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Sample records for risk factors serum

  1. [Homocystein serum levels and lipid parameters in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

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    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Pokoca, Lech; Smorag, Ireneusz; Wosik-Erenbek, Marzenna; Baj, Zbigniew

    2007-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of adult patients, however, it begins in childhood and progresses from fatty streaks to raised lesions in arteries in adolescence and young adults. Clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in adulthood depends on the risk factors such as: lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension, smoking habits and family history of CHD. High serum homocysteine concentration is increasingly recognised as a new risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to cytotoxin action on the endothelial cells and their function. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocysteine serum concentration and the lipid levels in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The study was carried out on 48 children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The control group consisted of 25 healthy childrens. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C were determined by enzymatic method. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). Obesity, lipid disorders, and hypertension were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. Statistically significant higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were observed in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in homocystein concentration were observed in the investigated groups, but homocystein concentration was significantly higher in group of children with atherosclerosis risk factors. We observed that increased number of the risk factors is followed by high homocystein concentration in the serum.

  2. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Is a New Potential Risk Factor in Multiple Myeloma

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    Min-Gu Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that serum PTH might be associated with various clinicopathological parameters in multiple myeloma (MM. So we investigated the implications of serum PTH in MM patients and the relationship with other risk factors of MM. A total of 115 patients who were newly diagnosed with MM were enrolled. Serum PTH level was 24.7 ± 34.9 (ranged 0.0–284.1 pg/mL. Serum levels of IgG, IgM, FLC-lambda, albumin, and LDH were in positive correlation with serum PTH. Compared to non-high PTH (<68.3 pg/mL group, the hazard ratio (HR for overall survival was higher for group with high PTH level (≥68.3 pg/mL (HR, 1.710. Furthermore, the patient group with high PTH level showed inferior progression-free survival than non-high PTH group (P=0.056. Interestingly, subgroup analysis showed that serum PTH level at diagnosis was associated with risk factors and clinical outcome in MM patients, especially in complete remission group, transplantation cases, ISS stage II cases, and cases without chromosome abnormality. In conclusion, this study showed that blood PTH level in MM at diagnosis was associated with risk factors and clinical outcome in MM patients.

  3. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

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    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  4. Modifiable risk factors promoting neurodegeneration is associated with two novel brain degradation markers measured in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Christiansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    truncated tau fragments (Tau-A and Tau-C) in serum. Platelets, albumin and several modifiable risk factors, including Body Mass Index, high density lipoprotein and White Blood Cell count were associated with the serum level of tau fragments. The factors associated with tau in serum may promote...

  5. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: The CHAMPS-study DK.

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    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo; Gejl, Anne Kær; Huang, Tao; Peijs, Lone; Bugge, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors. A secondary aim was to examine the associations between serum BDNF and each of the six risk factors. Four hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy adolescents between 11-17 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were modelled using linear regression analysis. Serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score in the total study sample (standardized beta coefficient (std.β) = 0.10, P = 0.037). In males, serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.034) and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026). In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030) and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012). Serum BDNF was positively associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal research

  6. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: The CHAMPS-study DK.

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    Natascha Holbæk Pedersen

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors. A secondary aim was to examine the associations between serum BDNF and each of the six risk factors.Four hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy adolescents between 11-17 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP, serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglyceride (TG, blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were modelled using linear regression analysis.Serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score in the total study sample (standardized beta coefficient (std.β = 0.10, P = 0.037. In males, serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.034 and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004, and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026. In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030 and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012.Serum BDNF was positively associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal

  7. Serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women

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    Grønbaek, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Mellemkjaer, Lene

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a positive association between serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and breast cancer risk in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women. IGF-II and estrogen receptor (ER) status has never been investigated. We examined the association between IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF......, or IGFBP-3 and risk of ER-negative breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Serum IGFBP-3 and IGF-II levels were positively associated with ER-positive breast cancer risk. This may suggest an important relationship among IGFs, IGFBPs, the ER system, and breast cancer development in postmenopausal women....

  8. Relationships between coronary heart disease risk factors and serum ionized calcium in Kennedy Space Center Cohort

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    Goodwin, Lisa Ann; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Merz, Marion P.; Alford, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) employees are reported to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Risk factors for CHD include high serum total cholesterol levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), elevated triglyceride, smoking, inactivity, high blood pressure, being male, and being older. Higher dietary and/or serum calcium Ca(++) may be related to a lower risk for CHD. Fifty men and 37 women participated. Subjects were tested in the morning after fasting 12 hours. Information relative to smoking and exercise habits was obtained; seated blood pressures were measured; and blood drawn. KCS men had higher risk values than KCS women as related to HDLC, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Smoking and nonsmoking groups did not differ for other risk factors or for serum Ca(++) levels. Exercise and sedentary groups differed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Serum Ca(++) levels were related to age, increasing with age in the sedentary group and decreasing in the exercisers, equally for men and women. It is concluded that these relationships may be significant to the risk of CHD and/or the risk of bone demineralization in an aging population.

  9. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

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    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Lu, Zhong X; Jeyaraman, Kanakamani; Lawton, Paul; Jones, Graham Rd; Ellis, Andrew; Sinha, Ashim; Cass, Alan; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007-2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45-77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D 72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. The percentage of 25(OH)D levels Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and was independently associated with diabetes. These findings require exploration in longitudinal studies.

  10. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain...... fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were...

  11. Association of Serum Adiponectin Levels with Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Malay Adults

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    Nur Firdaus Isa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in adults living in rural Malaysia. Methods: A total of 299 Malay adults (men=124; women = 175 with a mean age 48.8 (11.7 years were recruited. Measurements for waist circumference and blood pressure were taken before drawing an overnight fasting blood samples. Biochemical tests for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, glucose and serum adiponectin concentration were measured. Results: Our results show that the adiponectin level in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly lower than those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05. Among the metabolic syndrome risk factors, adiponectin level was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced HDL cholesterol (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The outcome from this study which highlights the association of hypoadiponectinemia with risk factors of metabolic syndrome in Malay adults, suggests that the reduced level of adiponectin may play a pivotal role in the development of metabolic syndrome in this ethnic group.

  12. Serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Mellemkjær, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a positive association between serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and breast cancer risk in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women. IGF-II and estrogen receptor (ER) status has never been investigated. We examined the association between IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF...

  13. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    .034) and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026). In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030) and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012). Conclusion: Serum BDNF was positively...... associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal research is warranted to determine the temporal relationship between BDNF and cardiovascular...

  14. Zinc Serum Level Can Be a Risk Factor In Babol Stroke Patients?

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    Alijan AhmadiAhangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The role of zinc as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of stroke was considered. Results: This cross-sectional study on 100 stroke patients in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital and 100 control group from cohort master plan "Ageing and health projects Amirkola was conducted. Zinc levels Serum simultaneously with other blood tests in the early hours of hospitalization. Zinc serum level was defined 70 to 120 micrograms per deciliter. Findings: The difference in mean of zinc level in patients and control group was not significant (102.6±47.7 in control group vs 100.9±35.8 in patient, p=0.7. Difference in zinc Serum level had statically significant with IHD (under70 0 cases (0, 70 to120 8 cases (24, 120 and upper24 cases (75, p=0.003 and with type of stroke (under70 (3(3.3 hemorrhagic vs 0(0 ischemic, 70 to 120(19(21 vs6 (60, 120 and upper68 (75.6 vs4 (40, p=0.025 and also with patient and control group (under70 (3(3 in patient's vs 20(20 control group, 70 to 120(25(25 vs54 (54, 120 and upper72 (72 vs26 (26, p<0001. In patients group 72(73.5 of cases had zinc serum level above 120. HLP difference was significant in patient and control group (50(50 in control group vs 35(35 in patients, p=0.04. Regression logistic show that IHD (p<0001, OR=30, CI=6-152, HLP (p<0001, OR=4, CI=9.09-1.85, zinc serum level (p<0001, OR=15.5, CI=4-59.8 had significant role. Conclusions: Zinc serum levels, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hyperlipidemia were most risk factor that play role in Babol stroke patients.

  15. Association of malnutrition-inflammation score, dialysis-malnutrition score and serum albumin with novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients.

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    As'habi, Atefeh; Tabibi, Hadi; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Nozary-Heshmati, Behnaz

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the associations between malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), dialysis-malnutrition score (DMS) and serum albumin with novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 291 HD patients were randomly selected from among 2302 adult HD patients in Tehran HD centers. The MIS and DMS were determined during one of the dialysis sessions in these patients. In addition, 4 mL blood was obtained before dialysis and analyzed for serum albumin and novel risk factors for CVD, including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)]. MIS and DMS were significantly positively correlated with serum CRP (p protein-energy wasting indicators in HD patients are associated with serum CRP and sICAM-1, as two CVD risk factors.

  16. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

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    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  17. Serum uric acid level is an independent risk factor for presence of calcium in coronary arteries: an observational case-controlled study.

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    Atar, Aslı Inci; Yılmaz, Omer Cağlar; Akın, Kayıhan; Selçoki, Yusuf; Er, Okan; Eryonucu, Beyhan

    2013-03-01

    A link between uric acid levels and cardiovascular diseases has been previously reported. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a marker of atherosclerotic disease and a predictor of cardiovascular events. We sought to determine if serum uric acid level is an independent risk factor for the presence of calcium in coronary arteries. Four hundred and forty-two patients who were evaluated in the cardiology outpatient clinic for suspected coronary heart disease with a low-moderate risk for coronary artery disease were included in this observational case-controlled study. Serum uric acid levels were measured with colorimetric methods. CACS were performed using a 64-slice CT scanner. Patients were divided to 3 groups according to their CACS value (Group 1: CACS=0, Group 2: CACS 1-100, Group 3: CACS>100). The demographical characteristics and laboratory findings of 3 groups were similar, except age, fasting glucose levels and serum uric acid levels. Serum uric acid levels were found to increase significantly with increasing CACS (p=0.001). Patients were grouped according to presence CAC (CACS=0 and CACS≥1) and in the multiple regression analysis, age (OR, 1.11, 95% CI, 1.07-1.16), smoking (OR, 3.83, 95% CI, 2.06-7.09), serum uric acid levels (OR, 1.26, 95% CI, 1.04-1.54) and average 10-year total risk of Framingham risk score (OR, 1.13, 95% CI, 1.04-1.09) appeared as independent factors predictive of presence of CAC (p<0.05). Serum uric acid level is an independent risk factor for presence of coronary calcium. Moreover, increasing levels of serum uric acid are associated with increasing CACS.

  18. Relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone with vitamin D and metabolic syndrome risk factors in late reproductive-age women.

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    Kim, Sunmie; Kim, Jin Ju; Kim, Min-Jeong; Han, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) with vitamin D (25OH-D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk was evaluated in healthy, late reproductive-age (35-49 years) women with regular menstrual cycles. Among the 291 participants (mean age = 42.5 years), most (76.6%, n = 223) were serum vitamin D insufficient (D were 2.04 ng/mL and 15.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no correlation between AMH and 25OH-D after adjustment for age (r = -0.093, p = 0.113). Subjects with higher MetS score, higher waist circumference, and higher diastolic blood pressure had significantly higher serum AMH levels when adjusted for age, but the association attenuated when BMI was included. There was no significant correlation between MetS risk components with serum level of AMH or vitamin D. In conclusion, there was no association between AMH with serum 25OH-D or MetS risk factors in this population.

  19. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5.......1%) died from lung cancer; 48 males (5.0%) among males with low serum selenium, 0.4-1.0 μmol·l(-1), n=965, 57 males (5.1%) among males with medium serum selenium, 1.1-1.2 μmol·l(-1), n=1,141, and 62 males (5.1%) among males with high serum selenium, 1.3-3.0 μmol·l(-1), n=1,227. After adjustment for age...... (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential...

  20. Serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization

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    Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Ezgi; Uzaslan, Esra; Budak, Ferah; Coskun, Funda; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ercan, Ilker; Ege, Ercument

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL-18) has been shown to be elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study primarily aimed to evaluate whether the serum CCL-18 level differentiates the frequent exacerbator COPD phenotype from infrequent exacerbators. The secondary aim was to investigate whether serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Materials and methods Clinically stable COPD patients and participants with smoking history but normal spirometry (NSp) were recruited for the study. Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, COPD Assessment Test, spirometry, and 6-min walking test were performed. Serum CCL-18 levels were measured with a commercial ELISA Kit. Results Sixty COPD patients and 20 NSp patients were recruited. Serum CCL-18 levels were higher in COPD patients than those in NSp patients (169 vs 94 ng/mL, PCOPD (168 vs 196 ng/mL) subgroups did not achieve statistical significance (P=0.09). Serum CCL-18 levels were significantly higher in COPD patients who had experienced at least one exacerbation during the previous 12 months. Overall, ROC analysis revealed that a serum CCL-18 level of 181.71 ng/mL could differentiate COPD patients with hospitalized exacerbations from those who were not hospitalized with a 88% sensitivity and 88.2% specificity (area under curve: 0.92). Serum CCL-18 level had a strong correlation with the frequency of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (r=0.68, PCOPD, as it is associated with frequency of exacerbations, particularly with severe COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization, as well as with functional parameters and symptom scores. PMID:28115842

  1. A low serum bicarbonate concentration as a risk factor for mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

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    Tae Ik Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metabolic acidosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, this relationship has not yet been determined in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study included a total of 441 incident patients who started PD between January 2000 and December 2005. Using time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic levels, we aimed to investigate whether a low serum bicarbonate concentration can predict mortality in these patients. RESULTS: Among the baseline parameters, serum bicarbonate level was positively associated with hemoglobin level and residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR, while it was negatively associated with albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, peritoneal Kt/V urea, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR in a multivariable linear regression analysis. During a median follow-up of 34.8 months, 149 deaths were recorded. After adjustment for age, diabetes, coronary artery disease, serum albumin, ferritin, CRP, residual GFR, peritoneal Kt/V urea, nPCR, and percentage of lean body mass, TA-Bic level was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (HR per 1 mEq/L increase, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; p < 0.001. In addition, compared to patients with a TA-Bic level of 24-26 mEq/L, those with a TA-Bic level < 22 and between 22-24 mEq/L conferred a 13.10- and 2.13-fold increased risk of death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a low serum bicarbonate concentration is an independent risk factor for mortality in PD patients. This relationship between low bicarbonate levels and adverse outcome could be related to enhanced inflammation and a more rapid loss of RRF associated with metabolic acidosis. Large randomized clinical trials to correct acidosis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  2. [Relationship between Ghrelin polymorphism and serum lipoprotein levels in Han Chinese with or without coronary heart disease risk factors].

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    Xie, Xuan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yu-huan; Wang, Jun-hong; Zhang, Chun-hong; Ni, Hong-yan; Yuan, Xiao-hong

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of Ghrelin gene and serum levels of lipoprotein in Han Chinese with or without coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was used to detect the distribution of genotypes of Ghrelin gene in 225 Han Chinese (40 to 69 years-old) with CHD risk factors, 78 subjects without CHD risk factors served as normal controls. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were measured to analyze the relationship with the polymorphism of Ghrelin gene. Ghrelin genotype frequencies of AA, AG, GG (0.975, 0.025, 0.00 in control group and 0.956, 0.040, 0.004 in the high-risk group, all P > 0.05) as well as the allele frequencies of A, G (0.987, 0.013 in control group and 0.976, 0.024 in the high-risk group, all P > 0.05) were similar between the groups. HDL-C levels of the Arg/Gln carriers were significantly lower than those of Arg/Arg carriers in control group and in the high-risk group (all P < 0.05). Arg/Gln carriers were associated lower HDL-C levels in Han Chinese.

  3. Serum uric acid level as a cardio-cerebrovascular event risk factor in middle-aged and non-obese Chinese men.

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    Li, Zhi-Jun; Yi, Chen-Ju; Li, Jing; Tang, Na

    2017-04-11

    The role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases is controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid level and the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events in middle-aged and non-obese Chinese men. We included 3152 participants from the health examination center of Tongji Hospital from June 2007 to June 2010. Clinical examination and medical records were collected at the annual health examination. The hazard ratios (HRs) of uric acid for cardio-cerebrovascular events were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. Generalized additive model and threshold effect analysis were used to explore the non-linear relationship between serum uric acid level and the incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular event. The mean follow-up time was 52 months. When the participants were classified into four groups by the serum acid quarter (Q1-Q4), the HRs (95% CI) of Q2-Q4 for cardio-cerebrovascular events were 1.26 (0.83, 1.92), 1.97 (1.33, 2.91) and 2.05 (1.40, 3.01), respectively, compared with the reference (Q1). The actual incidence and conditional incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular events in the high serum acid group were higher than those in the low serum acid group, which were stratified by the turning point (sUA = 372 μmol/L). We also showed a strong prognostic accuracy of the multiple variable-based score in 3 years and 5 years, with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.790 (0.756-0.823) and 0.777 (0.749-0.804), respectively. Serum uric acid level is a strong risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular events.

  4. Utilization of small changes in serum creatinine with clinical risk factors to assess the risk of AKI in critically lll adults.

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    Cruz, Dinna N; Ferrer-Nadal, Asunción; Piccinni, Pasquale; Goldstein, Stuart L; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Alessandri, Elisa; Belluomo Anello, Clara; Bohannon, Will; Bove, Tiziana; Brienza, Nicola; Carlini, Mauro; Forfori, Francesco; Garzotto, Francesco; Gramaticopolo, Silvia; Iannuzzi, Michele; Montini, Luca; Pelaia, Paolo; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Disease biomarkers require appropriate clinical context to be used effectively. Combining clinical risk factors, in addition to small changes in serum creatinine, has been proposed to improve the assessment of AKI. This notion was developed in order to identify the risk of AKI early in a patient's clinical course. We set out to assess the performance of this combination approach. A secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicenter intensive care unit cohort study (September 2009 to April 2010) was performed. Patients at high risk using this combination approach were defined as an early increase in serum creatinine of 0.1-0.4 mg/dl, depending on number of clinical factors predisposing to AKI. AKI was defined and staged using the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. The primary outcome was evolution to severe AKI (Acute Kidney Injury Network stages 2 and 3) within 7 days in the intensive care unit. Of 506 patients, 214 (42.2%) patients had early creatinine elevation and were deemed at high risk for AKI. This group was more likely to subsequently develop the primary endpoint (16.4% versus 1.0% [not at high risk], Pcreatinine, and hazard tier for AKI, early creatinine elevation remained an independent predictor for severe AKI (adjusted relative risk, 12.86; 95% confidence interval, 3.52 to 46.97). Addition of early creatinine elevation to the best clinical model improved prediction of the primary outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.75 to 0.83, Phigh AKI risk, based on the combination of clinical factors and early creatinine elevation, are significantly more likely to develop severe AKI. As initially hypothesized, the high-risk combination group methodology can be used to identify patients at low risk for severe AKI in whom AKI biomarker testing may be expected to have low yield. The high risk combination group methodology could potentially allow clinicians to optimize biomarker use.

  5. Serum levels of interleukin-22, cardiometabolic risk factors and incident type 2 diabetes: KORA F4/FF4 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Christian; Kannenberg, Julia M; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Huth, Cornelia; Meisinger, Christa; Koenig, Wolfgang; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Thorand, Barbara

    2017-01-31

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has beneficial effects on body weight, insulin resistance and inflammation in different mouse models, but its relevance for the development of type 2 diabetes in humans is unknown. We aimed to identify correlates of serum IL-22 levels and to test the hypothesis that higher IL-22 levels are associated with lower diabetes incidence. Cross-sectional associations between serum IL-22, cardiometabolic risk factors and glucose tolerance status were investigated in 1107 persons of the population-based KORA F4 study. The prospective association between serum IL-22 and incident type 2 diabetes was assessed in 504 initially non-diabetic study participants in both the KORA F4 study and its 7-year follow-up examination KORA FF4, 76 of whom developed diabetes. Male sex, current smoking, lower HDL cholesterol, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were associated with higher IL-22 levels after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.05). Serum IL-22 showed no associations with glucose tolerance status, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Baseline serum IL-22 levels (median, 25th/75th percentiles) for incident type 2 diabetes cases and non-cases were 6.28 (1.95; 12.35) and 6.45 (1.95; 11.80) pg/ml, respectively (age and sex-adjusted P = 0.744). The age and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) per doubling of IL-22 for incident type 2 diabetes of 1.02 (0.85; 1.23) was almost unchanged after consideration of further confounders. High serum levels of IL-22 were positively rather than inversely associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. However, these associations did not translate into an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Thus, our data argue against the utility of IL-22 as biomarker for prevalent or incident type 2 diabetes in humans, but identify potential determinants of IL-22 levels which merits further research in the context of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with major depression disorder and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Carolina David; de Mello Ferreira, Sharon; Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Bittencourt, Guilherme; de Oliveira, Jacqueline Flores; Lopez Molina, Mariane; Jansen, Karen; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; Rizzato Lara, Diogo; Portela, Luiz Valmor; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important member of the neurotrophins group and their involvement in the pathophysiology of major depression disorder (MDD) and suicide risk (SR) has been recently suggested. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in NGF serum levels in individuals with MDD and with or without risk of suicide, in subjects from a young population-based sample. This is a paired cross-sectional study nested in a population-based study. Individuals were rated for MDD and SR by a diagnostic interview--Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The total population of the sample was comprised of 141 subjects distributed in three groups: 47 healthy controls, 47 subjects with current depressive episode without SR (MDD) and 47 subjects with current depressive episode and with SR (MDD + SR). NGF serum levels were significantly reduced in the MDD and MDD + SR groups when compared with controls (p ≤ 0.001). However, there were no differences in NGF levels between the MDD and MDD + SR groups (p = 1.000). These results suggest that reduced NGF serum levels can be a possible biomarker of MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level is associated with increased risk of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Patrick; Horvath, Alexandra; Nordlund, Arto; Wallin, Anders; Svensson, Johan

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is important for the adult brain, but little is known of the role of IGF-I in Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD). A prospective study of 342 patients with subjective or objective mild cognitive impairment recruited at a single memory clinic. We determined whether serum IGF-I concentrations at baseline were associated with the risk of all-cause dementia, AD, or VaD. Patients developing mixed forms of AD and VaD were defined as suffering from VaD. The statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. During the follow-up (mean 3.6 years), 95 (28%) of the patients developed all-cause dementia [AD, n=37 (11%) and VaD, n=42 (12%)]. Low as well as high serum IGF-I (quartile 1 or 4 vs. quartiles 2-3) did not associate with all-cause dementia [crude hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-2.08 and crude HR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.63-1.75, respectively] or AD (crude HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.35-1.79 and crude HR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.43-2.06, respectively]. In contrast, low serum IGF-I concentrations were associated with increased risk of VaD (quartile 1 vs. quartiles 2-3, crude HR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.13-4.36). The latter association remained significant also after adjustment for multiple covariates. In a memory clinic population, low serum IGF-I was a risk marker for subsequent VaD whereas low IGF-I did not associate with the risk of AD. High serum IGF-I was not related to the risk of conversion to dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A predictive score for retinopathy of prematurity by using clinical risk factors and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Coşkun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the impact of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and other risk factors for the early prediction of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and to establish a scoring system for ROP prediction by using clinical criteria and serum IGF-1 levels. METHODS: The study was conducted with 127 preterm infants. IGF-1 levels in the 1st day of life, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th week of life was analyzed. The score was established after logistic regression analysis, considering the impact of each variable on the occurrences of any stage ROP. A validation cohort containing 107 preterm infants was included in the study and the predictive ability of ROP score was calculated. RESULTS: Birth weights (BW, gestational weeks (GW and the prevalence of breast milk consumption were lower, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC were more frequent, the duration of mechanical ventilation and oxygen supplementation was longer in patients with ROP (P<0.05. Initial serum IGF-1 levels tended to be lower in newborns who developed ROP. Logistic regression analysis revealed that low BW (<1250 g, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and formula feeding increased the risk of ROP. Afterwards, the scoring system was validated on 107 infants. The negative predictive values of a score less than 4 were 84.3%, 74.7% and 79.8% while positive predictive values were 76.3%, 65.5% and 71.6% respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to BW <1250 g and IVH, formula consumption was detected as a risk factor for the development of ROP. Breastfeeding is important for prevention of ROP in preterm infants.

  9. Serum magnesium is associated with the risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Licher, Silvan; Wolters, Frank J; Ikram, M Kamran; Hoorn, Ewout J; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-10-17

    To determine if serum magnesium levels are associated with the risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease. Within the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, we measured serum magnesium levels in 9,569 participants, free from dementia at baseline (1997-2008). Participants were subsequently followed up for incident dementia, determined according to the DSM-III-R criteria, until January 1, 2015. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to associate quintiles of serum magnesium with incident all-cause dementia. We used the third quintile as a reference group and adjusted for age, sex, Rotterdam Study cohort, educational level, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, comorbidities, other electrolytes, and diuretic use. Our study population had a mean age of 64.9 years and 56.6% were women. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 823 participants were diagnosed with all-cause dementia. Both low serum magnesium levels (≤0.79 mmol/L) and high serum magnesium levels (≥0.90 mmol/L) were associated with an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.69, and HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.67, respectively). Both low and high serum magnesium levels are associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia. Our results warrant replication in other population-based studies. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within Normal Range Have Different Associations with Augmentation Index and Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Nondrinkers and Drinkers: A Chinese Community-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels within normal range were associated with augmentation index (AIx and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers in Chinese community-dwelling population. Methods. There were 4165 participants with serum ALT levels within normal range. Results. Alcohol drinking was observed in 1173 participants (28.2%. In multivariate analysis, serum ALT levels of nondrinkers were independently associated with age, sex, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and AIx, while serum ALT levels of drinkers were independently associated with age, sex, BMI, triglyceride, and LDL-c (p<0.05 for all. Conclusions. Associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with age, sex, body height and weight, and blood lipid were simultaneously present in participants with and without alcohol drinking, while associations of serum ALT levels within normal range with AIx, blood pressure, and glucose were seen in nondrinkers rather than in drinkers. These findings not only provide the evidence that serum ALT levels, even within the normal range, have different associations with arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors in nondrinkers and drinkers but also are helpful in understanding the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the hepatic function to arteriosclerosis and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  11. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality following open surgical repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wanpin; Wang, Yan; Yao, Kai; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Open surgical repair (OSR) is a conventional surgical method used in the repair a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); however, OSR results in high perioperative mortality rates. The level of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been reported to be an independent risk factor for postoperative in-hospital mortality following major cardiopulmonary surgery. In the present study, the association of serum ACE2 levels with postoperative in-hospital mortality was investigated in patients undergoing OSR for ruptured AAA. The study enrolled 84 consecutive patients underwent OSR for ruptured AAA and were subsequently treated in the intensive care unit. Patients who succumbed postoperatively during hospitalization were defined as non-survivors. Serum ACE2 levels were measured in all patients prior to and following the surgery using ELISA kits. The results indicated that non-survivors showed significantly lower mean preoperative and postoperative serum ACE2 levels when compared with those in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also showed that, subsequent to adjusting for potential confounders, the serum ACE2 level on preoperative day 1 showed a significant negative association with the postoperative in-hospital mortality. This was confirmed by multivariate hazard ratio analysis, which showed that, subsequent to adjusting for the various potential confounders, the risk of postoperative in-hospital mortality remained significantly higher in the two lowest serum ACE2 level quartiles compared with that in the highest quartile on preoperative day 1. In conclusion, the present study provided the first evidence supporting that the serum ACE2 level is an independent risk factor for the in-hospital mortality following OSR for ruptured AAA. Furthermore, low serum ACE2 levels on preoperative day 1 were found to be associated with increased postoperative in-hospital mortality. Therefore, the serum ACE2 level on preoperative day 1 may be a potential

  12. High Level of Soluble FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 (sFlt-1 Serum in Pregnancy as a Risk Factor of Preeclampsia

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    I Gede Mega Putra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain unknown. One of the theory indicating that hypoxia and ischemic placenta caused by abnormal cytotrophoblast invasion in preeclampsia. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 serum as a laboratory marker of hypoxia condition that contributes to the occurrence of endothelial damage and clinical manifestations in preeclampsia. Objective: This study was aimed at proving that high level of soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 serum in pregnancy as a risk factor for preeclampsia. Methods: This study was a case control. Among 58 pregnant women studied, 29 women with preeclampsia as a case group and 29 women with normal pregnancy as a control group. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 serum was analyzed in the Prodia Laboratory. Collected data were tested for normality using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, then analyzed with independent sample test. Chi-Square test used to determine soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 serum level in preeclampsia. Results: This research concluded that the average level of soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 serum in preeclampsia were 11231.00 ± 8390.3 pg/mL and 3981.62 ± 4921.5 pg/mL in normal pregnancy. Analysis of significance with independent t-test concluded that the value of t = 4.01 and p = 0.001. This mean the average levels of soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1serum levels in both groups were difference significantly (p <0.05. Based on the cut-off point of sFlt-1 serum levels was 4505.50 pg/mL with 79.3% sensitivity and 82.8% specificity, the relative risk of preeclampsia was 18 times (OR = 18.40, IK 95% = 4.93 to 68.70, p = 0.001. Conclusion:  Based on this research, high levels of soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 in pregnancy was proved as a risk factor for preeclampsia.

  13. High Serum Adiponectin Level Is a Risk Factor for Anemia in Japanese Men: A Prospective Observational Study of 1,029 Japanese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Kohno

    Full Text Available Erythroid abnormalities including anemia and polycythemia are often observed in the general clinical setting. Because recent studies reported that adiponectin negatively affects hematopoiesis, we performed a prospective observational study to assess the relationship between anemia and adiponectin, as well as other parameters, in 1029 Japanese subjects (477 men and 552 women 40 years of age and older. Body measurements, blood tests, and nutrition intake studies were performed at baseline, and 5 to 7 years later (follow-up. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels in men with high serum adiponectin levels were lower at follow-up than at baseline. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, body mass index, adiponectin, and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were significantly associated with erythroid-related variables (red blood cells, Hb, and Hct in both men and women (P <0.05. In a logistic regression analysis, adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, and β-natriuretic peptide were significant risk factors for anemia in men, and blood urea nitrogen and amylase were significant risk factors in women. Physical features and nutrient intake were not risk factors for anemia. Our study demonstrates, both clinically and epidemiologically, that a high serum adiponectin level decreases the amounts of erythroid-related variables and is a risk factor for anemia in Japanese men.

  14. Serum levels of environmental pollutants is a risk factor for breast cancer in Inuit: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielsøe, Maria; Kern, Peder; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2017-06-13

    serum levels of ∑PFAA, ∑PFCA, ∑PFSA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), PFHxS, and PFOS were associated with breast cancer risk. Significant, positive associations between breast cancer risk and PCBs and PFAAs were observed. The associations indicate that environmental exposure to POPs can be a factor increasing the risk for breast cancer in Inuit women.

