, but because the increase does not match the rising level of Aβ42, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 in those regions falls, probably contributing to Aβ deposition within the tissue. © 2016

  17. DEPENDENCE OF COUNTRY RISK COMPARED TO THE FOREIGN DEBT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica BĂCESCU-CĂRBUNARU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some of the fundamental aspects of country risk’dependence compared to foreign debt level. Starting from external debt burden we analyze the usage of foreign loans, foreign debt bearing capacity as well as the availability of data regarding the external debt. Country risk represents the exposure to losses which may occur in a business with a foreign partner, caused by specific events that are, at least partially, controlled by the partner country’ government. Macroeconomic analysis of economic and financial component of country risk involves how this risk is influenced by government policy, by the economic role of government, bypricing strategies, investment priorities, financial structures, macroeconomic policy, by the ability to obtain foreign funds, the level of external debt as well as the liquidity and cash flows in that country.

  18. Stochastic Model for Population Exposed to Low Level Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the stochastic model for population size, i.e. calculation of the number of deaths due to lethal stochastic health effects caused by the exposure to low level ionising radiation is presented. The model is defined for subpopulation with parameter (a, b) being fixed. Using the corresponding density function, it is possible to find all the quantities of interest by averaging over whole possible values for (a, l). All processes ar at first defined for one radionuclide, exposure pathway and the health effect under consideration. The results obtained in this paper are the basic quantities in the risk assessment, loss of life expectancy etc. The results presented in this paper are also applicable to the other sources of low level risk, not only the radiation risk

  19. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the ... to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community ... causes of maternal mortality at the country level in ... Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar, .... cyclones, and crime can be associated with.

  20. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  1. Sound Levels and Risk Perceptions of Music Students During Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Amorim, Marta; Silva, Manuela V; Neves, Paula; Sousa, Aida; Inácio, Octávio

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that professional musicians are at risk of hearing damage due to the exposure to high sound pressure levels during music playing. However, it is important to recognize that the musicians' exposure may start early in the course of their training as students in the classroom and at home. Studies regarding sound exposure of music students and their hearing disorders are scarce and do not take into account important influencing variables. Therefore, this study aimed to describe sound level exposures of music students at different music styles, classes, and according to the instrument played. Further, this investigation attempted to analyze the perceptions of students in relation to exposure to loud music and consequent health risks, as well as to characterize preventive behaviors. The results showed that music students are exposed to high sound levels in the course of their academic activity. This exposure is potentiated by practice outside the school and other external activities. Differences were found between music style, instruments, and classes. Tinnitus, hyperacusis, diplacusis, and sound distortion were reported by the students. However, students were not entirely aware of the health risks related to exposure to high sound pressure levels. These findings reflect the importance of starting intervention in relation to noise risk reduction at an early stage, when musicians are commencing their activity as students.

  2. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  3. Determination of risk factors and level of awareness of caprine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Oju, goats are the major livestock kept and there is a well established goat market held every five days. This study was aimed at determining the risk factors associated with caprine brucellosis and assessing level of awareness amongst goat owners in Oju Local Government Area (LGA) of Benue State using a structured ...

  4. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  5. Level-1 seismic probabilistic risk assessment for a PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Keisuke; Nishio, Masahide; Fujimoto, Haruo; Ichitsuka, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, revised Seismic Design Guidelines for the domestic light water reactors was published on September 19, 2006. These new guidelines have introduced the purpose to confirm that residual risk resulting from earthquake that exceeds the design limit seismic ground motion (Ss) is sufficiently small, based on the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) method, in addition to conventional deterministic design base methodology. In response to this situation, JNES had been working to improve seismic PRA (SPRA) models for individual domestic light water reactors. In case of PWR in Japan, total of 24 plants were grouped into 11 categories to develop individual SPRA model. The new regulatory rules against the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plants' severe accidents occurred on March 11, 2011, are going to be enforced in July 2013 and utilities are necessary to implement additional safety measures to avoid and mitigate severe accident occurrence due to external events such as earthquake and tsunami, by referring to the results of severe accident study including SPRA. In this paper a SPRA model development for a domestic 3-loop PWR plant as part of the above-mentioned 11 categories is described. We paid special attention to how to categorize initiating events that are specific to seismic phenomena and how to confirm the effect of the simultaneous failure probability calculation model for the multiple components on the result of core damage frequency evaluation. Simultaneous failure probability for multiple components has been evaluated by power multiplier method. Then tentative level-1 seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) has been performed by the developed SPSA model with seismic hazard and fragility data. The base case was evaluated under the condition with calculated fragility data and conventional power multiplier. The difference in CDF between the case of conventional power multiplier and that of power multiplier=1 (complete dependence) was estimated to be

  6. Can stress increase Alzheimer's disease risk in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lena

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptides and neurofibrilllary tangles in brain, resulting in neuronal death and loss of cognitive abilities. It has been hypothesized that longstanding psychological stress can result in neural degeneration and AD due to pathological alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In recent years several epidemiological studies been published on stress as a risk factor for AD. As women are more likely to suffer from stress-related psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and clinical burnout syndrome, special effort has been made according to the gender differences in risk of AD. However, few studies have stratified for gender, due to small sample sizes and limited statistic power, and no reliable findings have been found. Additional longitudinal studies are therefore needed for studying gender differences and for determining what mediates the stress and AD association, in both genders.

  7. Type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Aryangat, Ajikumar V; Gerich, John E

    2010-01-01

    Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...

  8. Concussions in Community-Level Rugby: Risk, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R Kyle; Hrubeniuk, Travis J; Witiw, Christopher D; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff

    Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions. Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk. Cross-sectional analysis. Level 3. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to all 464 senior rugby players registered in the province of Manitoba in 2015. Two primary domains were assessed: (1) concussion history from the preceding season including occurrence, symptomatology, and impact on daily activities and (2) knowledge and attitudes toward concussion risks and management. In total, 284 (61.2%) rugby players responded. Concussive symptoms were reported by 106 (37.3%). Of those, 87% were formally diagnosed with a concussion and 27% missed school and/or work as a result. The danger of playing while symptomatic was recognized by 93.7% of participants, yet 29% indicated they would continue while symptomatic. Furthermore, 39% felt they were letting others down if they stopped playing due to a concussion. Concussive symptoms were common among the study cohort and had a notable impact on daily activities. A high proportion of players were willing to continue while experiencing symptoms despite recognizing the danger. The observed discord between knowledge and attitudes implicates a culture of "playing injured." Understanding the risk of injury may affect an individual's decision to participate in community-level rugby. Moreover, evidence of discord between the knowledge and attitudes of players may direct future research initiatives and league governance.

  9. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodale, Ilie; Florescu, Simin-Aysel; Roman, Constantin; Acatrinei, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers' immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007–2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority. PMID:27847824

  10. Climate Change Is Increasing the Risk of the Reemergence of Malaria in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ivanescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic modifications lead to global warming; favouring the risk of the appearance and development of diseases are considered until now tropical diseases. Another important factor is the workers’ immigration, the economic crisis favouring the passive transmission of new species of culicidae from different areas. Malaria is the disease with the widest distribution in the globe. Millions of people are infected every year in Africa, India, South-East Asia, Middle East, and Central and South America, with more than 41% of the global population under the risk of infestation with malaria. The increase of the number of local cases reported in 2007–2011 indicates that the conditions can favour the high local transmission in the affected areas. In the situation presented, the establishment of the level of risk concerning the reemergence of malaria in Romania becomes a priority.

  11. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. © 2016 World Psychiatric Association.

  12. Traditional marijuana, high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose‐response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co‐administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high‐potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:27717258

  13. Application of Fuzzy Logic Inference System, Interval Numbers and Mapping Operator for Determination of Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Omidvar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Due to the features such as intuitive graphical appearance, ease of perception and straightforward applicability, risk matrix has become as one of the most used risk assessment tools. On the other hand, features such as the lack of precision in the classification of risk index, as well as subjective computational process, has limited its use. In order to solve this problem, in the current study we used fuzzy logic inference systems and mathematical operators (interval numbers and mapping operator. Methods: In this study, first 10 risk scenarios in the excavation and piping process were selected, then the outcome of the risk assessment were studied using four types of matrix including traditional (ORM, displaced cells (RCM , extended (ERM and fuzzy (FRM risk matrixes. Results: The results showed that the use of FRM and ERM matrix have prority, due to the high level of " Risk Tie Density" (RTD and "Risk Level Density" (RLD in the ORM and RCM matrix, as well as more accurate results presented in FRM and ERM, in risk assessment. While, FRM matrix provides more reliable results due to the application of fuzzy membership functions. Conclusion: Using new mathematical issues such as fuzzy sets and arithmetic and mapping operators for risk assessment could improve the accuracy of risk matrix and increase the reliability of the risk assessment results, when the accurate data are not available, or its data are avaliable in a limit range.

  14. Increased levels of circulating arginase I in overweight compared to normal weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John

    2014-02-01

    Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Low dose diagnostic radiation does not increase cancer risk in cancer prone mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D., E-mail: dboreham@nosm.ca [Northern Ontario School of Medicine, ON (Canada); Phan, N., E-mail: nghiphan13@yahoo.com [Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Lemon, J., E-mail: lemonja@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The increased exposure of patients to low dose diagnostic ionizing radiation has created concern that these procedures will result in greater risk of carcinogenesis. However, there is substantial evidence that shows in many cases that low dose exposure has the opposite effect. We have investigated whether CT scans can modify mechanisms associated with carcinogenesis in cancer-prone mice. Cancer was induced in Trp53+/- mice with an acute high dose whole-body 4 Gy γ-radiation exposure. Four weeks following the cancer-inducing dose, weekly whole-body CT scans (10 mGy/scan, 75 kVp X-rays) were given for ten consecutive weeks adding an additional radiation burden of 0.1 Gy. Short-term biological responses and subsequent lifetime cancer risk were investigated. Five days following the last CT scan, there were no detectable differences in the spontaneous levels of DNA damage in blood cells (reticulocytes). In fact, CT scanned mice had significantly lower constitutive levels of oxidative DNA damage and cell death (apoptosis), compared to non-CT scanned mice. This shows that multiple low dose radiation exposures modified the radio response and indicates protective processes were induced in mice. In mice treated with the multiple CT scans following the high cancer-inducing 4 Gy dose, tumour latency was increased, significantly prolonging lifespan. We conclude that repeated CT scans can reduce the cancer risk of a prior high-dose radiation exposure, and delay the progression of specific types of radiation-induced cancers in Trp53+/-mice. This research shows for the first time that low dose exposure long after cancer initiation events alter risk and reduce cancer morbidity. Cancer induction following low doses does not follow a linear non-threshold model of risk and this model should not be used to extrapolate risk to humans following low dose exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  16. Effect of elevated levels of coagulation factors on the risk of venous thrombosis in long-distance travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2009-01-01

    Risk of venous thrombosis is increased after long-distance travel. Identifying high-risk groups may provide a basis for targeted prevention. We assessed the effect of increased levels of coagulation factors and combinations of risk factors in travelers in a large case-control study. We calculated

  17. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    ... in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  18. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    ... skills in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  19. Balanced Physical Exercise Increase Physical Fitness, Optimize Endorphin Levels, and Decrease Malondialdehyde Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Adams Pangkahila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness determines the level of human health. A good physical fitness can be achieved if conducted with a balance and active physical fitness. The aims of this study was to elucidate the effect of balanced physical exercise on physical fitness, endorphin levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Methods: This study was a true experimental with pretest-posttest control group design using 24 students of IKIP PGRI Denpasar. Selected samples divided into two groups: the control group given conventional physical training (P0 and the treatment group given balanced physical training (P1. Physical fitness tests was performed using Cooper method and blood sampling was done to evaluate the level of endorphins and MDA before (pre test and after (post test treatment of 8 weeks. The data of endorphin and MDA levels were analyzed using independent T test. Whereas, the physical fitness was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Physical fitness of the group given a balanced physical training was significantly higher compare to the group given a conventional physical training (p < 0.05. Balanced physical training was proven to enhance physical fitness as measured by the Cooper method better than conventional physical training. In contrast, the levels of endorphins of the balanced physical training group did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Levels of MDA of balanced physical training group also did not different with the conventional physical training group (p > 0.05. Conclusions: balanced physical training can maintain physical fitness of people and improve the health and quality of life. 