  15. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  16. Nutritional risk factors and status of serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with breast cancer: A case control study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Nighat Y; Jain, Monika; Kapil, Umesh; Seenu, Vuthaluru; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Ravinder Mohan

    2018-01-01

    To study the nutritional risk factors and status of serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with breast cancer. A total of 100 women (cases) with confirmed breast cancer (BC) matched with equal number of healthy females (controls) of similar age and socioeconomic status (SES) were included in study. Controls included were nonbreast cancer patients who accompanied the patients to a tertiary care hospital. All the subjects (cases and controls) were administered a questionnaires to collect data on socioeconomic status, dietary pattern and the frequency of food consumption using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric assessment was done for waist and hip circumference to calculate waist to hip ratio (WHR). Non fasting blood samples were collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels estimation using chemiluminescent immunoassay technique and total serum calcium levels by colorimetric assay technique. Serum 25(OH)D and total calcium levels were expressed in ng/ml and mg/dl. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as per the guidelines set by United States Endocrine Society. The mean age of cases and controls was 45±9 and 46±10 years respectively. On multivariate analysis, an inverse association with BC was found for less frequency of fruits consumption with an adjusted (ORs, 95% CI) (2.7, 0.5-15.7) respectively. Mushroom intake was inversely associated with risk of BC (ORs, 95% CI) (5.6, 1.9-16.6). Saturated fat intake and high WHR were significantly associated with high risk of BC with adjusted ORs, 95% CI of (3.4, 1.4-8.1) and (5, 1.4-17). A significant association (pnutritional risk factors determined by higher WHR was found to be significantly associated with the risk of BC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum osteoprotegerin levels and mammographic density among high-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Olivia; Zaman, Tasnim; Eisen, Andrea; Demsky, Rochelle; Blackmore, Kristina; Knight, Julia A; Elser, Christine; Ginsburg, Ophira; Zbuk, Kevin; Yaffe, Martin; Narod, Steven A; Salmena, Leonardo; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a risk factor for breast cancer but the mechanism behind this association is unclear. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway has been implicated in the development of breast cancer. Given the role of RANK signaling in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we hypothesized this pathway may also be associated with mammographic density. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL, is known to inhibit RANK signaling. Thus, it is of interest to evaluate whether OPG levels modify breast cancer risk through mammographic density. We quantified serum OPG levels in 57 premenopausal and 43 postmenopausal women using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cumulus was used to measure percent density, dense area, and non-dense area for each mammographic image. Subjects were classified into high versus low OPG levels based on the median serum OPG level in the entire cohort (115.1 pg/mL). Multivariate models were used to assess the relationship between serum OPG levels and the measures of mammographic density. Serum OPG levels were not associated with mammographic density among premenopausal women (P ≥ 0.42). Among postmenopausal women, those with low serum OPG levels had higher mean percent mammographic density (20.9% vs. 13.7%; P = 0.04) and mean dense area (23.4 cm 2 vs. 15.2 cm 2 ; P = 0.02) compared to those with high serum OPG levels after covariate adjustment. These findings suggest that low OPG levels may be associated with high mammographic density, particularly in postmenopausal women. Targeting RANK signaling may represent a plausible, non-surgical prevention option for high-risk women with high mammographic density, especially those with low circulating OPG levels.

  18. Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke: The Framingham Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Hamidreza; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Pikula, Aleksandra; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Romero, Jose R; Kase, Carlos S; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    Low insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and atrial fibrillation in cross-sectional studies. Yet, prospective data linking IGF-1 levels to the development of ischemic stroke remain inconclusive. We examined prospectively the association between serum IGF-1 levels and incident ischemic stroke. We measured serum IGF-1 levels in 757 elderly individuals (mean age 79±5, 62% women), free of prevalent stroke, from the Framingham original cohort participants at the 22nd examination cycle (1990-1994) and were followed up for the development of ischemic stroke. Cox models were used to relate IGF-1 levels to the risk for incident ischemic stroke, adjusted for potential confounders. During a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, 99 individuals developed ischemic stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and potential confounders, higher IGF-1 levels were associated with a lower risk of incident ischemic stroke, with subjects in the lowest quintile of IGF-1 levels having a 2.3-fold higher risk of incident ischemic stroke (95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.06; P =0.03) as compared with those in the top quintile. We observed an effect modification by diabetes mellitus and waist-hip ratio for the association between IGF-1 and ischemic stroke ( P <0.1). In subgroup analyses, the effects were restricted to subjects with diabetics and those in top waist-hip ratio quartile, in whom each standard deviation increase in IGF-1 was associated with a 61% (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.78; P =0.007) and 41% (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.95; P =0.031) lower risk of incident ischemic stroke, respectively. IGF-1 levels were inversely associated with ischemic stroke, especially among persons with insulin resistance. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Serum magnesium and the risk of prediabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieboom, Brenda C T; Ligthart, Symen; Dehghan, Abbas; Kurstjens, Steef; de Baaij, Jeroen H F; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Zietse, Robert; Stricker, Bruno H; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have found an association between serum magnesium and incident diabetes; however, this association may be due to reverse causation, whereby diabetes may induce urinary magnesium loss. In contrast, in prediabetes (defined as impaired fasting glucose), serum glucose levels are below the threshold for urinary magnesium wasting and, hence, unlikely to influence serum magnesium levels. Thus, to study the directionality of the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes, we investigated its association with prediabetes. We also investigated whether magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels. Additionally, we quantified the effect of insulin resistance in the association between serum magnesium levels and diabetes risk. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, kidney function, serum levels of electrolytes and diuretic use, to study the association between serum magnesium and prediabetes/diabetes. In addition, we performed two mediation analyses: (1) to study if common genetic variation in eight magnesium-regulating genes influence diabetes risk through serum magnesium levels; and (2) to quantify the proportion of the effect of serum magnesium levels on diabetes that is mediated through insulin resistance (quantified by HOMA-IR). A total of 8555 participants (mean age, 64.7 years; median follow-up, 5.7 years) with normal glucose levels (mean ± SD: 5.46 ± 0.58 mmol/l) at baseline were included. A 0.1 mmol/l decrease in serum magnesium level was associated with an increase in diabetes risk (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.04, 1.33]), confirming findings from previous studies. Of interest, a similar association was found between serum magnesium levels and prediabetes risk (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.25]). Genetic variation in CLDN19, CNNM2, FXYD2, SLC41A2, and TRPM6 significantly influenced diabetes risk (p prediabetes 13.4% was

  20. Prevalence of hyperuricemia and relation of serum uric acid with cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country

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    Shamlaye C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has rarely been investigated in developing countries. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and the association between uric acid levels and the various cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country with high average blood pressures (the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, population mainly of African origin. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Seychelles. It included 1011 subjects aged 25 to 64 years. Blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total and HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides and serum uric acid were measured. Data were analyzed using scatterplot smoothing techniques and gender-specific linear regression models. Results The prevalence of a serum uric acid level >420 μmol/L in men was 35.2% and the prevalence of a serum uric acid level >360 μmol/L was 8.7% in women. Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in men as well as in women (r = 0.73 in men and r = 0.59 in women, p Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of hyperuricemia can be high in a developing country such as the Seychelles. Besides alcohol consumption and the use of antihypertensive therapy, mainly diuretics, serum uric acid is markedly associated with parameters of the metabolic syndrome, in particular serum triglycerides. Considering the growing incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome worldwide and the potential link between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular complications, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia in developing countries.

  1. Dietary diversity score is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and serum adiponectin concentrations in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Jahangiry, Leila

    2018-04-17

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors and lipid abnormalities. Previous studies evaluated the dietary habits and nutrient intakes among patients with metabolic syndrome; however the association between metabolic risk factors and adiponectin with dietary diversity score (DDS) in patients with metabolic syndrome has not been evaluated yet. Therefore the aim of the current study was to evaluate these relationships among patients with metabolic syndrome. One hundred sixty patients with metabolic syndrome were recruited in the study. The anthropometric parameters including weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured. Serum adiponectin concentration was measured by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA). Lipid profile and fasting serum glucose concentrations (FSG) were also measured with enzymatic colorimetric methods. Blood pressure was also measured and DDS was calculated using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Subjects in lower DDS categorizes had significantly lower energy and fiber intake; whereas mean protein intake of subjects in the highest quartile was significantly higher than second quartile. Higher prevalence of obesity was also observed in the top quartiles (P metabolic syndrome components among patients in lower DDS quartiles was significantly higher (P metabolic syndrome. However, for further confirming the findings, more studies are warranted.

  2. Is a high serum copper concentration a risk factor for implantation failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Kitaya, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Nishiyama, Rie; Takaya, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2017-08-10

    .88, respectively. Our single-center retrospective study suggests that high serum copper concentrations (high Cu/Zn ratio) are a risk factor for implantation failure.

  3. Serum uric acid level and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess serum uric acid (UA accumulation can lead to various diseases. Increasing evidences reveal that UA may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Little is known about the associations of UA levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals. This study was designed to evaluate the association between UA and cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic subjects with family history of diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional setting, a sample containing 643 (302 prediabetic subjects and 341 normal of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55-years old were investigated. Samples were assessed in prediabetic and normal groups using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined based on American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Body weight and height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, UA, creatinine (Cr, albumin (Alb, fasting blood glucose (FBG, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profiles were measured and compared between two groups. Results: Prediabetic persons were older and obese than normal persons. Also, prediabetic persons (5.2 ± 1.3 mg/dl had significantly higher UA than normal persons (4.9 ± 1.4 mg/dl (P 1, P < 0.05 associated with glucose tolerance categories. This association remained statistically significant after adjusting the effects of age and BMI. Also, the association between glucose tolerance categories and UA were positively significant in both genders. Conclusion: High UA level was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in prediabetic individuals compared with normal person. UA level was also a significant predictor for prediabetes condition.

  4. Coagulation factor VII, serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism: differences between older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L. I.; de Maat, M. P.; Schouten, E. G.; Kluft, C.; de Jong, P. T.; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Coagulation factor VII activity (FVII:C) is a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. It is related to serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism (alleles R and Q) in the gene coding for factor VII is strongly associated with factor VII. The association of serum-triglycerides with factor VII

  5. Coagulation factor VII, serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism: Differences between older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.; Jong, P.T.V.M. de; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Coagulation factor VII activity (FVII:C) is a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. It is related to serum-triglycerides and the R/Q353 polymorphism (alleles R and Q) in the gene coding for factor VII is strongly associated with factor VU[. The association of serum-triglycerides with factor VII

  6. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I) and prostatic cancer risk a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liren; Liu Jiumin; Lu Bailing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum IGF-I levels and prostatic cancer. Methods: Serum IGF-I levels were determined by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in 30 cases of prostatic cancer, 30 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 30 healthy subjects as controls. Results: The mean levels of serum IGF-I in prostatic cancer (148 +- 49.6 μg/L) were significantly higher than those in BPH (91.0 +- 32.8 μg/L) and healthy subjects (105 +- 25.6 μg/L) (P 0.05). The IGF-I levels were not relates to BHP, but increased values of IGF-I were associated with increased risk of prostatic cancer. The odds ratio was 11.23 for patients of prostatic cancer compared with healthy subjects, (95 percent confidence interval 3.09 - 40.7). Conclusion: This finding suggests that high IGF-I may be associated with increase risk of prostate cancer in human

  7. Cancer risk in relation to serum copper levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R

    1989-08-01

    A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.

  8. Identification of serum metabolites associated with risk of type 2 diabetes using a targeted metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floegel, Anna; Stefan, Norbert; Yu, Zhonghao; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Drogan, Dagmar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Peters, Annette; Roden, Michael; Prehn, Cornelia; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Illig, Thomas; Schulze, Matthias B; Adamski, Jerzy; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias

    2013-02-01

    Metabolomic discovery of biomarkers of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk may reveal etiological pathways and help to identify individuals at risk for disease. We prospectively investigated the association between serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics and risk of T2D in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam (27,548 adults) among all incident cases of T2D (n = 800, mean follow-up 7 years) and a randomly drawn subcohort (n = 2,282). Flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 163 metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, hexose, and phospholipids, in baseline serum samples. Serum hexose; phenylalanine; and diacyl-phosphatidylcholines C32:1, C36:1, C38:3, and C40:5 were independently associated with increased risk of T2D and serum glycine; sphingomyelin C16:1; acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines C34:3, C40:6, C42:5, C44:4, and C44:5; and lysophosphatidylcholine C18:2 with decreased risk. Variance of the metabolites was largely explained by two metabolite factors with opposing risk associations (factor 1 relative risk in extreme quintiles 0.31 [95% CI 0.21-0.44], factor 2 3.82 [2.64-5.52]). The metabolites significantly improved T2D prediction compared with established risk factors. They were further linked to insulin sensitivity and secretion in the Tübingen Family study and were partly replicated in the independent KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) cohort. The data indicate that metabolic alterations, including sugar metabolites, amino acids, and choline-containing phospholipids, are associated early on with a higher risk of T2D.

  9. Serum IL-6 level and associated factors: hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi S, Mokhtari A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The annual amount of mortality in ESRD exceeds the expectation and represents the recent evidences of the inflammation as its etiology. The etiology of inflammation is not clearly known. Chronic inflammation is a dominant occurrence of ESRD which increases the risk of atherosclerosis, malnutrition and peripheral vascular disease. Inflammatory responses are orchestrated by cytokines. Some of the proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6 have a crucial role in this phenomenon. The IL-6 and its receptor activity is up regulated in ESRD patients and the increased level of IL-6 predicts cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in normal and CRF patients. This study devotes itself to determining the serum level of IL-6 and factors affecting it in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Imam Khomeini Hospital which can represent the Iranian Society. By identifying factors affecting the serum level of IL-6 and high-risk patients we can provide treatment possibilities, a decrease in mortality and an improvement in its prognosis. "n"nMethods: In this study 42 patients in Imam Dialysis Center were chosen and their serum IL-6 levels were measured at 2 times at three month interval and at the same time blood sample analysis were done for the following: Alb CPR, Ca, P, PTH, TIBC, Ferritin, TG, Chol, LDL, HDL, Uric Acid, Hb, WBC and urea."n"nResults: The mean serum level of IL-6 in hemodialysis patients was 6.35±4.47pg/ml (minimum: 0.55, maximum: 18.25 with the normal range of 1.3±3.2pg/ml."n"nConclusions: The IL-6 level was higher than normal range in the 52% of the patients. The serum IL-6 level had a significant correlations with CPR, Ferritin, TIBC, WBC and their serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, but no significant correlation was observed between other parameters and IL-6

  10. Serum levels of TWEAK and scavenger receptor CD163 in type 1 diabetes mellitus: relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Llauradó

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK and soluble scavenger receptor CD163 (sCD163 as markers of subtle inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM without clinical cardiovascular (CV disease and to evaluate their relationship with arterial stiffness (AS. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with T1DM and 68 age and sex-matched, healthy subjects were evaluated. Anthropometrical variables and CV risk factors were recorded. Serum concentrations of sTWEAK and sCD163 were measured. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV. All statistical analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: T1DM patients showed lower serum concentrations of sTWEAK (Men: 1636.5 (1146.3-3754.8 pg/mL vs. 765.9 (650.4-1097.1 pg/mL; p<0.001. Women: 1401.0 (788.0-2422.2 pg/mL vs. 830.1 (562.6-1175.9 pg/mL; p = 0.011 compared with their respective controls. Additionally, T1DM men had higher serum concentrations of sCD163 (285.0 (247.7-357.1 ng/mL vs. 224.8 (193.3-296.5 ng/mL; p = 0.012 compared with their respective controls. sTWEAK correlated negatively with aPWV in men (r = -0.443; p<0.001. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In men, the best multiple linear regression model showed that the independent predictors of sTWEAK were T1DM and WHR (R(2 = 0.640; p<0.001. In women, T1DM and SBP were the independent predictors for sTWEAK (R(2 = 0.231; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: sTWEAK is decreased in T1DM patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy subjects after adjusting for classic CV risk factors, although sTWEAK levels may be partially influenced by some of them. Additionally, T1DM men have higher serum concentrations of sCD163. These results point out an association between the inflammatory system and CV risk in T1DM.

  11. Risk Factors of Treatment Failure in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Mook Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSome diabetic feet heal without complication, but others undergo amputation due to progressive wounds. This study investigates the risk factors for amputation of diabetic feet.MethodsA total of 55 patients who visited our institution from 2008 to 2012 were included in the study. The patients with abnormal fasting blood sugar levels, lower leg vascularity, and poor nutrition were excluded from the study group, and the wound states were unified. The patients were categorized into a treatment success group (n=47 and a treatment failure group (n=8, and their hemoglobin A1C (HgA1C, C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood cell count (WBC, and serum creatinine levels were analyzed.ResultsThe initial CRP, WBC, and serum creatinine levels in the treatment failure group were significantly higher than that of the treatment success group, and the initial HgA1C level was significantly higher in the treatment success group. The CRP and WBC levels of both groups changed significantly as time passed, but their serum creatinine levels did not.ConclusionsThe initial CRP, WBC, and serum creatinine levels were considered to be risk factors for amputation. Among them, the serum creatinine level was found to be the most important predictive risk factor. Because serum creatinine represents the renal function, thorough care is needed for the feet of diabetic patients with renal impairment.

  12. Mortality indicators and risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension in severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J G; Liao, Q; Zhao, Y P; Hu, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the risk factors associated with mortality and the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). To identify significant risk factors, we assessed the following variables in 102 patients with SAP: age, gender, etiology, serum amylase level, white blood cell (WBC) count, serum calcium level, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) score, computed tomography severity index (CTSI) score, pancreatic necrosis, surgical interventions, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Statistically significant differences were identified using the Student t test and the χ (2) test. Independent risk factors for survival were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression. The following variables were significantly related to both mortality and IAH: WBC count, serum calcium level, serum amylase level, APACHE-II score, CTSI score, pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic necrosis >50%, and MODS. However, it was found that surgical intervention had no significant association with mortality. MODS and pancreatic necrosis >50% were found to be independent risk factors for survival in patients with SAP. Mortality and IAH from SAP were significantly related to WBC count, serum calcium level, serum amylase level, APACHE-II score, CTSI score, pancreatic necrosis, and MODS. However, Surgical intervention did not result in higher mortality. Moreover, MODS and pancreatic necrosis >50% predicted a worse prognosis in SAP patients.

  13. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement surger...... creatinine. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, high BMI, gender, and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors........ METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted among 599 consecutive primary hip joint replacements performed between January 2011 and December 2013. According to the RIFLE criteria, increased postoperative serum creatinine was considered indicative of postoperative renal injury. The Welch two-sample test......, hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...

  14. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; von Stein, Richard T; Hossain, Muhammad M; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; German, Dwight C

    2014-03-01

    The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School's Alzheimer's Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54-5.82; P risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ε4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD.

  15. Serum IGFBP-2 and Risk of Atypical Hyperplasia of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsburg, C.; Strickler, H. D.; Rohan, T. E.; Gunter, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hyperplasia of the breast (AH) is associated with increased risk of subsequent invasive breast cancer, yet little is known about the etiology of AH. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) may contribute to the development of AH due to its proliferative effects on mammary tissue. We conducted a nested case-control study of postmenopausal women enrolled in Women’s Health Initiative-Clinical Trial. Cases were 275 women who developed incident AH during follow-up, individually (1:1) matched to controls. Levels of IGFBP-2 were determined from fasting serum collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the association of IGFBP-2 with risk of AH. Serum IGFBP-2 was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in risk for AH, when comparing the highest quartile to lowest quartile (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.321.31). This decrease in risk was most evident when analyses were restricted to nondiabetic, nonusers of hormone therapy (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.86, ptrend = 0.06) and nondiabetic women who were overweight or obese (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.18-1.03, ptrend = 0.05). Results from this study provide some support for an inverse association between serum IGFBP2 levels and risk of AH, particularly in nondiabetic women who are overweight or obese. Further studies are required to confirm these results.

  16. The effect of opium addiction on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in male subjects: a case control study from Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Najafipour, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Serum adiponectin and leptin levels have been shown to be related to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Opium addiction has a positive association with endocrine system disorders. The relationship between adipokines and opium addiction is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine serum adiponectin and leptin levels in opium addicted subjects. 176 men, 88 opium addicts and 88 non- addicts were randomly selected from subjects who participated in Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study (KERCADRS); a population-based study. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were measured using ELISA and compared between two groups. We adjusted the effect of some confounding factors such as the patients' demographic, clinical and medical history in multivariate analysis model. The serum level of adiponectin in opium addicts was significantly lower than control group (6.5±3.6 vs. 9.8±8.1 µg/ml, Popium addicts, p = 0.80). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, body mass index, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, triglyceride and high and low density lipoproteins, the negative association between opium addiction and decreased adiponectin level was still present (β = -0.144, P value = 0.005). The results showed that opium addiction reduces serum adiponectin level. Since adiponectin has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic effects, its reduction may account for increase in the risk of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and CVD amongst opium addicted patients.

  17. Serological prevalence and associated risk factors of Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella infections in chickens. The overall sero-prevalence established using serum plate agglutination test was 16.7% (98/588). Using a univariate logistic analysis, factors significantly associated with Salmonella infections at p < 0.05 were presence of other birds in poultry farms ...

  18. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ε4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD. PMID:24473795

  19. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of falls in Japanese community-dwelling elderly women: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Kim, H; Yoshida, H; Shimada, H; Suzuki, T

    2015-08-01

    The present prospective follow-up study among 1,393 community-dwelling elderly women aged 75 years or older was conducted to clarify the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and risk of falls. Lower serum 25(OH)D, particularly level risk of falls. Serum 25(OH)D level has been revealed to be important factor not only for skeletal health but also for fall prevention among the elderly. Our previous cross-sectional study indicated that low serum 25(OH)D level is associated with inferior physical performance and falls among elderly Japanese women. The present prospective study was designed to clarify the association between serum 25(OH)D level and risk of falls before and after 1 year of follow-up. The community-dwelling elderly women aged 75 years or older (N = 1,393) who participated in a mass health examination were followed 1 year later by a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Responses were obtained from 1,285 subjects (response rate = 92.2%). The incidence of falls at baseline and at 1-year follow-up was 18.8 and 24.4%, respectively. The baseline prevalence of serum 25(OH)D falls and 1.47 (0.93-2.32) for recurrent falls vs. no falls adjusted for potential risk factors. Among elderly Japanese women, the lower serum 25(OH)D, particularly level risk of falls.

  1. Changes in some coronary disease risk factors under influence of treatment with Swieradow radon waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczeklik, E; Halawa, B; Kwiatkowski, J

    1977-01-01

    In 66 patients subbivided into group of patients with coronary disease and group of control subjects the effect of radioactive waterbath and climatotherapy in Swieradow upon coronary disease risk factors was studied. The following risk factors were taken into account: cholesterol level, triglicerides, LDL, uric acid, the serum glucose level, arterial tension and weight. The results obtained indicate that the therapy with radon waters of Swieradow complexed with climatotherapy decreases the content of some coronary disease risk factors. The decrease of the urin acid in the serum, the lowering of arterial tension and decrease of body weight was noted. The lipid level in the serum did not change under effect of radioactive waters.

  2. Serum ferritin and stomach cancer risk among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Blot, W.J.; Kabuto, Michinori; Stevens, R.G.; Kato, Hiroo; Land, C.E.

    1990-02-01

    Using stored serum samples collected from 1970-72 and/or from 1977-79, serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin levels were immunologically determined for 233 stomach cancer and 84 lung cancer cases diagnosed from 1973-83 and for 385 matched controls from a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Elevated stomach cancer risk was associated with low serum ferritin levels, with more than a threefold excess among those in the lowest quintile as compared to the highest ferritin quintile. The average serum ferritin concentration was 8% lower in the stomach cancer cases than in the controls. Risk did not vary with the time between blood collection and stomach cancer onset, remaining high among those with low ferritin levels five or more years before cancer diagnosis. Low ferritin combined with achlorhydria, diagnosed about 10 years before the blood collection and up to 25 years before cancer diagnosis, was an exceptionally strong marker of increased stomach cancer risk. No effect of transferrin or ceruloplasmin independent of ferritin was observed on gastric cancer risk. Lung cancer risk was not related to these three serum proteins. (author)

  3. New Insights into Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay: Serum Dilution Factor as a Crucial Parameter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jońca

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity assay and inhibitor phenotyping can help to identify patients at risk of prolonged paralysis following the administration of neuromuscular blocking agents. The assay plays an important role in clinical chemistry as a good diagnostic marker for intoxication with pesticides and nerve agents. Furthermore, the assay is also commonly used for in vitro characterization of cholinesterases, their toxins and drugs. There is still lack of standardized procedure for measurement of BChE activity and many laboratories use different substrates at various concentrations. The purpose of this study was to validate the BChE activity assay to determine the best dilution of human serum and the most optimal concentration of substrates and inhibitors. Serum BChE activity was measured using modified Ellman's method applicable for a microplate reader. We present our experience and new insights into the protocol for high-throughput routine assays of human plasma cholinesterase activities adapted to a microplate reader. During our routine assays used for the determination of BChE activity, we have observed that serum dilution factor influences the results obtained. We show that a 400-fold dilution of serum and 5mM S-butyrylthiocholine iodide can be successfully used for the accurate measurement of BChE activity in human serum. We also discuss usage of various concentrations of dibucaine and fluoride in BChE phenotyping. This study indicates that some factors of such a multicomponent clinical material like serum can influence kinetic parameters of the BChE. The observed inhibitory effect is dependent on serum dilution factor used in the assay.

  4. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Risk of Incident Hypertriglyceridemia: A Longitudinal Population-based Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Ren, Ping; Chen, Qingmei; Yang, Tianmeng; Chen, Changxi; Mao, Yushan

    2017-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is one of lipid metabolism abnormalities; however, it is still debatable whether serum uric acid is a cause or a consequence of hypertriglyceridemia. We performed the study to investigate the longitudinal association between serum uric acid levels and hypertriglyceridemia. The study included 4190 subjects without hypertriglyceridemia. The subjects had annual health examinations for 8 years to assess incident hyperglyceridemia, and the subjects were divided into groups based on the serum uric acid quartile. Cox regression models were used to analyze the risk factors of development hypertriglyceridemia. During follow-up, 1461 (34.9%) subjects developed hypertriglyceridemia over 8 years of follow-up. The cumulative incidence of hypertriglyceridemia was 28.2%, 29.1%, 36.9%, and 45.6% in quartile 1,2,3 and 4, respectively ( P for trend uric acid levels were independently and positively associated with the risk of incident hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia has become a serious public health problem. This longitudinal study demonstrates that high serum uric acid levels increase the risk of hypertriglyceridemia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  5. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system components in colorectal tissue and its relation with serum IGF levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bosma, A.; Majoor, D.M.; Doorn, van J.; Cats, A.; Depla, A.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Wesseling, J.; Kampman, E.; van't Veer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system has been implicated in colorectal tumor carcinogenesis. Although both tumor expression levels and serum concentrations of IGF-system components are related to colorectal cancer risk, it is unknown whether IGF levels in tissue and serum are

  6. Expression of insulin-like growth factor system components in colorectal tissue and its relation with serum IGF levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bosma, A.; Majoor, D.M.; Doorn, J. van; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.; Wesseling, J.; Kampman, E.; Veer, L.J. van 't

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system has been implicated in colorectal tumor carcinogenesis. Although both tumor expression levels and serum concentrations of IGF-system components are related to colorectal cancer risk, it is unknown whether IGF levels in tissue and serum are

  7. Differential Serum Cytokine Levels and Risk of Lung Cancer between African and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Sharon R.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Enewold, Lindsey; Bowman, Elise D.; Ryan, Bríd M.; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Chaturvedi, Anil; Caporaso, Neil E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than European Americans. Previous studies suggested that certain circulating cytokines were associated with lung cancer. We hypothesized that variations in serum cytokine levels exist between African Americans and European Americans, and increased circulating cytokine levels contribute to lung cancer differently in the two races. Methods Differences in ten serum cytokine levels, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α between 170 African-American and 296 European-American controls from the National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-control study were assessed. Associations of the serum cytokine levels with lung cancer were analyzed. Statistically significant results were replicated in the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Wayne State University (WSU) Karmanos Cancer Institute case-control study. Results Six cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα, were significantly higher among European-American as compared to African-American controls. Elevated IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated with lung cancer among both races in all three studies. Elevated IL-1β, IL-10 and TNFα levels were associated with lung cancer only among African Americans. The association between elevated TNFα levels and lung cancer among European Americans was significant after adjustment for additional factors. Conclusions Serum cytokine levels vary by race and might contribute to lung cancer differently between African Americans and European Americans. Impact Future work examining risk prediction models of lung cancer can measure circulating cytokines to accurately characterize risk within racial groups. PMID:26711330

  8. Is High Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio an Emerging Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Death? Findings from the KIHD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (>4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.

  9. Expression of virulence factors by Staphylococcus aureus grown in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oogai, Yuichi; Matsuo, Miki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Kato, Fuminori; Sugai, Motoyuki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces many virulence factors, including toxins, immune-modulatory factors, and exoenzymes. Previous studies involving the analysis of virulence expression were mainly performed by in vitro experiments using bacterial medium. However, when S. aureus infects a host, the bacterial growth conditions are quite different from those in a medium, which may be related to the different expression of virulence factors in the host. In this study, we investigated the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus grown in calf serum. The expression of many virulence factors, including hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases, and iron acquisition factors, was significantly increased compared with that in bacterial medium. In addition, the expression of RNA III, a global regulon for virulence expression, was significantly increased. This effect was partially restored by the addition of 300 μM FeCl₃ into serum, suggesting that iron depletion is associated with the increased expression of virulence factors in serum. In chemically defined medium without iron, a similar effect was observed. In a mutant with agr inactivated grown in serum, the expression of RNA III, psm, and sec4 was not increased, while other factors were still induced in the mutant, suggesting that another regulatory factor(s) is involved. In addition, we found that serum albumin is a major factor for the capture of free iron to prevent the supply of iron to bacteria grown in serum. These results indicate that S. aureus expresses virulence factors in adaptation to the host environment.

  10. Embryogenesis-promoting factors in rat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kimura, R; Shoji, R

    1998-06-15

    Regarding whole rat embryo cultures in vitro, rat serum as a culture medium is known to support the normal growth of rat embryos in the organogenesis phase. The purpose of the present study was to isolate the embryogenesis-promoting factors from rat serum as a first step in the development of a defined serum-free medium for a whole embryo culture system. Pooled rat serum after heat inactivation was fractionated into three major peaks (frA, containing a region of void volume, frB, and frC) by gel filtration. The 9.5-day rat embryos that were cultivated for 48 hr in essential salt medium containing frB (with a molecular size range of 100-500 kDa) revealed normal growth. Three proteins (27 kDa, 76 kDa, and 190 kDa) that had the embryogenesis-promoting effects were isolated from 3-hr delayed centrifuged rat serum by the ion exchange chromatography. The 76-kDa protein was found to be rat transferrin by immunoblotting. The 27-kDa protein was identified as apo-AI (the major apoprotein of high-density lipoprotein) by immunoblotting. High-density lipoprotein obtained from pooled rat serum by a NaBr density gradient ultracentrifugation was found to have a positive effect on embryogenesis. The 10-kDa protein was also identified as alpha 1-inhibitor 3 by immunoblotting. In addition, the embryogenesis-promoting effect of the fraction containing 27-kDa and 190-kDa proteins declined within a short period of storage at -20 degrees C. This decrease was countered by supplementing its fraction (D-2) with albumin isolated from rat serum. These results in the present study suggest that transferrin, high-density lipoprotein, and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 in rat serum may be embryogenesis-promoting factors, and that albumin appeared to play a role in the embryogenesis of rat embryos in whole embryo cultures.

  11. Risk factors for postoperative complications following oral surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo SHIGEISHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective The objective of this study was to clarify significant risk factors for postoperative complications in the oral cavity in patients who underwent oral surgery, excluding those with oral cancer.Material and Methods This study reviewed the records of 324 patients who underwent mildly to moderately invasive oral surgery (e.g., impacted tooth extraction, cyst excision, fixation of mandibular and maxillary fractures, osteotomy, resection of a benign tumor, sinus lifting, bone grafting, removal of a sialolith, among others under general anesthesia or intravenous sedation from 2012 to 2014 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Hiroshima University Hospital.Results Univariate analysis showed a statistical relationship between postoperative complications (i.e., surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and diabetes (p=0.033, preoperative serum albumin level (p=0.009, and operation duration (p=0.0093. Furthermore, preoperative serum albumin level (<4.0 g/dL and operation time (≥120 minutes were found to be independent factors affecting postoperative complications in multiple logistic regression analysis results (odds ratio 3.82, p=0.0074; odds ratio 2.83, p=0.0086, respectively.Conclusion Our results indicate that a low level of albumin in serum and prolonged operation duration are important risk factors for postoperative complications occurring in the oral cavity following oral surgery.

  12. Serum calcium and incident type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Mary R; Pankow, James S; Sibley, Shalamar D; Selvin, Elizabeth; Reis, Jared P; Michos, Erin D; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2016-10-01

    Elevated serum calcium has been associated with a variety of metabolic abnormalities and may be associated with a greater risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum calcium concentration is positively and independently associated with the incidence of diabetes and to evaluate the association of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801725 with incident diabetes. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants free of diabetes at baseline (n = 12,800; mean age: 53.9 y; 22.6% black) were studied for incident diabetes. Serum calcium was measured at baseline and corrected for serum albumin. Diabetes was defined by use of glucose concentrations, self-report, or medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used. During a mean 8.8 y of follow-up, 1516 cases of diabetes were reported. Participants in the highest compared with lowest calcium quintile were at greater risk of incident diabetes after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors [HR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.14, 1.57); P-trend across quintiles 1] and with further adjustment for waist circumference and body mass index [1.26 (1.07, 1.48); P-trend = 0.004]. Additional adjustment for biomarkers on the metabolic pathway (e.g., 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus) had little impact. The calcium-diabetes association was statistically significant in blacks [1.48 (1.11, 1.98); P-trend = 0.002] but not whites [1.17 (0.96, 1.43); P-trend = 0.17] after adjustment for adiposity. In whites, CaSR gene SNP rs1801725 was associated with serum calcium but not with risk of diabetes. Consistent with 3 previous cohort studies, elevated serum calcium was found to be associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to understand the role, if any, that calcium plays in the pathogenesis of diabetes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from 1980 to 2010: a comparative risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Lu, Yuan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Carnahan, Emily; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Lin, John K.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Rao, Mayuree; Khang, Young-Ho; Riley, Leanne M.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Lim, Stephen S.; Ezzati, Majid; Aamodt, Geir; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdella, Nabila A.; Rahim, Hanan F. Abdul; Addo, Juliet; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afifi, Mustafa M.; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Salinas, Carlos A. Aguilar; Agyemang, Charles; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Mohamed M.; Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Al-Nuaim, Abdul R.; Ambady, Ramachandran; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Aro, Pertti; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahalim, Adil N.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barbieri, Marco A.; Barceló, Alberto; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Barros, Henrique; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Benetos, Athanase; Bjerregaard, Peter; Björkelund, Cecilia; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Bonora, Enzo; Botana, Manuel A.; Bovet, Pascal; Breckenkamp, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Background High blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and BMI are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and some of these factors also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. We estimated mortality from cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes

  14. Cardiovascular Risk and Serum Hyaluronic Acid: A Preliminary Study in a Healthy Population of Low/Intermediate Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasopoulou, Chrysanthi; Papastamataki, Maria; Karampatsis, Petros; Anagnostopoulou, Eleni; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been found to be an important trigger of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigate the possible association of serum HA with cardiovascular disease risk in a population of low/intermediate risk for cardiovascular events. We enrolled 200 subjects with low/intermediate risk for developing cardiovascular disease. High specific C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used as an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis. The Framingham score was used to calculate the cardiovascular risk. Participants with dyslipidemia had significantly higher levels of serum HA than those without dyslipidemia (t-test, P = 0.05), higher levels of hsCRP (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.04), and higher cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.05). Serum HA concentration correlated significantly with the Framingham score for risk for coronary heart disease over the next 10 years (Spearman r = 0.152, P = 0.02). Diabetic volunteers had significantly higher HA than those without diabetes (t-test, P = 0.02). Participants with metabolic syndrome had higher serum HA levels and higher hsCRP (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.01) compared to volunteers without metabolic syndrome (t-test, P = 0.03). Serum HA should be explored as an early marker of atheromatosis and cardiovascular risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Identification of Ganglioside GM3 Molecular Species in Human Serum Associated with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Veillon

    Full Text Available Serum GM3 molecular species were quantified in 125 Japanese residents using tandem mass spectrometry multiple reaction monitoring. Individuals were categorized by the presence or absence of metabolic disease risk factors including visceral fat accumulation, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. A total of 23 GM3 molecular species were measured, of these, eight were found to be significantly elevated in individuals with visceral fat accumulation and metabolic disease, defined as the presence of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. All of the GM3 molecular species were composed of the sphingoid base sphingosine (d18:1 (Δ4 and, interestingly, six of the eight elevated GM3 molecular species contained a hydroxylated ceramide moiety. The hydroxylated GM3 species were, in order of decreasing abundance, d18:1-h24:0 ≈ d18:1-h24:1 > d18:1-h22:0 » d18:1-h20:0 > d18:1-h21:0 > d18:1-h18:1. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted using a number of clinical health variables associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic disease, atherosclerosis and hypertension. GM3(d18:1-h24:1 was identified as the best candidate for metabolic screening, proving to be significantly correlated with intima-media thickness, used for the detection of atherosclerotic disease in humans, and a number of metabolic disease risk factors including autotaxin, LDL-c and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR.

  16. Serum Lipid Profiles and Cancer Risk in the Context of Obesity: Four Meta-Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J. C.; Holmberg, L.; Hemelrijck, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective here was to summarize the evidence for, and quantify the link between, serum markers of lipid metabolism and risk of obesity-related cancers. Pub Med and Embase were searched using predefined inclusion criteria to conduct meta-analyses on the association between serum levels of TG, TC, HDL, ApoA-I, and risk of 11 obesity-related cancers. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using random-effects analyses. 28 studies were included. Associations between abnormal lipid components and risk of obesity-related cancers when using clinical cut points ( TC ≥ 6.50; TG ≥ 1.71; HDL ≤ 1.03; ApoA-I ≤ 1.05 mmol/L) were apparent in all models. RRs were 1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29) for TC, 1.20 (1.07-1.35) for TG, 1.15 (1.01-1.32) for HDL, and 1.42 (1.17-1.74) for ApoA-I. High levels of TC and TG, as well as low levels of HDL and ApoA-I, were consistently associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. The modest RRs suggest serum lipids to be associated with the risk of cancer, but indicate it is likely that other markers of the metabolism and/or lifestyle factors may also be involved. Future intervention studies involving lifestyle modification would provide insight into the potential biological role of lipid metabolism in tumorigenesis.

  17. Serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin are related to cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Enriquez, Sergio; Ballesteros-Gonzalez, Isabel Thalia; Villafán-Bernal, José Rafael; Pascoe-Gonzalez, Sara; Rivera-Leon, Edgar Alfonso; Bastidas-Ramirez, Blanca Estela; Rivas-Carrillo, Jorge David; Alcala-Zermeno, Juan Luis; Armendariz-Borunda, Juan; Llamas-Covarrubias, Iris Monserrat; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham

    2017-01-15

    To determine a potential relationship between serum undercarboxylated (ucOC) concentration and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and healthy subjects (HS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 140 subjects classified into two groups, 70 with T2D and 70 HS. Medical history and physical examination with anthropometric measurements were obtained from all subjects. Body fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impendency analysis. Serum ucOC concentration was determined by enzyme immunoassay, while serum levels of insulin and hsCRP were obtained using high sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment-IR. Lipid profile [triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-c), low density lipoproteins (LDL-c), very low-density lipoproteins] was determined by spectrophotometry and standard formulas when applicable. The T2D patient group showed significantly higher values of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), current smoking, and alcohol use when compared to the HS group ( P correlated with body mass index (BMI) ( r = -0.236, P HDL-c ( r = -0.255, P correlated with LDL-c/HDL-c ratio ( r = 0.306, P HDL-c ratio ( r = 0.284, P correlated with BMI ( r = -0.310, P body-fat percentage ( r = -0.311, P correlated with DBP ( r = 0.450, P correlation between serum levels of ucOC and SBP ( r = 0.277, P adiposity parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile.

  18. Evaluation of risk factors for vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Jin; Lim, Na Ri; Park, Hyo Jung; Yang, Jae Wook; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyunga; In, Yong Won; Lee, Young Mee

    2018-05-09

    Background Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic of choice for the treatment of serious infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. However, vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity (VAN) often limits its use. Previous data suggested a few risk factors of VAN, including higher mean vancomycin trough level, higher daily doses, old age, long duration of vancomycin therapy, and concomitant nephrotoxins. Objective To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of VAN and determine whether higher vancomycin trough concentrations were associated with a greater risk for VAN. Settings A retrospective, observational, single-center study at the 1960-bed university-affiliated tertiary care hospital (Samsung Medical Center), Seoul, Korea. Method A retrospective analysis of adult patients who received vancomycin parenterally in a tertiary care medical center from March 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013 was performed. We excluded patients with a baseline serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL and those who had a history of end-stage renal disease and dialysis at baseline. The clinical characteristics were compared between patients with nephrotoxicity and those without nephrotoxicity to identify the risk factors associated with VAN. Main outcome measure Incidence of VAN and VAN-associated risk factors were analyzed. Results Of the 315 vancomycin-treated patients, nephrotoxicity occurred in 15.2% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, higher vancomycin trough concentrations of > 20 mg∕L (OR 9.57, 95% CI 2.49-36.83, p < 0.01) and intensive care unit (ICU) residence (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.41-5.82, p < 0.01) were independently associated with VAN. Conclusion Our findings suggest that higher vancomycin trough levels and ICU residence might be associated with a greater risk for VAN. More careful monitoring of vancomycin serum trough levels and patient status might facilitate the timely prevention of VAN.

  19. [Estimation of relation between homocysteine concentration and selected lipid parameters and adhesion molecules concentration in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Baj, Zbigniew; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Stepień, Mariusz; Rysz, Jacek

    2008-10-01

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood. At present among numerous risk factors of atherosclerosis the role of hiperhomocysteinemia in development of cardiovascular heart disease is taken under consideration. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to its cytotoxin action, conducting to endothelial dysfunction and damage. It is correlated with increase of the lipid levels in the blood serum and change of expression of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocystein serum concentration, expression of the selected adhesion molecules and the lipid levels in the blood serum in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The group consisted of 670 children, 76 of them had atherosclerosis risk factors. In further examination 48 children have taken a part, whose parents were agreed for theirs participation in the program. The comparative group composed of 25 children without the risk factors. We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol fraction (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol fraction (HDL-C), serum homocysteine concentration (Hcy), the expression of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules (sCAM): sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). Obesity, hypertension and lipid disorders in the shape of higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. No significant differences in serum homocysteine concentration were observed between the investigated groups. However, its concentration was significantly higher in children with two atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in expression of s-VCAM-1 were observed in the investigated groups, concentration of sP-selectin was significantly higher in children with atherosclerosis risk factors (phomocysteine and chosen adhesion molecules in children with atherosclerosis risk factors might potentially constitute the marker of early

  20. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the outcome of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghimi Mehrdad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are common in renal transplant recipients and renal insuf-ficiency has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported that cardiovascular risk factors may contribute to the outcome of renal transplantation. This study was performed to determine the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on the outcome of renal transplantation in Iranian subjects. This is a retrospective, observational study including patients of 20-85 years of age who had undergone renal transplantation. Parameters documented and analyzed included demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, past medical history, date of last transplan-tation, the outcome of transplant, last measured serum creatinine, cause of graft failure, rejection, and death. A total of 192 patients were analyzed including 152 in the case group (with identifiable cardiovascular risk factors and 40 controls (transplant recipients without identifiable risk factors. The mean serum creatinine in the case and control groups were 1.33 ± 0.13 and 1.29 ± 0.36 mg/dL respectively (P= 0.493. Response to transplantation was categorized based on a report from the World Health Organization. Complete response to grafting occurred in the control group more than the case group (P= 0.009, while frequency of partial response to grafting was higher in the case group (0.008. A history of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD could significantly predict the outcome of grafting (P= 0.008 as could the occurrence of renal failure (P= 0.022. Results were consistently reproduced using multivariate cumulative log it model. Our study indicates that the measured cardiovascular risk factors do not significantly influence the outcome of renal transplantation.

  1. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens; Sales, Allan Robson Kluser; Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p sex < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions

  2. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  3. Thrombophilic Risk Factors in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Ayten; Senturk, Omer; Aygun, Cem; Celebi, Altay; Caglayan, Cigdem; Hulagu, Sadettin

    2010-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have an increased risk for thromboembolism. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of thrombophilic risk factors in IBD patients and to assess the associations of these factors with disease activity. Forty-eight patients with IBD (24 ulcerative colitis, 24 Crohn's disease) and 40 matched healthy control individuals were enrolled. In addition to routine biochemical analysis, fasting blood samples were studied for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, protein-C, protein-S, antithrombin III, factor VII, factor VIII, D-dimer, vitamin B 12 , folic acid and homocysteine. Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimer and the number of platelets were significantly higher in patients with IBD. When compared to control group, in patients with Crohn's disease serum homocystein levels were significantly higher (p = 0.025) while serum folic acid levels were significantly lower (p homocystein and the number of platelets were found to be significantly higher in Crohn's disease patients who were in active period of the disease. Thrombophilic defects are multifactorial and might be frequently seen in IBD patients. They might contribute to thrombotic complications of this disease.

  4. High Serum Pepsinogen I and beta Helicobacter pylori Infection Are Risk Factors for Aspirin-Induced Gastroduodenal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jing; Lei, Hongjun; Shi, Wei; Sun, Xiaobin; Tang, Yu; Ren, Chunrong

    2018-01-01

    Whether gastric hyperchlorhydria and Helicobacter pylori infection contribute to aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury still lacks evidence. Because serum pepsinogens (PGs) and gastrin-17 (G17) can reflect gastric acid secretion, this study intended to elucidate whether serum PGs, serum G17, and H. pylori infection are associated with aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. A total of 60 patients taking low-dose aspirin for more than 1 month were enrolled in this study. Serum PG I, PG II, and G17 were determined using ELISA. A 14C-urea breath test was used for the detection of an H. pylori infection. The modified Lanza score was used to evaluate the degree of gastroduodenal injury under endoscopy. The median serum PG I level was significantly higher in the intensive gastroduodenal injury (IGI) group compared to that in the mild gastroduodenal injury group (155.0 vs. 116.6 ng/mL, p = 0.006). The H. pylori infection rate was significantly higher in the IGI group (73 vs. 40%, p = 0.037). Receiver operator characteristic curves analysis revealed that the cutoff value of PG I was 123 ng/mL, with 80% sensitivity and 61.4% specificity. H. pylori infection combined with PG I at >123 ng/mL had an OR (95% CI) of 15.8 (2.4 ± 104.5) for the prediction of aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury. Key Messages: Serum PG I and H. pylori infection could be used to identify potential high-risk aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Maternal serum lead level during pregnancy is positively correlated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Hua; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Lu; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-known developmental toxicant. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between maternal serum Pb level and risk of preterm birth in a population-based birth cohort study. The present study analyzed a sub-study of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort that recruited 3125 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Pb level was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All subjects were classified into three groups by tertile division according to serum Pb level: Low-Pb (L-Pb, <1.18 μg/dl), Medium-Pb (M-Pb, 1.18–1.70 μg/dl), and High-Pb (H-Pb, ≥1.71 μg/dl). The rate of preterm birth was 2.8% among subjects with L-Pb, 6.1% among subjects with M-Pb, and 8.1% among subjects with H-Pb, respectively. After controlling confounding factors, the adjusted OR for preterm birth was 2.33 (95%CI: 1.49, 3.65) among subjects with M-Pb and 3.09 (95%CI: 2.01, 4.76) among subjects with H-Pb. Of interest, maternal Pb exposure in early gestational stage than in middle gestational stage was more susceptible to preterm birth. Moreover, maternal serum Pb level was only associated with increased risk of late preterm birth. The present study provides evidence that maternal serum Pb level during pregnancy is positively associated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population. - Highlights: • Environmental Pb exposure during pregnancy elevates risk of preterm birth. • Environmental Pb exposure during pregnancy elevates risk of moderate and late preterm birth. • Environmental Pb exposure at early or middle gestational stage elevates risk of preterm birth. - Maternal serum Pb level during pregnancy is positively associated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population.

  6. Relation of Serum Vitamin D to Risk of Mitral Annular and Aortic Valve Calcium (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuakuu, Martin; Zhao, Di; de Boer, Ian H; Guallar, Eliseo; Bortnick, Anna E; Lutsey, Pamela L; Budoff, Matthew J; Kizer, Jorge R; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Michos, Erin D

    2017-08-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration has been identified as a possible modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that serum 25(OH)D concentration would be associated with calcifications of the left-sided heart valves, which are markers of CVD risk. Aortic valve calcium (AVC) and mitral annular calcium (MAC) were quantified from cardiac computed tomography scans performed on 5,530 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants at the baseline examination (2000 to 2002) and at a follow-up visit at either Examination 2 (2002 to 2004) or Examination 3 (2004 to 2005). 25(OH)D was measured from serum samples collected at the baseline examination. Using relative risk regression, we evaluated the multivariable-adjusted risk of prevalent and incident AVC and MAC in this ethnically diverse population free of clinical CVD at baseline. The mean age of participants was 62 ± 10 years; 53% were women, 40% white, 26% black, 21% Hispanic, and 12% Chinese. Prevalent AVC and MAC were observed in 12% and 9% of study sample, respectively. There were no significant associations between 25(OH)D and prevalent AVC or MAC. Over a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, 4% developed incident AVC and 5% developed incident MAC. After adjusting for demographic variables, each 10 ng/ml higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with a 15% (relative risk 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.98) lower risk of incident MAC but not AVC. However, this association was no longer significant after adjusting for lifestyle and CVD risk factors. Results suggest a possible link between serum 25(OH)D and the risk for incident MAC, but future studies with longer follow-up are needed to further test this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma Homocysteine, Serum Folic Acid, Serum Vitamin B12, Serum Vitamin B6, MTHFR, and Risk of Normal-Tension Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinmiao; Xu, Fan; Zeng, Rui; Gong, Haijun; Lan, Yuqing

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis aims to comprehensively evaluate the association between total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, serum folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, and risk of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). A systematic search of the EMBASE and PubMed databases was performed to evaluate plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acid, B vitamins' mean difference, and odds ratios of MTHFR C677T genotype between cases and controls. A total of 7 studies including 458 cases and 555 controls meeting the inclusion criteria were involved in this meta-analysis. There were 4 studies for tHcy (149 cases and 148 controls), 2 studies for vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate (90 cases and 82 controls), and 4 studies for MTHFR (343 cases and 449 controls). Overall, the mean plasma tHcy levels, serum folic acids, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 levels were 1.16 μmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.13, 2.45], -0.62 μmol/L (95% CI, -1.98, 0.74), 5.81 μmol/L (95% CI, -3.53, 15.14), and -16.79 μmol/L (95% CI, -86.09, 52.51). MTHFR TT genotype was found to be unrelated to NTG risk (odds ratio=1.08; 95% CI, 0.69, 1.69). NTG is not associated with elevated plasma tHcy, serum folic acid, serum vitamin B12, serum vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T genotype.

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Hypercoagulability in Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thrombosis, attributed to atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus is not entirely clear and conventional risk factors such as smoking, obesity, blood pressure and serum lipids fail to explain fully this ...

  9. Serum YKL-40 in risk assessment for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that high serum YKL-40 associates with colorectal cancer in subjects at risk of colorectal cancer. We measured serum YKL-40 in a prospective study of 4,496 Danish subjects [2,064 men, 2,432 women, median age 61 years (range, 18-97)] referred.......05-1.40; P = 0.012), whereas this was not the case for those with comorbidity (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.14; P = 0.80). In conclusion, high serum YKL-40 in subjects suspected of colorectal cancer and without comorbidity associates with colorectal cancer. Determination of serum YKL-40 may be useful...

  10. Risk factors for postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Minekatsu; Takao, Takashi; Mori, Naohide; Tamesa, Takao; Tangoku, Akira; Oka, Masaaki

    2004-01-01

    Selection of patients for hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma conventionally has been based upon Child-Pugh grading. However, postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy is a major cause of hospital mortality. A new predictor of postoperative liver failure is required. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy. Perioperative risk factors for liver failure after hepatectomy were analyzed in 112 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma Eight of these patients died of liver failure. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate significant independent factors among 17 variables, including the serum alkaline phosphatase ratio (ALPR) on the first day after hepatectomy. ALPR was calculated as the postoperative ALP level divided by the ALP level before surgery. Significant risk factors of postoperative liver failure were ALPR on postoperative day 1 (ALPR1), sex, operative blood loss, and operative procedure. As an indicator of liver failure, the diagnostic accuracy of the ALPR1 was 93.7% when the ALPR was less than 0.4 on the first postoperative day. The ALPR and the serum total bilirubin concentration after hepatectomy were uncorrelated. ALPR1 is a useful predictor of liver failure after hepatectomy.

  11. Risk factors and incidence of contrast induced nephropathy following coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Yuniadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN is one of important complication of contrast media administration. Its incidence and risk factors among Indonesian patients undergoing coronary intervention has not been reported yet. CIN was defined as increasing of serum creatinine by 0.5 mg/dl or more in the third day following contrast media exposure. Of 312 patients undergoing coronary intervention, 25% developed CIN. Patient-related risk factors comprised of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, NYHA class, proteinuria, serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl and ejection fraction ≤ 35%. Contrast-related risk factors comprised of contrast media volume > 300 ml, contrast media type. However, our final model demonstrated that only hypertension [Hazard ratio (HR = 2.89, 95% confidence intrval (CI = 1.78 to 4.71, P = 0.000], diabetes mellitus (HR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.89 to 5.06, P = 0.000, ejection fraction (EF ≤ 35% (HR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.72 to 4.96; P = 0.000, total contrast volume > 300 ml (HR = 7.73; 95% CI = 3.09 to 19.37; P = 0.000 and proteinuria (HR = 14.96; 95% CI = 3.45 to 64.86; P = 0.000 were independent risk factors of CIN. In conclusion, CIN developed in 25% of patients undergoing coronary intervention. The independent risk factors of CIN included hypertension, diabetes mellitus, EF ≤ 35%, contrast volume > 300 ml and proteinuria. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 131-7Keywords: contrast induced nephropathy, coronary intervention

  12. Serum homocysteine as a risk factor for coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naureen, A.; Fatima, F.; Munazza, B.; Shaheen, R.

    2012-01-01

    atherothrombotic disease without their traditional risk factors. (author)

  13. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  14. Review Article: Pregnancy and CVD Risk Factors | Glew | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, particular lipoproteins (e.g., LDL) and homocysteine are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and vascular dysfunction that can adversely affect the health of a pregnant woman and her fetus. Although it has been documented in many populations worldwide that the serum total ...

  15. [Association of blood uric acid with other cardiovascular risk factors in the male working population in Valencia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, D; Silla, J; Ordovás, J M; Sabater, A; Ruiz de la Fuente, S; Portolés, O; González, J I; Saiz, C

    1999-12-01

    Serum uric acid has been reported to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of the present work was to determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia in a large size sample of a healthy male population, as well as the association between uric acid and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of 1,564 healthy men in Valencia (Spain), aged 20-67 years, working in the automobile industry. Serum values of uric acid, cholesterol, and glucose were obtained, as well as blood pressure and body mass index measurements. An assessment was made of socio-economic data, drug therapy, and smoking. The overall prevalence of hyperuricemia was 5.10%; it increased with age. A marked increase (p < 0.01) of hyperuricemic individuals was observed with increased prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors (from 1.8% with hyperuricemia alone up to 28% among individuals with four simultaneous risk factors). By means of a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the OR of hyperuricemia associated with each factor were calculated: increased serum glucose was the variable with a stronger association (OR: 2.69; 95%CI: 1.21-5.99), obesity ranking next (OR: 2.50; 95%CI: 1.42-4.49). Statistically significant associations were also observed for increased serum cholesterol, increased blood pressure, and smoking. The prevalence of hyperuricemia varies with the simultaneous presence of other classical cardiovascular risk factors. Even in this healthy mediterranean population, uric acid is significantly associated with several components in the plurimetabolic syndrome.

  16. Association between serum antibodies to periodontal bacteria and rheumatoid factor in NHANES III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Charlene E.; Kopp, Jacob; Papapanou, Panos N.; Molitor, Jerry A.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alterations in the microbiome, including the periodontal microbiome, may be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most studies that have analyzed this association are relatively small, focus primarily on a single periodontal pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and are not population-based. We investigated the association between elevated serum IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species and the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in a large nationally representative sample of adults. Methods The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a cross-sectional sample of the non-institutionalized US population (n=33,994). Our study population included all dentate participants ≥60 years, who did not have RA as defined by a modified version of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria, and had complete data for both serum IgG antibodies against periodontal bacteria and serum RF antibody titer (n=2461). Results Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) summarizing the relationship between the 19 periodontal serum IgGs and RF seropositivity ranged from 0.53 (0.29, 0.97) to 1.27 (0.79, 2.06), and 17 of the 19 observed ORs were periodontal IgGs to be mostly unassociated with RF seropositivity in the nationally representative NHANES III. Elevated antibody levels to P. intermedia and C. ochracea were associated with lower odds of RF seropositivity. PMID:27110949

  17. Determinants of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. J. W. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Kenis, G.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the neurotrophin family of growth factors and affects the survival and plasticity of neurons in the adult central nervous system. The high correlation between cortical and serum BDNF levels has led to many human studies on BDNF levels

  18. Inhibitory serum factor of lymphoproliferative response to allogeneic cells in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Daher

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An inhibitory serum factor of mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC has been associated with successful pregnancy after lymphocyte transfusion in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA. OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether the inhibitory serum factor of MLC is essential for a successful pregnancy. METHOD: Sera from 33 healthy pregnant women and from 40 women with RSA were assessed by a one-way MLC in which the woman's lymphocytes were stimulated with her partner's lymphocytes or with third party lymphocytes. RESULTS: An inhibitory serum effect (inhibition > 50% as compared to normal serum was detected in 45% of the pregnant women who had at least 1 previous parity, in 8% of the primigravidea, in 29% of those with one abortion and in 58% of those with more than one abortion. CONCLUSION: MLC inhibitory serum factor does not seem to be an essential factor for pregnancy development. Therefore, it should not be considered as a parameter for the assessment of RSA patients.

  19. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M; Masha, Luke I; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C; Sloan, J Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60-11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  1. Serum Insulin, Glucose, Indices of Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argirion, Ilona; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; Mondul, Alison M

    2017-10-01

    Background: Although insulin may increase the risk of some cancers, few studies have examined fasting serum insulin and lung cancer risk. Methods: We examined serum insulin, glucose, and indices of insulin resistance [insulin:glucose molar ratio and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)] and lung cancer risk using a case-cohort study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study of Finnish men. A total of 196 cases and 395 subcohort members were included. Insulin and glucose were measured in fasting serum collected 5 to 12 years before diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer. Results: The average time between blood collection and lung cancer was 9.6 years. Fasting serum insulin levels were 8.7% higher in subcohort members than cases. After multivariable adjustment, men in the fourth quartile of insulin had a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than those in the first quartile [HR = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.94]. A similar relationship was seen with HOMA-IR (HR = 1.83; 95% CI, 0.99-3.38). Risk was not strongly associated with glucose or the insulin:glucose molar ratio ( P trend = 0.55 and P trend = 0.27, respectively). Conclusions: Higher fasting serum insulin concentrations, as well as the presence of insulin resistance, appear to be associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer development. Impact: Although insulin is hypothesized to increase risk of some cancers, insulin and lung cancer remain understudied. Higher insulin levels and insulin resistance were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Although smoking cessation is the best method of lung cancer prevention, other lifestyle changes that affect insulin concentrations and sensitivity may reduce lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1519-24. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) across pregnancy and postpartum: Associations with race, depressive symptoms, and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa M; Mitchell, Amanda M; Gillespie, Shannon L; Palettas, Marilly

    2016-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated as a causal factor in major depression and is critical to placental development during pregnancy. Longitudinal data on BDNF across the perinatal period are lacking. These data are of interest given the potential implications for maternal mood and fetal growth, particularly among Black women who show ∼2-fold greater risk for delivering low birth weight infants. Serum BDNF, serum cortisol, and depressive symptoms (per CES-D) were assessed during each trimester and 4-11 weeks postpartum among 139 women (77 Black, 62 White). Low birth weight (BDNF declined considerably from 1st through 3rd trimesters (ps≤0.008) and subsequently increased at postpartum (pBDNF during the 1st trimester, 2nd trimester, and postpartum (ps≤0.032) as well as lower serum cortisol during the 2nd and 3rd trimester (ps≤0.01). Higher serum cortisol was concurrently associated with lower serum BDNF in the 2nd trimester only (pBDNF at both the 2nd and 3rd trimester was negatively associated with 3rd trimester depressive symptoms (ps≤0.02). In addition, women delivering low versus healthy weight infants showed significantly lower serum BDNF in the 3rd trimester (p=0.004). Women delivering low versus healthy weight infants did not differ in depressive symptoms at any time point during pregnancy (ps≥0.34). Serum BDNF declines considerably across pregnancy in Black and White women, with overall higher levels in Blacks. Lower serum BDNF in late pregnancy corresponds with higher depressive symptoms and risk for low birth weight in Black and White women. However, the predictive value of serum BDNF in pregnancy is specific to within-race comparisons. Potential links between racial differences in serum BDNF and differential pregnancy-related cortisol adaptation require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis on the risk factors of bacterial meningitis complicated with subdural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi JIANG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the risk factors of bacterial meningitis complicated with subdural effusion.  Methods The clinical data of children with bacterial meningitis in our hospital were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for subdural effusion.  Results A total of 128 cases were divided into control group (N = 64 and subdural effusion group (N = 64. There was no significant difference on serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and white blood cell (WBC between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF WBC (Z = 3.126, P = 0.003, CSF protein (Z = 4.928, P = 0.000 and serum procalcitonin (PCT; Z = 2.823, P = 0.007 in subdural effusion group were significantly higher, while CSF glucose (t = 2.166, P = 0.033 was significantly lower. After treatment, CSF WBC (Z = 2.467, P = 0.012 in subdural effusion group was still significantly higher than that of control group, and CSF glucose (t = 4.938, P = 0.000 was still significantly lower. Logistic regression analysis showed that WBC in CSF (P = 0.027, CSF protein (P = 0.002 and serum PCT (P = 0.014 were independent risk factors for bacterial meningitis complicated with subdural effusion.  Conclusions CSF examination of children with bacterial meningitis reveals significant increase of CSF WBC, CSF protein and serum PCT, suggesting concurrent subdural effusion is easily occurred. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.012

  4. Low serum magnesium levels are associated with increased risk of fractures: a long-term prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor Kwadzo; Whitehouse, Michael Richard; Blom, Ashley William; Laukkanen, Jari Antero

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium, which is an essential trace element that plays a key role in several cellular processes, is a major component of bone; however, its relationship with risk of major bone fractures is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association of baseline serum magnesium concentrations with risk of incident fractures. We analyzed data on 2245 men aged 42-61 years in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study, with the assessment of serum magnesium measurements and dietary intakes made at baseline. Hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for incident total (femoral, humeral, and forearm) and femoral fractures were assessed. During a median follow-up of 25.6 years, 123 total fractures were recorded. Serum magnesium was non-linearly associated with risk of total fractures. In age-adjusted Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% CIs) for total fractures in a comparison of the bottom quartile versus top quartile of magnesium concentrations was 2.10 (1.30-3.41), which persisted on adjustment for several established risk factors 1.99 (1.23-3.24). The association remained consistent on further adjustment for renal function, socioeconomic status, total energy intake, and several trace elements 1.80 (1.10-2.94). The corresponding adjusted HRs for femoral fractures were 2.56 (1.38-4.76), 2.43 (1.30-4.53) and 2.13 (1.13-3.99) respectively. There was no evidence of an association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of any fractures. In middle-aged Caucasian men, low serum magnesium is strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of fractures. Further research is needed to assess the potential relevance of serum magnesium in the prevention of fractures.