  20. On risk assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major concerns with the continued growth of the nuclear power industry is the production of the high level radioactive wastes. The risks associated with the disposal of these wastes derives from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. In the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected 35 year nuclear power program is determined. An index of relative nuclide hazard appropriate to problems involving the management of high level radioactive wastes is developed. As an illustration of the methodology, risk analyses are made for two proposed methods for waste management: extraterrestrial disposal and interim surface storage. The results of these analyses indicate that, within the assumptions used, the risks of these management schemes are small compared with natural background radiation doses. (Auth.)

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Marie; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intestinal inflammation has been suggested to play a role in development of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). To test the hypothesis that IBD is associated with risk of PD and MSA, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study. DESIGN: The cohort...... patients with UC (HR=1.35; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.52) and not significantly different among patients with Crohn's disease (HR=1.12; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.40). CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide, unselected, cohort study shows a significant association between IBD and later occurrence of PD, which is consistent with recent...

  2. Bacterial infection increases risk of carcinogenesis by targeting mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strickertsson, Jesper A.B.; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2017-01-01

    pathways, and compares the impact of the bacterial alteration of mitochondrial function to that of cancer. Bacterial virulence factors have been demonstrated to induce mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and to modulate DNA repair pathways of the mitochondria. Furthermore, virulence factors can induce...... or impair the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The effect of bacterial targeting of mitochondria is analogous to behavior of mitochondria in a wide array of tumours, and this strongly suggests that mitochondrial targeting of bacteria is a risk factor for carcinogenesis....

  3. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Grunnet, Louise G; Pilgaard, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetic susceptibility, low birth weight (LBW), and aging are key etiological factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. LBW is common among twins. It is unknown whether twin status per se is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, and valid concordance rates of type 2 diabetes...... in twins on a lifetime perspective are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A clinical study was done on a population-based cohort of same-sex elderly monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (n = 297) and singleton control subjects (C) (n = 71) including measures of anthropometry and glucose tolerance...

  4. Weak circadian rhythm increases neutropenia risk among breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Kwok, Carol Chi-Hei; Chan, Dominic Chun-Wan; Wang, Feng; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-04-01

    Severe neutropenia is a common dose-limiting side effect of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy. We aimed to test the hypothesis that weak circadian rhythm is associated with an increased risk of neutropenia using a cohort study. We consecutively recruited 193 breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel; doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide; docetaxel and cyclophosphamide). Participants wore a wrist actigraph continuously for 168 h at the beginning of chemotherapy. Values of percent rhythm and double amplitude below medians represented weak circadian rhythm. Mesor measured the mean activity level and acrophase symboled the peak time of the rhythm. We used Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of grade 4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in relation to actigraphy-derived parameters. Low levels of percent rhythm (HR:2.59, 95% CI 1.50-4.72), double amplitude (HR:2.70, 95% CI 1.51-4.85), and mesor (HR: 2.48, 95% CI 1.44-4.29) were positively associated with the risk of grade 4 neutropenia during chemotherapy. Low levels of percent rhythm (HR: 2.41, 95% CI 1.02-5.69) and double amplitude (HR:2.49, 95% CI 1.05-5.90) were also associated with increased risks of febrile neutropenia. The HRs for acrophase were not statistically significant. This study provides the first epidemiological evidence that increased risks of grade 4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia are associated with weak circadian rhythm among adjuvant breast cancer patients. The results suggest that circadian rhythm might be one potential target for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia among cancer patients.

  5. Increased risk for ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours in subfertile women with endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Mooij, T. M.; Burger, C. W.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Kortman, Marian; Laven, Joop S. E.; Jansen, Cees A. M.; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Willemsen, Wim N. P.; Smeenk, Jesper M. J.; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Evers, Johannes L. H.; van Dop, Peter A.; Macklon, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Is ovarian or extra-ovarian endometriosis associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours (BOT)? We found a 3- to 8-fold increased risk of ovarian tumours associated with endometriosis: the magnitude of the risk increase depended on the definition of endometriosis.

  6. Increased risk of hepatitis E in sewage workers from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Tilekar, Bipin N; Walimbe, Atul M; Arankalle, Vidya A

    2003-11-01

    Considering feco-oral transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the risk of the infection was assessed among sewage workers. On the basis of the close contact with sewage, the participants (n = 147) were divided into sewage workers (n = 92) and others (n = 55); none used personal protective equipment (eg, coveralls, boots, gloves) Age-matched individuals from lower socioeconomic status and without any exposure to sewage were used as controls. IgG-anti-HEV positivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P 5 years. Multivariate regression analysis identified contact with sewage as the independent variable associated with anti-HEV positivity. Strict adherence to good working practices must take top priority for protection of these workers from sewage pathogens.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk is not Increased in Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H; Vestergaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    in an Italian cohort as between 0.02% and 0.38%, whereas a German study showed a lifetime prevalence of CU at 1.8% (2, 3). While an association between CU and certain autoimmune diseases is well-established (3), CSU was surprisingly associated with obesity in a recent Italian study (4). Moreover, in a South...... was significantly associated with having received a prior diagnosis of hyperlipidaemia (6). Despite the above observations, no study has examined a possible association between CU and cardiovascular (CV) disease. We therefore investigated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke, CV death, and major...... Korean cohort of 131 patients with CU, metabolic syndrome was present in 30% of patients, and these individuals had particularly poor clinical outcomes and a more severe disease course (5). Finally, a population-based Taiwanese study of 9798 adults with CU recently showed that the condition...

  8. Dysfunctional nitric oxide signalling increases risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Jeanette; Stark, Klaus; Esslinger, Ulrike B; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Koesling, Doris; de Wit, Cor; Kaiser, Frank J; Braunholz, Diana; Medack, Anja; Fischer, Marcus; Zimmermann, Martina E; Tennstedt, Stephanie; Graf, Elisabeth; Eck, Sebastian; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Nahrstaedt, Janja; Willenborg, Christina; Bruse, Petra; Brænne, Ingrid; Nöthen, Markus M; Hofmann, Per; Braund, Peter S; Mergia, Evanthia; Reinhard, Wibke; Burgdorf, Christof; Schreiber, Stefan; Balmforth, Anthony J; Hall, Alistair S; Bertram, Lars; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Li, Shu-Chen; März, Winfried; Reilly, Muredach; Kathiresan, Sekar; McPherson, Ruth; Walter, Ulrich; Ott, Jurg; Samani, Nilesh J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert

    2013-12-19

    Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (α1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCTη, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce α1-sGC as well as β1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in α1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.

  9. Ecological risk assessment of deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Lush, D.L.; Acton, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant fate and transport models, radiological dosimetry models, chemical dose-response models and population dynamic models were used to estimate ecological risks to moose and brook trout populations arising from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Risks from potential contaminant releases were compared with risks from physical habitat alteration in constructing a repository and service community, and with risks from increased hunting and fish pressure in the area. For a reference environment typical of a proposed location somewhere in the Canadian Shield, preliminary results suggest that the population consequences of contaminant release will be minor relative to those of habitat alteration and natural resource use

  10. Podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation and increases risk of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Julia; Preusser, Matthias; Nazari, Pegah Mir Seyed; Posch, Florian; Panzer, Simon; Marosi, Christine; Birner, Peter; Thaler, Johannes; Brostjan, Christine; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2017-03-30

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in patients with brain tumors, and underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that podoplanin, a sialomucin-like glycoprotein, increases the risk of VTE in primary brain tumors via its ability to induce platelet aggregation. Immunohistochemical staining against podoplanin and intratumoral platelet aggregates was performed in brain tumor specimens of 213 patients (mostly high-grade gliomas [89%]) included in the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study, a prospective observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed cancer or progressive disease aimed at identifying patients at risk of VTE. Platelet aggregation in response to primary human glioblastoma cells was investigated in vitro. During 2-year follow-up, 29 (13.6%) patients developed VTE. One-hundred fifty-one tumor specimens stained positive for podoplanin (33 high expression, 47 medium expression, 71 low expression). Patients with podoplanin-positive tumors had lower peripheral blood platelet counts ( P < .001) and higher D-dimer levels ( P < .001). Podoplanin staining intensity was associated with increasing levels of intravascular platelet aggregates in tumor specimens ( P < .001). High podoplanin expression was associated with an increased risk of VTE (hazard ratio for high vs no podoplanin expression: 5.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-21.26; P = 010), independent of age, sex, and tumor type. Podoplanin-positive primary glioblastoma cells induced aggregation of human platelets in vitro, which could be abrogated by an antipodoplanin antibody. In conclusion, high podoplanin expression in primary brain tumors induces platelet aggregation, correlates with hypercoagulability, and is associated with increased risk of VTE. Our data indicate novel insights into the pathogenesis of VTE in primary brain tumors. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Estimating Worker Risk Levels Using Accident/Incident Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenoyer, Judson L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Andrews, William B.; Scherpelz, Robert I.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.

    2000-09-26

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to identify methods that are currently being used in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to identify and control hazards/risks in the workplace, evaluate them in terms of their effectiveness in reducing risk to the workers, and to develop a preliminary method that could be used to predict the relative risks to workers performing proposed tasks using some of the current methodology. This report describes some of the performance indicators (i.e., safety metrics) that are currently being used to track relative levels of workplace safety in the DOE complex, how these fit into an Integrated Safety Management (ISM) system, some strengths and weaknesses of using a statistically based set of indicators, and methods to evaluate them. Also discussed are methods used to reduce risk to the workers and some of the techniques that appear to be working in the process of establishing a condition of continuous improvement. The results of these methods will be used in future work involved with the determination of modifying factors for a more complex model. The preliminary method to predict the relative risk level to workers during an extended future time period is based on a currently used performance indicator that uses several factors tracked in the CAIRS. The relative risks for workers in a sample (but real) facility on the Hanford site are estimated for a time period of twenty years and are based on workforce predictions. This is the first step in developing a more complex model that will incorporate other modifying factors related to the workers, work environment and status of the ISM system to adjust the preliminary prediction.

  12. Increase of baclofen intoxications : risks involved and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbouw, M E L; Hoge, H L; Meulenbelt, J; Jansman, F G A

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen has been increasingly used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). We present a patient with AWS and psychiatric comorbidity who ingested 700 mg of baclofen. ICU admission was necessary for ventilatory support and symptomatic treatment. The patient was dismissed without

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels. The results need to be confirmed by a study that will be conducted in a larger patient group also including a healthy control group to demonstrate the

  14. Endometriosis increases the risk of obstetrical and neonatal complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, Janne Foss; Hartwell, Dorthe; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess obstetrical complications and neonatal outcomes in women with endometriosis as compared with women without endometriosis. Material and methods: National cohort including all delivering women and their newborns in Denmark 1997–2014. Data were...... extracted from the Danish Health Register and the Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression analysis provided odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sub-analyses were made for primiparous women with a singleton pregnancy and for women with endometriosis who underwent gynecological surgery...... before pregnancy. Results: In 19 331 deliveries, women with endometriosis had a higher risk of severe preeclampsia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5–2.0), hemorrhage in pregnancy (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.0–2.5), placental abruption (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.3), placenta previa (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.5–4.3), premature rupture...