  5. Differential impact of serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular risk factor burden in nondiabetic, obese African American women: implications for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria includes 3 metabolic parameters: serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurements. However, the impact of each of the 3 metabolic parameters on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in African American women (AAW) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated CVD risk clusters associated with each of the 3 metabolic components of MetS in adult nondiabetic, overweight/obese AAW. We studied the clinical and metabolic CVD risk factors of 258 AAW (mean age, 42.4 +/- 8.4 years; mean body mass index, 33.4 +/- 8.0 (kg/m(2)). Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels were obtained in each subject. Waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Insulin sensitivity (Bergman minimal model method) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) were calculated. We examined the prevalence of MetS and its components associated with each of the 3 metabolic components (ie, serum glucose, HDL-C, and triglycerides) of the MetS as defined by ATP III. Worsening of any of the 3 metabolic parameters was associated with increasing waist circumference but not with age and body mass index nor with insulin, C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and insulin sensitivity. As a group, the prevalence of MetS was 35.5% in our AAW. The prevalence of MetS increased 3-fold from first to third tertiles of serum glucose (14.1% and 42.3%, respectively). Worsening of serum HDL-C from tertiles 3 to 1 was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of MetS (1.2% vs 42.3%, respectively). Comparing first with third tertile of triglycerides, there was no significant increase in MetS in our AAW (7% vs 17%). Contrasting the 3 metabolic components, the prevalence of MetS was higher in the third tertile of glucose (43.2%) and first tertile of HDL-C (42.3%) and least with the third tertile of triglycerides (17%). In

  6. Intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Analysis of the pattern and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yongsoo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and risks for intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: We studied 62 patients with 72 HCCs (≤4 cm) who were treated with percutaneous RF ablation. The mean follow-up period was 19.1 months (6.0-49.1). We assessed the incidence and cumulative disease-free survival of local tumor progression (LTP) and intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR). To analyze the risk factors, we examined the following, for the LTP: (1) tumor diameter, (2) contact with vessels, (3) degree of approximation to hepatic hilum, (4) contact with hepatic capsule, (5) presence of ablative safety margin, (6) degree of benign periablational enhancement and (7) serum alpha-fetoprotein; for the IDR: (1) severity of hepatic disease, (2) presence of HBsAg, (3) serum alpha-fetoprotein, (4) whether RF ablation was the initial treatment and (5) multiplicity of tumor for IDR. Results: The incidence of overall recurrence, LTP and IDR was 62.9%, 26.4% and 53.2%, respectively. The cumulative disease-free survival rates were 52%, 82% and 56% at 1 year, 26%, 63% and 30% at 2 years, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the significant risk factors for LTP were: a tumor with a diameter >3 cm, contact of HCC with a vessel and an insufficient safety margin (p 3 cm and insufficient safety margin were independent factors. Only the increased serum alpha-fetoprotein was a significant risk factor for IDR (p 3 cm) with high serum alpha-fetoprotein should be treated more aggressively because of higher risk for recurrence

  7. Correlation of hs-CRP with environmental risk factors of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Sah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of hs-CRP levels with environmental risk factors of diabetic nephropathy like smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, age of diabetic patient, duration of diabetes, medication of diabetes, and blood pressure medication. A hospital-based quantitative study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH Pokhara, Nepal, with 89 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Blood samples (n=89 from the patients were collected and the serums were separated. On the other hand, data on environmental risk factors of nephropathy were collected by using standard questionnaire. In this study, serum hs-CRP level was not found to be correlated with smoking (p=0.111, alcohol consumption (p=0.722, diet (p=0.496, duration of diabetes (p=0.519, age of diabetic patient (p=0.369, medication of diabetes (p=0.734, and blood pressure medication (p=0.625. Hence, our study concludes that serum hs-CRP value in type 2 diabetic patients is insignificantly correlated with the risk factors especially smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, duration of diabetes, age of diabetic patient, medication of diabetes, and medication of blood pressure.

  8. Frequent hospital admissions in Singapore: clinical risk factors and impact of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lian Leng; Tay, Wei Yi; Ng, Matthew Joo Ming; Tan, Shu Yun; Liu, Nan; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2018-01-01

    Frequent admitters to hospitals are high-cost patients who strain finite healthcare resources. However, the exact risk factors for frequent admissions, which can be used to guide risk stratification and design effective interventions locally, remain unknown. Our study aimed to identify the clinical and sociodemographic risk factors associated with frequent hospital admissions in Singapore. An observational study was conducted using retrospective 2014 data from the administrative database at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Variables were identified a priori and included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior healthcare utilisation, and clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for frequent admissions. A total of 16,306 unique patients were analysed and 1,640 (10.1%) patients were classified as frequent admitters. On multivariate logistic regression, 16 variables were independently associated with frequent hospital admissions, including age, cerebrovascular disease, history of malignancy, haemoglobin, serum creatinine, serum albumin, and number of specialist outpatient clinic visits, emergency department visits, admissions preceding index admission and medications dispensed at discharge. Patients staying in public rental housing had a 30% higher risk of being a frequent admitter after adjusting for demographics and clinical conditions. Our study, the first in our knowledge to examine the clinical risk factors for frequent admissions in Singapore, validated the use of public rental housing as a sensitive indicator of area-level socioeconomic status in Singapore. These risk factors can be used to identify high-risk patients in the hospital so that they can receive interventions that reduce readmission risk. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  9. Serum OPN expression for identification of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Sun, Liping; He, Caiyun; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies have found that osteopontin (OPN) expression level is related to the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. However, few studies have examined the relationship between OPN expression and gastric precancerous diseases, and the potential role of OPN in the formation and development of GC. We investigated the relationships between serum OPN levels and the risks of gastric cancer (GC) and its precancerous disease, to explore the diagnostic efficacy of serum OPN level for GC and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors. A total of 1,452 patients were enrolled, including 609 with mild superficial gastritis (SG), 594 with atrophic gastritis (AG) and 249 with GC. The levels of serum OPN and serum Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum OPN levels increased from mild SG (1.99 ± 1.91 ng/ml) to AG (2.37 ± 2.27 ng/ml) to GC (5.94 ± 4.52 ng/ml) (P ≤ 0.002), along with increasing severity of gastric disease. OPN levels were significantly higher in patients with GC compared with the non-cancer population (2.17 ± 2.10, P < 0.0001). Serum OPN level was positively correlated with age and was higher in men than women, but was not correlated with H. pylori infection status. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.805, the optimal cutoff was 2.56 ng/ml and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.3% and 71.8%, respectively, for the ability of serum OPN to discriminate GC. Serum OPN expression was closely related to the risks of GC and AG, and it might be a useful marker for the discrimination of GC. OPN level was positively correlated with age and male sex, but was not affected by H. pylori infection, and it was promoted by smoking and drinking, in patients with mild SG.

  10. High serum YKL-40 level in a cohort of octogenarians is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. S.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2007-01-01

    YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages, neutrophils, chondrocytes, endothelial-, vascular smooth muscle- and cancer cells. Interleukin (IL)-6 stimulates YKL-40 production in human in vivo studies. High serum YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with inflammatory diseases and cancer. We...... studied whether serum YKL-40 was associated with systemic low-level inflammation, an immune risk phenotype, and mortality in relatively healthy 80-year old humans. Serum YKL-40, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in octogenarians (n...

  11. SERUM LEVEL OF LIPIDS, APOLIPOPROTEINS AND VITAMIN D IN CHILDREN AT HIGH RISK OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BASHTAM

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the most prevalent disease in human population that has high prevalence and mortality in lsfahan (Iran. As positive family history and changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins are risk factors of these diseases, and also studies have showed the relationship between serum vitamin D and CAD, we studied serum level of lipids, lipoproteins and vitamin D in high risk children compared with control group, and the relation between serum vitamin D and other factors. Methods. This case-control study was done on 44 subjects (25 boys, 19 girls aged 2-18 years old with positive CAD family history as case group and also 44 persons with negative CAD family history as control group with the same age groups. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Children who consumed antiepilepthic drugs as phenytoin or phenobarbital and those who had positive family histroy for renal stone were excluded for variable vitamin D levels due to drug interaction and genetic susceptibility, respectively. All subjects were invited to Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. Using a questionnaire, information on personal characteristics, CVD family history and ... were obtained. A fasting (12-14 hr blood sample was drawn from each one. Serum APOA1, APO B100 and vitamin Dwere measured by radioimmunoassay and serum lipids by ELAN 2000 autoanalyzer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. The level of serum APOA1, APO B100 and vitamin D were compared between two groups by independent t test and the relation of the mentioned apolipoproteins with vitamin D was studied using multiple linear regression. Results. Serum vitamin D was significantly lower in case group (P < 0.045. Among studied factors, only triglyceride was significantly higher in control group (P < 0.0001 and also no significant relaitonship was observed between serum APO A1, APO B100 and vitamin D. Sex comparision in case group showed those mean levels

  12. Risk factors for mortality in patients with Serratia marcescens bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Jeon, Yong Duk; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Ann, Hea Won; Choi, Heun; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Han, Sang Hoon; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 30 years, Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has emerged as an important pathogen, and a common cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with mortality in patients with S. marcescens bacteremia. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 98 patients who had one or more blood cultures positive for S. marcescens between January 2006 and December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Multiple risk factors were compared with association with 28-day all-cause mortality. The 28-day mortality was 22.4% (22/98 episodes). In a univariate analysis, the onset of bacteremia during the intensive care unit stay (p=0.020), serum albumin level (p=0.011), serum C-reactive protein level (p=0.041), presence of indwelling urinary catheter (p=0.023), and Sequential Oran Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at the onset of bacteremia (pmarcescens bacteremia.

  13. Anemia as a risk factor for childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective-(cohort study was conducted to evaluate whether anemia is a risk factor for childhood asthma. Materials and Methods: Two hundred children in the age group of 2-18 years who attended the Outpatient Department with upper respiratory / lower respiratory tract infections were included in this study. One hundred children with anemia were taken as the study group and another 100, age - and sex-matched children without anemia were taken as the control.They were subjected to complete blood count (CBC C-reactive protein (CRP estimation, Mantoux test and chest X-ray. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs were performed on those above six years showing evidence of asthma. Peripheral smear, serum ferritin and serum iron-binding capacity were estimated for all anemic children. Results: Asthma was present in 74 (74% children in the study group and in 33 (33% children in the control group. Iron-deficiency anemia was present in 85 (85% anemia of chronic infection in 20 (20% and the other five (5% had hemolytic anemia. Anemia was found to be a risk factor for childhood asthma. Conclusion: Anemic children were 5.75 times more susceptible to asthmatic attacks when compared with nonanemic children.

  14. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  15. Hypoalbuminemia is an important risk factor of hypotension during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Honda, Nobuko; Mimura, Taku; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2006-10-01

    Hypotension during hemodialysis (HD) is an important problem in patients on HD. To investigate the risk factors that contribute to the hypotension during HD, we compared background factors of hypotensive (HP) patients during HD. Among 58 patients undergoing HD in Tamura Memorial Hospital, 12 patients could not continue full HD because of hypotension. We compared the data of ultrafiltration volume, cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), total protein (TP), serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), hemoglobin (Hb), blood glucose (BS), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and cardiac function between HP patients (HP group; n=12) and sex- and age-matched control patients (NP group; n=12). There were no significant differences of age, sex, and duration of HD between the 2 groups. Cardiothoracic ratio is bigger and BNP is higher in the HP group compared with the NP group (CTR: HP 55.8+/-2.9% vs. NP 47.7+/-1.1%, p=0.0165; BNP: HP 602+/-171 vs. NP 147+/-38, p=0.0167). Serum albumin in the HP group is significantly lower compared with the NP group (HP 3.2+/-0.1 g/dL vs. NP 3.5+/-0.1 g/dL, p=0.0130). However, there were no significant differences of ultrafiltration rate (UFR), BS, TC, Hb, and cardiac function between the 2 groups. There is a significant negative correlation between changes of systolic blood pressure (delta systolic blood pressure) and serum albumin in these patients (r=-0.598, p=0.0016). From these data, we conclude that hypoalbuminemia is a major risk factor of hypotension during HD.

  16. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: Lin.Yu-Sheng@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Ho, Wen-Chao [Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Caffrey, James L. [Integrative Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Sonawane, Babasaheb [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  17. Serum carotenoids and colorectal cancer risk: A case-control study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Xu, Ming; Huang, Wu-Qing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2017-10-01

    Previous epidemiological studies on the association between circulating carotenoids and the risk of colorectal cancer drew inconclusive conclusions. This study aimed to examine serum carotenoids in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. One case-control study beginning from July 2010, consecutively recruited 538 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 564 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin were detected by HPLC. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence internal (CI) after adjusting for various confounders. Serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. The adjusted ORs of the highest quartile relative to the lowest quartile serum level were 0.49 (95% CIs 0.33-0.72) for α-carotene, 0.44 (95% CIs 0.29-0.66) for β-cryptoxanthin, and 0.36 (95% CIs 0.24-0.54) for lycopene, respectively. The association between serum β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin and colorectal cancer risk was not statistically significant. The results indicated that the incidence of colorectal cancer was associated with lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene among Chinese population residing in Guangdong. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Increased serum renalase in peritoneal dialysis patients: Is it related to cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok Oguz, Ebru; Akoglu, Hadim; Ulusal Okyay, Gulay; Karaveli Gursoy, Guner; Yildirim, Tolga; Merhametsiz, Ozgur; Cimen, Tolga; Canbakan, Basol; Yeter, Ekrem; Ayli, M Deniz

    Renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, is implicated in degradation of catecholamines; which suggests novel mechanisms of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been found to correlate with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in dialysis patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of serum renalase levels with EAT thickness and other CVD risk factors in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The study included 40 PD patients and 40 healthy controls. All subjects underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Serum renalase was assessed by using a commercially available assay. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure EAT thickness and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in all subjects. The median serum renalase level was significantly higher in the PD patients than in the control group [176.5 (100-278.3) vs 122 (53.3-170.0)ng/ml] (p=0.001). Renalase was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (r=0.705, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with RRF (r=-0.511, p=0.021). No correlation was observed between renalase and EAT thickness or LVMI. There was a strong correlation between EAT thickness and LVMI in both the PD patients and the controls (r=0.848, p<0.001 and r=0.640, p<0.001 respectively). This study indicates that renalase is associated with CRP and residual renal function but not with EAT thickness as CVD risk factors in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. DJ-1 is a reliable serum biomarker for discriminating high-risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cello, Annalisa; Di Sanzo, Maddalena; Perrone, Francesca Marta; Santamaria, Gianluca; Rania, Erika; Angotti, Elvira; Venturella, Roberta; Mancuso, Serafina; Zullo, Fulvio; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    New reliable approaches to stratify patients with endometrial cancer into risk categories are highly needed. We have recently demonstrated that DJ-1 is overexpressed in endometrial cancer, showing significantly higher levels both in serum and tissue of patients with high-risk endometrial cancer compared with low-risk endometrial cancer. In this experimental study, we further extended our observation, evaluating the role of DJ-1 as an accurate serum biomarker for high-risk endometrial cancer. A total of 101 endometrial cancer patients and 44 healthy subjects were prospectively recruited. DJ-1 serum levels were evaluated comparing cases and controls and, among endometrial cancer patients, between high- and low-risk patients. The results demonstrate that DJ-1 levels are significantly higher in cases versus controls and in high- versus low-risk patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis shows that DJ-1 has a very good diagnostic accuracy in discriminating endometrial cancer patients versus controls and an excellent accuracy in distinguishing, among endometrial cancer patients, low- from high-risk cases. DJ-1 sensitivity and specificity are the highest when high- and low-risk patients are compared, reaching the value of 95% and 99%, respectively. Moreover, DJ-1 serum levels seem to be correlated with worsening of the endometrial cancer grade and histotype, making it a reliable tool in the preoperative decision-making process.

  20. Serum 25(OHD is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk profile among urban middle-aged Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic metabolic diseases. Limited evidence regarding vitamin D deficiency exists within the Chinese population. The present study aims to examine the association between serum vitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in the young and middle-aged, urban Chinese population Methods The cross-sectional relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations and indices of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, etc. were evaluated in 601 non-diabetic adults. Result Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was present in 66% of the tested population, and serum 25(OHD levels were lower in patients who were overweight/obese or suffered metabolic syndrome when compared to individuals of healthy weight without metabolic syndrome (24.08 ± 8.08 vs 31.70 ± 11.77 ng/ml, 21.52 ± 6.9 vs 31.74 ± 10.21 ng/ml respectively. 25(OHD was inversely associated with waist circumference, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, and it was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol in a multivariable-adjusted regression model. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common in the young and middle-aged, urban Chinese population, with high prevalence in overweight/obese individuals and patients with metabolic syndrome. Low vitamin D concentration was associated with indices of adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the cause-effect relation between vitamin D status, obesity and related metabolic disorders. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN21527585

  1. Genetic factors explain half of all variance in serum eosinophil cationic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose, Camilla; Sverrild, Asger; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    with variation in serum ECP and to determine the relative proportion of the variation in ECP due to genetic and non-genetic factors, in an adult twin sample. METHODS: A sample of 575 twins, selected through a proband with self-reported asthma, had serum ECP, lung function, airway responsiveness to methacholine......, exhaled nitric oxide, and skin test reactivity, measured. Linear regression analysis and variance component models were used to study factors associated with variation in ECP and the relative genetic influence on ECP levels. RESULTS: Sex (regression coefficient = -0.107, P ... was statistically non-significant (r = -0.11, P = 0.50). CONCLUSION: Around half of all variance in serum ECP is explained by genetic factors. Serum ECP is influenced by sex, BMI, and airway responsiveness. Serum ECP and airway responsiveness seem not to share genetic variance....

  2. Egr-1 and serum response factor are involved in growth factors- and serum-mediated induction of E2-EPF UCP expression that regulates the VHL-HIF pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hwa; Jung, Cho-Rok; Lee, Chan-Hee; Im, Dong-Soo

    2008-11-01

    E2-EPF ubiquitin carrier protein (UCP) has been shown to be highly expressed in common human cancers and target von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) for proteosomal degradation in cells, thereby stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha. Here, we investigated cellular factors that regulate the expression of UCP gene. Promoter deletion assay identified binding sites for early growth response-1 (Egr-1) and serum response factor (SRF) in the UCP promoter. Hepatocyte or epidermal growth factor (EGF), or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced UCP expression following early induction of Egr-1 expression in HeLa cells. Serum increased mRNA and protein levels of SRF and UCP in the cell. By electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, sequence-specific DNA-binding of Egr-1 and SRF to the UCP promoter was detected in nuclear extracts from HeLa cells treated with EGF and serum, respectively. Overexpression of Egr-1 or SRF increased UCP expression. RNA interference-mediated depletion of endogenous Egr-1 or SRF impaired EGF- or serum-mediated induction of UCP expression, which was required for cancer cell proliferation. Systemic delivery of EGF into mice also increased UCP expression following early induction of Egr-1 expression in mouse liver. The induced UCP expression by the growth factors or serum increased HIF-1alpha protein level under non-hypoxic conditions, suggesting that the Egr-1/SRF-UCP-VHL pathway is in part responsible for the increased HIF-1alpha protein level in vitro and in vivo. Thus, growth factors and serum induce expression of Egr-1 and SRF, respectively, which in turn induces UCP expression that positively regulates cancer cell growth.

  3. [Independent risk factors for severe cardiovascular events in male patients with gout: Results of a 7-year prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, M S; Denisov, I S; Markelova, E I; Glukhova, S I; Nasonov, E L

    To determine risk factors for severe cardiovascular (CV) events (CVEs) in male patients with crystal-verified gout. 251 male patients with crystal-verified gout were prospectively followed up in 2003 to 2013. The mean follow-up period was 6.9±2.0 years. New severe CVE cases and deaths were recorded. Logistic regression was used to analyze the impact of traditional and other risk factors and allopurinol use on the risk for severe CVEs. 32 patients died during the follow-up period. Severe CVEs were recorded in 58 (23.1%) patients; CVE deaths were notified in 22 (8.8%) patients. The risk of all severe CVEs was high for hypertension, increased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (>5 mg/l), ≥ stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD) (glomerular filtration rate, 20 g/day), coronary heart disease (CHD), and a family history of premature CHD. The risk of fatal CVEs was highest for elevated serum hs-CRP level, ≥ stage III CKD, a family history of premature CHD, hypercholesterolemia, upper quartile of serum uric acid levels (>552 µmol/l), and regular intake of allopurinol. In addition to the traditional risk factors of CV catastrophes, the presence of chronic inflammation and the impact of high serum uric acid levels may explain the high frequency of CV catastrophes.

  4. The Tromsø Heart Study: coronary risk factors in Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fønnebø, V

    1985-11-01

    Seventh-Day Adventists in Tromsø showed a coronary risk factor pattern similar to Seventh-Day Adventists in other parts of the world. Compared with non-Seventh-Day Adventists, serum cholesterol was 1.35 mmol/liter (1974) and 0.83 mmol/liter (1979-1980) lower in males and 0.64 mmol/liter (1979-1980) lower in females. Blood pressure was lower in Seventh-Day Adventist women. The religiously inactive Seventh-Day Adventists had risk factor patterns more similar to non-Seventh-Day Adventists.

  5. C-reactive protein and serum creatinine, but not haemoglobin A1c, are independent predictors of coronary heart disease risk in non-diabetic Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong; Tan, Vincent Y; Welsh, Alan H; Liew, Reginald; Naidoo, Nasheen; Wu, Yi; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon P; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-01

    In western populations, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and to a lesser degree serum creatinine and haemoglobin A1c, predict risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, data on Asian populations that are increasingly affected by CHD are sparse and it is not clear whether these biomarkers can be used to improve CHD risk classification. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort, with incident 'hard' CHD (myocardial infarction or CHD death) as an outcome. We used data from 965 men (298 cases, 667 controls) and 528 women (143 cases, 385 controls) to examine the utility of hsCRP, serum creatinine and haemoglobin A1c in improving the prediction of CHD risk over and above traditional risk factors for CHD included in the ATP III model. For each sex, the performance of models with only traditional risk factors used in the ATP III model was compared with models with the biomarkers added using weighted Cox proportional hazards analysis. The impact of adding these biomarkers was assessed using the net reclassification improvement index. For men, loge hsCRP (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05; 1.49) and loge serum creatinine (hazard ratio 4.82, 95% confidence interval: 2.10; 11.04) showed statistically significantly associations with CHD risk when added to the ATP III model. We did not observe a significant association between loge haemoglobin A1c and CHD risk (hazard ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.21; 16.06). Adding hsCRP and serum creatinine to the ATP III model improved risk classification in men with a net gain of 6.3% of cases (p-value = 0.001) being reclassified to a higher risk category, while it did not significantly reduce the accuracy of classification for non-cases. For women, squared hsCRP was borderline significantly (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.00; 1.03) and squared serum creatinine was significantly (hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49; 2

  6. Dietary intake and coronary risk factors in Peruvian Quechua Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, E W; Picon-Reategui, E; Gahagan, H E; Buskirk, E R

    1976-06-01

    Some of the "risk" factors implicated in the etiology of coronary atherosclerotic heart disease were investigated in sixty Quechua men living in two areas of Peru. Highland Quechua had higher serum triglycerides (mean, 122 vs. 90 mg. per deciliter) than downward migrants. There were no significant differences between the two groups in serum cholesterol (mean 150 vs. 157 mg. per deciliter), body fat (mean, 15 vs. 17%), or blood pressure (mean, 113/72 vs. 114/72 mm Hg). Both groups consumed about 2,500 kcal per man per day, while the highland Quechua consumed more carbohydrate (mean, 66 vs. 51%) and less fat (mean 19 vs. 33%). By American standards, both groups had low serum cholesterol values, as well as low blood pressure.

  7. Risk Factors for Hypogonadism in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rendong; Cao, Lin; Cao, Wen; Chu, Xiaoqiu; Hu, Yongxin; Zhang, Huifeng; Xu, Juan; Sun, Hongping; Bao, Weiping; Liu, Kemian; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. Male hypogonadism is an endocrine disease characterized by low levels of serum testosterone and is closely related to the development of diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to observe the risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and divided into a low total testosterone (TT) group (=75) and a normal TT group (=138). The patients' blood glucose, blood lipids, serum insulin, and sex hormones were measured. The correlations between the patients' metabolic index and sex hormone levels were analyzed. Results. Compared with the normal TT group, body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), and HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels were significantly higher, but the luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were significantly lower in the low TT group (p hypogonadism. BMI, metabolic syndrome (MS), HOMA-IR, and LH are independent risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27006953

  8. Intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Analysis of the pattern and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-sun [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: forest@smc.samsung.co.kr; Cho, On Koo [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Byung Hee [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongsoo [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and risks for intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: We studied 62 patients with 72 HCCs ({<=}4 cm) who were treated with percutaneous RF ablation. The mean follow-up period was 19.1 months (6.0-49.1). We assessed the incidence and cumulative disease-free survival of local tumor progression (LTP) and intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR). To analyze the risk factors, we examined the following, for the LTP: (1) tumor diameter, (2) contact with vessels, (3) degree of approximation to hepatic hilum, (4) contact with hepatic capsule, (5) presence of ablative safety margin, (6) degree of benign periablational enhancement and (7) serum alpha-fetoprotein; for the IDR: (1) severity of hepatic disease, (2) presence of HBsAg, (3) serum alpha-fetoprotein, (4) whether RF ablation was the initial treatment and (5) multiplicity of tumor for IDR. Results: The incidence of overall recurrence, LTP and IDR was 62.9%, 26.4% and 53.2%, respectively. The cumulative disease-free survival rates were 52%, 82% and 56% at 1 year, 26%, 63% and 30% at 2 years, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the significant risk factors for LTP were: a tumor with a diameter >3 cm, contact of HCC with a vessel and an insufficient safety margin (p < 0.05). A multivariate stepwise Cox hazard model showed that the measurement of a tumor diameter >3 cm and insufficient safety margin were independent factors. Only the increased serum alpha-fetoprotein was a significant risk factor for IDR (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous RF ablation is common. Large HCC (>3 cm) with high serum alpha-fetoprotein should be treated more aggressively because of higher risk for recurrence.

  9. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  10. Cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors in lumbar radicular pain or clinically defined sciatica: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Jaro; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Solovieva, Svetlana; Varonen, Helena; Kalso, Eija; Ukkola, Olavi; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar radicular pain is a fairly common health problem, yet its risk factors are far from clear. There are no published systematic reviews on associations between cardiovascular or lifestyle risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica. The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess associations between these risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica. We conducted a systematic search of the Medline database for all original articles on lumbar radicular pain or sciatica published until August 2006. Twenty-two papers from 19 studies were included in the review. Overweight or obesity was associated with sciatica in most of the case-control and cohort studies. Some studies showed an increased risk of lumbar radicular pain in smokers with a long smoking history or in those with high levels of physical activity. A few case-control studies showed an association between serum C-reactive protein and sciatica. No consistent associations were found for serum lipids levels or high blood pressure. In summary, the associations of overweight, long smoking history, high physical activity and a high serum C-reactive protein level with lumbar radicular pain or sciatica were substantiated by the present review. However, more prospective studies are needed in order to further clarify these associations and the mechanisms of action. PMID:17525856

  11. Nutrition-Related Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors In Chronic Kidney Disease: Relationship With Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma McMahon

    2012-06-01

    Traditional CV-risk factors in this CKD population were not associated with clinical outcome. Despite being within clinical reference range, serum phosphate and albumin were independently associated with clinical outcome. This may highlight a potential therapeutic target for risk management to delay or prevent renal end-points in CKD.

  12. Effect of different anesthesia techniques on the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A B; Demirel, I; Erhan, O L; Firdolas, F; Ustundag, B

    2015-10-01

    Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are associated with neurotransmission and cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of general anesthesia on BDNF levels. It was also to reveal whether this effect had a relationship with the surgical stress response or not. The study included 50 male patients, age 20-40, who were scheduled to have inguinoscrotal surgery, and who were in the ASA I-II risk group. The patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthesia techniques used: general (GA) and spinal (SA). In order to measure serum BDNF, cortisol, insulin and glucose levels, blood samples were taken at four different times: before and after anesthesia, end of the surgery, and before transferal from the recovery room. Serum BDNF levels were significantly low (p BDNF and the stress hormones. Our findings suggested that general anesthetics had an effect on serum BDNF levels independent of the stress response. In future, BDNF could be used as biochemical parameters of anesthesia levels, but studies with a greater scope should be carried out to present the relationship between anesthesia and neurotrophins.

  13. [Refeeding syndrome : Pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention, and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, R; Diekmann, R; Janssen, G; Fleiter, O; Fricke, L; Kreilkamp, A; Modreker, M K; Marburger, C; Nels, S; Pourhassan, M; Schaefer, R; Willschrei, H-P; Volkert, D

    2018-04-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening complication that may occur after initiation of nutritional therapy in malnourished patients, as well as after periods of fasting and hunger. Refeeding syndrome can be effectively prevented and treated if its risk factors and pathophysiology are known. The initial measurement of thiamine level and serum electrolytes, including phosphate and magnesium, their supplementation if necessary, and a slow increase in nutritional intake along with close monitoring of serum electrolytes play an important role. Since refeeding syndrome is not well known and the symptoms can be extremely heterogeneous, this complication is poorly recognized, especially against the background of severe disease and multimorbidity. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge and increase awareness about refeeding syndrome.

  14. First trimester serum placental growth factor and hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin are associated with pre-eclampsia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikkala, Elina; Koskinen, Sini; Vuorela, Piia; Laivuori, Hannele; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2016-11-25

    To study whether maternal serum hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-h) improves first trimester prediction of pre-eclampsia when combined with placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal risk factors. Gestational-age-adjusted concentrations of hCG, hCG-h, PlGF and PAPP-A were analysed in serum samples by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays at 8-13 weeks of gestation. The case-control study included 98 women who developed pre-eclampsia, 25 who developed gestational hypertension, 41 normotensive women with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and 177 controls. Of 98 women with pre-eclampsia, 24 women developed preterm pre-eclampsia (diagnosis factors.

  15. Serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor as A Non-Invasive Marker For Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Wahba, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The change and the prognostic value of serum hepatocyte growth factor and AFP level in patients with cirrhosis and/or primary liver cancer (HCC) were investigated. The level of serum hepatocyte growth factor was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and AFP was determined by using radioimmunoassay in 29 patients with cirrhosis. Twenty five patients with primary liver cancer (13 patients without nodular cirrhosis and 12 patients with nodular cirrhosis) were categorized according to tumour size (≤ or >5 cm) and the level of AFP (≤ or > 200 ng/dl). The correlation between serum AFP and hepatocyte growth factor were significantly increased (P 0.05). Serum AFP can significantly discriminate between all studied groups (P 0.001) except for the comparison between control and cirrhosis (P>0.05), and also between HCC and HCC without nodular cirrhosis and HCC with cirrhosis (P>0.05). Serum HGF and AFP levels were positively affected by tumour size and nodular cirrhosis (P<0.001). Also, serum HGF level was highly affected by the levels of serum AFP in HCC patients. Non-significant correlation was observed between serum hepatocyte growth factor and AFP in control, cirrhosis, cirrhosis and HCC patients with AFP ? 200 ng/dl. It could be concluded that the over expressions of the hepatocyte growth factor and AFP may indicate an adverse prognosis for patients with cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. The sustained high level of serum hepatocyte growth factor in cirrhosis and/or HCC could be considered a factor related to early tumour diagnosis, so, serum HGF level may be used as a non-invasive marker in diagnosis and prognosis of liver malignancy. However, further studies are highly recommended to evaluate the role of HGF or its constituents in diagnosis and/or therapy in the future in a larger cohort of patients with different stages of liver malignancy

  16. Thick tumor capsule is a valuable risk factor for distant metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbashi, Wataru; Sugitani, Iwao; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Toda, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Keiko; Sato, Yukiko

    2018-02-01

    While the biological behavior of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been studied in great detail using clinical experience, few studies have investigated pre- or intraoperative factors related to the risk of distant metastasis (DM) among patients with FTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of FTC with DM. This study retrospectively investigated 102 patients with FTC who underwent surgery between 1988 and 2013. We compared clinicopathological characteristics between FTC with and without DM. Univariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis (p=0.045), serum thyroglobulin (Tg) at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm), serum Tg at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml), and macroscopically widely invasive appearance as risk factors independently associated with development of DM. Patients with these risk factors should undergo total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation in Serum Creatinine Level Is Correlated to Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Sung Moon; Ji Eun Lee; Ji Sung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle is well established as a major target organ of insulin action, and is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether a variation in serum creatinine is related to the development of type 2 diabetes and other risk factors for diabetes. Methods A total of 2,676 nondiabetic subjects with stable and normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were followed up for approximately 4.5 yea...