  15. Increased risk taking in relation to chronic stress in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandita eCeccato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured learning-independent risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS. We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify chronic cortisol exposure. We discovered a significant, positive correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.

  16. Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootzén, Holger; Katz, Richard W.

    2013-09-01

    In the past, the concepts of return levels and return periods have been standard and important tools for engineering design. However, these concepts are based on the assumption of a stationary climate and do not apply to a changing climate, whether local or global. In this paper, we propose a refined concept, Design Life Level, which quantifies risk in a nonstationary climate and can serve as the basis for communication. In current practice, typical hydrologic risk management focuses on a standard (e.g., in terms of a high quantile corresponding to the specified probability of failure for a single year). Nevertheless, the basic information needed for engineering design should consist of (i) the design life period (e.g., the next 50 years, say 2015-2064); and (ii) the probability (e.g., 5% chance) of a hazardous event (typically, in the form of the hydrologic variable exceeding a high level) occurring during the design life period. Capturing both of these design characteristics, the Design Life Level is defined as an upper quantile (e.g., 5%) of the distribution of the maximum value of the hydrologic variable (e.g., water level) over the design life period. We relate this concept and variants of it to existing literature and illustrate how they, and some useful complementary plots, may be computed and used. One practically important consideration concerns quantifying the statistical uncertainty in estimating a high quantile under nonstationarity.

  17. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections.

  18. Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall B; Miguel, Edward; Satyanath, Shanker; Dykema, John A; Lobell, David B

    2009-12-08

    Armed conflict within nations has had disastrous humanitarian consequences throughout much of the world. Here we undertake the first comprehensive examination of the potential impact of global climate change on armed conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We find strong historical linkages between civil war and temperature in Africa, with warmer years leading to significant increases in the likelihood of war. When combined with climate model projections of future temperature trends, this historical response to temperature suggests a roughly 54% increase in armed conflict incidence by 2030, or an additional 393,000 battle deaths if future wars are as deadly as recent wars. Our results suggest an urgent need to reform African governments' and foreign aid donors' policies to deal with rising temperatures.

  19. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  20. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco

    2012-05-01

    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  1. Risks of increased UV-B radiation for humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybilla, B.; Eberlein-Koenig, B.; Bergner, T.

    1994-01-01

    If not compensated in any way, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer leads to an increase of UV-B radiation at the earth's surface, especially towards the short-wave range, which is biologically the more active. The most concerning effect here is that of UV-B induced skin reactions, in particular malignant skintumors (malignant melanoma, spinocellular carcinoma, basalioma), whose incidence is expected to increase in future. As some photoreactions can be inhibited or enhanced also by radiation outside their action spectrum, it is possible for changes in solar spectral radiation flux density to influence photo-induced reactions that are driven at wavelengths outside the UV-B range. The authors have performed studies for developing methods of quantifying individual UV sensitivity. In vitro studies have shown that UV-A dependent photoreactions can be partly inhibited by UV-B. A number of drugs, as well as sulphites, which are used as preservatives amongst other things, have been shown to have phototoxic properties that may be relevant to photocarcinogenesis. Irradiation tests on cell cultures for different UV-B ranges have shown that irradiation at shorter wavelengths leads to a stronger release of proinflammatory cytokines that ar longer wavelengths with the same dose. Altogether it can be said that despite compelling theoretical evidence it is not easily possible to predict the actual consequences of an increase in particular of short-wave UV-B radiation at the earth's surface. The assumed effects must be examined individually by appropriate methods. (orig.) [de

  2. Are certain fractures at increased risk for compartment syndrome after civilian ballistic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskey, Thomas; Hardcastle, John; O'Toole, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    Compartment syndrome after ballistic fracture is uncommon but potentially devastating. Few data are available to help guide clinicians regarding risk factors for developing compartment syndrome after ballistic fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that ballistic fractures of certain bones would be at higher risk for development of compartment syndrome. A retrospective review at a Level I trauma center from 2001 through 2007 yielded 650 patients with 938 fractures resulting from gunshots. We reviewed all operative notes, clinic notes, discharge summaries, and data from our prospective trauma database. Cases in which the attending orthopedic surgeon diagnosed compartment syndrome and performed fasciotomy were considered cases with compartment syndrome. We excluded all prophylactic fasciotomies. Univariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with development of compartment syndrome. Twenty-six (2.8%) of the 938 fractures were associated with compartment syndrome. Only fibular (11.6%) and tibial (11.4%) fractures had incidence significantly higher than baseline for all ballistic fractures (p Ballistic fractures of the fibula and tibia are at increased risk for development of compartment syndrome over other ballistic fractures. We recommend increased vigilance when treating these injuries, particularly if the fracture is in the proximal aspect of the bone or is associated with vascular injury.

  3. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  4. Factors increasing the risk of inactivity among administrative, technical, and manual workers in Warszawa public institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to assess the level of physical activity among administrative, technical, and manual workers employed in Warszawa public institutions and to analyze the factors that increase the risk of failing to meet World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The study comprised 373 employees of randomly selected institutions. A short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was applied. The correlation between the mean values of duration, days, MET-min/week of efforts, gender, and type of work was analyzed using the Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test, while the correlation between the level of physical activity and the socio-demographic characteristics was assessed with the Chi2 test. The strength of the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and fulfilment of WHO standards was expressed by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The significance level was p = 0.05. High levels of physical activity were declared by 41.8% of the manual workers, 14.7% of the administration staff, and 7.3% of the technicians; 19%, 31.5% and 54.5%, respectively, reported low levels of physical activity. Factors determining the fulfilment of the WHO recommendations include: the nature of work (p = 0.003), education (p = 0.004), and income (p = 0.003). The risk of being inactive nearly doubles in the case of administration staff (31.5%) and increases more than 4 times in the case of technicians (54.5%). Respondents with secondary school education (31.6%) are exposed to a 3-fold higher risk of inactivity, while in respondents with higher education (37.2%), the level of the risk is 4-fold higher. Compared to those in the highest income group (23.4%), people who earn less (34.1%) are inactive almost twice as often. Urgent intervention is necessary in all studied groups: increased energy expenditure for recreation and locomotion, educational offers of employers to promote healthy lifestyle, management of

  5. Impact of increasing alanine aminotransferase levels within normal range on incident diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chong-Shan Wang; Ting-Tsung Chang; Wei-Jen Yao; Shan-Tair Wang; Pesus Chou

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal alanine aminotransferase level (ALT) levels might be associated with type 2 diabetes, but whether higher ALT levels within the normal range predict the risk is unknown. Methods: We followed a community-based cohort of 3446 individuals who were ≥35 years old without diabetes and hepatitis B or C in southern Taiwan for 8 years (1997–2004) to study the risk for type 2 diabetes with different normal ALT levels. Results: Among the 337 incident diabetes cases, 16.0% were from those w...

  6. Polymorphisms of the DNA methyltransferase 1 associated with reduced risks of Helicobacter pylori infection and increased risks of gastric atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DNA methyltransferase-1(DNMT1 is an important enzyme in determining genomic methylation patterns in mammalian cells. We investigated the associations between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risks of developing H. pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: The study consisted of 447 patients with gastric cancer; 111 patients with gastric atrophy; and 961 healthy controls. Five SNPs, rs10420321, rs16999593, rs8101866, rs8111085 and rs2288349 of the DNMT1 gene were genotyped. Anti-H.pylori IgG was detected by ELISA. Gastric atrophy was screened by the level of serum pepsinogen Ι and II and then confirmed by endoscopy and histopatholgical examinations. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted OR of H. pylori seropositivity was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.51-0.87 for rs8111085 TC/CC genotypes, significantly lower than the TT genotype in healthy controls. The adjusted OR of H.pylori seropositivity was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.52-0.89 for rs10420321 AG/GG genotypes. In addition, patients carrying rs2228349 AA genotype have a significantly increased risk for H.pylori seropositivity (OR=1.67; 95%CI: 1.02-2.75. Further haplotype analyses also showed that the ATTTG and ATCTA are significantly associated with increased risks in H.pylori infection compared to the GTCCG haplotype (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.77; OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.80. The adjusted ORs of gastric atrophy were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.06-2.61 for rs10420321 GG genotype, and 1.67 (95%CI 1.06-2.63, P=0.03 for rs8111085 CC genotype, but no association was found between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with rs10420321 GG and rs8111085 CC genotype of the DNMT1 gene were associated with reduced risks for H.pylori infection. On the other hand, higher risks of gastric atrophy were found in the carriers with these two genotypes compared to other genotypes. Our results suggested that SNPs of DNMT1 could be used as genotypic

  7. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB rate of PTB poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  8. Stochastic arrangement increasing risks in financial engineering andactuarial science – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We review recent research results on stochastic arrangement increasing risks in financialand actuarial risk management, including allocation of deductibles and coverage limits concerned withmultiple dependent risks in an insurance policy, the independence model and the threshold models fora portfolio of defaults risks with dependence, and the optimal capital allocation for a financial institutewith multiple line of business.

  9. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  10. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  11. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  12. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  13. Using dynamic walking models to identify factors that contribute to increased risk of falling in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Paulien E; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2013-10-01

    Falls are common in older adults. The most common cause of falls is tripping while walking. Simulation studies demonstrated that older adults may be restricted by lower limb strength and movement speed to regain balance after a trip. This review examines how modeling approaches can be used to determine how different measures predict actual fall risk and what some of the causal mechanisms of fall risk are. Although increased gait variability predicts increased fall risk experimentally, it is not clear which variability measures could best be used, or what magnitude of change corresponded with increased fall risk. With a simulation study we showed that the increase in fall risk with a certain increase in gait variability was greatly influenced by the initial level of variability. Gait variability can therefore not easily be used to predict fall risk. We therefore explored other measures that may be related to fall risk and investigated the relationship between stability measures such as Floquet multipliers and local divergence exponents and actual fall risk in a dynamic walking model. We demonstrated that short-term local divergence exponents were a good early predictor for fall risk. Neuronal noise increases with age. It has however not been fully understood if increased neuronal noise would cause an increased fall risk. With our dynamic walking model we showed that increased neuronal noise caused increased fall risk. Although people who are at increased risk of falling reduce their walking speed it had been questioned whether this slower speed would actually cause a reduced fall risk. With our model we demonstrated that a reduced walking speed caused a reduction in fall risk. This may be due to the decreased kinematic variability as a result of the reduced signal-dependent noise of the smaller muscle forces that are required for slower. These insights may be used in the development of fall prevention programs in order to better identify those at increased risk of

  14. Using Dynamic Walking Models to Identify Factors that Contribute to Increased Risk of Falling in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Paulien E.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Falls are common in older adults. The most common cause of falls is tripping while walking. Simulation studies demonstrated that older adults may be restricted by lower limb strength and movement speed to regain balance after a trip. This review examines how modeling approaches can be used to determine how different measures predict actual fall risk and what some of the causal mechanisms of fall risk are. Although increased gait variability predicts increased fall risk experimentally, it is not clear which variability measures could best be used, or what magnitude of change corresponded with increased fall risk. With a simulation study we showed that the increase in fall risk with a certain increase in gait variability was greatly influenced by the initial level of variability. Gait variability can therefore not easily be used to predict fall risk. We therefore explored other measures that may be related to fall risk and investigated the relationship between stability measures such as Floquet multipliers and local divergence exponents and actual fall risk in a dynamic walking model. We demonstrated that short-term local divergence exponents were a good early predictor for fall risk. Neuronal noise increases with age. It has however not been fully understood if increased neuronal noise would cause an increased fall risk. With our dynamic walking model we showed that increased neuronal noise caused increased fall risk. Although people who are at increased risk of falling reduce their walking speed it had been questioned whether this slower speed would actually cause a reduced fall risk. With our model we demonstrated that a reduced walking speed caused a reduction in fall risk. This may be due to the decreased kinematic variability as a result of the reduced signal-dependent noise of the smaller muscle forces that are required for slower. These insights may be used in the development of fall prevention programs in order to better identify those at increased risk of

  15. Changes in Classes of Injury-Related Risks and Consequences of Risk-Level Drinking: a Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald; Field, Craig; Caetano, Raul

    2015-07-01

    Risk-level drinking, drinking and driving, and alcohol-related violence are risk factors that result in injuries. The current study sought to identify which subgroups of patients experience the most behavioral change following a brief intervention. A secondary analysis of data from a brief alcohol intervention study was conducted. The sample (N = 664) includes at-risk drinkers who experienced an injury and were admitted for care to a Level 1 trauma center. Injury-related items from the Short Inventory of Problems+6 were used to perform a latent transition analysis to describe class transitions participants experienced following discharge. Four classes emerged for the year before and after the current injury. Most individuals transitioned from higher-risk classes into those with lower risk. Some participants maintained risky profiles, and others increased risks and consequences. Drinking and driving remained a persistent problem among the study participants. Although a large portion of intervention recipients improved risks and consequences of alcohol use following discharge, more intensive intervention services may be needed for a subset of patients who showed little or no improvement.