  18. Predictive value of serum soluble corin in the risk of hyperglycemia: A population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengbao; Zhang, Qiu; Peng, Hao; Zhong, Chongke; Guo, Daoxia; Huangfu, Xinfeng; Chao, Xiangqin; Wang, Aili; Jin, Jianhua; Zhang, Yonghong

    2018-04-01

    Serum soluble corin has been suggested to be associated with hyperglycemia by cross-sectional study. However, the prospective relationship between them remains unclear, and whether lipid component influences the relationship between them has not yet been studied. A total of 1961 participants who were free from hyperglycemia were enrolled at baseline in 2010. The serum soluble corin concentrations were measured at baseline and all participants were followed up for hyperglycemia in 2014. The association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycemia incidence was appreciably modified by high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P interaction  = 0.04). Elevated serum soluble corin was associated with the risk of hyperglycemia only in the HDL-C ≥1.04 mmol/l subgroup rather than all participants. In participants with HDL-C ≥1.04 mmol/l, the adjusted odds ratio (95% CU) of hyperglycemia associated with the fourth quartiles of corin was 1.78 (1.08-2.94) compared with the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin, and there was a positive linear dose-response relationship between them (P for linearity <0.01). The ordinal analysis showed an association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycemia severity (adjusted OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.10-2.99; P trend  = 0.02, when 2 extreme quartiles were compared). The addition of serum soluble corin to conventional risk factors improved risk prediction for hyperglycemia (net reclassification index: 0.16; integrated discrimination improvement: 0.01) in participants with HDL-C ≥1.04 mmol/l. Serum soluble corin might be a valuable biomarker in prediction of future hyperglycemia in population with HDL-C ≥1.04 mmol/l, suggesting that corin might play a potential role in glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, Hapizah M; Nor, Idris M; Noor, Ismail M; Karim, Norimah A; Arshad, Fatimah; Khan, Rahmattullah; Yusoff, Khalid

    2002-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of > or = 5.2, > or =6.5 and > or =7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8% respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1%), hypertension (30.3%), smokers (24.4%), diabetes (6.4%), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9%), overweight or obesity (44.7%) and increased WHR (48.5%). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3% of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5% in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.

  20. Risk factors for hip fracture in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Olivi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this observational study, promoted by the Health Authorities of the Regione Veneto (Italy, is to assess the prevalence of the most relevant environmental and individual risk factors in subjects with a recent hip fracture. Methods: Patients aged more than 60 years of both genders with a recent hip fracture not associated with malignancies, were administered questionnaires on dietary habits, sun exposure, and disability score. A complete family, pharmacological and pathology history was collected together with information on previous falls, details of the fracture index, and anthropometric data. In all subjects, blood was taken for the measurement of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD. Results: The study included 704 patients (573 women and 131 men. Mean age was 81±8 years (range 60-102. Severe pre-fracture disability was a common feature (58% associated with multiple co-morbidities (84%, more frequently cardio- vascular and neurological diseases, and specific medications. In a large proportion (86% of the patients, environmental or individual risk factors for falling were found. Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD levels <75 nmol/l was quite common (70%, particularly in the regional Health Districts were strategies for preventing vitamin D deficiency were not implemented (91%. Only a small proportion (17% of the study population had been evaluated and treated for osteoporosis. Conclusions: In senile patients with a recent hip fracture, pre-existing disability, multiple co-morbidities, high risk of falling and inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is relatively common. Community and case-finding interventions aimed at selecting subjects at high risk of osteoporosis, preventing vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency, and increasing awareness on the environmental risks of falling are highly warranted.

  1. The Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study: cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Anne P; Redwood, Diana G; Kelly, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    The Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study assessed cancer risk among 3,821 Alaska Native people (AN). We present the prevalence of selected cancer risk factors and comparison with Healthy People 2010 goals. Participants completed extensive computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires on diet, physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use, cancer screening, family history of cancer, and environmental exposures. Measurement data were collected on blood pressure, height, weight, waist/hip circumference, fasting serum lipids, and glucose. Cancer risk factors are high for the Alaska EARTH study population. For all risk factors studied except for vegetable consumption, Alaska EARTH Study participants did not meet Healthy People 2010 goals. This study is unique in providing questionnaire and measurement data of cancer risk factors on a larger study sample than any previous study among AN living in Alaska. Data show that the prevalence of most cancer risk factors exceeded national recommendations. Given the disease disparities that exist for the AN population, these data provide important baseline data that can be used to target health interventions and reduce health disparities.

  2. Decreased serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity: an additional risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease in patients with PCOS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Polat; Demirtaş, Ezgi; Bayrak, Ahmet; Yarali, Hakan

    2006-01-01

    Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may have an increased risk for the development of hypertension and atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD), the pathophysiological mechanisms of which are not clear. Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein-associated enzyme that prevents oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein. The aim of this study was to measure the serum levels of PON1 activity in patients with PCOS and to compare with those of regularly cycling controls. Serum lipid parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and PON1 activity, were measured in PCOS patients (n = 23) and regularly cycling, age-, body mass index- and smoking status-matched controls (n = 23). All patients had normal glucose tolerance test as assessed by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. None of the patients had clinically evident hypertension or AHD. Apart from the mean serum PON1 activity, all parameters in the lipid profile including serum MDA levels were comparable between the two groups. There were no significant differences in respect to fasting glucose (4.64 +/- 0.5 versus 4.43 +/- 0.83 mmol/l) and fasting glucose insulin ratio (11.06 +/- 8.26 versus 11.49 +/- 4.90) among the two groups (P > 0.05). However, HOMA insulin resistance index was significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with the controls (2.06 +/- 0.86 versus 1.51 +/- 0.49; P = 0.01). Also, mean serum PON1 activity was significantly lower in the PCOS group compared with the controls (151.2 +/- 90.8 versus 217.7 +/- 101.6, respectively; P = 0.027). Reduced serum PON1 activity might contribute to the increased susceptibility for the development of AHD in women with PCOS.

  3. High serum level of the soluble CD30 identifies Chinese kidney transplant recipients at high risk of unfavorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iv, R; He, Q; Wang, H P; Jin, J; Chen, Y; Chen, J H

    2008-12-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between serum level of sCD30 and recipient/graft survival rates, rejection types, as well as other prognostic factors among Chinese kidney transplant patients. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of serum sCD30 levels in duplicate among retrospective cohort of 707 renal transplant patients. The incidences of rejection increased in relation to the pretransplant sCD30 level. The reversal rates of rejection were 100%, 90.6%, and 78.6% for the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups. This observation suggested that high levels of sCD30 and pretransplant panel-reactive antibody (PRA)-positive patients are risk factors for acute rejection with odds ratios of 6.862 and 1.756. High sCD30 was an independent risk factor for functional graft survival. The 5-year graft survival rates were 99.39% +/- 6.1%, 93.11% +/- 1.93%, and 82.07% +/- 3.97% among the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups, while the 5-year recipient survival rates were 89.25% +/- 2.41%, 91.82% +/- 1.64%, and 88.85% +/- 2.36%, respectively. Increased sCD30 levels were observed among patients who were PRA-positive, cytomegalovirus antigens or antibodies positive, on long-term dialysis, and sCD30 serum levels reflect immune status.

  4. Risk factors of post renal transplant hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Alireza Hamidian; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Raiss-Jalali, Ghanbar Ali; Dabaghmanesh, Alireza; Jalaeian, Hamed; Bahador, Ali; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Salehipour, Mehdi; Salahi, Heshmat; Malek-Hosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that patients with end stage renal diseases (ESRD) have hyper-plastic parathyroid glands. In most patients, a decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) occurs by about 1 year after renal transplantation. However, some renal transplant recipients continue to have elevated level of PTH. We prospectively evaluated 121 patients undergoing renal transplantation between August 2000 and 2002. The duration of dialysis, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), albumin, creatinine and iPTH levels were recorded prior to transplantation and three months and one year after transplantation. These 121 patients were on dialysis for an average period of 17.4 months prior to transplantation. An increase in the serum Ca and a decrease in serum P and iPTH level was seen in the patients after transplantation (P< 0.001). Hyperparathyroidism was in 12 (9.9%) and 7 (5.7%) patients three months and one year after transplantation respectively. Elderly patients and patients with longer duration on dialysis had an increased risk of developing post transplant hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia in the first year post transplant (P< 0.05). In conclusion age and duration on dialysis before transplantation seems to be important risk factors for post transplant hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  5. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Elewa

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.

  6. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  7. Risk factors for leakage following intestinal anastomosis in dogs and cats: 115 cases (1991-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, S Christopher; Jessen, Carl R; Lipowitz, Alan J

    2003-07-01

    To identify factors associated with leakage following intestinal anastomosis in dogs and cats. Retrospective study. 90 dogs and 25 cats. Medical records of all dogs and cats that underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis between 1991 and 2000 were reviewed, and information on 27 factors was recorded. Anastomotic leakage was identified in 13 of the 90 dogs but in none of the 25 cats. Preoperative factors significantly associated with development of anastomotic leakage in dogs included preoperative peritonitis, serum albumin concentration, a left shift, and indication for surgery (dogs with intestinal foreign bodies were more likely to have leakage than dogs that underwent surgery for any other cause). Postoperative and case management factors significantly associated with development of leakage included duration of hospitalization, supplemental alimentation, whether the dog ate the day after surgery, blood product administration, and outcome (died vs survived). Discriminant analysis was performed, and dogs with 2 or more of the following factors were predicted to develop anastomotic leakage: preoperative peritonitis, intestinal foreign body, and serum albumin concentration dogs. Results suggest that a variety of factors may be associated with development of intestinal anastomotic leakage in dogs. In particular, dogs with 2 or more of the following risk factors are predicted to be at high risk for developing anastomotic leakage: preoperative peritonitis, intestinal foreign body, and serum albumin concentration < or = 2.5 g/dL.

  8. Relationship between serum levels of oxidation and inflammatory factors in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between serum levels of oxidation and inflammatory factors in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy and its clinical significance. METHODS: Totally 54 cases of patients with diabetic retinopathy was selected as subjects, including 31 patients with diabetes and non-proliferative retinopathy(NPDR groupand 23 patients with diabetes and proliferative retinopathy(PDR group. Another 30 cases of diabetes patients without DR(DM groupand 30 normal people(NC groupwas selected as control. The level of fasting blood glucose(FPG, 2h postprandial blood glucose(2hPG, glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c, serum malondialdehyde(MDAand heme oxygenase -1(HO-1, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-αand interleukin-6(IL-6and C reactive protein(CRPwas detected, and variance test detect the difference between 4 groups, and SNK-Q was used to multiple comparison. Pearson correlation analysis was used to compare the correlation between oxidation markers(MDA and Ho-1and the level of inflammatory factors(TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP. COX multivariate analysis was used to investigate the risk and protective factors of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS: The levels of FPG, 2hPG, HbA1c, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in DM group, PDR group and NPDR group were significantly higher than that in NC group(PPPPPPPPCONCLUSION: Oxidative stress is closely related to the expression of inflammatory factors in serum of patients with diabetes mellitus, and is an important risk factor of DR, and related indicators can be used as markers for DR diagnosis.

  9. Toxoplasmosis-related risk factors in pregnant women in the North Khorasan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital toxoplasmosis is a disease with sever clinical manifestations in newborns so screening of pregnant women is crucial. This study was aimed at evaluating the latest status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and its respective risk factors in the northeast of Iran. This survey was conducted between 2013 and 2015 on 350 pregnant women. Blood samples were taken from the participants and their serums were separated. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM were assessed in the serum samples using ELISA method. Moreover, a questionnaire about toxoplasmosisrelated risk factors and other information was completed by each participant. Of the 350 pregnant women studied, 110 (31.42% were positive for IgG and 12 (3.42% for IgM. The IgM-positive subjects were also positive for IgG. Age of pregnancy, residence area, contact with cat, degree of meat cooking, unwashed raw vegetable or fruit consumption, raw milk consumption, and history of miscarriage were toxoplasmosis-related risk factors considered in this study, the results showed that all these factors were statistically significant in IgG-positive subjects. In IgMpositive subjects, contact with cat, degree of meat cooking, unwashed raw vegetables, fruits consumption, and history of miscarriage were among the more important risk factors. The new cases of toxoplasmosis are being occurring in the pregnant women in the region under the study and therefore these pregnancies are uncertain.

  10. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin is negatively associated with hemoglobin A1c independently of confounding factors among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally high glycated hemoglobin (Hb (HbA1c is significantly associated with oxidative stress and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Serum total bilirubin (T-B may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes and be a negative risk factor of CVD. Limited information is available on whether serum T-B is an independent confounding factor of HbA1c. The study subjects were 633 men aged 70 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation (SD years and 878 women aged 70 ± 8 years who were enrolled consecutively from among patients aged ≥40 years through a community-based annual check-up process. We evaluated the relationship between various confounding factors including serum T-B and HbA1c in each gender. Multiple linear regression analysis pertaining to HbA1c showed that in men, serum T-B ( β = −0.139 as well as waist circumference ( β = 0.099, exercise habit ( β = 0.137, systolic blood pressure (SBP ( β = 0.076, triglycerides ( β = 0.087, and uric acid ( β = −0.123 were significantly and independently associated with HbA1c, and in women, serum T-B ( β = −0.084 as well as body mass index ( β = 0.090, smoking status ( β = −0.077, SBP ( β = 0.117, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( β = −0.155, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( β = 0.074, prevalence of antidyslipidemic medication ( β = 0.174, and uric acid ( β = 0.090 were also significantly and independently associated with HbA1c. Multivariate-adjusted serum HbA1c levels were significantly high in subjects with the lowest serum T-B levels in both genders. Serum T-B is an independent confounding factor for HbA1c among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

  11. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as a simple and independent prognostic factor in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Jun; Li, Zhi-Ming; Xia, Yi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Lin, Tong-Yu; Li, Su; Cai, Xiu-Yu; Wu-Xiao, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2013-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of the inflammatory response, and it shows significant prognostic value for several types of solid tumors. The prognostic significance of CRP for lymphoma has not been fully examined. We evaluated the prognostic role of baseline serum CRP levels in patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL). We retrospectively analyzed 185 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL. The prognostic value of the serum CRP level was evaluated for the low-CRP group (CRP≤10 mg/L) versus the high-CRP group (CRP>10 mg/L). The prognostic value of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI) were evaluated and compared with the newly developed prognostic model. Patients in the high-CRP group tended to display increased adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (P60 years, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels were independent adverse predictors of OS. Based on these four independent predictors, we constructed a new prognostic model that identified 4 groups with varying OS: group 1, no adverse factors; group 2, 1 factor; group 3, 2 factors; and group 4, 3 or 4 factors (PKPI in distinguishing between the low- and intermediate-low-risk groups, the intermediate-low- and high-intermediate-risk groups, and the high-intermediate- and high-risk groups. Our results suggest that pretreatment serum CRP levels represent an independent predictor of clinical outcome for patients with ENKTL. The prognostic value of the new prognostic model is superior to both IPI and KPI.

  12. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer....

  13. Lens aging in relation to nutritional determinants and possible risk factors for age-related cataract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van; Norren, D. van

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether nutritional factors and possible risk factors for cataract influence the lens optical density (LOD). Design: Three hundred seventy-six subjects, aged 18 to 75 years, were recruited. In a cross-sectional design, serum was analyzed for lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C,

  14. Prevalence of Risk Factors for the Refeeding Syndrome in Older Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Cuvelier, I; Gehrke, I; Marburger, C; Modreker, M K; Volkert, D; Willschrei, H P; Wirth, R

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of refeeding syndrome (RFS) in older patients is not well-known. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of known risk factors for RFS in older individuals during hospitalization at geriatric hospital departments. 342 consecutive older participants (222 females) who admitted at acute geriatric hospital wards were included in a cross-sectional study. We applied the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) criteria for determining patients at risk of RFS. In addition, Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA®-SF) was used to identify patients at risk of malnutrition. Weight and height were assessed. The degree of weight loss was obtained by interview. Serum phosphate, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, creatinine and urea were analyzed according to standard procedures. Of 342 older participants included in the study (mean age 83.1 ± 6.8, BMI range of 14.7-43.6 kg/m2), 239 (69.9%) were considered to be at risk of RFS, in which 43.5% and 11.7% were at risk of malnutrition and malnourished, respectively, according to MNA-SF. Patients in the risk group had significantly higher weight loss, lower phosphate and magnesium levels. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, low levels of phosphate and magnesium followed by weight loss were the major risk factors for fulfilling the NICE criteria. The incidence of risk factors for RFS was relatively high in older individuals acutely admitted in geriatric hospital units, suggesting that, RFS maybe more frequent among older persons than we are aware of. Patients with low serum levels of phosphate and magnesium and higher weight loss are at increased risk of RFS. The clinical characteristics of the older participants at risk of RFS indicate that these patients had a relatively poor nutritional status which can help us better understand the potential scale of RFS on admission or during the hospital stay.

  15. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 andobesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pobesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.

  16. Selenium and breast cancer risk: A prospective nested case-control study on serum selenium levels, smoking habits and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsveden, Malte; Manjer, Jonas

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has not been conclusive regarding the association between selenium (Se) and breast cancer. This study was conducted to clarify if there is an association between prediagnostic serum Se levels and breast cancer risk. A population based cohort, the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, was used and linked with the Swedish cancer registry up to 31 December 2013. Our study included 1,186 women with breast cancer and an equal number of controls. Selenium levels were analysed from stored serum samples. The included individuals were divided into quartiles based on Se value and we compared breast cancer cases with controls using logistic regression yielding odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Serum Se was also analysed as a continuous variable regarding breast cancer risk. The analyses were adjusted for established risk factors and stratified on smoking status and body mass index (BMI). When comparing the highest Se quartile with the lowest, the adjusted OR for breast cancer was 0.98 (0.75-1.26). With selenium as a continuous variable the adjusted OR was 1.00 (1.00-1.01) per 10 ng/ml. When comparing the highest with the lowest Se quartile in women with BMI > 25 kg/m 2 the adjusted OR was 0.77 (0.53-1.14). We conclude that it is unlikely that prediagnostic serum selenium is overall associated with breast cancer risk and no modifying effect from BMI or smoking was seen. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Ling; Abliz, Guzalnur; Mijit, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Despite many epidemiological studies on the effects of dietary antioxidant micronutrients on risk of cervical cancer, the findings remain uncertain and little evidence is available for serum nutrient markers. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women. We conducted a hospital-based case- control study in which 358 adults (158 incident cases and 200 controls) were recruited from Xinjiang, China. Serum levels of carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin), retinol, and tocopherols (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) were assessed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We found inverse associations between serum carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) and tocopherol (α-tocopherol) concentrations and the risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders, but a null association for retinol. The ORs for 1-SD increase were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56- 0.92; p=0.003) for total carotenoids and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60-0.94; p=0.008) for total tocopherols. These results show that higher serum concentrations of some carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

  18. Polymorphisms related to the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of myocardial infarction, diabetes, cancer and mortality. The Tromso Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Jorde

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low serum 25(OHD levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and also predict future myocardial infarction (MI, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cancer and all-cause mortality. Recently several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD level have been identified. If these relations are causal one would expect a similar association between these SNPs and health. METHODS: DNA was prepared from subjects who participated in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995 and who were registered with the endpoints MI, T2DM, cancer or death as well as a randomly selected control group. The endpoint registers were complete up to 2007-2010. Genotyping was performed for 17 SNPs related to the serum 25(OHD level. RESULTS: A total of 9528 subjects were selected for genetic analyses which were successfully performed for at least one SNP in 9471 subjects. Among these, 2025 were registered with MI, 1092 with T2DM, 2924 with cancer and 3828 had died. The mean differences in serum 25(OHD levels between SNP genotypes with the lowest and highest serum 25(OHD levels varied from 0.1 to 7.8 nmol/L. A genotype score based on weighted risk alleles regarding low serum 25(OHD levels was established. There was no consistent association between the genotype score or individuals SNPs and MI, T2DM, cancer, mortality or risk factors for disease. However, for rs6013897 genotypes (located at the 24-hydroxylase gene (CYP24A1 there was a significant association with breast cancer (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support nor exclude a causal relationship between serum 25(OHD levels and MI, T2DM, cancer or mortality, and our observation on breast cancer needs confirmation. Further genetic studies are warranted, particularly in populations with vitamin D deficiency. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395303.

  19. Risk factors and clinical course of hungry bone syndrome after total parathyroidectomy in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lo-Yi; Wong, Ping-Nam; Sin, Ho-Kwan; Wong, Yuk-Yi; Lo, Kwok-Chi; Chan, Shuk-Fan; Lo, Man-Wai; Lo, Kin-Yee; Mak, Siu-Ka; Wong, Andrew Kui-Man

    2017-01-10

    Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) is an important postoperative complication after parathyroidectomy for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). There is, however, little data in the literature on its detailed clinical course, and the associated risk factors remain controversial. We did a single-center retrospective study on 62 consecutive dialysis patients who underwent total parathyroidectomy for SHPT to examine the risk factors, clinical course and outcome. Data on demographic characteristics, perioperative laboratory parameters including serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), drug treatment for SHPT and operative details of parathyroidectomy were collected. Seventeen (27.4%) patients developed severe postoperative hypocalcemia with HBS. The serum calcium dropped progressively while serum ALP rose after operation until 2 weeks later when serum calcium reached the trough and serum ALP peaked. Serum phosphate also fell but stabilized between 4 and 14 days. The total postoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation was significantly larger, and hospital stay was significantly longer in the group with HBS as compared with those without HBS. Young age, high body weight, high preoperative ALP level, and low preoperative calcium level independently predicted the development of HBS while preoperative PTH and use of cinacalcet or paricalcitol did not. HBS was common after total parathyroidectomy in patients with SHPT, and it is important to closely monitor the postoperative serum calcium, phosphate and ALP levels in the following 2 weeks, especially for those at risk. The implications of our findings on perioperative management are discussed.

  20. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Severe Rhabdomyolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Soler, María J.; Rap, Oana; Barrios, Clara; Orfila, María A.; Pascual, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a life-threatening complication of severe rhabdomyolysis. This study was conducted to assess risk factors for AKI and to develop a risk score for early prediction. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study with a 9-year follow-up, carried out in an acute-care teaching-affiliated hospital. A total of 126 patients with severe rhabdomyolysis defined as serum creatine kinase (CK) > 5,000 IU/L fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors for AKI. Based on the values obtained for each variable, a risk score and prognostic probabilities were estimated to establish the risk for developing AKI. Results The incidence of AKI was 58%. Death during hospitalization was significantly higher among patients with AKI, compared to patients without AKI (19.2% vs 3.6%, p = 0.008). The following variables were independently associated with AKI: peak CK (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95%CI 1.4-16.8), hypoalbuminemia (rhabdomyolysis may be useful in clinical practice, particularly to implement early preventive measures. PMID:24367578

  1. Serum calcium changes and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sunghwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Jee, Jae Hwan; Park, Mi Kyoung; Kim, Duk Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the association between changes in serum calcium levels with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in apparently healthy South Korean subjects. A retrospective longitudinal analysis was conducted with subjects who had participated in comprehensive health check-ups at least four times over a 7-year period (between 2006 and 2012). In total, 23,121 subjects were categorized into tertiles based on changes in their albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels. Multivariate Cox regression models were fitted to assess the association between changes in serum calcium levels during follow-up and the relative risk of diabetes incidence. After a median follow-up of 57.4months, 1,929 (8.3%) new cases of T2DM occurred. Simple linear regression analysis showed serum calcium level changes correlated positively with changes in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels (B=5.72, pcalcium levels during follow-up was related to an increased risk of T2DM. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of T2DM was 1.6 times greater for subjects whose albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels were in the highest change tertile during follow-up than for subjects whose levels were in the lowest tertile (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.44-1.88, Pcalcium levels was associated with an increased risk of T2DM, independent of baseline glycemic status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. White rice consumption and CVD risk factors among Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-06-01

    Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar--24.8 +/- 4.3 vs 24.5 +/- 4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar arid serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism.

  3. Serum 25(OH)D and incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Skaaby, T; Thuesen, B H

    2012-01-01

    Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes.......Mild to moderate vitamin D insufficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for several common chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and incident diabetes....

  4. Correlates of early pregnancy serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a Peruvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Levey, Elizabeth; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations during early pregnancy is lacking. The aim of the study is to examine the correlates of early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. A total of 982 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited in early pregnancy. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relation between BDNF concentrations and continuous covariates. Analysis of variance and generalized linear models were used to compare the unadjusted and adjusted BDNF concentrations according to categorical variables. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to determine the factors that influence early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations. In bivariate analysis, early pregnancy serum BDNF concentrations were positively associated with maternal age (r = 0.16, P BDNF concentrations. Participants with moderate antepartum depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 10) had lower serum BDNF concentrations compared with participants with no/mild antepartum depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score BDNF concentrations in low-income Peruvian women. Biological changes of CRP during pregnancy may affect serum BDNF concentrations.

  5. Serum and Urinary Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Renal Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk Ciftci, Hayriye; Demir, Erol; Savran Karadeniz, Meltem; Tefik, Tzevat; Yazici, Halil; Nane, Ismet; Savran Oguz, Fatma; Aydin, Filiz; Turkmen, Aydin

    2017-12-18

    Allograft rejection is an important cause of early and long-term graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes T-cell activation, the key reaction leading to allograft rejection. Here, we investigated whether serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels can predict allograft rejection. This study included 65 living related-donor renal transplant recipients with mean follow-up of 26 ± 9 months. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were measured at pretransplant and at posttransplant time points (days 1 and 7 and months 3 and 6); serum creatinine levels were also monitored during posttransplant follow-up. Standard enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to detect tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. Clinical variables were monitored. Nine of 65 patients (13.8%) had biopsy-proven rejection during follow-up. Preoperative serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were not significantly different when we compared patients with and without rejection. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were significantly higher in the allograft rejection versus nonrejection group at day 7 (11.5 ± 4.7 vs 15.4 ± 5.8; P = .029) and month 1 (11.1 ± 4.8 vs 17.8 ± 10.9; P =.003). Urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (in pg/mL) were also elevated in the allograft rejection versus the nonrejection group at days 1 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 14.1 ± 6.8; P = .002) and 7 (9.8 ± 2.2 vs 14.5 ± 2.7; P tumor necrosis factor-alpha has a role in diagnosing renal transplant rejection. Serum and urinary tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels may be a possible predictor for allograft rejection.

  6. Factors that influence serum hyaluronan levels in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medina, M; Ashby, M; Diego, J; Pennell, J P; Hill, M; Schiff, E R; Perez, G O

    1999-01-01

    Serum hyaluronan levels are increased in dialysis patients. We evaluated several factors that influence serum hyaluronan levels in 184 patients on chronic hemodialysis (duration 2.3 +/- 2.3 [SD] years). The levels were higher than normal in the whole group and in a subgroup of 133 patients without chronic infection, liver disease, or rheumatoid arthritis (215 +/- 19 and 205 +/- 22 microg/L, respectively). There was a tendency for the levels to be higher in a subgroup of patients with hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection. There was no correlation between hyaluronan levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and duration or dose of dialysis. A weak but highly significant negative correlation between serum albumin levels and serum hyaluronan and ferritin levels was seen. The data suggest that chronic inflammation may explain, at least in part, the increased hyaluronan levels found in chronic dialysis patients.

  7. Fifteen years of GH replacement improves body composition and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbornsson, Mariam; Götherström, Galina; Bosæus, Ingvar; Bengtsson, Bengt-Åke; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Svensson, Johan

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have determined the effects of more than 5-10 years of GH replacement in adults on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. In this prospective, single-center, open-label study, the effects of 15 years of GH replacement on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 156 hypopituitary adults (93 men) with adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD). Mean age was 50.5 (range 22-74) years at study start. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean initial GH dose of 0.55 (S.E.M. 0.03) mg/day was gradually lowered to 0.40 (0.01) mg/day after 15 years. The mean serum IGF1 SDS increased from -1.53 (0.10) at baseline to 0.74 (0.13) at study end (Plevel at study end (Pbody fat (BF) started to increase and had returned to the baseline level after 15 years. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased and serum HDL-cholesterol level increased. Fasting plasma glucose increased from 4.4 (0.1) at baseline to 4.8 (0.1) mmol/l at study end (P<0.001). However, blood HbA1c decreased from 5.0 (0.1) to 4.6 (0.1) % (P<0.001). Fifteen-year GH replacement in GHD adults induced a transient decrease in BF and sustained improvements of LST and serum lipid profile. Fasting plasma glucose increased whereas blood HbA1c was reduced.

  8. Comparison of atherogenic risk factors among poorly controlled and well-controlled adolescent phenylketonuria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Mehmet; Çakar, Sevim; Kuyum, Pınar; Makay, Balahan; Arslan, Nur

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies investigating the known risk factors of atherosclerosis in phenylketonuria patients have shown conflicting results. The primary aim of our study was to investigate the serum atherogenic markers in adolescent classical phenylketonuria patients and compare these parameters with healthy peers. The secondary aim was to compare these atherogenic markers in well-controlled and poorly controlled patients. A total of 59 patients (median age: 12.6 years, range: 11-17 years) and 44 healthy controls (median age: 12.0 years, range: 11-15 years) were enrolled in our study. Phenylketonuria patients were divided into two groups: well-controlled (serum phenylalanine levels below 360 µmol/L; 24 patients) and poorly controlled patients (serum phenylalanine levels higher than 360 µmol/L). The mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of well-controlled patients (1.0±0.2 mmol/L) were significantly lower compared with poorly controlled patients and controls (1.1±0.2 mmol/L, p=0.011 and 1.4±0.2 mmol/L, pphenylketonuria patients. In particular, these changes were more prominent in well-controlled patients. We conclude that phenylketonuria patients might be at risk for atherosclerosis, and therefore screening for atherosclerotic risk factors should be included in the phenylketonuria therapy and follow-up in addition to other parameters.

  9. A genetic risk factor for low serum ferritin levels in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Grau, Katrine; Berg, Trine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is a frequent side effect of blood donation. In recent years, several studies have described genetic variants associated with iron concentrations. However, the impact of these variants on iron levels is unknown in blood donors. Knowledge of genetic variants....../or restless leg syndrome (RLS) were investigated in two groups of female blood donors. The first group had low iron stores (serum ferritin ≤ 12 µg/L, n = 657), and the second group had normal to high iron stores (serum ferritin > 30 µg/L, n = 645). Genotype distribution for each of the SNPs was compared......: A frequent polymorphism in BTBD9 was significantly associated with serum ferritin. This polymorphism has previously been associated with RLS, but not low iron stores in blood donors....

  10. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 in the aging horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lygren, Tone; Hansen, Sanni; Langberg, Henning

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has important roles in anabolic processes in the musculoskeletal system and has been reported to decrease with age in both people and horses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine serum IGF-1 levels in the aging horse from early...... was found between serum IGF-1 levels and age in the cross-sectional study. In the longitudinal study, a latent variable model fitted to the data revealed that horses in general experienced a 5.2% increase of serum IGF-1 levels over a 5-year period, but horses crossing a change point around 9 years of age...... between the 2 samples experienced an 11.0% decrease. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, there was no evidence for aging being a factor in changes of IGF-1 levels in an adult and old horse population....

  11. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  12. Low serum cholesterol, serotonin metabolism, and violent death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA high serum cholesterol level is a well documented risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Consequently, a low serum cholesterol has in general been viewed as beneficial. However, since the early 70s, results from several cohort studies and randomized trials have

  13. Changes in serum biochemical factors associated with opium addiction after addiction desertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients.

  14. Association of serum vitamin D with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical indices of brain aging the framingham heart study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Identifying nutrition- and lifestyle-based risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia may aid future primary prevention efforts. Objective: We aimed to examine the association of serum vitamin D levels with incident all-cause dementia, clinically characterized Alzheimer's disease...