  16. Patients with rosacea have increased risk of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Hansen, Peter R; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-01-01

    forms of dementia such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Based on several clinical observations, we investigated the association between rosacea and dementia, including AD in Danish registers. METHODS: All Danish citizens aged ≥18 years between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2012 were linked...... at the individual level through administrative registers. Cox regression was used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: The study comprised a total of 5,591,718 individuals, including 82,439 patients with rosacea. A total of 99,040 individuals developed dementia (any form) in the study...... period, of whom 29,193 were diagnosed with AD. The adjusted HRs of dementia and AD were 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.14), and 1.25 (95% CI = 1.14-1.37), respectively, in patients with rosacea. Stratified by sex, the HRs of AD were 1.28 (95% CI = 1.15-1.45) and 1.16 (95% CI = 1...

  17. Geographical variance in the risk of gastric stump cancer: no increased risk in Japan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersmette, A. C.; Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tersmette, K. W.; Ohara, K.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical differences may exist in the risk of gastric stump cancer. Therefore, we performed meta-analysis of literature reports in Japan (n = 3), the USA (n = 4), and Europe (n = 20) on the risk of postgastrectomy cancer. The weighted mean relative risk of stump cancer in Japan was 0.28, 95%

  18. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  19. Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harley, M

    2010-10-01

    Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

  20. Endocan is a predictor of increased cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Merve; Guler, Aslı; Unal Kocabas, Gokcen; Imamoglu, Cetin; Baloglu, Ali; Bilgir, Oktay; Yuksel, Arif; Bozkaya, Giray; Calan, Mehmet

    2017-05-01

    Endocan is a proteoglycan secreted mainly from endothelial cells. It has been implicated that there is a link between endocan and endothelial dysfunction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether circulating endocan levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between endocan and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT). This cross-sectional study included 80 women with PCOS and 80 age- and BMI-matched controls without PCOS. Circulating endocan levels were measured using ELISA. Metabolic, hormonal parameters and cIMT were determined. 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2-h OGTT) was performed on all women. Circulating endocan levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOS compared with controls (5.99 ± 2.37 vs. 3.66 ± 1.79 ng/ml, P insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), free androgen index (FAI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and cIMT in both PCOS and control groups. Endocan levels did not correlate with fasting blood glucose, 2-h OGTT, A1 C and lipid parameters. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that endocan is an independent predictor for cIMT (β = 0.128, 95% CI = 0.118-0.138, P = 0.011). Circulating endocan levels are significantly higher in women with PCOS and endocan is independently associated with cIMT. Elevated endocan levels can be a predictor of increased cardiovascular risk in PCOS subjects.

  1. The effect of dietary sugars on triacylglycerol metabolism in subjects at increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar diet may increase plasma triacylglycerol (TG) levels and cause dyslipidaemia, resulting in a higher cardiometabolic risk. High sugar intake may also promote the accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver. Objectives: To determine the effect of two isocaloric diets, low and high in extrinsic sugars (6% or 26% total energy respectively corresponding to the lower and upper 2.5th percentile of the intake in men aged 40-65 in the UK) but with the same total carbohydrate co...

  2. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    Full Text Available A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans.Circulating irisin levels (ELISA and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women. Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence.Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006. Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p < 0.0001. The increase in irisin levels related to an active lifestyle was only observed in rural citizens (p = 0.014. Among sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides. The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = < 0.0001 contributed independently to circulating irisin levels variance after controlling for age, gender, BMI, HOMAIR, triglycerides and physical activity.In sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  3. Selenium deficiency risk predicted to increase under future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gerrad D; Droz, Boris; Greve, Peter; Gottschalk, Pia; Poffet, Deyan; McGrath, Steve P; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Smith, Pete; Winkel, Lenny H E

    2017-03-14

    Deficiencies of micronutrients, including essential trace elements, affect up to 3 billion people worldwide. The dietary availability of trace elements is determined largely by their soil concentrations. Until now, the mechanisms governing soil concentrations have been evaluated in small-scale studies, which identify soil physicochemical properties as governing variables. However, global concentrations of trace elements and the factors controlling their distributions are virtually unknown. We used 33,241 soil data points to model recent (1980-1999) global distributions of Selenium (Se), an essential trace element that is required for humans. Worldwide, up to one in seven people have been estimated to have low dietary Se intake. Contrary to small-scale studies, soil Se concentrations were dominated by climate-soil interactions. Using moderate climate-change scenarios for 2080-2099, we predicted that changes in climate and soil organic carbon content will lead to overall decreased soil Se concentrations, particularly in agricultural areas; these decreases could increase the prevalence of Se deficiency. The importance of climate-soil interactions to Se distributions suggests that other trace elements with similar retention mechanisms will be similarly affected by climate change.

  4. Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Hossein Rahvar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the most common cause of death in the world. Recent studies have shown an association between adrenal insufficiency (AI and increased cardiovascular risk (CVR. Patients with AI receive glucocorticoid (GC replacement therapy which can lead to varying levels of blood cortisol. It was shown that these imbalances in blood cortisol may lead to a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease, major adverse coronary events, and increased mortality. GC substitution is essential in the treatment of AI without which the disease has been shown to be fatal. The most frequently used GC formula for replacement therapy is hydrocortisone (HC. There is no uniform opinion on hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Alternative GC such as prednisolone is also in use. Overreplacement of GC may lead to adverse effects including obesity, high blood pressure, and hyperglycaemia. Outcome may vary between primary and secondary AI mainly due to differences in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS. Furthermore, decreased blood levels of cortisol may lead to a compensatory secretion of inflammatory mediators such as Interleukin-1 (IL-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and/or tumor-necrosis factor (TNF. Physicians and patients should be properly educated about the increased risk of CVD in patients with AI.

  5. Motion sickness increases the risk of accidental hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Gerard; Eiken, Ola; Tribukait, Arne; Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2006-09-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been found to increase body-core cooling during immersion in 28 degrees C water, an effect ascribed to attenuation of the cold-induced peripheral vasoconstriction (Mekjavic et al. in J Physiol 535(2):619-623, 2001). The present study tested the hypothesis that a more profound cold stimulus would override the MS effect on peripheral vasoconstriction and hence on the core cooling rate. Eleven healthy subjects underwent two separate head-out immersions in 15 degrees C water. In the control trial (CN), subjects were immersed after baseline measurements. In the MS-trial, subjects were rendered motion sick prior to immersion, by using a rotating chair in combination with a regimen of standardized head movements. During immersion in the MS-trial, subjects were exposed to an optokinetic stimulus (rotating drum). At 5-min intervals subjects rated their temperature perception, thermal comfort and MS discomfort. During immersion mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (DeltaTff), oxygen uptake and heart rate were recorded. In the MS-trial, rectal temperature decreased substantially faster (33%, P < 0.01). Also, the DeltaTff response, an index of peripheral vasomotor tone, as well as the oxygen uptake, indicative of the shivering response, were significantly attenuated (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively) by MS. Thus, MS may predispose individuals to hypothermia by enhancing heat loss and attenuating heat production. This might have significant implications for survival in maritime accidents.

  6. Elevated C-peptide and insulin predict increased risk of colorectal adenomas in normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Keku, Temitope O; Lund, Pauline Kay; Hoyo, Cathrine; Galanko, Joseph; Burcal, Lauren; Holston, Rachel; Massa, Berri; Omofoye, Oluwaseun; Sandler, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Lower concentrations of the insulin–like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and elevated concentrations of insulin or C-peptide have been associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk (CRC). However few studies have evaluated IGFBP-1 and C-peptide in relation to adenomatous polyps, the only known precursor for CRC. Between November 2001 and December 2002, we examined associations between circulating concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, IGFBP-1 and apoptosis among 190 individuals with one or more adenomatous polyps and 488 with no adenomatous polyps using logistic regression models. Individuals with the highest concentrations of C-peptide were more likely to have adenomas (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-4.0) than those with the lowest concentrations; associations that appeared to be stronger in men (OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-10.9) than women. Individuals with high insulin concentrations also had a higher risk of adenomas (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.7-7.4), whereas higher levels of IGFBP-1 were associated with a reduced risk of adenomas in men only (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Overweight and obese individuals with higher C-peptide levels (>1 st Q) were at increased risk for lower apoptosis index (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 0.9-7.1), an association that remained strong in overweight and obese men (OR = 6.3, 95% CI 1.0-36.7). Higher levels of IGFBP-1 in overweight and obese individuals were associated with a reduced risk of low apoptosis (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-1.0). Associations between these peptides and the apoptosis index in overweight and obese individuals, suggest that the mechanism by which C-peptide could induce adenomas may include its anti-apoptotic properties. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia and IGF hormones predict adenoma risk, and that outcomes associated with colorectal carcinogenesis maybe modified by gender

  7. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  8. County-level job automation risk and health: Evidence from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pankaj C; Devaraj, Srikant; Hicks, Michael J; Wornell, Emily J

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have observed a positive association between automation risk and employment loss. Based on the job insecurity-health risk hypothesis, greater exposure to automation risk could also be negatively associated with health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the county-level association between prevalence of workers in jobs exposed to automation risk and general, physical, and mental health outcomes. As a preliminary assessment of the job insecurity-health risk hypothesis (automation risk → job insecurity → poorer health), a structural equation model was used based on individual-level data in the two cross-sectional waves (2012 and 2014) of General Social Survey (GSS). Next, using county-level data from County Health Rankings 2017, American Community Survey (ACS) 2015, and Statistics of US Businesses 2014, Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regression models were fitted to predict county-level health outcomes. Using the 2012 and 2014 waves of the GSS, employees in occupational classes at higher risk of automation reported more job insecurity, that, in turn, was associated with poorer health. The 2SLS estimates show that a 10% increase in automation risk at county-level is associated with 2.38, 0.8, and 0.6 percentage point lower general, physical, and mental health, respectively. Evidence suggests that exposure to automation risk may be negatively associated with health outcomes, plausibly through perceptions of poorer job security. More research is needed on interventions aimed at mitigating negative influence of automation risk on health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malý Marek

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146 and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446 was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p 95= 1.76–4.01 times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p 95 = 1.14–3.03 for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16, higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.39–9.59 for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64, and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89–135.66 for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem.

  10. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  11. Studying borrower level risk characteristics of education loan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the granular level risk of education loan using a cross section of data from 5000 borrowers obtained from four major public sector banks in India. The findings suggest that education loan defaults are mainly influenced by security, borrower margin, and repayment periods. The presence of guarantor or co-borrower and collateral significantly reduce default loss rates. The socioeconomic characteristics of borrowers and their regional locations also act as important factors associated with education loan defaults. The results suggest that by segmenting borrowers by probability of default and loss given default in a multidimensional scale, banks can adopt better risk mitigation and pricing strategies to resolve borrower problems.

  12. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Mac Farlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  13. Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and lung cancer risk in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockwell, H.G.; Lyman, G.H.; Waltz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphate deposits of central Florida contain levels of uranium and its daughter products 30-60 times greater than average soils. A case-control study was conducted to assess the risk of lung cancer associated with living on these phosphateic soils. Using the records of the state-wide Florida Cancer Data System to address this issue, all cases of lung cancer among Florida residents in 1981 were identified (n = 7049). Information was obtained regarding residence, age, sex, race, and smoking habits. Controls consisted of 6643 individuals with cancers of the colon or rectum. Residents of the central Florida phosphate region experienced a significant increase in lung cancer risk compared to other Florida residents (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Excess risks appeared concentrated among squamous cell cancer (OR = 1.6) and small cell cancer (OR = 1.6). When smoking habits as well as residential area was considered, no significant excess risk, associated with residence, was observed among nonsmokers or light smokers. Area residents smoking a pack or more per day experienced a 70% increase in lung cancer risk compared to individuals smoking a similar amount but living elsewhere. Highest risks were observed among persons with squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.1) and small cell cancer (OR = 2.5) who smoked more than 40 cigarettes a day. Results suggest exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation increases the lung cancer risk of residents of this area

  14. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  15. Lifetime ATS use and increased HIV risk among not-in-treatment opiate injectors in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarski, Marek C; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Mazlan, Mahmud; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2012-07-01

    Malaysia has been experiencing significant drug abuse problems since the 1970s, and drug abuse is the major driver of HIV transmission in Malaysia. We investigated risk factors for HIV associated with use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) among not-in-treatment opiate injectors in Malaysia. Between October of 2006 and May of 2008, we conducted a series of surveys in three major urban areas of Malaysia. A total of 732 opiate IDUs (679 males and 53 females) were enrolled in the three surveys. The survey instruments consisted of a structured interview on demographic characteristics, drug use history (including year of first use, and past month history of use of illicit drugs; lifetime and past month history of IDU or needle or equipment sharing), and HIV status. There were 194/704 (27.6%) HIV positive participants in the sample. Two factors were significantly associated with HIV infection in this sample: lifetime history of ATS use (OR [95%CI]: 2.3 [1.5-3.6]) and lifetime history of sharing of injection equipment (OR [95% CI]: 4.2 [1.8-9.8]). Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants reported high levels of current needle/equipment sharing practices: 82% vs. 75%, respectively. ATS use spread rapidly in the study sample after 1997 and is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in this population already at high risk because of opiate IDU. Out-of-treatment IDUs in Malaysia engage in high risk behaviors regardless of their HIV status. Increased education and public health prevention measures are needed to reduce HIV transmission risks in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Long-Teng; Li, Tsai-Chung; Sung, Pei-Kun; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2012-08-21

    This study sought to evaluate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. SCH may increase the risks of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. The associations between SCH and all-cause or CVD mortality are uncertain, on the basis of the results of previous studies. A baseline cohort of 115,746 participants without a history of thyroid disease, ≥20 years of age, was recruited in Taiwan. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level of 5.0 to 19.96 mIU/l with normal total thyroxine concentrations. Euthyroidism was defined as a serum TSH level of 0.47 to 4.9 mIU/l. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of death from all-cause and CVD for adults with SCH during a 10-year follow-up period. There were 3,669 deaths during the follow-up period; 680 deaths were due to CVD. Compared with subjects with euthyroidism, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% confidence interval) of deaths from all-cause and CVD among subjects with SCH were 1.30 (1.02 to 1.66), and 1.68 (1.02 to 2.76), respectively. Adult Taiwanese with SCH had an increased risk for all-cause mortality and CVD death. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Urate Level on Cardiovascular Risk in Allopurinol Treated Patients. A Nested Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft Larsen, Kasper; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, Hanne M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gout gives rise to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs, and allopurinol potentially reduces cardiovascular risk. What target level of urate is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known. OBJECTIVES...

  18. Increasing fall risk awareness using wearables: A fall risk awareness protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild

    2016-10-01

    Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2 ) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend  index). Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  20. Catastrophic risks and insurance in farm-level decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: risk perception, risk attitude, catastrophic risk, insurance, farm characteristics, farmer personal characteristics, utility-efficient programming, arable farming, dairy farming

    Catastrophic risks can cause severe cash flow problems for farmers or even result into their

  1. Chronic treatment with tadalafil improves endothelial function in men with increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Aversa, Antonio; Vitale, Cristiana; Fabbri, Andrea; Fini, Massimo; Spera, Giovanni

    2005-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a cluster of risk factors for coronary artery disease and reduced endothelial function. Acute and chronic administration of oral sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, improves endothelial function in patients with ED. Tadalafil (TAD) is a new PDE5 inhibitor with a long half life that allows alternate day administration. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether chronic therapy (4 weeks) with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk and whether this effect is sustained after discontinuation of therapy. We randomized 32 patients with increased cardiovascular risk to receive either TAD 20 mg on alternate days or matching placebo (PLB) for 4 weeks. Patients underwent evaluation of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrite/nitrate and endothelin-1 plasma levels at baseline, at the end of treatment period and after two-weeks follow-up. At 4 weeks, FMD was significantly improved by TAD (from 4.2+/-3.2 to 9.3+/-3.7%, p<0.01 vs. baseline), but was not modified by PLB (from 4.1+/-2.8 to 4.0+/-3.4%, p=NS). At 6 weeks the benefit in FMD was sustained in patients that received TAD (9.1+/-3.9% vs. 4.2+/-3.2%, p=0.01 vs. baseline; 9.1+/-3.9% vs. 9.3+/-3.7%, vs. 4 weeks, p=NS) while no changes in FMD were observed in patients randomized to PLB. Also, compared to baseline, a net increase in nitrite/nitrate levels (38.2+/-12.3 vs. 52.6+/-11.7 and 51.1+/-3.1, p<0.05) and a decrease in endothelin-1 levels (3.3+/-0.9 vs. 2.9.+/-0.7 and 2.9+/-0.9, p<0.05) was found both at four and six-weeks after TAD; these changes were inversely correlated as shown by regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.81, p<0.0001). Chronic therapy with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk regardless their degree of ED. The benefit of this therapy is sustained for at least two weeks after the discontinuation of therapy. Larger studies are needed in order

  2. Increased glucose levels are associated with episodic memory in nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolandsson, Olov; Backeström, Anna; Eriksson, Sture; Hallmans, Göran; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2008-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of a reduction in cognitive function. We investigated the hypothesis that plasma glucose is associated with a reduction in episodic and/or semantic memory already in nondiabetic subjects. We linked two large population-based datasets in Sweden: the Betula study, in which a random sample from the population aged 35-85 years was investigated for cognitive function, including episodic and semantic memory; and the Västerbotten Intervention Program, a health survey with subjects aged 40, 50, and 60 years, that includes measuring of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, along with other risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We identified 411 (179 men and 232 women, mean age 50.6 +/- 8.0 years) nondiabetic subjects, free from dementia, who had participated in the two surveys within 6 months. Women had better episodic (score 7.37 +/- 1.42) and semantic memory (score 16.05 +/- 2.76) than men (score 6.59 +/- 1.29 and 15.15 +/- 2.92, respectively, P glucose (fPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory (fPG: B -0.198, SE 0.068, beta -0.209, P = 0.004; and 2hPG: B -0.061, SE 0.031, beta -0.148, P = 0.048, respectively) in women but not in men. The association was not found in relation to semantic memory. We conclude that an increase in plasma glucose is associated with impairment in episodic memory in women. This could be explained by a negative effect on the hippocampus caused by raised plasma glucose levels.

  3. Elevated Serum Neopterin is Associated with Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Santoso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neopterin is a soluble biomarker of monocyte activation and its increased concentration might be expressed in atherosclerosis. Until recently, there has been lacking of information on the prognostic role of neopterin in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. The study was aimed at measuring the associations between elevated serum neopterin and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV events in ACS. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, recruited 71 ACS patients from January 31 through August 31, 2007 in Sanglah Hospital of Udayana School of Medicine, Denpasar, Bali. Cardiovascular events, such as: CV death, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke and recurrent myocardial ischemia were previously defined. Relative risk and survival rate were measured successively by Cox proportional model and Kaplan-Meier curve. RESULTS: Of 71 ACS patients aged 56.8±9.5 years, 21 (29.5% subjects underwent CV events. Overall mean followup was 151.6 (95% CI: 129.7-173.5 days. Baseline characteristic were similarly distributed between groups with the highest quartile neopterin level (≥14.7 nmol/L than those with lowest quartile (≤6.2 nmol/L. Patients with the highest quartile had the worst survival curve than those with the lowest quartile (log-rank test; p=0.047. On Cox proportional model, relative risk of highest quartile group was 5.84 (95% CI: 1.19-28.47; p=0.029 compared to lowest quartile, after being adjusted with other predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum neopterin is associated with increased risk of CV events in acute coronary syndromes. KEYWORDS: neopterin, cardiovascular events, acute coronary syndromes.

  4. Low serum insulin-like growth factor I is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Davidsen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that low IGF-I and high IGFBP-3 levels might be associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that low IGF-I and high IGFBP-3 levels might be associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  5. Hyperketonemia and ketosis increase the risk of complications in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikarla-Marie, Preeti; Jain, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    Diets that boost ketone production are increasingly used for treating several neurological disorders. Elevation in ketones in most cases is considered favorable, as they provide energy and are efficient in fueling the body's energy needs. Despite all the benefits from ketones, the above normal elevation in the concentration of ketones in the circulation tend to illicit various pathological complications by activating injurious pathways leading to cellular damage. Recent literature demonstrates a plausible link between elevated levels of circulating ketones and oxidative stress, linking hyperketonemia to innumerable morbid conditions. Ketone bodies are produced by the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver as a source of alternative energy that generally occurs in glucose limiting conditions. Regulation of ketogenesis and ketolysis plays an important role in dictating ketone concentrations in the blood. Hyperketonemia is a condition with elevated blood levels of acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Several physiological and pathological triggers, such as fasting, ketogenic diet, and diabetes cause an accumulation and elevation of circulating ketones. Complications of the brain, kidney, liver, and microvasculature were found to be elevated in diabetic patients who had elevated ketones compared to those diabetics with normal ketone levels. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which hyperketonemia and ketoacidosis cause an increase in redox imbalance and thereby increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stiff Landings Are Associated With Increased ACL Injury Risk in Young Female Basketball and Floorball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Mari; Pasanen, Kati; Kujala, Urho M; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannus, Pekka; Äyrämö, Sami; Krosshaug, Tron; Bahr, Roald; Avela, Janne; Perttunen, Jarmo; Parkkari, Jari

    2017-02-01

    Few prospective studies have investigated the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To investigate the relationship between biomechanical characteristics of vertical drop jump (VDJ) performance and the risk of ACL injury in young female basketball and floorball players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. At baseline, a total of 171 female basketball and floorball players (age range, 12-21 years) participated in a VDJ test using 3-dimensional motion analysis. The following biomechanical variables were analyzed: (1) knee valgus angle at initial contact (IC), (2) peak knee abduction moment, (3) knee flexion angle at IC, (4) peak knee flexion angle, (5) peak vertical ground-reaction force (vGRF), and (6) medial knee displacement. All new ACL injuries, as well as match and training exposure, were then recorded for 1 to 3 years. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Fifteen new ACL injuries occurred during the study period (0.2 injuries/1000 player-hours). Of the 6 factors considered, lower peak knee flexion angle (HR for each 10° increase in knee flexion angle, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.88) and higher peak vGRF (HR for each 100-N increase in vGRF, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45) were the only factors associated with increased risk of ACL injury. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.6 for peak knee flexion and 0.7 for vGRF, indicating a failed-to-fair combined sensitivity and specificity of the test. Stiff landings, with less knee flexion and greater vGRF, in a VDJ test were associated with increased risk of ACL injury among young female basketball and floorball players. However, although 2 factors (decreased peak knee flexion and increased vGRF) had significant associations with ACL injury risk, the ROC curve analyses revealed that these variables cannot be used for screening of athletes.