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, M.; Dilawar, M.; Ijaz, A.; Sattar, A.; Dawood, M.M.; Anwar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine association of hyperhomocysteinemia with myocardial infarction and conventional risk factors for ischemic heart disease. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 hospitalized patients having myocardial infarction (MI) were randomly selected comprising 85 males and 15 females. The average age of the patients was 53 plus minus 4.5 years. A similar number of age and gender-matched healthy controls were also selected. The demographic details, history and clinical examination of both patients and controls were recorded and their blood was collected in fasting state for estimation of serum total cholesterol, plasma glucose and serum total homocysteine. Results: Serum total homocysteine level in controls was significantly lower (10.8 plus minus 4.1 micro mol/L) as compared to patients (18.0 plus minus 5.9 micro mol/L) (p < 0.0001). Smoking showed statistically significant association with hyperhomocysteinemic patients (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Ischemic heart disease was associated with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in our patients and it was also associated with smoking. (author)

  16. Risk factors and outcome of intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Lu; Ni, Hai-Bin; Sun, Jia-Kui; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Wei-Qin; Li, Ning; Li, Jie-Shou

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is common in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors of IAH in SAP patients and assess the prognosis of SAP combined with IAH. To analyze the data from patients with SAP, both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied, using 16 indices, including age, gender, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (APACHE II), 24 h fluid balance, hematocrit, serum calcium level, and so on. Clinical prognosis such as mortality, hospital duration, of SAP patients with or without IAH was also compared. First 24 h fluid balance (Odds Ratio [OR], 1.003; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.001-1.006), number of fluid collections (OR, 1.652; 95% CI, 1.023-2.956), and serum calcium level (OR, 0.132; 95% CI, 0.012-0.775) were found to be independent risk factors for IAH in patients with SAP. Moreover, patients with SAP and IAH had significantly longer average length of stay, both in the hospital and in the intensive care unit, higher rates of systemic and local complications, and more invasive treatments. The significant risk factors for IAH in patients with SAP include 24 h fluid balance (first day), number of fluid collections, and serum calcium level. Additionally, IAH is associated with extremely poor prognosis, evidenced by high rates of mortality, morbidity, and the need for invasive interventions.

  17. Incidence and Risk Factors of Persistent Hyperparathyroidism After Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K; Fujii, H; Ishimura, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishi, S

    Persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation is related to graft function, but pre-transplantation risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism have not been evaluated in detail. We enrolled 86 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2014. Nine patients showed persistent hyperparathyroidism characterized by the following: 1) serum parathyroid hormone levels >65 pg/mL and serum calcium levels >10.5 mg/dL at 1 year after kidney transplantation; 2) parathyroidectomy after kidney transplantation; and 3) reintroduction of cinacalcet after kidney transplantation. Compared with other patients, these 9 patients had significantly longer duration of dialysis therapy (186 ± 74 mo vs 57 ± 78 mo) and more frequent treatment with cinacalcet during dialysis (89% vs 12%). Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis vintage, calcium phosphate products, and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation were independent risk factors of persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed 72 months as the cutoff value of dialysis vintage and 55 as the cutoff value of calcium phosphate products. In conclusion, dialysis vintage >6 years, calcium phosphate products >55 (mg/dL) 2 , and cinacalcet use before kidney transplantation are strong predictors of persistent hyperparathyroidism. High-risk patients should be evaluated for parathyroid enlargement, and parathyroidectomy must be considered before kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A 4.3-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ha Baek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study.MethodsWe conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years, and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years. The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels.ResultsA total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1% of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915. The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI] for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99 and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92 in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001. A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline.ConclusionThere was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline.

  19. Lower serum endogenous secretory receptor for advanced glycation end product level as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome among Japanese adult men: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Huang, Cong; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Tadaura, Hiroko; Miyata, Toshio; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) activation by its ligands is implicated in obesity-related metabolic disease and accelerated atherothrombosis. Circulating soluble (sRAGE) and/or endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) may counteract the detrimental effects of RAGE. This study aimed at determining the relationship between circulating RAGE and metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence among Japanese adult men. This 2-year longitudinal study included 426 Japanese men aged 30-83 years who had no MetS at baseline. Serum esRAGE and sRAGE were assayed by ELISA at baseline. Incident metabolic syndrome, defined according to the Asian cutoff based on the 2009 criteria of the American Heart Association Scientific Statements, was evaluated after the 2-year follow-up. During the follow-up period, 55 participants (12.9%) had newly diagnosed MetS. In the multiple logistic models comparing MetS risk in the lowest with that in the highest tertile of baseline esRAGE, a high serum esRAGE level was found to be significantly associated with a low risk of MetS [odds ratios (95% confidence interval), 0.37 (0.14-0.95); P for trend = 0.038] after adjusting for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and MetS components at baseline. Although sRAGE and esRAGE were strongly correlated (r(s) = 0.88), the sRAGE level was not associated with MetS incidence. A high circulating esRAGE level, but not sRAGE level, was associated with a low MetS incidence among Japanese adult men.

  20. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jieyun; Hu, Jing; Yu, Pei; Wang, Weiwang; Hu, Xingxue; Hou, Jinsong; Fang, Silian; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC) surgery. Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later. The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP. Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  1. Risk factors for postoperative complications following oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Takechi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify significant risk factors for postoperative complications in the oral cavity in patients who underwent oral surgery, excluding those with oral cancer. This study reviewed the records of 324 patients who underwent mildly to moderately invasive oral surgery (e.g., impacted tooth extraction, cyst excision, fixation of mandibular and maxillary fractures, osteotomy, resection of a benign tumor, sinus lifting, bone grafting, removal of a sialolith, among others) under general anesthesia or intravenous sedation from 2012 to 2014 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery, Hiroshima University Hospital. Univariate analysis showed a statistical relationship between postoperative complications (i.e., surgical site infection, anastomotic leak) and diabetes (p=0.033), preoperative serum albumin level (p=0.009), and operation duration (p=0.0093). Furthermore, preoperative serum albumin level (oral cavity following oral surgery.

  2. Brucellosis in a high risk occupational group: sero prevalence and analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district and to elucidate risk factors associated with sero positivity to Brucella. Method: During the year 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four slaughterhouses of Lahore district. A sample of 360 workers was selected from these slaughterhouses through stratified random sampling on proportional basis. Workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain risk factor information and their blood samples were collected to be screened for the presence of anti-Brucella IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 16. Risk factors associated with sero positivity to anti-Brucella IgG were identified by constructing a logistic regression model. Results: Of the 360 serum samples tested, 21.7% (95% CI 17.44% - 25.96%) were positive by ELISA test. The logistic regression model identified age (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), assistance in parturition of animal (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.96), consuming raw milk (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.04-4.87) and handling sheep (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09- 0.92) as risk factors for Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district. Conclusion: To reduce the burden of brucellosis, a national brucellosis control programme should be initiated with special emphasis on the high risk population of slaughterhouse workers. (author)

  3. [Risk factors for development of hypomagnesemia in the burned patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Vega, Héctor César; Romero-Aviña, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez-Salgado, Jorge Eduardo; Silva-Díaz, Teresita; Ramos-Durón, Luis Ernesto; Carrera-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2004-01-01

    Electrolyte abnormalities are common in the severely burned patient. There is little information with regard to the frequency and magnitude of hypomagnesemia, as well as on risk factors for this condition. We performed an observational, retrospective analysis of 35 burned patients treated at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Service at the Hospital Central Sur PEMEX, Mexico City. We determined serum magnesium behavior and divided patients into two groups: the first included 11 patients with burns and hypomagnesemia, and the second, 24 patients with burns but without hypomagnesemia. Risk factor identification was performed. We found patient at risk was the one with more than 40% of 2nd or 3rd degree total burned body area, in day 4 or 10 after the burn, and with hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or both, and without intravenous (i.v.) supplementation of magnesium. The best way to prevent or avoid major complications is to identify the high-risk patient, or to diagnose earlier.

  4. Risk factors for low bone density in pediatric nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Disturbances in bone mineral metabolism and side effects of corticosteroid treatment may cause decreased bone density in patients v.ith nephrotic syndrome (NS. Objectives To compare the prevalence oflow bone mineral density (BMD in children with and 'Without NS and to assess the effect of corticosteroid treatment on bone density in NS patients.  Methods We conducted a retrospective, cohort study in children aged 5-18 years diagnosed 'With NS for more than 2 months prior to data collection, and in children v.ithout NS as a control. BMD was assessed on calcaneal bone wlith ultrasound bone densitometry. Serum calcium, albumin, creatinine and phosphate levels were also assessed. Results The prevalence of low BMD was significantly higher in NS patients than nonNS subjects, 73.3% (22 in 30 vs. 33% (11 in 33, respectively. The prevalence ratio was 6.3 (95% CI 2.1 to 18.9. NS patients had lower serum calcium levels, With mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.27 to -0.07 mMollL, P<0.009, and lower serum albumin, with mean difference of  -0.88 (95% CI -1.27 to -0.49 gIL; Prisk factors, we found NS to be an independent risk factor for low BMD. Steroid-resistant and steroid-dependent patients had lower BMD than steroid-sensitive subjects (P=0.02. There was also a significant correlation between the onset of corticosteroid treatment and BMD (r=O.3; P=0.02. Conclusions NS patients had higher risk for low BMD compared to normal subjects. Response to steroid treatment influences the severity of impaired bone density.

  5. Changes in Serum Biochemical Factors Associated with Opium Addiction after Addiction Desertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarinesh, Mohammad Reza; Haghpanah, Tahereh; Divsalar, Kouros; Dehyadegary, Elham; Shaikh-Aleslami, Azar; Mahmoodi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The long time use of opium has some effects on serums biochemical factors, the determination of this variation is a new approach in understanding off addiction and relive of drug abuser health. Hence in this study, these indicators in person who were withdrawing of opium have been studied. Methods In this cross-sectional study bloods biochemical factors such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, and fibrinogen in three groups serum were studied: (1) Who had been permanent opium users more than 2 years (case). (2) Dependent person who has taken one month addiction withdrawal course (control). (3) A healthy group that had been demographically similar to the other groups. Findings According to these study findings, FBS serum level in the case group is lower than control group. Serum level of Na, creatinine, and blood triglyceride (TG) in case study are higher than group control. Concentration of potassium, Ca, UA, BUN, cholesterol, total serum protein, fibrinogen, and thrombin time in case study and group control showed no significant difference. Also, in withdrawing case serum level of Na, Ca, UA, BUN, creatinine, and TG significantly increase and thrombin time decrease. Conclusion According to this study not only the longtime use of opium but also opium with drawerin opium dependent people can change their serum biochemical factors. So recognition, treatment, and prevention of this change could be a new step in improving of health and condition of patients. PMID:25984281

  6. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  7. Subclinical Hypothyroidism after 131I-Treatment of Graves' Disease: A Risk Factor for Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Tian, Ai-Juan; Yuan, Xin; Cheng, Xiao-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well accepted that there is a close relationship between hypothyroidism and depression, previous studies provided inconsistent or even opposite results in whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) increased the risk of depression. One possible reason is that the etiology of SCH in these studies was not clearly distinguished. We therefore investigated the relationship between SCH resulting from 131I treatment of Graves' disease and depression. The incidence of depression among 95 patients with SCH and 121 euthyroid patients following 131I treatment of Graves' disease was studied. The risk factors of depression were determined with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy was performed in patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels exceeding 10 mIU/L. Patients with SCH had significantly higher Hamilton Depression Scale scores, serum TSH and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels compared with euthyroid patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed SCH, Graves' eye syndrome and high serum TPO antibody level as risk factors for depression. L-thyroxine treatment is beneficial for SCH patients with serum TSH levels exceeding 10 mIU/L. The results of the present study demonstrated that SCH is prevalent among 131I treated Graves' patients. SCH might increase the risk of developing depression. L-thyroxine replacement therapy helps to resolve depressive disorders in SCH patients with TSH > 10mIU/L. These data provide insight into the relationship between SCH and depression.

  8. Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, S K; Kendall, C W C; Bazinet, R P; Bashyam, B; Ireland, C A; Augustin, L S A; Blanco Mejia, S; Sievenpiper, J L; Jenkins, D J A

    2014-08-01

    Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes. 117 subjects with type 2 diabetes consumed one of three iso-energetic (mean 475 kcal/d) supplements for 12 weeks: 1. full-dose nuts (50-100 g/d); 2. half-dose nuts with half-dose muffins; and 3. full-dose muffins. In this secondary analysis, fatty acid concentrations in the phospholipid, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and cholesteryl ester fractions from fasting blood samples obtained at baseline and week 12 were analyzed using thin layer and gas chromatography. Full-dose nut supplementation significantly increased serum oleic acid (OA) and MUFAs compared to the control in the phospholipid fraction (OA: P = 0.036; MUFAs: P = 0.024). Inverse associations were found with changes in CHD risk versus changes in OA and MUFAs in the triacylglycerol (r = -0.256, P = 0.011; r = -0.228, P = 0.024, respectively) and phospholipid (r = -0.278, P = 0.006; r = -0.260, P = 0.010, respectively) fractions. In the cholesteryl ester fraction, change in MUFAs was inversely associated with markers of glycemic control (HbA1c: r = -0.250, P = 0.013; fasting blood glucose: r = -0.395, P consumption increased OA and MUFA content of the serum phospholipid fraction, which was inversely associated with CHD risk factors and 10-year CHD risk. NCT00410722, clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  10. Post Hemi Thyroidectomy Hypothyroidism: Risk Factors and Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PV Pradeep

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk factors for post hemithyroidectomy (HT biochemical hypothyroidism (BH and its course are not well understood. The aim of the study was to look at the incidence, risk factors and the course of BH after HT Material and Methods: Longitudinal observational study at a tertiary care referral centre. Patients undergoing HT (Jan to Dec 2009, having a follow up for 2 years, with no history of head and neck radiation and euthyroid pre op status were included. Serum TSH, FT4, TPO Ab, Anti Tg Ab, FNAC and USG thyroid are performed pre operatively. Post operatively the residual thyroid volume was assessed using USG at 1 week. TSH was performed at one, three, six, twelve months after surgery. Statistical analysis: SPSS vs. 12 used and appropriate statistical tests applied Results: Patients (n=92 satisfied the inclusion criteria (14 males and 78 females. The mean age, duration of the goiter, TPO Ab and serum Anti Tg Ab levels were 38.58 ± 9.98 years, 35.08 ± 49.39 months, 43.87 ± 85.7 IU/mL and 2.65 ± 2.28 IU/mL respectively. BH was observed in 43.48% (n=40. Patients who had BH after HT were older, had significantly lower residual thyroid volume and smaller sized involved lobe. Patients with thyroiditis had a relative risk of 1.97 for post operative BH. At one year 23.33% (n=21 had BH. Conclusions: Post hemithyroidectomy BH is common in older patients with lesser amount of residual thyroid volume. 50% of these recover spontaneously within the first year after surgery necessitating monitoring of thyroxine replacement

  11. Risk factors associated with airway allergic diseases from exposure to laboratory animal allergens among veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowiak, Anna; Wiszniewska, Marta; Krawczyk, Patrycja; Szulc, Bogdan; Wittczak, Tomasz; Walusiak, Jolanta; Pałczynski, Cezary

    2007-05-01

    Investigate the risk factors for the development of occupational airway allergy (OAA) from exposure to laboratory animal allergens (LAA) among Polish veterinarians. Two hundred veterinarians responded to the questionnaire and were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) to common allergens and LAA (rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit). Evaluation of total serum IgE level and specific IgE against occupational allergens was performed. In addition, bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured before and after specific challenge testing (SCT) only in the subjects with work-related symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA). The prevalence of asthmatic and ocular symptoms was statistically more prevalent in the group of veterinarians sensitised to LAA versus non-sensitised subjects. The most frequent occupational allergens of skin and serum reactivity were LAA (44.5 and 31.5%, respectively). In 41 (20.5%) and in 22 (11%) subjects out of 200 veterinarians, serum specific IgE to natural rubber latex (NRL) allergens and disinfectants was also found. Serum sensitisation to cat allergens and daily contact with laboratory animals (LA) increased the risk for developing isolated occupational rhinitis. Furthermore, working time of more than 10 years and daily contact with LA were also significant risk factors for the development of OAA. Measuring PEFR and BHR before and after SCT is a useful method to confirm the presence of OA. Allergy to LAA is an important health problem among veterinary medicine practitioners in Poland.

  12. Increased serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients with narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    in hypocretin neurons in hypothalamus in post-mortem tissue. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are important for activity-dependent neuronal function and synaptic modulation and it is considered that these mechanisms are important in sleep regulation. We hypothesised......Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of muscle tone (cataplexy), fragmentation of nocturnal sleep and sleep paralysis. The symptoms of the disease strongly correlate with a reduction in hypocretin levels in CSF and a reduction...... that serum levels of these factors are altered in patients with narcolepsy compared to healthy controls without sleep disturbances. Polysomnography data was obtained and serum BDNF and NGF levels measured using ELISA, while hypocretin was measured using RIA. Serum BDNF levels were significantly higher...

  13. Serum sCD30: A promising biomarker for predicting the risk of bacterial infection after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Parra, Patricia; López-Medrano, Francisco; Ruiz-Merlo, Tamara; González, Esther; Polanco, Natalia; Origüen, Julia; San Juan, Rafael; Andrés, Amado; Aguado, José María

    2017-04-01

    The transmembrane glycoprotein CD30 contributes to regulate the balance between Th 1 and Th 2 responses. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the utility of its soluble form (sCD30) to predict post-transplant infection. Serum sCD30 was measured by a commercial ELISA assay at baseline and post-transplant months 1, 3, and 6 in 100 kidney transplant (KT) recipients (279 monitoring points). The impact of sCD30 levels on the incidence of overall, bacterial and opportunistic infection during the first 12 months after transplantation was assessed by Cox regression. There were no differences in serum sCD30 according to the occurrence of overall or opportunistic infection. However, sCD30 levels were higher in patients with bacterial infection compared to those without at baseline (P=.038) and months 1 (Ptransplantation (P=.006). Patients with baseline sCD30 levels ≥13.5 ng/mL had lower 12-month bacterial infection-free survival (35.0% vs 80.0%; PsCD30 levels ≥13.5 ng/mL remained as an independent risk factor for bacterial infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 4.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.05-10.53; sCD30 levels ≥6.0 ng/mL at month 1 acted as a risk factor for subsequent bacterial infection (aHR: 5.29; 95% CI: 1.11-25.14; P=.036). Higher serum sCD30 levels were associated with an increased risk of bacterial infection after KT. We hypothesize that this biomarker reflects a Th 2 -polarized T-cell response, which exerts a detrimental effect on the immunity against bacterial pathogens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Exploring Serum Levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor Across Glaucoma Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oddone

    Full Text Available To investigate the serum levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma with a wide spectrum of disease severity compared to healthy controls and to explore their relationship with morphological and functional glaucoma parameters.45 patients affected by glaucoma at different stages and 15 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent visual field testing, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurement using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and blood collection for both neurotrophins detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Statistical analysis and association between biostrumental and biochemical data were investigated.Serum levels of BDNF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in healthy controls (261.2±75.0 pg/ml vs 313.6±79.6 pg/ml, p = 0.03. Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of BDNF were significantly lower in early (253.8±40.7 pg/ml, p = 0.019 and moderate glaucoma (231.3±54.3 pg/ml, p = 0.04 but not in advanced glaucoma (296.2±103.1 pg/ml, p = 0.06 compared to healthy controls. Serum levels of NGF in glaucoma patients were significantly lower than those measured in the healthy controls (4.1±1 pg/mL vs 5.5±1.2 pg/mL, p = 0.01. Subgroups analysis showed that serum levels of NGF were significantly lower in early (3.5±0.9 pg/mL, p = 0.0008 and moderate glaucoma (3.8±0.7 pg/ml, p<0.0001 but not in advanced glaucoma (5.0±0.7 pg/ml, p = 0.32 compared to healthy controls. BDNF serum levels were not related to age, visual field mean deviation or retinal nerve fibre layer thickness either in glaucoma or in controls while NGF levels were significantly related to visual field mean deviation in the glaucoma group (r2 = 0.26, p = 0.004.BDNF and NGF serum levels are reduced in the early and moderate glaucoma stages, suggesting the possibility that both factors could be further investigated

  15. Serum ferritin concentration in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent development of gestational diabetes: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Soheilykhah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated serum ferritin concentration is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Recently it has also been described in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Objective: A prospective study was done to determine whether there was a relationship between serum ferritin concentration in early pregnancy and the risk of GDM. Materials and Methods: A study was performed on 1,384 pregnant women with gestational age of 12-16 weeks. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of ferritin in the first trimester. Diagnosis of GDM was done by 75 gr oral glucose tolerance test between 24-28 wk. Results: Women who developed GDM had a higher concentration of serum ferritin than women who did not develop GDM (p=0.01. A ferritin concentration of 45 ng/ml was calculated to be the 75th percentile for healthy pregnant women. Considering this level 32% in the GDM group and 25.2%of normal subjects exhibited high ferritin levels (p=0.01. The risk of GDM with these high levels of ferritin was 1.4-fold higher than that for subjects with lower concentrations. The Odds Ratio was 1.4 (95% CI= 1-1.87 (p=0.01. After adjusted for age Odds Ratio was 1.38 (95% CI=1.02-1.86 (p=0.03 and after adjustment for pre-pregnancy Body Mass index, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.31 (CI= 0.96-1.79 (p=0.08. After multivariable adjustment (age and body mass index, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.3 (0.95-1.8 (p=0.09. Conclusion: High serum ferritin can be regarded as a significant risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes.

  16. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  17. Serum Heparin-binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) as a Biomarker for Primary Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kohei; Yotsumoto, Fusanori; Fukagawa, Satoshi; Kiyoshima, Chihiro; Ouk, Nam Sung; Urushiyama, Daichi; Ito, Tomohiro; Katsuda, Takahiro; Kurakazu, Masamitsu; Araki, Ryota; Sanui, Ayako; Miyahara, Daisuke; Murata, Masaharu; Shirota, Kyoko; Yagi, Hiroshi; Takono, Tadao; Kato, Kiyoko; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Akazawa, Kohei; Kuroki, Masahide; Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Miyamoto, Shingo

    2017-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy among gynaecological cancers. Although many anticancer agents have been developed for the treatment of ovarian cancer, it continues to have an extremely poor prognosis. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like grown factor (HB-EGF) has been reported to be a rational therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. Here, we evaluated the clinical significance of serum HB-EGF by examining the association between prognosis and serum HB-EGF levels in patients with primary ovarian cancer. We found that high serum HB-EGF concentrations were significantly associated with poor prognosis in a combined cohort of patients with all stages of ovarian cancer, as well as in a subset of patients with advanced disease. In addition, serum HB-EGF levels increased as the cancer advanced. These data suggest that serum HB-EGF may be a target for the design of novel therapies for ovarian cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. The global cardiovascular risk transition: associations of four metabolic risk factors with national income, urbanization, and Western diet in 1980 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Lin, John K.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Lu, Yuan; Rao, Mayuree; Ezzati, Majid; Aamodt, Geir; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdella, Nabila A.; Rahim, Hanan F. Abdul; Addo, Juliet; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afifi, Mustafa M.; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Aguilar Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ali, Mohamed M.; Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Al-Nuaim, Abdul R.; Ambady, Ramachandran; Aro, Pertti; Azizi, Fereidoun; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barbieri, Marco Antonio M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Barros, Henrique; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Benetos, Athanase; Bjerregaard, Peter; Björkelund, Cecilia; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Bonora, Enzo; Bontha, Babu V.; Botana, Manuel A.; Bovet, Pascal; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Breteler, Monique M.; Broda, Grazyna; Brown, Ian J.; Bursztyn, Michael; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Campos, Hannia

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that cardiovascular disease risk factors are associated with affluence and Westernization. We investigated the associations of body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol with national income, Western diet, and, for BMI,

  19. The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon L Swift

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples.Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005.Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.

  20. Plasma methionine and risk of acute myocardial infarction: Effect modification by established risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Lysne, Vegard; Seifert, Reinhard; Svingen, Gard F T; Ueland, Per M; Nygård, Ottar K

    2018-05-01

    Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid involved in methylation reactions and lipid metabolism. A Met-deficient diet may cause hepatic lipid accumulation, which is considered an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, the prospective relationship between circulating Met and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. We studied the associations of plasma Met and incident AMI in 4156 patients (77% men; median age 62 years) with stable angina pectoris, among whom the majority received lipid lowering therapy with statins. Risk associations were estimated using Cox-regression analyses. Plasma Met was negatively related to age, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B at baseline (all p≤0.05). During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 534 (12.8%) patients experienced an AMI. There was no overall association between plasma Met and incident AMI; however, plasma Met was inversely associated with risk among patients with high as compared to low levels of serum LDL-C or apo B 100 (multivariate adjusted HRs per SD [95% CI] 0.84 [0.73-0.96] and 0.83[0.73-0.95], respectively; p-interaction ≤0.02). Trends towards an inverse risk relationship were also observed among those younger than 62 years and patients without diabetes or hypertension. Low plasma Met was associated with increased risk of AMI in patients with high circulating levels of atherogenic lipids, but also in subgroups with presumably lower cardiovascular risk. The determinants of Met status and their relation with residual cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary heart disease should be further investigated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum bilirubin concentrations and incident coronary heart disease risk among patients with type 2 diabetes: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Xiaofen; Li, Yaru; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Wang, Fei; Yu, Caizheng; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Chen, Weihong; Liang, Yuan; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian

    2017-03-01

    Elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with decreased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in cross-sectional studies among diabetic patients, but prospective evidence is limited. We investigated the relationship of serum bilirubin levels with incident CHD risk among type 2 diabetes patients. In a prospective study of 2918 type 2 diabetes embedded in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, serum total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), and indirect bilirubin (IBil) were measured at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between serum bilirubin levels and CHD risk. A total of 440 CHD cases were identified during 12,017 person-years of follow-up. Compared with extreme quartiles, the adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident CHD were 0.74 (0.56-0.99) with P trend = 0.08 in IBil, while in TBil and DBil, the bilirubin-CHD associations were not significant. Moreover, serum TBil and IBil levels were interacted with drinking status on the risk of incident CHD (P interaction = 0.021 and 0.037, respectively), and the associations were evident in ever drinkers. In drinkers, when serum TBil or IBil concentrations increased 1 μmol/L, the CHD risk both decreased 6% (95% CIs 0.89-0.99 and 0.87-1.00, respectively). Serum IBil levels were marginally related to decreased incident CHD risk among type 2 diabetes. Drinking could potentially enhance the associations of serum TBil and DBil levels with incident CHD risk.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in two resource-limited settings in Peru with disparate degrees of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, L M; Romero, K M; Robinson, C L; Hansel, N N; Gilman, R H; Hamilton, R G; Lima, J J; Wise, R A; Checkley, W

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a disease with a high global disease burden, but risk factors that contribute to this condition are not well understood. To assess the prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis in two Peruvian populations with disparate degrees of urbanization. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study on 1441 children aged 13-15 years at enrollment (mean age 14.9 years, 51% boys) to investigate the prevalence of allergic disease. We used a standardized, Spanish validated questionnaire to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asked about sociodemographics and family history of allergies. Children also underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, allergy skin testing to 10 common household allergens and provided a blood sample for measurement of 25OH vitamin D and total serum IgE. Overall prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 18% (95% CI 16% to 20%). When stratified by site, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 23% Lima vs. 13% in Tumbes (P overweight (1.5, 1.0-2.3); exhaled nitric oxide ≥ 20 ppb (1.9, 1.3-2.7); and total serum IgE ≥ 95th percentile (2.4, 1.2-4.8). Population attributable risk of important factors for allergic rhinitis were 25% for high exhaled nitric oxide, 22% for allergic sensitization to common household aeroallergens, 22% for paternal rhinitis, 10% for being overweight and 7% for an elevated total serum IgE. Allergic rhinitis was prevalent in both settings, and important risk factors include elevated exhaled nitric oxide, allergic sensitization to common household aeroallergens, parental rhinitis, being overweight and high total serum IgE. When considering subject-specific factors, the difference in prevalence between the urban and rural settings became non-important. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, E M; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs in pregnant...

  4. Risk factors for anastomotic leak and postoperative morbidity and mortality after elective right colectomy for cancer: results from a prospective, multicentric study of 1102 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Matteo; Granero-Castro, Pablo; Ramos Rodríguez, José Luis; Flor-Lorente, Blas; Braithwaite, Mariela; Martí Martínez, Eva; Álvarez Pérez, Jose Antonio; Codina Cazador, Antonio; Espí, Alejandro; Garcia-Granero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Studies focused on postoperative outcome after oncologic right colectomy are lacking. The main objective was to determine pre-/intraoperative risk factors for anastomotic leak after elective right colon resection for cancer. Secondary objectives were to determine risk factors for postoperative morbidity and mortality. Fifty-two hospitals participated in this prospective, observational study (September 2011-September 2012), including 1102 patients that underwent elective right colectomy. Forty-two pre-/intraoperative variables, related to patient, tumor, surgical procedure, and hospital, were analyzed as potential independent risk factors for anastomotic leak and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Anastomotic leak was diagnosed in 93 patients (8.4 %), and 72 (6.5 %) of them needed radiological or surgical intervention. Morbidity, mortality, and wound infection rates were 29.0, 2.6, and 13.4 %, respectively. Preoperative serum protein concentration was the only independent risk factor for anastomotic leak (p leaks, stapled technique (p = 0.03, OR 2.1) and preoperative serum protein concentration (p = 0.004, OR 0.6 g/dL) were identified as the only two independent risk factors. Age and preoperative serum albumin concentration resulted to be risk factors for postoperative mortality. Male gender, pulmonary or hepatic disease, and open surgical approach were identified as risk factors for postoperative morbidity, while male gender, obesity, intraoperative complication, and end-to-end anastomosis were risk factors for wound infection. Preoperative nutritional status and the stapled anastomotic technique were the only independent risk factors for clinically relevant anastomotic leak after elective right colectomy for cancer. Age and preoperative nutritional status determined the mortality risk, while laparoscopic approach reduced postoperative morbidity.

  5. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3 levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Toker, Aysun; Işık, Ümit; Kılınç, İbrahim

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurotrophins are involved in the etiopathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate whether there are differences in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NTF3) levels between children with ADHD and healthy controls. A total of 110 treatment-naive children with the combined presentation of ADHD and 44 healthy controls aged 8-18 years were enrolled in this study. The severity of ADHD symptoms was determined by scores on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised Short and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised Short. The severity of depression and anxiety symptoms of the children were evaluated by the self-report inventories. Serum levels of neurotrophins were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed a significant main effect of groups in the levels of serum neurotrophins, an effect that was independent of age, sex, and the severity of the depression and anxiety. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the mean serum GDNF and NTF3 levels of ADHD patients were significantly higher than that of controls. However, serum BDNF and NGF levels did not show any significant differences between groups. No correlations between the levels of serum neurotrophins and the severity of ADHD were observed. These results suggest that elevated serum GDNF and NTF3 levels may be related to ADHD in children.

  6. Potential impact of single-risk-factor versus total risk management for the prevention of cardiovascular events in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindjock, Roger; Gedeon, Jude; Mendis, Shanthi; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in Seychelles, a middle-income African country, and compare the cost-effectiveness of single-risk-factor management (treating individuals with arterial blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or total serum cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l) with that of management based on total CV risk (treating individuals with a total CV risk ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). CV risk factor prevalence and a CV risk prediction chart for Africa were used to estimate the 10-year risk of suffering a fatal or non-fatal CV event among individuals aged 40-64 years. These figures were used to compare single-risk-factor management with total risk management in terms of the number of people requiring treatment to avert one CV event and the number of events potentially averted over 10 years. Treatment for patients with high total CV risk (≥ 20%) was assumed to consist of a fixed-dose combination of several drugs (polypill). Cost analyses were limited to medication. A total CV risk of ≥ 10% and ≥ 20% was found among 10.8% and 5.1% of individuals, respectively. With single-risk-factor management, 60% of adults would need to be treated and 157 cardiovascular events per 100000 population would be averted per year, as opposed to 5% of adults and 92 events with total CV risk management. Management based on high total CV risk optimizes the balance between the number requiring treatment and the number of CV events averted. Total CV risk management is much more cost-effective than single-risk-factor management. These findings are relevant for all countries, but especially for those economically and demographically similar to Seychelles.

  7. Risk Factors for Perioperative Complications in Endoscopic Surgery with Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manoel Silva, Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Currently, endoscopic medicine is being increasingly used, albeit not without risks. Therefore, this study evaluated the factors associated with perioperative complications in endoscopic surgery with intraoperative irrigation. Method: A cohort study of six months duration. Patients aged ≥ 18 years undergoing endoscopic surgery with the use of irrigation fluids during the intraoperative period were included. Exclusion criteria were: use of diuretics, kidney failure, cognitive impairment, hyponatremia prior to surgery, pregnancy, and critically ill. The patients who presented with or without complications during the perioperative period were allocated into two groups. Complications evaluated were related to neurological, cardiovascular and renal changes, and perioperative bleeding. Results: In total, 181 patients were enrolled and 39 excluded; therefore, 142 patients met the study criteria. Patients with complications amounted to 21.8%, with higher prevalence in endoscopic prostate surgery, followed by hysteroscopy, bladder, knee, and shoulder arthroscopy (58.1%, 36.9%, 19.4%, 3.8%, 3.2% respectively. When comparing both groups, we found association with complications in univariate analysis: age, sex, smoking, heart disease, ASA, serum sodium at the end of surgery, total irrigation fluid administered, TURP, and hysteroscopy. However, in multiple regression analysis for complications, only age (OR = 1.048, serum sodium (OR = 0.962, and volume of irrigation fluid administered during surgery (OR = 1.001 were independent variables. Keywords: Anesthesia, Endoscopy, Hyponatremia, Postoperative Complications, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors.

  8. Perioperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia after major oral cancer surgery: A retrospective analysis of 331 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyun Xu

    Full Text Available Postoperative pneumonia (POP is common and results in prolonged hospital stays, higher costs, increased morbidity and mortality. However, data on the incidence and risk factors of POP after oral and maxillofacial surgery are rare. This study aims to identify perioperative risk factors for POP after major oral cancer (OC surgery.Perioperative data and patient records of 331 consecutive subjects were analyzed in the period of April 2014 to March 2016. We individually traced each OC patient for a period to discharge from the hospital or 45 days after surgery, whichever occur later.The incidence of POP after major OC surgery with free flap construction or major OC surgery was 11.6% or 4.5%, respectively. Patient-related risk factors for POP were male sex, T stage, N stage, clinical stage and preoperative serum albumin level. Among the investigated procedure-related variables, incision grade, mandibulectomy, free flap reconstruction, tracheotomy, intraoperative blood loss, and the length of the operation were shown to be associated with the development of POP. Postoperative hospital stay was also significantly related to increased incidence of POP. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified male sex, preoperative serum albumin level, operation time and postoperative hospital stay as independent risk factors for POP.Several perioperative risk factors can be identified that are associated with POP. At-risk oral cancer patients should be subjected to intensified postoperative pulmonary care.

  9. Alopecia and its association with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Nelson; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-10-20

    Alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease as well as the following risk factors for cardiovascular disease: hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively determine the level of risk of coronary heart disease and risk factors in individuals with alopecia. A systematic literature search was conducted using several databases. We calculated pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. In total, 31 studies comprising 29,254 participants with alopecia were eligible for the meta-analysis and showed that alopecia is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (OR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.07-1.39), hyperinsulinaemia (OR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.20-3.21), insulin resistance (OR 4.88, 95% CI: 2.05-11.64), and metabolic syndrome (OR 4.49, 95% CI: 2.36-8.53). Individuals with alopecia were also shown to be more likely compared to those without alopecia to have higher serum cholesterol levels (OR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.17-2.21), higher serum triglyceride levels (OR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.32-3.25), higher systolic blood pressures (OR 1.73, 95% CI: 1.29-2.33), and higher diastolic blood pressures (OR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.16-2.18). Alopecia is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, and there appears to be a dose-response relationship with degree of baldness whereby the greater the severity of alopecia, the greater the risk of coronary heart disease. Alopecia is also associated with an increased risk of hypertension, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and having elevated serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Superficial temporal artery calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease: Association with vascular risk factors and ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Zeeshan; Zan, Elcin; Carone, Marco; Ozturk, Arzu; Sozio, Stephen M; Yousem, David M

    2011-01-01

    Extracranial superficial temporal artery (STA) calcification is an unusual finding seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and has unknown ramifications with respect to intracranial ischemic disease. We sought to determine the association between the risk factors for vascular calcification and this rare phenomenon, in patients with chronic renal failure, and to assess the coexistence of cerebral ischemia. Medical records and laboratory data on risk factors for vascular calcification were retrospectively retrieved for 453 patients with a discharge diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CT head examinations were reviewed to identify and associate STA calcification with 1) risk factors for the vascular calcification, 2) intracranial artery calcification, and 3) cerebral ischemia (white matter and/or cortical ischemic changes). STA calcification was present in 9.9% (45/453) of the studied cohort. The prevalence of cerebral ischemia was 24.4% (11/45) in patients with STA calcification and 9.3% (38/408) in patients without it. Diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.059-6.208; P=0.037) was independently associated with the risk of STA calcification. The risk of cerebral ischemia, however, was not related to STA calcification (P=0.221). The presence of diabetes mellitus is important in describing the risk of STA calcification in patients with ESRD, whereas age, gender, hypertension, serum calcium, serum phosphate, or serum hemoglobin levels are not. The risk of cerebral ischemia is not related to STA calcification but has the strongest association with diabetes mellitus

  11. Associations of oxidative stress status parameters with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Milovanović, Srđan; Ðorđević, Brižita; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Ivanišević, Jasmina; Miljković, Milica; Spasić, Slavica

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress status parameters and their possible associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia, as well as their potential for patient-control discrimination. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress status parameters were assessed in 30 schizophrenic patients with atypical antipsychotic therapy and 60 control subjects. Malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB) and total anti-oxidant status (TAS) were significantly higher whereas total sulfhydryl (SH) groups were significantly lower in schizophrenic patients vs. control group. Higher serum PAB values showed an independent association with schizophrenia. The addition of PAB to conventional risk factors improved discrimination between healthy control subjects and patients. Increased oxidative stress and changed lipid profile parameters are associated in schizophrenic patients and may indicate risk for atherosclerosis. The serum PAB level may reflect the levels of oxidative stress in schizophrenia and improve discrimination of patients from controls.

  12. Could be serum uric acid a risk factor for thrombosis and/or uveitis in Behcet's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atıl, Avcı; Deniz, Avcı

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Serum uric acid level increases in many inflammatory conditions. Uric acid triggers the vascular inflammation and artery damage, which causes to an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. It is not clear in the literature whether uric acid contributes to uveitis by similar mechanisms. We investigated whether uric acid level increases in Behcet's disease patients with thrombosis or anterior uveitis. Patients and methods We reviewed the medical records of 914 Behcet's disease. After screening for exclusion criteria, there were 50 Behcet's disease patients with thrombotic complication and as the control group 202 BD patients without any vascular complication were included to the study. In the Anterior uveitis group, there were 53 Behcet's disease patients. The Control group consisted of 39 Behçet's disease patients without eye findings. Results Mean uric acid value was 4.96 ± 1.06 mg/dl in Behcet's disease patients with thrombosis whereas 4.08 ± 0.94 mg/dl in controls, indicating a significant difference ( p uric acid level was greater in Behcet's disease patients that have a thrombotic complication compared to those without thrombotic complication. Uric acid seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis. It is concluded that the elevation of serum uric acid level in patients with anterior uveitis with Behcet's disease is not statistically significant.

  13. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002 or ischemic stroke (p Conclusion Elevated serum resistin concentration appears to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction in the general Japanese population. The combination of high resistin and the presence of either diabetes or hypertension increased the risk of ischemic stroke.

  14. Increase in serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is correlated with increase in cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linman; Ren, Wei; Li, Jinchao; Liu, Jingjing; Wang, Lingli; Zheng, Xiaoya; Liu, Dezhen; Li, Sufang; Souvenir, Rhonda; Tang, Jiping

    2012-10-01

    Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD) is correlated to many adverse effects on metabolism and increased cardiovascular risk. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a protease that promotes IGF-I availability in vascular tissues in recent study, and PAPP-A levels have been proposed as an early predictor of cardiac events. The aim of our study was to compare PAPP-A levels in AGHD patients with that of healthy adult subjects to determine if there is a relationship between serum PAPP-A and glucose and lipid metabolism. Twenty AGHD patients and 20 healthy, age-matched and weight-matched persons were chosen for the study. Their weight, height, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hips ratio were assessed. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed and venous blood was collected from the each patient's cubital vein for biochemical analysis. Serum PAPP-A level in AGHD patients was significantly higher than that of the control group [(7.62 ± 1.62 vs. 6.54 ± 1.31) p < 0.05], and PAPP-A was positively correlated to age, BMI, waist circumference and so on. After adjusting for the waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, triglycerides, the serum PAPP-A in AGHD patients was positively correlated to the BMI (r = 0.728, p < 0.05) and fasting insulin (r = 0.433, p < 0.05). In a multiple step-wise regression analysis, BMI, 2 h postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR were independently associated with serum PAPP-A in AGHD patients. The increase in serum PAPP-A levels is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and increased risk of atherosclerosis in AGHD patients.

  15. Low serum insulin-like growth factor I is associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Scheike, Thomas Harder; Davidsen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that low IGF-I and high IGFBP-3 levels might be associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that low IGF-I and high IGFBP-3 levels might be associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  16. [Effects of occupational stress on serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Hui; Yu, Shan-Fa; Jiang, Kai-You

    2010-12-01

    To explore the effect of occupational stress on serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2 and IL-4. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 200 workers from the refrigerator assembly line in Henan province in China. Psychosocial work conditions were measured by using the job demand-control model, the effort-reward imbalance model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-4 concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay or immunoradiometric assay method respectively. Serum TNF-α concentration was statistically significantly different between workers with higher affective balance level and control groups [(1.947 ± 0.173) and (2.029 ± 0.240) fmol/ml] (P life stress level and control groups [(1.759 ± 0.361) and (1.606 ± 0.381) ng/ml] (P life stress and role ambiguity were the predictors of serum IL-2 (R(2) was 0.040, 0.078 and 0.104, respectively). Reward was the predictor of serum IL-4 (R(2) = 0.030). Unhealthy psychological stress factor might be induce a marked increase in the concentrations of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, as well as IL-4.

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Haveman, R.; Swart, A.; Mensink-Beerepoot, M.E.; Hofhuis, A.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cats, as definitive hosts, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in Dutch domestic cats, serum samples of 450 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by indirect ELISA. Binary mixture analysis was

  18. Renal Dysfunction after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery- Risk Factors and Preventive Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab Maitra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative renal dysfunction is a relatively common and one of the serious complications of cardiac surgery. Though off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery technique avoids cardiopulmonary bypass circuit induced adverse effects on renal function, multiple other factors cause postoperative renal dysfunction in these groups of patients. Acute kidney injury is generally defined as an abrupt and sustained decrease in kidney function. There is no consen-sus on the amount of dysfunction that defines acute kidney injury, with more than 30 definitions in use in the literature today. Although serum creatinine is widely used as a marker for changes in glomerular filtration rate, the criteria used to define renal dysfunction and acute renal failure is highly variable. The variety of definitions used in clinical studies may be partly responsible for the large variations in the reported incidence. Indeed, the lack of a uniform definition for acute kidney injury is believed to be a major impediment to research in the field. To establish a uniform definition for acute kidney injury, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative formulated the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney (RIFLE classification. RIFLE , defines three grades of increasing severity of acute kidney injury -risk (class R, injury (class I and failure (class F - and two outcome classes (loss and end-stage kidney disease. Various perioperative risk factors for postoperative renal dysfunction and failure have been identified. Among the important preoperative factors are advanced age, reduced left ventricular function, emergency surgery, preoperative use of intraaortic balloon pump, elevated preoperative serum glucose and creatinine. Most important intraoperative risk factor is the intraoperative haemodynamic instability and all the causes of postoperative low output syndrome com-prise the postoperative risk factors. The most important preventive strategies are the identification of the

  19. Elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 levels as an indicator of lower extremity atherosclerotic disease in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingxing; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Su, Hang; Ying, Lingwen; Peng, Jiahui; Pan, Xiaoping; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-06-15

    Recently, basic and clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the relationship between circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 and the development of atherosclerosis. Given that diabetes is an established risk factor for lower extremity atherosclerotic disease (LEAD), the goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between serum FGF23 levels and LEAD, as well as the related factors, in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 401 hospitalized T2DM patients (201 subjects with LEAD and 200 subjects without LEAD) were enrolled in this study. Serum FGF23 levels were determined by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Femoral intima-media thickness (F-IMT) and lower limb atherosclerotic plaque were assessed through color Doppler ultrasound. The median (interquartile range) serum FGF23 levels in the entire study population was 42.08 (35.59-49.17) pg/mL. Subjects with LEAD had significantly higher serum FGF23 levels compared with those without LEAD (44.00 [37.54-51.30] pg/mL versus 40.42 [32.61-48.23] pg/mL, P Chinese patients with T2DM, serum FGF23 levels were independently and positively correlated with the presence of LEAD.

  20. Hyperirisinemia is independently associated with subclinical hypothyroidism: correlations with cardiometabolic biomarkers and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratigou, Theodora; Dalamaga, Maria; Antonakos, Georgios; Marinou, Ioanna; Vogiatzakis, Evaggelos; Christodoulatos, Gerasimos Socrates; Karampela, Irene; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2018-02-17

    Irisin, a newly discovered adipo-myokine, is implicated in the modulation of the adipose phenotype, increasing energy expenditure and ameliorating systemic metabolism. Our aim was to investigate circulating irisin in subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and study its associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. In a large case-control study, serum irisin, insulin resistance and lipid parameters, classic adipokines, inflammatory and hepatic biomarkers, and cardiovascular risk factors were determined in 120 consecutive patients with SH and 120 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and date of blood draw. Sixteen patients with SH received L-T4 treatment and, after 6 months, serum irisin and other biomarkers were assessed. SH cases exhibited significantly higher circulating irisin than controls (p counterbalancing a potential, gradual deterioration of lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in SH as well as reflecting a protective compensatory mechanism against oxidative muscle and thyroid cell stress. More mechanistic and prospective studies shedding light on the pathogenetic role of irisin in SH are needed to confirm and extend these data.

  1. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  2. Serum cobalt status during pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome: A prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunmei; Wang, Jianqing; Xia, Xun; Wang, Qunan; Li, Zhijuan; Tao, Ruiwen; Tao, Yiran; Xiang, Haiyun; Tong, Shilu; Tao, Fangbiao

    2018-03-01

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element and has been suggested to be involved in blood pressure regulation, but few studies have focused on serum Co status during pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIH). The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between serum Co levels during pregnancy and the risks of PIH, and to explore how the maternal Co status contributes to the incidence of PIH. 3260 non-hypertensive women before pregnancy with singleton births in Ma'anShan birth cohort study (MABC) were recruited with the assessment of maternal Co concentrations, additionally, the levels of 7 inflammatory factors and 3 stress factors in placentas were also determined. Relative risks (RRs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the risks of PIH were assessed and the relationships between 10 factors and maternal Co status during pregnancy were evaluated as well. A total of 194 (5.95%) women were diagnosed with PIH. The concentrations of Co varied from the first trimester to the second trimester, and maternal serum Co concentrations during pregnancy were negatively associated with the incidence of PIH in a linear fashion. There was a clear trend in RRs according to decreasing exposure to Co levels in the second trimester (RR a =1.80, 95% CI (1.26, 2.56); RR b =1.73, 95% CI (1.21, 2.46) and RR c =1.43, 95% CI (1.02, 2.04) when low Co levels comparing with high Co levels before and after adjustment for confounders; and RR a =1.29, 95% CI (0.88, 1.88); RR b =1.28, 95% CI (0.87, 1.87) and RR c =1.25, 95% CI (0.86, 1.82) when medium Co levels comparing with high Co levels before and after adjustment for confounders). In addition, the trend for the first trimester was nearly identifical to those for the second trimester (RR a =1.35, 95% CI (0.94, 1.93); RR b =1.33, 95% CI (0.93, 1.91); RR c =1.22, 95%CI (0.86, 1.73) when low Co levels comparing with high Co levels before and after adjustment for confounders; and RR a =1.10, 95

  3. Vascular neurocognitive disorders and the vascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V. Albu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementias are clinical neurodegenerative diseases characterized by permanent and progressive transformation of cognitive functions such as memory, learning capacity, attention, thinking, language, passing judgments, calculation or orientation. Dementias represent a relatively frequent pathology, encountered at about 10% of the population of 65-year olds and 20% of the population of 80-year olds. This review presents the main etiological forms of dementia, which include Alzheimer form of dementia, vascular dementia, dementia associated with alpha-synucleionopathies, and mixed forms. Regarding vascular dementia, the risk factors are similar to those for an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, age, alcohol consumption, cerebral atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis. Several studies show that efficient management of the vascular risk factors can prevent the expression and/ or progression of dementia. Thus, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular physical exercise, decreasing dietary fat, multivitamin supplementation, adequate control of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, and social integration and mental stimulation in the elderly population are important factors in preventing or limiting the symptoms of dementia, a disease with significant individual, social, and economic implications.

  4. Prognostic impact of serum bilirubin level on long-term renal survival in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Masutani, Kosuke; Nagata, Masaharu; Tsuchimoto, Akihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-12-01

    Serum bilirubin has been recognized as a novel endogenous antioxidant. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of serum bilirubin on kidney prognosis in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). We followed retrospectively 694 patients with IgAN diagnosed by renal biopsy between 1982 and 2010. The risk factors for developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazard model. Predictive performance between models with or without serum bilirubin was evaluated by calculating the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Seventy-seven patients developed ESRD during the median 4.9 years of follow-up. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria and histological severity were inversely related to bilirubin levels. In multivariate analysis, serum bilirubin was an independent risk factor for ESRD (hazard ratio for every 0.1 mg/dL decrease in serum bilirubin, 1.18; 95 % CI, 1.04-1.33). The incidence rate of ESRD decreased linearly with the increases in bilirubin levels (P for trend bilirubin was incorporated into a model with conventional ESRD risk factors, the NRI and IDI were 0.281 (P = 0.02) and 0.019 (P = 0.01), respectively. We demonstrated that lower bilirubin levels were significantly associated with higher risk of ESRD in IgAN. In addition, bilirubin provided incremental predictive value in the risk assessment for progression of IgAN beyond that provided by standard risk factors.

  5. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.

  6. Serum cholesterol and depression: A puzzle never finished

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Budania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a state of sadness, hopelessness, and discouragement. Various studies have been conducted to uncover the etiological factors involved in depression. Serum folic acid is one such factor. Many researchers have reported an inverse association between serum folic acid and depression. We did an extensive computerized database searches on PubMed, Medline, and EBSCO and found that low serum folic acid are associated with depression, not only in adults, but also in elderly and diabetic patients. Further augmentation of folic acid with antidepressant treatment also improves the treatment outcome in depressed patients. Hence, considering the high benefits to the adverse effects ratio of serum folic acid, its supplementation should be done in "at risk" population whenever possible.

  7. Acute Kidney Injury as a Risk Factor for Delirium and Coma during Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Edward D; Fissell, William H; Tripp, Christina M; Blume, Jeffrey D; Wilson, Matthew D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Girard, Timothy D

    2017-06-15

    Acute kidney injury may contribute to distant organ dysfunction. Few studies have examined kidney injury as a risk factor for delirium and coma. To examine whether acute kidney injury is associated with delirium and coma in critically ill adults. In a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients with respiratory failure and/or shock, we examined the association between acute kidney injury and daily mental status using multinomial transition models adjusting for demographics, nonrenal organ failure, sepsis, prior mental status, and sedative exposure. Acute kidney injury was characterized daily using the difference between baseline and peak serum creatinine and staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Mental status (normal vs. delirium vs. coma) was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Among 466 patients, stage 2 acute kidney injury was a risk factor for delirium (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.26) and coma (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.34) as was stage 3 injury (OR for delirium, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.57-4.16) (OR for coma, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.85-6.03). Daily peak serum creatinine (adjusted for baseline) values were also associated with delirium (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55) and coma (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74). Renal replacement therapy modified the association between stage 3 acute kidney injury and daily peak serum creatinine and both delirium and coma. Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for delirium and coma during critical illness.

  8. Body mass index in relation to serum prostate-specific antigen levels and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Wiklund, Fredrik; Grönberg, Henrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-07-01

    High Body mass index (BMI) has been directly associated with risk of aggressive or fatal prostate cancer. One possible explanation may be an effect of BMI on serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). To study the association between BMI and serum PSA as well as prostate cancer risk, a large cohort of men without prostate cancer at baseline was followed prospectively for prostate cancer diagnoses until 2015. Serum PSA and BMI were assessed among 15,827 men at baseline in 2010-2012. During follow-up, 735 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer with 282 (38.4%) classified as high-grade cancers. Multivariable linear regression models and natural cubic linear regression splines were fitted for analyses of BMI and log-PSA. For risk analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and natural cubic Cox regression splines producing standardized cancer-free probabilities were fitted. Results showed that baseline Serum PSA decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: -2.1 to -1.1) with every one unit increase in BMI. Statistically significant decreases of 3.7, 11.7 and 32.3% were seen for increasing BMI-categories of 25 prostate cancer risk although results were indicative of a positive association to incidence rates of high-grade disease and an inverse association to incidence of low-grade disease. However, findings regarding risk are limited by the short follow-up time. In conclusion, BMI was inversely associated to PSA-levels. BMI should be taken into consideration when referring men to a prostate biopsy based on serum PSA-levels. © 2016 UICC.

  9. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L.; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S. Bilasini; Singh, W. Gyaneshwar

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum h...

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL AND CHILD CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Fesharak Nia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adult cardiovascular disease has its root in childhood. Cardiovascular disease aggregates in families, so identification of high-risk families and early screening and control of cardiovascular risk factors in offspring will help prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to determine the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents having a positive history of premature myocardial infarction and their offspring. methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004 on 91 parents and their offspring (91 children. The parents were randomly selected from among patients hospitalized in the critical care unit of Vali-e-Asr hospital with premature myocardial infarction. Important indicators such as systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were measured in both groups. results: There was no significant relation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between parents and their offspring. Thirty-three percent of the parents were hypertensive. No cases of hypertension were found in children. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the children of hypertensive parents. Significant relations were seen between BMI and obesity in parents and their children. There was no significant relation between serum lipids, high TC, high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels in parents and their children. The commonest lipid disorder in parents and their offspring was low HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show a significant relation between hypertension, obesity and blood lipid disorders between parents with positive history of premature myocardial infraction and their children. Hence, screening programs in these children for detection of cardiovascular risk factors are recommended.     Keywords

  11. Homocysteine and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, N; Samir, N; Megahed, H; Farid, E

    2014-11-01

    Chronic inflammation was found to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk factors. Homocysteine (Hcy) and fibrinogen have been identified as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lichen planus is assumed to be closely related to dyslipidaemia. Several cytokines involved in lichen planus pathogenesis, could explain its association with dyslipidaemia. Also chronic inflammation with lichen planus has been suggested as a component of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to detect a panel of cardiovascular risk factors in patients of lichen planus. This study was done on 40 patients of lichen planus and 40 healthy controls. All patients and controls were subjected to clinical examination. Serum levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Metabolic syndrome parameters including anthropometric measures, lipid profiles, blood sugar and blood pressure were studied. Patients with lichen planus showed significant association with metabolic syndrome parameters than controls (P lichen planus patients than controls (P lichen planus were found to have higher makers of both metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in relation to controls most probably due to long standing inflammation. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant vitamins and/or carotenoids may reduce liver disease, but this association has not been well established with thorough longitudinal cohort studies. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate whether serum carotenoids at baseline are associated with the risk of developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) among Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study of 1073 males and females aged between 30 and 79 years at baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline study and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Exclusions included excessive alcohol consumption (≥60 g alcohol/d), hepatitis B and C and having a history of medication use for liver disease. A cohort of 213 males and 574 females free of elevated serum ALT (>30 IU/ml) at baseline was studied. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·4 (sd 3·1) years, thirty-one males and forty-nine females developed new elevated serum ALT. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0·43 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·81), 0·51 (CI 0·27, 0·94) and 0·52 (CI 0·28, 0·97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects.

  13. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  14. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16–20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Results BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42–49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). Conclusions These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. PMID:29186464

  15. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-12-01

    Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. We conducted a nested case-control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16-20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42-49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. Epidemiology, risk factors and prognosis of Interferon alpha induced thyroid disorders. A Prospective Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Obołończyk

    2017-09-01

    In conclusion: Thyroid disorders are common during IFN-α therapy. Previous epidemiological data seem to be underestimated. Important risk factors for IITD development are: female sex, elevated serum TSH concentration (≥2.5 μU/mL, positive TPO-Ab and increased blood velocity in thyroid arteries.

  17. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D.; Gutai, J.P.; Powell, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks

  18. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  19. High – Sensitivity C - reactive protein is associated with Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Indians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Asegaonkar, Shilpa B; Bavikar, Jayashree Suhas; Marathe, Amruta; Tekade, Mangesh; Asegaonkar, Balaji N.; Jayashree, Bardapurkar

    2013-01-01

    Background: India is experiencing twin epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases imposing huge toll on healthcare system. In type 2 diabetes 65-80% deaths occur due to cardiovascular disease whose etiology cannot be explained by chronic hyperglycemia, dyslipedemia and traditional cardiac risk factors. To improve risk stratification serum high-sensitivity C- reactive protein estimation is an adjunct to other risk factors. Study design: O.P.D. based Cross sectional study....

  20. Development of insusceptibility to serum factor during the radiation transformation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasima, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Kimura, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of using different assay sera on the X-ray-induced transformation yield in 10T1/2 mouse cells were studied. The use of newborn calf assay serum gave a 5 x greater value of transformation than foetal calf serum. This difference in transformation yield with different assay sera was used to investigate the time interval required for the development of insusceptibility of cells to serum factor. Sequential shifting from low yield sera (LYS) to high yield sera (HYS) showed that the radiation-initiated cells were most susceptible to HYS at the beginning of the assay culture but finally became insusceptible within 2 weeks of incubation. (U.K.)

  1. Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Christopher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. Methods A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR and/or relative risk (RR outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusions Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD.

  2. Elevated Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fangsen; Lin, Mingzhu; Huang, Peiying; Zeng, Jinyang; Zeng, Xin; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Zhibin; Li, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence from animal studies indicates that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), an endocrine hormone that regulates glucose, lipid metabolism, and energy homeostasis, is regulated by T3. However, the role of FGF21 in hyperthyroid patients is unknown. The objective was to study serum FGF21 levels in hyperthyroid patients and the association of serum FGF21 levels with hyperthyroidism. This was a case-control study. A total of 119 hyperthyroid patients and 108 healthy subjects were recruited. Of them, 41 hyperthyroid patients received thionamide treatment for 3 months until euthyroidism was obtained. Serum FGF21 levels were determined using the ELISA method. Serum FGF21 levels were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid patients as compared with normal subjects [median 290.67 (interquartile range, 156.60-502.33) vs 228.10 (169.85.25-320.10) pg/mL; P treatment, serum FGF21 levels in hyperthyroid patients declined markedly from 249.10 (139.10-444.00) to 106.90 (38.70-196.15) pg/mL (P hyperthyroidism. With adjustment for potential confounders, serum FGF21 remained independently associated with hyperthyroidism, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.123 (95% confidence interval, 1.306-7.468) (P = .010). Serum FGF21 levels were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism and declined after thionamide treatment. And serum FGF21 level was independently associated with hyperthyroidism.

  3. Elevated serum advanced glycation endproducts in obese indicate risk for the metabolic syndrome: a link between healthy and unhealthy obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Cai, Weijing; Woodward, Mark; Tripp, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Laurie; Pyzik, Renata; Yee, Kalle; Tansman, Laurie; Chen, Xue; Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A; Vlassara, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Although obesity can predispose to the metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, not all obese subjects develop MS, hence the need for new indicators of risk for this syndrome. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with factors involved in the MS, including inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Because AGEs can be derived from food and are modifiable, it is important to determine whether they are a risk factor for MS. The objective of this study was to assess the association of endogenous and exogenous AGEs with MS criteria. The following data were collected in a cross-sectional study of subjects with and without the MS: serum AGEs (sAGEs) and mononuclear cell AGEs, metabolites, pro- and antiinflammatory markers, body fat mass measures, including abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, and caloric and dietary AGE (dAGE) consumption. The study was conducted in the general community. Participants included 130 MS and 139 non-MS subjects of both sexes, older than 50 years. sAGEs ((ϵ)N-carboxymethyllysine, methylglyoxal) were markedly elevated in obese persons with more than one other MS criteria but not in obese without MS criteria. sAGEs directly correlated with markers of IR (HOMA) and inflammation (leptin, TNFα, RAGE) and inversely with innate defenses (SIRT1, AGE receptor 1 [AGER1], glyoxalase-I, adiponectin). sAGEs correlated with dAGEs but not with calories, nutrient consumption, or fat mass measures. Consumption of dAGE, but not of calories, was markedly higher in MS than in non-MS. High sAGEs, a modifiable risk factor for IR, may indicate risk for the MS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. High dietary AGE consumption and serum AGE levels may link healthy obesity to at-risk obesity.

  4. The educational gradient in cardiovascular risk factors: impact of shared family factors in 228,346 Norwegian siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Stigum, Hein; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Næss, Øyvind

    2017-03-30

    Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities in the gradient using a discordant sibling design. Norwegian health survey data (1980-2003) was linked to educational and generational data. Participants with a full sibling in the health surveys (228,346 individuals in 98,046 sibships) were included. Associations between attained educational level (7-9 years, 10-11 years, 12 years, 13-16 years, or >16 years) and CVD risk factor levels in the study population was compared with the corresponding associations within siblings. Educational gradients in risk factors were attenuated when factors shared by siblings was taken into account: A one category lower educational level was associated with 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 0.8) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (27% attenuation), 0.4 (0.4 to 0.5) mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (30%), 1.0 (1.0 to 1.1) more beats per minute higher heart rate (21%), 0.07 (0.06 to 0.07) mmol/l higher serum total cholesterol (32%), 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2) higher smoking level (5 categories) (30%), 0.15 (0.13 to 0.17) kg/m 2 higher BMI (43%), and 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2) cm lower height (52%). Attenuation increased with shorter age-difference between siblings. About one third of the educational gradients in modifiable CVD risk factors may be explained by factors that siblings share. This implies that childhood environment is important for the prevention of CVD.

  5. Higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in helicobacter pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Nemati, Maryam; Rezayati, Mohammad Taghi; Nabizadeh, Mansooreh; Ebrahimi, Medhi

    2013-07-01

    H. pylori infection has been associated with some autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentrations of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, H. pylori-infected asymptomatic carriers and a healthy control group. A Total of 100 H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, 65 asymptomatic carriers and 30 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (as a control group) were enrolled into study. Serum samples of participants tested for the levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies by use of ELISA. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in peptic ulcer group was significantly higher in comparison to the control group (ppeptic ulcer patients and asymptomatic carriers groups regarding the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor in men with peptic ulcer was significantly higher compared to the group of healthy men (ppeptic ulcer patients or asymptomatic carriers groups, the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor was higher than that in healthy women, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between men and women with peptic ulcer, asymptomatic carriers control groups based on the serum levels of anti-nuclear antibodies. The results showed higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease which represent the H. pylori-related immune disturbance in these patients. Additional follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the clinical significance of these autoantibodies in patients with H. pylori infection.