  7. Risk assessment and reliability for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.O.; Jones, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of critical design features at low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is a major concern in the licensing of these structures. To date, no systematic methodology has been adopted to evaluate the geotechnical reliability of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal facilities currently being designed and/or constructed. This paper discusses and critiques the deterministic methods currently used to evaluate UMTRA reliability. Because deterministic methods may not be applicable in some cases because of the unusually long design life of UMTRA facilities, it is proposed that a probabilistic risk assessment-based methodology be used as a secondary method to aid in the evaluating of geotechnical reliability of critical items. Similar methodologies have proven successful in evaluating the reliability of a variety of conventional earth structures. In this paper, an ''acceptable'' level of risk for UMTRA facilities is developed, an evaluation method is presented, and two example applications of the proposed methodology are provided for a generic UMTRA disposal facility. The proposed technique is shown to be a simple method which might be used to aid in reliability evaluations on a selective basis. Finally, other possible applications and the limitations of the proposed methodology are discussed

  8. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  9. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: araquino@ipen.br, e-mail: lbueno@ipen.br, e-mail: mmvieira@ipen.br, e-mail: efonseca@ipen.br, e-mail: sbellint@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  10. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  11. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  12. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  13. Representing the Fuzzy improved risk graph for determination of optimized safety integrity level in industrial setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Qorbali

    2013-12-01

    .Conclusion: as a result of establishing the presented method, identical levels in conventional risk graph table are replaced with different sublevels that not only increases the accuracy in determining the SIL, but also elucidates the effective factor in improving the safety level and consequently saves time and cost significantly. The proposed technique has been employed to develop the SIL of Tehran Refinery ISOMAX Center. IRG and FIRG results have been compared to clarify the efficacy and importance of the proposed method

  14. Estimated Cost of the Administration's Proposal to Increase the Army's and the Marine Corps's Personnel Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmit, Matt; Wheelock, Jason; Newman, David

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration also plans to increase the size of the Army Reserve and National Guard. The cost of the Administration's proposal to increase the size of the armed forces depends on the personnel levels it is being measured against...

  15. Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk taking behavior in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eToledo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.

  16. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermond, Anna M.; Schaapveld, Michael; Janus, Cécile Pm; de Boer, Jan Paul; Krol, Augustinus Dg; Zijlstra, Josée M.; van der Maazen, Richard Wm; Kremer, Leontien C.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Louwman, Marieke Wj; Visser, Otto; de Bruin, Marie L.; Aleman, Berthe Mp; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2017-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of second malignancies, but few studies have assessed colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after HL treatment. We assessed long-term, subsite-specific CRC risk associated with specific radiation fields and chemotherapy regimens. In a Dutch cohort of 3121

  18. Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermond, A.M. van; Schaapveld, M.; Janus, C.P.; Boer, J.P. de; Krol, A.D.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Kremer, L.C.; Leerdam, M.E. van; Louwman, M.W.; Visser, O; Bruin, M.L. De; Aleman, B.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of second malignancies, but few studies have assessed colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after HL treatment. We assessed long-term, subsite-specific CRC risk associated with specific radiation fields and chemotherapy regimens. METHODS: In a

  19. Scientific view of low-level radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The average number of diagnostic x-ray procedures per year in the United States equals the total population and results in an annual collective effective dose equivalent of about 9 million person-rem. Possible deleterious effects include (a) genetic consequences, the risks of which can be assessed only from animal studies; (b) carcinogenesis, which can be assessed from survivors of nuclear bombings and patients exposed for medical reasons; and (c) effects on the developing embryo or fetus. For stochastic endpoints such as cancer and genetic anomalies, it is estimated that the current practice of radiology in the United States increases spontaneous frequency by less than 1%. No single procedure is likely to produce harm to the conceptus, but an accumulation of procedures in a pregnant woman could be hazardous during the sensitive period of 8-15 weeks after conception, with microcephaly and mental retardation the most likely deleterious effects. The balance of risk versus benefit in diagnostic radiology is heavily weighted toward benefit, but the risks are there, and constant efforts are needed to reduce radiation doses to the minimum necessary

  20. Effects of Water Level Increase on Phytoplankton Assemblages in a Drinking Water Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangdong Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive water level fluctuation may affect physico-chemical characteristics, and consequently ecosystem function, in lakes and reservoirs. In this study, we assessed the changes of phytoplankton assemblages in response to water level increase in Danjiangkou Reservoir, one of the largest drinking water reservoirs in Asia. The water level increased from a low of 137 m to 161 m in 2014 as a part of the South–North Water Diversion Project. Phytoplankton assemblages were sampled four times per year before, during and after the water level increase, at 10 sites. Environmental variables such as total nitrogen as well as phytoplankton biomass decreased after the water level increase. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis indicated that before the water level increase, phytoplankton assemblages showed distinct seasonal variation with diatom dominance in both early and late seasons while such seasonal variation was much less evident after the water level increase. Month and year (before and after explained 13% and 6% of variance in phytoplankton assemblages (PERMANOVA, p < 0.001 respectively, and phytoplankton assemblages were significantly different before and after the water level increase. Both chlorophytes and cyanobacteria became more abundant in 2015. Phytoplankton compositional change may largely reflect the environmental changes, such as hydrodynamics mediated by the water level increase.

  1. Serum iron levels and the risk of Parkinson disease: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pichler

    Full Text Available Although levels of iron are known to be increased in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD, epidemiological evidence on a possible effect of iron blood levels on PD risk is inconclusive, with effects reported in opposite directions. Epidemiological studies suffer from problems of confounding and reverse causation, and mendelian randomization (MR represents an alternative approach to provide unconfounded estimates of the effects of biomarkers on disease. We performed a MR study where genes known to modify iron levels were used as instruments to estimate the effect of iron on PD risk, based on estimates of the genetic effects on both iron and PD obtained from the largest sample meta-analyzed to date.We used as instrumental variables three genetic variants influencing iron levels, HFE rs1800562, HFE rs1799945, and TMPRSS6 rs855791. Estimates of their effect on serum iron were based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 21,567 individuals, while estimates of their effect on PD risk were obtained through meta-analysis of genome-wide and candidate gene studies with 20,809 PD cases and 88,892 controls. Separate MR estimates of the effect of iron on PD were obtained for each variant and pooled by meta-analysis. We investigated heterogeneity across the three estimates as an indication of possible pleiotropy and found no evidence of it. The combined MR estimate showed a statistically significant protective effect of iron, with a relative risk reduction for PD of 3% (95% CI 1%-6%; p = 0.001 per 10 µg/dl increase in serum iron.Our study suggests that increased iron levels are causally associated with a decreased risk of developing PD. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of action of serum iron on PD risk before recommendations can be made.

  2. [Homocystein serum levels and lipid parameters in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Pokoca, Lech; Smorag, Ireneusz; Wosik-Erenbek, Marzenna; Baj, Zbigniew

    2007-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of adult patients, however, it begins in childhood and progresses from fatty streaks to raised lesions in arteries in adolescence and young adults. Clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in adulthood depends on the risk factors such as: lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension, smoking habits and family history of CHD. High serum homocysteine concentration is increasingly recognised as a new risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to cytotoxin action on the endothelial cells and their function. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocysteine serum concentration and the lipid levels in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The study was carried out on 48 children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The control group consisted of 25 healthy childrens. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C were determined by enzymatic method. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). Obesity, lipid disorders, and hypertension were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. Statistically significant higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were observed in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in homocystein concentration were observed in the investigated groups, but homocystein concentration was significantly higher in group of children with atherosclerosis risk factors. We observed that increased number of the risk factors is followed by high homocystein concentration in the serum.

  3. Short interpregnancy interval increases the risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes and early delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Raj; Caughey, Aaron B; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra

    2017-08-09

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is a major contributor to overall preterm birth (PTB) rates. A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) is a well-known risk factor for PTB. It is unknown if a short IPI specifically affects the risk of developing PPROM in a subsequent pregnancy. We sought to determine the association between IPI and the risk of PPROM in a subsequent pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study using the Missouri birth certificate database of singleton births from 2003 to 2013 was conducted. A short IPI (delivery of the prior pregnancy to conception of the index pregnancy) was defined as ≤6 months. IPI >6 months was categorized into two groups: IPI 7-23 months and IPI ≥24 months. PPROM was defined as premature rupture of membranes between 16 0 and 36 6 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the association between IPI and PPROM while controlling for maternal age, race, body mass index (BMI), education level, use of social services (Medicaid insurance, food stamps, or participation in the WIC [Women, Infants, and Children] program), tobacco use, and history of PTB. Secondary outcome included the gestational age at delivery, categorized into five subgroups (≤24 0 , 24 1 -28 0 , 28 1 -32 0 , 32 1 -34 0 , and 34 1 -36 6 weeks). 474,957 subjects with singleton gestations had data available to calculate the IPI. Of these, 1.4% (n = 6797) experienced PPROM. IPI ≤6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing PPROM compared with patients with IPI ≥24 months (odds ratio (OR) 1.80, 95% CI 1.70-1.90, p < .001). A higher proportion of women with IPI ≤6 months delivered between 28 1 and 32 0 weeks compared to the other two IPI groups (27.0 versus 15.0 and 16.4%, p < .001). Individual maternal factors associated with an increased risk of PPROM included advanced maternal age, African American race, BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 , BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 , use of social services, tobacco use, and

  4. Multi-level Governance in Environmental Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hiller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines regulatory strategies in the field of ecological disaster management with reference to the sociology of risk. The risk perspective draws attention to the fact that political strategies of regulation are to be understood as processes of risk transformation. The behavior of regulatory agencies is related to their perception of risks and opportunities. From this point of view, efforts in the field of disaster management appear as processes that turn perceived environmental threats into risks and opportunities for the agencies involved. The article shows the course of such a governance process which transforms environmental disasters into organizational risks and opportunities. This leads to the following research question: Which types of organizations favor strategies of risk avoidance and which organizations rather allow active pursuit of opportunities? The empirical part of this study is based on data obtained by field research in a multi-level negotiation system set up for managing hazardous wastes. Empirical findings support the assumption that organizational stability is a central condition for active pursuit of opportunities whereas organizational instability supports an orientation towards the avoidance of organizational risk. El artículo examina las estrategias reguladoras en el ámbito de la gestión de los desastres ecológicos, haciendo referencia a la sociología del riesgo. La perspectiva de riesgo pone su atención sobre el hecho de que las estrategias políticas de regulación se deben entender como procesos de transformación de riesgos. El comportamiento de las agencias reguladoras se relaciona con su percepción de los riesgos y oportunidades. Desde este punto de vista, los esfuerzos en el campo de la gestión de catástrofes se convierten en procesos que transforman las amenazas medioambientales (percibidas en riesgos y oportunidades para las agencias involucradas. El artículo muestra el desarrollo de este

  5. Multidisciplinary approach to increasing Resilience in communities versus the hydrogeological and volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvisati, Gala; Colucci, Orazio; Marotta, Enrica; Masucci, Armando; Nave, Rosella; Peluso, Rosario; Tomasone, Mario

    2017-04-01

    A given area may be exposed to different natural hazards, such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic events etc. which could affect usual human activities at many levels. The goal of our work is to increase the resilience level in communities exposed to natural hazards through an innovative and multidisciplinary research approach integrating engineering, geological, medical and sociological skills. We are going to use an analytical approach to consider simultaneously the Natural Environment and their dwellers, taking into account the sanitary protocols. We'll start by studying the hazards to which the Natural Environment could be exposed evaluating the deriving risks level trough technical studies. For each scenario it's vital to assess the defining aspects such as magnitude and frequency, through a statistical analysis of the specific data-bases in possession of relevant Authorities in charge. Regarding the Inhabitants, it's also vital to analyse the dwellers Risk Perception and their Historical Resilience through a sociological and psychological approach, in order to define the specific information and education program on natural risks. This study is of particular relevance, as even the most advanced risk management plan could fail if locals are not aware and informed about it. A correct disaster management policy must consider the medics role as paramount. Emergency first aid and emergency medicine are to be considered specific field of partitioning, and to be seen as the most appropriate way to deal with a dire situation, especially when the resources vs. magnitude of event ratio is low. The study of best practices helping to improve the resilience and reaction of areas exposed to different natural hazards with different socio-cultural layers is hence crucial. A possible model is to directly involve the residents into controlling the environment and improving/detailing the risks' and emergency areas mapping. These make the population more aware of both

  6. Risk assessment of groundwater level variability using variable Kriging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2015-04-01

    Assessment of the water table level spatial variability in aquifers provides useful information regarding optimal groundwater management. This information becomes more important in basins where the water table level has fallen significantly. The spatial variability of the water table level in this work is estimated based on hydraulic head measured during the wet period of the hydrological year 2007-2008, in a sparsely monitored basin in Crete, Greece, which is of high socioeconomic and agricultural interest. Three Kriging-based methodologies are elaborated in Matlab environment to estimate the spatial variability of the water table level in the basin. The first methodology is based on the Ordinary Kriging approach, the second involves auxiliary information from a Digital Elevation Model in terms of Residual Kriging and the third methodology calculates the probability of the groundwater level to fall below a predefined minimum value that could cause significant problems in groundwater resources availability, by means of Indicator Kriging. The Box-Cox methodology is applied to normalize both the data and the residuals for improved prediction results. In addition, various classical variogram models are applied to determine the spatial dependence of the measurements. The Matérn model proves to be the optimal, which in combination with Kriging methodologies provides the most accurate cross validation estimations. Groundwater level and probability maps are constructed to examine the spatial variability of the groundwater level in the basin and the associated risk that certain locations exhibit regarding a predefined minimum value that has been set for the sustainability of the basin's groundwater resources. Acknowledgement The work presented in this paper has been funded by the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), Fellowships of Excellence for Postdoctoral Studies (Siemens Program), 'A simulation-optimization model for assessing the best practices for the

  7. The effect of introducing increased-reliability-risk electronic components into 3rd generation telecommunications systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmela, Olli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the dependability of 3rd generation telecommunications network systems is studied. Special attention is paid to a case where increased-reliability-risk electronic components are introduced to the system. The paper consists of three parts: First, the reliability data of four electronic components is considered. This includes statistical analysis of the reliability test data, thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of the printed wiring board structures, and based on those, a field reliability estimate of the components is constructed. Second, the component level reliability data is introduced into the network element reliability analysis. This is accomplished by using a reliability block diagram technique and Monte Carlo simulation of the network element. The end result of the second part is a reliability estimate of the network element with and without the high-risk component. Third, the whole 3rd generation network having multiple network elements is analyzed. In this part, the criticality of introducing high-risk electronic components into a 3rd generation telecommunications network is considered

  8. The effect of introducing increased-reliability-risk electronic components into 3rd generation telecommunications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmela, Olli [Nokia Networks, P.O. Box 301, 00045 Nokia Group (Finland)]. E-mail: olli.salmela@nokia.com

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, the dependability of 3rd generation telecommunications network systems is studied. Special attention is paid to a case where increased-reliability-risk electronic components are introduced to the system. The paper consists of three parts: First, the reliability data of four electronic components is considered. This includes statistical analysis of the reliability test data, thermo-mechanical finite element analysis of the printed wiring board structures, and based on those, a field reliability estimate of the components is constructed. Second, the component level reliability data is introduced into the network element reliability analysis. This is accomplished by using a reliability block diagram technique and Monte Carlo simulation of the network element. The end result of the second part is a reliability estimate of the network element with and without the high-risk component. Third, the whole 3rd generation network having multiple network elements is analyzed. In this part, the criticality of introducing high-risk electronic components into a 3rd generation telecommunications network is considered.

  9. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women). Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence. Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006). Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides). The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  10. Perceptions of industrial and nuclear risks. Stakes, negotiations and social development of levels of risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, S.Ch.

    2007-11-01

    In this thesis we will question the perceptions of industrial risks in the occidental world at the beginning of the 21. century. For this purpose we will try to understand how concepts such as sustainable development, precautionary principle, liability, or even zero-risk bias have progressively developed around a thought model based on the scientific rationality. This model is now undermined by its incapacity to fully address the issues it raises and completely avoid the potential risks. However, despite consistent weaknesses, it remains a reference value moulded by past accidents which have led to the making of laws aiming mainly at defining liability and protecting those who are held liable. Thus, public information becomes a requirement for democracy and the protection of this thought model. In this context, the protagonists at stake are security-conscious, economical and political lobbies that constantly redefine the limits of risk acceptance. We come to the realization that our lifestyle and value system remain unchallenged even though undergoing a crisis. The specificity of this research lies into the importance we give to the local approach, dealing with registered Seveso sites and nuclear plants located in Indre et Loire. We have polled five categories of respondents through interviews or questionnaires in order to understand their opinion regarding situations involving technological risks. The result of this survey helps us understand and set the levels of risk acceptance that they define with regard to the industrial risks and show the complexity of a situation involving political stakes, environmental pressures, a profit-driven economy and security constraints, in a vague and complex context. This work gives us a contrasted picture of today's perceptions of risks. (author)

  11. Ferritin levels and risk of heart failure-the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Odilson M; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Nadruz, Wilson; Claggett, Brian; Couper, David; Eckfeldt, John H; Pankow, James S; Anker, Stefan D; Solomon, Scott D

    2017-03-01

    Severe iron overload is associated with cardiac damage, while iron deficiency has been related to worse outcomes in subjects with heart failure (HF). This study investigated the relationship between ferritin, a marker of iron status, and the incidence of HF in a community-based cohort. We examined 1063 participants who were free of heart failure from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in whom ferritin serum levels were measured at baseline (1987-1989). The participants (mean age 52.7 ± 5.5 years, 62% women), were categorized in low (200 ng/mL in women and >300 ng/mL in men; n = 247) ferritin levels. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between ferritin and incident HF. After 21 ± 4.6 years of follow-up, HF occurred in 144 (13.5%) participants. When compared with participants with normal ferritin levels, participants with low ferritin levels had a higher risk of HF [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-4.35; P = 0.02] as did those with high ferritin levels (HR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.25; P = 0.04), after adjusting for potential confounders. Notably, low ferritin levels remained associated with incident HF even after excluding subjects with anaemia (HR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.11-4.68; P = 0.03). Derangements in iron metabolism, either low or high ferritin serum levels, were associated with higher risk of incident HF in a general population, even without concurrent anaemia. These findings suggest that iron imbalance might play a role in the development of HF. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  12. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  13. Glycine facilitates gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester-mediated increase in liver glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-08-27

    gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE) increases reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in GSH-depleted rat hepatocytes. Because glycine, a constituent of GSH, exists at 0.3 to 0.4 mM in rat plasma, we examined the influence of glycine added to the medium on the action of gamma-GCE to increase GSH levels in the rat hepatocytes. Glycine (0.2-0.8 mM) dose-dependently enhanced gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels with an increase in intracellular gamma-GCE levels. These results indicate that exogenous glycine facilitates gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels in rat hepatocytes possibly by enhancing the uptake of gamma-GCE into the cells.

  14. Increased Bleeding Risk With Concurrent Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors and Coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalekamp, Tom; Klungel, Olaf H; Souverein, Patrick C; de Boer, Anthonius

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with vitamin K antagonists (coumarins) is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Because use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is also associated with an increased risk of bleeding, we assessed the odds ratio (OR) of abnormal bleeding associated with

  15. Breast cancer patients with dense breasts do not have increased death risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    High mammographic breast density, which is a marker of increased risk of developing breast cancer, does not seem to increase the risk of death among breast cancer patients, according to a study led by Gretchen L. Gierach, Ph.D., NCI. Image shows physician

  16. Different risk-increasing drugs in recurrent versus single fallers: are recurrent fallers a distinct population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, Marjan; Eslami, Saied; Scheffer, Alice C.; Medlock, Stephanie; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Polypharmacy, and specifically the use of multiple fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRID), have been associated with increased risk of falling in older age. However, it is not yet clear whether the known set of FRIDs can be extrapolated to recurrent fallers, since they form a distinct group of more

  17. Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Li, Ping; Zhu, Yufeng; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Visceral fat area (VFA), a novel sex-specific index for visceral fat obesity (VFO) might play a major role in the development of vitamin D deficiency. However, the association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among Chinese men and women. This cross-sectional study involved 1105 adults aged 20-70 years living in Tianjin who were randomly selected and medically examined. All subjects underwent the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method to estimate the VFA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH) D3) level was assayed by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and defined insufficiency and deficiency following recommended cutoffs. The association between VFA and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was estimated using binary regression analysis. The total prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH) D3: 20-29 μg/L) and deficiency (25(OH) D3  0.05). Moreover, increased VFA was observed to be associated with higher vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency risk with a positive dose-response trend (P for trend convenience surrogate marker for visceral adipose measurement and could be used in identifying the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in routine health examination.

  18. Risk of suicide according to level of psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite of suicide prevention. We aimed to conduct a nationwide study investigating suicide risk in relation to level of psychiatric treatment. METHODS: Nationwide nested case-control study comparing individuals who died from...... suicide between 1996 and 2009 to age-, sex-, and year-matched controls. Psychiatric treatment in the previous year was graded as "no treatment," "medicated," "outpatient contact," "psychiatric emergency room contact," or "admitted to psychiatric hospital." RESULTS: There were 2,429 cases and 50......,323 controls. Compared with people who had not received any psychiatric treatment in the preceding year, the adjusted rate ratio (95 % confidence interval) for suicide was 5.8 (5.2-6.6) for people receiving only psychiatric medication, 8.2 (6.1-11.0) for people with at most psychiatric outpatient contact, 27...

  19. How do women at increased breast cancer risk perceive and decide between risks of cancer and risk-reducing treatments? A synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Hannah G; Brown, Stephen L; Saini, Pooja; Beesley, Helen; Salmon, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Risk-reducing procedures can be offered to people at increased cancer risk, but many procedures can have iatrogenic effects. People therefore need to weigh risks associated with both cancer and the risk-reduction procedure in their decisions. By reviewing relevant literature on breast cancer (BC) risk reduction, we aimed to understand how women at relatively high risk of BC perceive their risk and how their risk perceptions influence their decisions about risk reduction. Synthesis of 15 qualitative studies obtained from systematic searches of SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge, PsychINFO, and Medline electronic databases (inception-June 2015). Women did not think about risk probabilistically. Instead, they allocated themselves to broad risk categories, typically influenced by their own or familial experiences of BC. In deciding about risk-reduction procedures, some women reported weighing the risks and benefits, but papers did not describe how they did so. For many women, however, an overriding wish to reduce intense worry about BC led them to choose aggressive risk-reducing procedures without such deliberation. Reasoning that categorisation is a fundamental aspect of risk perception, we argue that patients can be encouraged to develop more nuanced and accurate categorisations of their own risk through their interactions with clinicians. Empirically-based ethical reflection is required to determine whether and when it is appropriate to provide risk-reduction procedures to alleviate worry. © 2016 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  1. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.

    2015-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  2. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated SLR allowances [1,2]. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the lifetime of an asset; AADLL allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current risk. Given non-stationary and uncertain SLR, AADLL flood levels and allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal areas. Allowances are a function primarily of local SLR and are nearly independent of AEP. Here we employ probabilistic SLR projections [3] to illustrate the calculation of AADLL flood levels and allowances with a representative set of long-duration tide gauges along U.S. coastlines. [1] Rootzen et al., 2014, Water Resources Research 49: 5964-5972. [2] Hunter, 2013, Ocean Engineering 71: 17-27. [3] Kopp et al., 2014, Earth's Future 2: 383-406.

  3. Height, Weight, and Aerobic Fitness Level in Relation to the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness. We conducted a national cohort study to examine interactions between height or weight and level of aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximal age, 62 years). Increased height, weight, and aerobic fitness level (but not muscular strength) at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level (for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs. the lowest, relative excess risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.62; ratio of hazard ratios = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.65). High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least 186 cm (6 feet, 1 inch) tall but were protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk (for the highest tertiles vs. the lowest, adjusted hazard ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.80). These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups.

  4. Maternal hormone levels and risk of cryptorchism among populations at high and low risk of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Graubard, Barry I; Nam, Jun-Mo; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2005-07-01

    Cryptorchism is one of the few well-described risk factors for testicular cancer. It has been suggested that both conditions are related to increased in utero estrogen exposure. The evidence supporting the "estrogen hypothesis" has been inconsistent, however. An alternative hypothesis suggests that higher in utero androgen exposure may protect against the development of cryptorchism and testicular cancer. In order to examine both hypotheses, we studied maternal hormone levels in two populations at diverse risks of testicular cancer; Black Americans (low-risk) and White Americans (high-risk). The study population of 200 mothers of cryptorchid sons and 200 mothers of noncryptorchid sons was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a cohort study of pregnant women and their children. Third trimester serum levels of estradiol (total, free, bioavailable), estriol, testosterone (total, free, bioavailable), sex hormone-binding globulin, alpha-fetoprotein, and the ratios of estradiols to testosterones were compared between the case and control mothers. The results found no significant differences in the levels of testosterone (total, free, bioavailable), alpha-fetoprotein, sex hormone-binding globulin, or in the ratios of estrogens to androgens. Total estradiol, however, was significantly lower in the cases versus the controls (P = 0.03) among all mothers and, separately, among White mothers (P = 0.05). Similarly, estriol was significantly lower among all cases (P = 0.05) and among White cases (P = 0.05). These results do not support either the estrogen or the androgen hypothesis. Rather, lower estrogens in case mothers may indicate that a placental defect increases the risk of cryptorchism and, possibly, testicular cancer.

  5. Toxicity of Atorvastatin on Pancreas Mitochondria: A Justification for Increased Risk of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighara, Melina; Amirsheardost, Zahra; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad; Seydi, Enayatollah; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Statins (including atorvastatin) are a widely used class of drugs, and like all medications, they have a potential for adverse effects. Recently, it has been shown that statins also exert side effects on the pancreas. In vitro studies have suggested that this class of drugs induced a reduction in insulin secretion. Also, the use of statins is associated with a raised risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but the mechanisms underlying statin-induced diabetes are poorly known. Literature data indicate that several statins are able to induce apoptosis signalling. This study was designed to examine the mechanism of atorvastatin on mitochondria obtained from rat pancreas. In our study, mitochondria were obtained from the pancreas and then exposed to atorvastatin and vehicle to investigate probable toxic effects. The results showed that atorvastatin (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 μM) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial swelling, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, the orchestrating factor for mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Atorvastatin also reduced the ATP levels. These results propose that the toxicity of atorvastatin on pancreas mitochondria is a key point for drug-induced apoptotic cell loss in the pancreas and therefore a justification for increased risk of DM. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. Possible Increase in Serum FABP4 Level Despite Adiposity Reduction by Canagliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is secreted from adipocytes in association with catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Secreted FABP4 as a novel adipokine leads to insulin resistance via increased hepatic glucose production (HGP. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors decrease blood glucose level via increased urinary glucose excretion, though HGP is enhanced. Here we investigated whether canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, modulates serum FABP4 level.Canagliflozin (100 mg/day was administered to type 2 diabetic patients (n = 39 for 12 weeks. Serum FABP4 level was measured before and after treatment.At baseline, serum FABP4 level was correlated with adiposity, renal dysfunction and noradrenaline level. Treatment with canagliflozin significantly decreased adiposity and levels of fasting glucose and HbA1c but increased average serum FABP4 level by 10.3% (18.0 ± 1.0 vs. 19.8 ± 1.2 ng/ml, P = 0.008, though elevation of FABP4 level after treatment was observed in 26 (66.7% out of 39 patients. Change in FABP4 level was positively correlated with change in levels of fasting glucose (r = 0.329, P = 0.044, HbA1c (r = 0.329, P = 0.044 and noradrenaline (r = 0.329, P = 0.041 but was not significantly correlated with change in adiposity or other variables.Canagliflozin paradoxically increases serum FABP4 level in some diabetic patients despite amelioration of glucose metabolism and adiposity reduction, possibly via induction of catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Increased FABP4 level by canagliflozin may undermine the improvement of glucose metabolism and might be a possible mechanism of increased HGP by inhibition of SGLT2.UMIN-CTR Clinical Trial UMIN000018151.

  7. Increased fracture risk assessed by fracture risk assessment tool in Greek patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzoudis, Sotirios; Zavos, Christos; Damilakis, John; Neratzoulakis, John; Dimitriadi, Daphne Anna; Roussomoustakaki, Maria; Kouroumalis, Elias A; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization has recently developed the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) based on clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) for evaluation of the 10-year probability of a hip or a major osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the FRAX tool in Greek patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FRAX scores were applied to 134 IBD patients [68 Crohn's disease (CD); 66 ulcerative colitis (UC)] who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during the period 2007-2012. Calculation of the FRAX scores, with or without BMD, was made through a web-based probability model used to compute individual fracture probabilities according to specific clinical risk factors. The median 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture for IBD patients based on clinical data was 7.1%, and including the BMD was 6.2%. A significant overestimation with the first method was found (P = 0.01). Both scores with and without BMD were significantly higher in CD patients compared with UC patients (P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, respectively). The median 10-year probability of hip fracture based on clinical data was 0.8%, and including the BMD was 0.9%. The score with use of BMD was significantly higher in CD compared with UC patients (P = 0.04). CD patients have significantly higher FRAX scores and possibly fracture risk compared with UC patients. The clinical FRAX score alone seems to overestimate the risk of osteoporotic fracture in Greek IBD patients.

  8. Risk management at the level of agricultural organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Buzamat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture, as in other production branches of the economy, there businesses which have two main objectives: on short term – achieve profit and on long term – the viability of the company (economic growth and stability. Even if the risk management practice can vary from one company to another, some elements are common for the risk management programs. These are: mission identification, risk assessment and of the risk control uncertainty, risk financing, risk administration. In this study we identify the risk categories and we establish methods to prevent them. The studied organization has as activity object the cereals and technical plants culture.

  9. Prediagnostic plasma antibody levels to periodontopathic bacteria and risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Izumi, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Ikeda, Ai; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have indicated that periodontitis is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined whether plasma antibody levels to 3 major periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia predicted the risk of CHD events. A nested case-control research design (case: n = 191, control: n = 382), by matching gender, age, study area, date of blood collection, and time since last meal at blood collection, was employed in a large cohort of Japanese community residents.Antibody levels of periodontopathic bacteria were associated with risk of CHD after adjusting for BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, exercise during leisure time, and perceived mental stress. The association was different by age subgroup. For subjects aged 40-55 years, the medium (31.7-184.9 U/mL) or high tertile plasma antibody level (> 184.9 U/mL) of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed higher risk of CHD (medium: OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 1.20-11.56, high: OR = 4.64; 95% CI = 1.52-14.18) than the low tertile level ( 414.1 U/mL) of P. intermedia was associated with higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.18-5.94) in a dose-response fashion (P for trend = 0.007). The possible role of periodontopathic bacteria as a risk factor for CHD incidence was suggested by the results of this study by the elevated antibody level to these bacteria with the increased risk of CHD.

  10. Anxiety and Attentional Bias to Threat in Children at Increased Familial Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Shephard, Elizabeth; Happé, Francesca G.; Johnson, Mark H.; Charman, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety and threat bias were examined in 6-8-year-old children at familial-risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and low-risk (LR, n = 37) controls. The high-risk (HR) group was divided into those who met diagnostic criteria for ASD (HR-ASD, n = 15) and those who did not (HR-non ASD, n = 24). The HR-ASD group had highest levels of…

  11. Making cities resilient: Increasing resilience to disasters at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrito, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Half of humanity is now living in cities, according to the United Nations Population Division. The urban population exceeded the rural for the first time in 2008, and by 2050 urbanisation will rise to 70 per cent with increased urban risk. 'Today, 100 cities are in control of 30 per cent of the world's economy.' The need for maintenance and upkeep of these cities makes safety measures for their citizens crucial. In this context, urban risk, city planning and the role of local governments in dealing with risk reduction have been recognised as key factors to build communities resilient to disasters. While many local governments have taken action to reduce vulnerability, especially when it comes to government organising capacity to deal with disasters, much remains to be done. Disaster risk has become an acute and increasingly urban issue. Poorly-planned urban environments, weak urban governance, an old and fragile infrastructure, and rapid population growth have increased pressure on the urban environment and triggered exposure to disaster risk. More and more people are settling in potential danger zones such as flood plains, volcanic flanks or earthquake faults and coastal areas. They do so because planners and local governments fail to provide alternatives, or because they cannot afford safer land. Local government officials are confronted with the threat of disasters daily, and need improved access to policies and tools to cope with them effectively.

  12. Risk assessment tools to identify women with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Complexity or simplicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2013-01-01

    A huge number of risk assessment tools have been developed. Far from all have been validated in external studies, more of them have absence of methodological and transparent evidence and few are integrated in national guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide an overview...... of existing valid and reliable risk assessment tools for prediction of osteoporotic fractures. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the performance each tool was sufficient for practical use and lastly to examine whether the complexity of the tools influenced their discriminative power. We searched Pub......Med, Embase and Cochrane databases for papers and evaluated these with respect to methodological quality using the QUADAS checklist. A total of 48 tools were identified, 20 had been externally validated, however only 6 tools had been tested more than once in a population-based setting with acceptable...