  6. Elevated serum creatinine and hyponatraemia as prognostic factors in canine acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, V; Gori, E; Lippi, I; Luchetti, E; Manca, M L; Pierini, A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate prognostic factors for canine acute pancreatitis (AP) based on clinical and laboratory data that can be easily assessed in veterinary practice. Retrospective study between January 2010 and December 2013. The diagnosis of AP was based on clinical signs and an abnormal SNAP® cPL™ test result, concurrently with an ultrasound pattern suggestive of pancreatitis. Dogs were divided into survivors and non-survivors. We evaluated 12 clinical and laboratory parameters: respiratory rate, rectal temperature, white blood cells, haematocrit, total serum proteins, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, total and ionised calcium, sodium and potassium. Clinical and clinicopathological data were statistically compared between survivors and non-survivors. A value of P  212 μmol/L (2.4 mg/dL) were associated significantly with poor prognosis. Azotaemia (OR 12.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-118.48) and hyponatraemia (OR 4.9; 95% CI 1.36-17.64) were associated with increased risk of death. In dogs with AP, hyponatraemia and azotaemia seem to be significantly associated with an increased risk of death. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  8. [Association between risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-qiong; Deng, Juan; Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Jing; He, Li-ping; Chen, Zong-qiu; Chen, Yu-ming

    2011-06-01

    To assess the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and osteoporosis. 2202 women aged 50 - 73 years were included in this cross-sectional study from the communities in Guangzhou, from July 2008 to January 2010. Cardiovascular risk factors including age, years since menopause, physical activity, anthropometrics, body composition, blood pressure, fasting serum lipids, glucose and uric acid, intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery were assessed. Ultrasonic bone density (speed of sound) at the radius and tibia were determined. Osteoporosis was defined as T-score ≤ -2.5. Common factors for the cardiovascular risk factors were extracted using the factor analysis method. Eight common factors representing obesity, lean mass, blood triglycerides and uric acid, cholesterol, age, blood pressure, IMT and physical activity were extracted. Data from the Multivariate logistic regression showed a dose-dependent association of greater scores of age and IMT factors and lower score of lean mass factor with the increased risk of osteoporosis at the radius and tibia. As compared with the bottom quartile, the OR (95%CI) of radius and tibia osteoporosis were 0.62 (0.44 - 0.88) and 0.62 (0.48 - 0.80) for lean mass factor, 4.02 (2.72 - 5.94) and 3.68 (2.81 - 4.82) for age factor, 1.41 (1.00 - 2.00) and 1.54 (1.19 - 2.00) for IMT factors, respectively. Moreover, greater blood pressure score was associated with higher risk of radius osteoporosis while the higher obese score, was correlated with the increased risk of tibia osteoporosis. The cardiovascular-related risk factors of greater IMT, obesity, blood pressure and lower lean mass scores were associated with increased osteoporosis risks while called for more concern among the Chinese women.

  9. Elevated second-trimester serum homocyst(e)ine levels and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, T K; Malinow, M R; Williams, M A; King, I B; Luthy, D A

    1999-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. In late gestation, levels of homocyst(e)ine are higher in preeclamptics, as compared with normotensive pregnant women. Our objective was to determine whether homocyst(e)ine elevations precede the development of preeclampsia. We used a prospective nested case-control study design to compare second trimester maternal serum homocyst(e)ine concentrations in 52 patients who developed preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria) compared with 56 women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. Study subjects were selected from a base population of 3, 042 women who provided blood samples at an average gestational age of 16 weeks and later delivered at our center. Serum homocyst(e)ine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Approximately 29% of preeclamptics, as compared to 13% of controls had homocyst(e)ine levels >/=5.5 micromol/l (upper decile of distribution of control values). Adjusted for maternal age, parity, and body mass-index, a second trimester elevation of homocyst(e)ine was associated with a 3. 2-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1. 1-9.2; p = 0.030). There was evidence of a interaction between maternal adiposity (as indicated by her prepregnancy body mass index) and parity with second trimester elevations in serum homocyst(e)ine. Nulliparous women with elevated homocyst(e)ine levels experienced a 9.7-fold increased risk of preeclampsia as compared with multiparous women without homocyst(e)ine elevations (95% CI 2.1-14.1; p = 0.003). Women with a higher prepregnancy body mass index (>/=21.4 kg/m(2), or upper 50th percentile) and who also had elevated homocyst(e)ine levels, as compared with leaner women without homocyst(e)ine elevations were 6.9 times more likely to later develop preeclampsia (95% CI 1.4-32.1; p = 0.016). Our findings are consistent with other

  10. Postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: beyond the traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh; Kimyaiee, Parichehr; Aghaie, Abbas; Mansournia, Mohammd Ali; Ashrafi-Vand, Sepideh; Sarfjoo, Fatemeh Sadat

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the slope of linear regression of postevacuation serum hCG as an independent risk factor for postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Academic referral health care centers. All subjects with confirmed hydatidiform mole and at least four measurements of β-hCG titer. None. Type and magnitude of the relationship between the slope of linear regression of β-hCG as a new risk factor and GTN using Bayesian logistic regression with penalized log-likelihood estimation. Among the high-risk and low-risk molar pregnancy cases, 11 (18.6%) and 19 cases (13.3%) had GTN, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the components of a high-risk pregnancy and GTN. The β-hCG return slope was higher in the spontaneous cure group. However, the initial level of this hormone in the first measurement was higher in the GTN group compared with in the spontaneous recovery group. The average time for diagnosing GTN in the high-risk molar pregnancy group was 2 weeks less than that of the low-risk molar pregnancy group. In addition to slope of linear regression of β-hCG (odds ratio [OR], 12.74, confidence interval [CI], 5.42-29.2), abortion history (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.27-5.04) and large uterine height for gestational age (OR, 1.26; CI, 1.04-1.54) had the maximum effects on GTN outcome, respectively. The slope of linear regression of β-hCG was introduced as an independent risk factor, which could be used for clinical decision making based on records of β-hCG titer and subsequent prevention program. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Lijun; Chen Donghai; Ji Naijun; Fan Bifu; Wang Chengyao; Mei Yibin; Li Fuyuan; Kao Yan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) levels in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Serum IGF-II levels were measured with RIA in 132 cases of chronic heart failure and 45 controls. Results: Serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic heart failure than those in the controls (t=0.033, P<0.001). IGF-II levels were highest in grade IV CHF patients (vs grade II t=3.963, P<0.01; vs grade III, t=3.578, P<0.01). In the twelve patients died in hospital, the serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher than those patients recovered (t=7.141, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II levels were increased in CHF patients and were highest in the most severe cases. (authors)

  12. Cardiometabolic risk clustering in spinal cord injury: results of exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, Alexander; Tinsley, Emily A; Nash, Mark S; Mendez, Armando J; Burns, Patricia; Elrod, Matt; Hamm, Larry F; Groah, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests an elevated prevalence of cardiometabolic risks among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, the unique clustering of risk factors in this population has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to describe unique clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors differentiated by level of injury. One hundred twenty-one subjects (mean 37 ± 12 years; range, 18-73) with chronic C5 to T12 motor complete SCI were studied. Assessments included medical histories, anthropometrics and blood pressure, and fasting serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The most common cardiometabolic risk factors were overweight/obesity, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Risk clustering was found in 76.9% of the population. Exploratory principal component factor analysis using varimax rotation revealed a 3-factor model in persons with paraplegia (65.4% variance) and a 4-factor solution in persons with tetraplegia (73.3% variance). The differences between groups were emphasized by the varied composition of the extracted factors: Lipid Profile A (total cholesterol [TC] and LDL-C), Body Mass-Hypertension Profile (body mass index [BMI], systolic blood pressure [SBP], and fasting insulin [FI]); Glycemic Profile (fasting glucose and HbA1c), and Lipid Profile B (TG and HDL-C). BMI and SBP formed a separate factor only in persons with tetraplegia. Although the majority of the population with SCI has risk clustering, the composition of the risk clusters may be dependent on level of injury, based on a factor analysis group comparison. This is clinically plausible and relevant as tetraplegics tend to be hypo- to normotensive and more sedentary, resulting in lower HDL-C and a greater propensity toward impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

  13. Utility of the combination of serum highly-sensitive C-reactive protein level at discharge and a risk index in predicting readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frequent readmissions for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD are an independent risk factor for increased mortality and use of health-care resources. Disease severity and C-reactive protein (CRP level are validated predictors of long-term prognosis in such patients. This study investigated the utility of combining serum CRP level with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD exacerbation risk classification for predicting readmission for AECOPD. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients hospitalized for AECOPD at Peking University Third Hospital, in Beijing, China. We assessed patient age; gender; smoking status and history (pack-years; lung function; AECOPD frequency during the last year; quality of life; GOLD risk category (A-D; D indicating the greatest risk; and serum level of high-sensitivity CRP at discharge (hsCRP-D. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 135 patients. Of those, 71 (52.6% were readmitted at least once during the 12-month follow-up period. The median (interquartile time to readmission was 78 days (42-178 days. Multivariate analysis revealed that serum hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D were independent predictors of readmission (hazard ratio = 3.486; 95% CI: 1.968-6.175; p < 0.001 and hazard ratio = 2.201; 95% CI: 1.342-3.610; p = 0.002, respectively. The ordering of the factor combinations by cumulative readmission risk, from highest to lowest, was as follows: hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D ≥ 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD category D; hsCRP-D < 3 mg/L and GOLD categories A-C. CONCLUSIONS: Serum hsCRP-D and GOLD classification are independent predictors of readmission for AECOPD, and their predictive value increases when they are used in combination.

  14. Pattern of some risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and liver enzymes among Iranian seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygi, Fereshteh; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little information is available on the trend in cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic enzymes in Iranian seafarers. Thepresent study aimed at assessing the pattern of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase(SGOT), and serum glutamate pyruvate...... of antihypertensive drug use. Diabetes (DM) was defined as fasting blood sugar(FBS) > 110 mg/dl, or having a history of oral hypoglycemic agents; and elevated SGOT and SGPT were defined as SGOT > 40 U/Land SGPT > 40 U/L, respectively.Results: The BMI mean±SD values of Iranian seafarers were 24.81±3.07 kg/m2, 25...

  15. Serum Phosphorus and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, All-Cause Mortality, or Graft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: An Ancillary Study of the FAVORIT Trial Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhi, Basma; Shireman, Theresa; Carpenter, Myra A; Kusek, John W; Jacques, Paul; Pfeffer, Marc; Rao, Madhumathi; Foster, Meredith C; Kim, S Joseph; Pesavento, Todd E; Smith, Stephen R; Kew, Clifton E; House, Andrew A; Gohh, Reginald; Weiner, Daniel E; Levey, Andrew S; Ix, Joachim H; Bostom, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Mild hyperphosphatemia is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease [CVD], loss of kidney function, and mortality. Very limited data are available from sizable multicenter kidney transplant recipient (KTR) cohorts assessing the potential relationships between serum phosphorus levels and the development of CVD outcomes, transplant failure, or all-cause mortality. Cohort study. The Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial, a large, multicenter, multiethnic, controlled clinical trial that provided definitive evidence that high-dose vitamin B-based lowering of plasma homocysteine levels did not reduce CVD events, transplant failure, or total mortality in stable KTRs. Serum phosphorus levels were determined in 3,138 FAVORIT trial participants at randomization. During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, the cohort had 436 CVD events, 238 transplant failures, and 348 deaths. Proportional hazards modeling revealed that each 1-mg/dL higher serum phosphorus level was not associated with a significant increase in CVD risk (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.92-1.22), but increased transplant failure (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.62) and total mortality risk associations (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40) when adjusted for treatment allocation, traditional CVD risk factors, kidney measures, type of kidney transplant, transplant vintage, and use of calcineurin inhibitors, steroids, or lipid-lowering drugs. These associations were strengthened in models without kidney measures: CVD (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.31), transplant failure (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.46-2.01), and mortality (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.15-1.54). We lacked data for concentrations of parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, or vitamin D metabolites. Serum phosphorus level is marginally associated with CVD and more strongly associated with transplant failure and total mortality in long-term KTRs. A randomized controlled clinical trial in KTRs that assesses the potential impact of phosphorus

  16. Complex association of serum alanine aminotransferase with the risk of future cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarideh, Mohsen; Aryan, Zahra; Ghajar, Alireza; Noshad, Sina; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Baber, Usman; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the prospective association between baseline serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with type 2 diabetes. In an open cohort setting, people with type 2 diabetes were followed for their first ever CVD presentation from 1995 to 2015. Statistical methods included Cox regression analysis for reporting of hazard ratios (HRs), artificial neural network modelings, and risk reclassification analyses. We found a nearly constant CVD hazard with baseline serum ALT levels below the 30 IU/L mark, whereas baseline serum ALT levels ≥ 30 IU/L remained an independent predictor of lower CVD rates in patients with type 2 diabetes in the final multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model (HR: 0.204, 95%CI [0.060-0.689], p for trend value = 0.006). Age, male gender and fasting plasma insulin levels independently predicted baseline serum ALT ≥ 30 IU/L among the population cohort. Augmentation of serum ALT into the weighted Framingham risk score resulted in a considerable net reclassification improvement (NRI) of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction in the study population (NRI = 9.05% (8.01%-10.22%), p value < 0.05). Serum ALT could successfully reclassify about 9% of the population with type 2 diabetes across the CHD-affected and CHD-free categories. Overall, our findings demonstrate a complex and nonlinear relationship for the risk of future CVD by baseline serum ALT levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are warranted to confirm whether this complex association could be translated into a clearly visible U or J-shaped figure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Ni

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations.Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG] with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs.Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86-1.07 for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73-1.16 for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77-1.06 for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86-1.00 for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93 but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis.Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women.

  18. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Buckley, Brian; Winnik, Bozena; O’Suilleabhain, Padraig; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Reisch, Joan; German, Dwight C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to pesticides has been reported to increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD), but identification of the specific pesticides is lacking. Three studies have found elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in postmortem PD brains. Objective To determine whether elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides are present in the serum of patients with PD. Design Case-control study. Setting An academic medical center. Participants Fifty patients with PD, 43 controls, and 20 patients with Alzheimer disease. Main Outcome Measures Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides in serum samples. Results β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was more often detectable in patients with PD (76%) compared with controls (40%) and patients with Alzheimer disease (30%). The median level of β-HCH was higher in patients with PD compared with controls and patients with Alzheimer disease. There were no marked differences in detection between controls and patients with PD concerning any of the other 15 organochlorine pesticides. Finally, we observed a significant odds ratio for the presence of β-HCH in serum to predict a diagnosis of PD vs control (odds ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–11.6) and PD vs Alzheimer disease (odds ratio, 5.20), which provides further evidence for the apparent association between serum β-HCH and PD. Conclusions These data suggest that β-HCH is associated with a diagnosis of PD. Further research is warranted regarding the potential role of β-HCH as a etiologic agent for some cases of PD. PMID:19597089

  19. Integration of growth factor signals at the c-fos serum response element.

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    Price, M A; Hill, C; Treisman, R

    1996-04-29

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of serum response factor (SRF) and a second factor, ternary complex factor (TCF), mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element to growth factors and mitogens. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, TCF binding is required for transcriptional activation by the SRE in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway. We compared the properties of three members of the TCF family, Elk-1, SAP-1 and SAP-2 (ERP/NET). Although all the proteins contain sequences required for ternary complex formation with SRF, only Elk-1 and SAP-1 appear to interact with the c-fos SRE efficiently in vivo. Each TCF contains a C-terminal activation domain capable of transcriptional activation in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway, and this is dependent on the integrity of S/T-P motifs conserved between all the TCF family members. In contrast, activation of the SRE by whole serum and the mitogenic phospholipid LPA requires SRF binding alone. Constitutively activated members of the Rho subfamily of Ras-like GTPases are also capable of inducing activation of the SRE in the absence of TCF; unlike activated Ras itself, these proteins do not activate the TCFs in NIH3T3 cells. At the SRE, SRF- and TCF-linked signalling pathways act synergistically to potentiate transcription.

  20. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome with cardiovascular risk factors.

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    Akram, Tanzeela; Hasan, Shahid; Imran, Muhammad; Karim, Asima; Arslan, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also clinically known as Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is an endocrine disorder that affects 5-10% of women. To evaluate the risk factors for developing early onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young patients with PCOS from our local population. Case-control study. Fifty women with PCOS selected by history and transvaginal ultrasounds and 30 age-matched healthy women (controls). The case subjects and controls were further divided into two age categories comprising of equal number of subjects, of 20-29 and 30-39 years of age. The subjects underwent a detailed medical history, general physical examination, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP). Fasting blood samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, triacylglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-C (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Women with the PCOS had significantly higher mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum TAG, LDL-C, insulin, and LH levels when compared with the age-matched control subjects. No significant differences were observed between serum cholesterol, glucose, and FSH levels between cases and controls. However, no marked differences were observed in biochemical parameters between the two age groups of PCOS patients. Younger women with PCOS are equally at risk of developing CVD as older women.

  1. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Ye, Jinhai; Wei, Qipeng; Yin, Xiaofang; Fan, Fangfang; Xing, Hui

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between chemerin level in the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. The blood samples of 212 women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were collected. After screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 19 women with GDM and 20 women randomly selected from 144 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from these women. Triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin and chemerin were measured. Gestational weight gain and body mass index was assessed. Serum levels of chemerin were significantly elevated during late gestation, and the risk of GDM was positively associated with maternal serum chemerin in the first trimester. Serum chemerin level during the first trimester of pregnancy has the potential to predict risk of GDM.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for human toxoplasmosis in a rural community

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    JM Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infection may lead to important pathological questions, especially in rural areas, where several sources of infection exist. Therefore, it is important to determine risk factors in order to establish adequate prophylactic measures. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors involved in human toxoplasmosis infection in a rural community, in Eldorado, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This community was composed of 185 farms - with 671 inhabitants - from which 20 were randomly chosen. In these farms, blood samples were collected from rural workers, who also answered a risk factor questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed by means of direct agglutination test for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. From 73 samples collected, 79.45% were positive. None of the studied variables was significantly associated with the prevalence of the infection. However, among the individuals who reported eyesight impairments, 94.4% had anti-T. gondii antibodies, compared with 74.0% who did not report eyesight changes (p = 0.0594. Moreover, most individuals in the study (68.20% were older than 18 years and presented 84.44% positivity, compared with 66.67% of positive individuals younger than 18 years old. We were able to conclude that a high prevalence of antibodies did not imply significant associations with the risk factors studied.

  3. Risk factors for refeeding hypophosphatemia in Japanese inpatients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameoka, Naomi; Iga, Jun-ichi; Tamaru, Mai; Tominaga, Takeo; Kubo, Hiroko; Watanabe, Shin-Ya; Sumitani, Satsuki; Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2016-04-01

    Refeeding in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with a risk of refeeding syndrome, which is a disruption in metabolism with a variety of features including hypophosphatemia. We evaluated the risk factors for refeeding hypophosphatemia (RH) during nutritional replenishment in Japanese patients with AN. We retrospectively examined clinical data for 99 female inpatients (mean age 30.9 ± 10.7 years; range, 9 - 56 years). RH (phosphate < 2.3 mg/dL) occurred within 4.8 ± 3.7 days of hospital admission and was still observed at 28 days after admission in 21 of the 99 cases (21.2%). Oral or intravenous phosphate was given to some patients to treat or prevent RH. Patients with RH had a significantly lower body mass index, were older, and had higher blood urea nitrogen than those without RH. Severe complications associated with RH were recorded in only one patient who showed convulsions and disturbed consciousness at Day 3 when her serum phosphate level was 1.6 mg/dL. The significant risk factors for RH that we identified were lower body mass index, older age, and higher blood urea nitrogen at admission. No significant difference in total energy intake was seen between the RH and no RH groups, suggesting that RH may not be entirely correlated with energy intake. Precisely predicting and preventing RH is difficult, even in patients with AN who are given phosphate for prophylaxis. Thus, serum phosphate levels should be monitored for more than 5 days after admission. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

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    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  5. Risk Factors and Prevention

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    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  6. Cardiovascular risks and elevation of serum DHT vary by route of testosterone administration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Shuster, Jonathan J; Zou, Baiming; Ye, Fan; Jia, Huanguang; Wokhlu, Anita; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2014-11-27

    Potential cardiovascular (CV) risks of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are currently a topic of intense interest. However, no studies have addressed CV risk as a function of the route of administration of TRT. Two meta-analyses were conducted, one of CV adverse events (AEs) in 35 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TRT lasting 12 weeks or more, and one of 32 studies reporting the effect of TRT on serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). CV risks of TRT: Of 2,313 studies identified, 35 were eligible and included 3,703 mostly older men who experienced 218 CV-related AEs. No significant risk for CV AEs was present when all TRT administration routes were grouped (relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 to 2.13, P = 0.34). When analyzed separately, oral TRT produced significant CV risk (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.45 to 3.55, P = 0.015), while neither intramuscular (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28 to 1.56, P = 0.32) nor transdermal (gel or patch) TRT (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.62 to 2.62, P = 0.48) significantly altered CV risk. Serum testosterone/DHT following TRT: Of 419 studies identified, 32 were eligible which included 1,152 men receiving TRT. No significant difference in the elevation of serum testosterone was present between intramuscular or transdermal TRT. However, transdermal TRT elevated serum DHT (5.46-fold, 95% CI: 4.51 to 6.60) to a greater magnitude than intramuscular TRT (2.20-fold, 95% CI: 1.74 to 2.77). Oral TRT produces significant CV risk. While no significant effects on CV risk were observed with either injected or transdermal TRT, the point estimates suggest that further research is needed to establish whether administration by these routes is protective or detrimental, respectively. Differences in the degree to which serum DHT is elevated may underlie the varying CV risk by TRT administration route, as elevated serum dihydrotestosterone has been shown to be associated with CV risk in observational studies.

  7. [Chronic kidney disease in Primary Health Care: prevalence and associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador González, Betlem; Rodríguez Pascual, Mercedes; Ruipérez Guijarro, Laura; Ferré González, Antonia; Cunillera Puertolas, Oriol; Rodríguez Latre, Luisa M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in subjects over 60 years of age, as well as its staging by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional observational study. Primary Health Care. Patients≥60 years of age who were seen in 40 Primary Health Care centres with serum creatinine measured in a central laboratory between January 1 and December 31, 2010. kidney transplant, home care. Social-demographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases established according to electronic clinical records. Serum creatinine was measured using standardised Jaffe kinetic method, and GFR estimated with MDRD-4-IDMS and CKD-EPI. A total of 97,665 subjects (57.3% women, median age 70.0 years [Q1: 65.0, Q3: 77.0]). GFR-MDRD prevalence<60=15.1% (16.6% in women, 13.2% in men; P<.001) and increased with age. Multivariate analysis showed a positive association between GFR-MDRD<60 and age (OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.70 to 1.77), hypertension (OR=2.18; 95% CI 2.08 to 2.30), heart failure (OR=2.03; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.25), atrial fibrillation (OR=1.57; 95% CI 1.41 to 1.76), ischaemic heart disease (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.50), peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.57), dyslipidaemia (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.33), diabetes (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.34), and stroke (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.25). The GFR-CKD-EPI model showed an increase in OR with age and male sex, that became significant as a chronic kidney disease risk factor. Chronic kidney disease has considerable prevalence in subjects≥60 years seen in Primary Health Care, more in women, and increasing with age. Hypertension, more than diabetes, was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  9. Maternal serum leptin concentration in gestational diabetes

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    Sedigheh Soheilykhah

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Our data showed that serum leptin level was higher in GDM and had a positive correlation with insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that high leptin levels might be a risk factor for GDM and IGT in pregnant women.

  10. The educational gradient in cardiovascular risk factors: impact of shared family factors in 228,346 Norwegian siblings

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    Inger Ariansen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various indicators of childhood socioeconomic position have been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in adulthood. We investigated the impact of shared family factors on the educational gradient in midlife CVD risk factors by assessing within sibling similarities in the gradient using a discordant sibling design. Methods Norwegian health survey data (1980–2003 was linked to educational and generational data. Participants with a full sibling in the health surveys (228,346 individuals in 98,046 sibships were included. Associations between attained educational level (7–9 years, 10–11 years, 12 years, 13–16 years, or >16 years and CVD risk factor levels in the study population was compared with the corresponding associations within siblings. Results Educational gradients in risk factors were attenuated when factors shared by siblings was taken into account: A one category lower educational level was associated with 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 0.8 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure (27% attenuation, 0.4 (0.4 to 0.5 mmHg higher diastolic blood pressure (30%, 1.0 (1.0 to 1.1 more beats per minute higher heart rate (21%, 0.07 (0.06 to 0.07 mmol/l higher serum total cholesterol (32%, 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2 higher smoking level (5 categories (30%, 0.15 (0.13 to 0.17 kg/m2 higher BMI (43%, and 0.2 (0.2 to 0.2 cm lower height (52%. Attenuation increased with shorter age-difference between siblings. Conclusion About one third of the educational gradients in modifiable CVD risk factors may be explained by factors that siblings share. This implies that childhood environment is important for the prevention of CVD.

  11. Risk factors for nutritional status determination and indications for preventive nutrition therapy in hospitalized gastroenterological patients

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    Roganović Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Risk factors for the intrahospital nutritional status worsening (NSW have not been precisely defined in the literature. The objective was defining thoese factors among gastroenterological patients and defining the risk patients requiring a preventive nutritional therapy. Methods. In 650 gastroenterological patients, NSW was evaluated on the basis of reducing of the six parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, midupper arm muscle circumference (MAMC, serum albumin level (ALB, and lymphocyte count (LYM. The influence on NSW was tested for 13 factors concerning characteristics of the patient, disease, and diagnostic procedures. Among the factors influencing significantly the NSW, primary and secondary risk factors were selected. After scoring of risk factors had been performed, the risk-score for NSW (RSNSW was defined. The critical value of RSNSW which required preventive nutritional therapy was also calculated. Results. The incidence of NSW was in the range 29.2%−57.9%. The presence of general complications and severe disease activity were considered as primary risk factors, whereas malignant disease, age above 71, hepato-billiary tract involvement, hospitalization longer than 14 days, and mobility worsening were considered as secondary risk factors. The best predictive value for the NSW was proved for the RSNSW ≥ 6. Because of that, preventive nutritional therapy should be indicated in patients presenting with both primary risk factors or in patients presenting with one primary factor combined with three secondary risk factors at least. Conclusion. There are 7 risk factors for NSW in gastroenterological patients, but they are not of the same importance - two primary and five secondary risk factors can be differentiated. Preventive nutritional therapy is indicated only in patients having both primary risk factors or in those presenting with one primary risk factor combined with three

  12. Risk Factors for the Need of Surgical Necrosectomy After Percutaneous Catheter Drainage in the Management of Infection Secondary to Necrotizing Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liang; Wang, Gang; Li, Le; Li, Yi-Long; Hu, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Guang-Quan; Chen, Hong-Ze; Chen, Hua; Kong, Rui; Bai, Xue-Wei; Sun, Bei

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the need of surgical necrosectomy after percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) for infected necrotizing pancreatitis. The clinical data of documented/suspected patients who were treated with a step-up approach were extracted and analyzed. Of the 329 patients enrolled, the initial PCD was performed at 12 (interquartile range, 9-15) days since onset and 35.3% were cured by PCD alone. In the pre-PCD model, mean computed tomographic (CT) density of necrotic fluid collection (NFC; P the initial PCD were independent risk factors, and a combination of the previously mentioned 2 factors produced an area under the curve of 0.775. In the post-PCD model, mean CT density of NFC (P = 0.041), MOF (P = 0.002), and serum procalcitonin level (P = 0.035) 3 days after the initial PCD were independent risk factors, and a combination of these previously mentioned factors produced an area under the curve of 0.642. Both mean CT density of NFC and MOF are independent pre- and post-PCD risk factors for the need of necrosectomy after PCD. Post-PCD serum procalcitonin level might be a respondent factor that is correlated with the necessity of necrosectomy.

  13. Serum iron levels and the risk of Parkinson disease: a Mendelian randomization study.

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    Irene Pichler

    Full Text Available Although levels of iron are known to be increased in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD, epidemiological evidence on a possible effect of iron blood levels on PD risk is inconclusive, with effects reported in opposite directions. Epidemiological studies suffer from problems of confounding and reverse causation, and mendelian randomization (MR represents an alternative approach to provide unconfounded estimates of the effects of biomarkers on disease. We performed a MR study where genes known to modify iron levels were used as instruments to estimate the effect of iron on PD risk, based on estimates of the genetic effects on both iron and PD obtained from the largest sample meta-analyzed to date.We used as instrumental variables three genetic variants influencing iron levels, HFE rs1800562, HFE rs1799945, and TMPRSS6 rs855791. Estimates of their effect on serum iron were based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 21,567 individuals, while estimates of their effect on PD risk were obtained through meta-analysis of genome-wide and candidate gene studies with 20,809 PD cases and 88,892 controls. Separate MR estimates of the effect of iron on PD were obtained for each variant and pooled by meta-analysis. We investigated heterogeneity across the three estimates as an indication of possible pleiotropy and found no evidence of it. The combined MR estimate showed a statistically significant protective effect of iron, with a relative risk reduction for PD of 3% (95% CI 1%-6%; p = 0.001 per 10 µg/dl increase in serum iron.Our study suggests that increased iron levels are causally associated with a decreased risk of developing PD. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of action of serum iron on PD risk before recommendations can be made.

  14. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalanen, Laura; Prättälä, Ritva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2012-10-26

    Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992-2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key foods influencing serum cholesterol levels

  15. Risk factors associated with recurrent hemorrhage after the initial improvement of colonic diverticular bleeding.

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    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Maruo, Takanori; Tsumura, Takehiko; Sekikawa, Akira; Kanesaka, Takashi; Osaki, Yukio

    2013-03-01

    We elucidated risk factors contributing to recurrent hemorrhage after initial improvement of colonic diverticular bleeding. 172 consecutive hospitalized patients diagnosed with colonic diverticular bleeding were analyzed. Recurrent hemorrhage after initial improvement of colonic diverticular bleeding is main outcome measure. We analyzed factors contributing to recurrent hemorrhage risk in univariate and multivariate analyses. The length of the observation period after improvement of colonic diverticular bleeding was 26.4 +/- 14.6 months (range, 1-79 months). The cumulative recurrent hemorrhage rate in all patients at 1 and 2 years was 34.8% and 41.8%, respectively. By univariate analysis, age > 70 years (P = 0.021), BMI > 25 kg/m2 (P = 0.013), the use of anticoagulant drugs (P = 0.034), the use of NSAIDs (P = 0.040), history of hypertension (P = 0.011), history of smoking (P = 0.030) and serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL (P bleeding. By multivariate analysis, age > 70 years (Hazard ratio (HR), 1.905, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.067-3.403, P = 0.029), history of hypertension (HR, 0.493, 95% CI, 0.245-0.993, P = 0.048) and serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL (HR, 95% CI, 0.288-0.964, P = 0.044) were shown to be significant independent risk factors. Close observation after the initial improvement of colonic diverticular bleeding is needed, especially in elderly patients or patients with history of hypertension or renal deficiency.

  16. Association Between Serum Antibodies to Periodontal Bacteria and Rheumatoid Factor in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Charlene E; Kopp, Jacob; Papapanou, Panos N; Molitor, Jerry A; Demmer, Ryan T

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in the microbiome, including the periodontal microbiome, may be a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Most studies that have analyzed this association are relatively small, focus primarily on a single periodontal pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis), and are not population based. This study was undertaken to investigate the association between elevated serum levels of IgG antibodies to 19 periodontal species and the prevalence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in a large nationally representative sample of adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) is a cross-sectional sample of the noninstitutionalized US population (n = 33,994). Our study population included all dentate participants who were 60 years and older, did not have RA as defined by a modified version of the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria, and had complete data for both serum IgG antibodies against periodontal bacteria and serum RF antibody titer (n = 2,461). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) summarizing the relationship between the 19 periodontal serum IgG antibodies and RF seropositivity ranged from 0.53 (95% CI 0.29-0.97) to 1.27 (95% CI 0.79-2.06), and 17 of the 19 observed ORs were periodontal bacteria are mostly unassociated with RF seropositivity in the nationally representative NHANES-III. Elevated levels of antibodies to P intermedia and C ochracea are associated with lower odds of RF seropositivity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. White fish reduces cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome: the WISH-CARE study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C; Botella-Carretero, J I; Corella, D; Fiol, M; Lage, M; Lurbe, E; Richart, C; Fernández-Real, J M; Fuentes, F; Ordóñez, A; de Cos, A I; Salas-Salvadó, J; Burguera, B; Estruch, R; Ros, E; Pastor, O; Casanueva, F F

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of cardiovascular risk with high consumption of fish in diet is still a matter of debate, and concerns about heavy metal contamination have limited consumption of oily fish. We aimed to evaluate the effect of regular ingestion of white fish on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome. Multicenter randomized crossover clinical trial including 273 individuals with metabolic syndrome. An 8-week only-one dietary intervention: 100 g/d of white fish (Namibia hake) with advice on a healthy diet, compared with no fish or seafood with advice on a healthy diet. Outcomes were lipid profile, individual components of the metabolic syndrome, serum insulin concentrations, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, serum C-reactive protein and serum fatty acid levels. We found a significant lowering effect of the intervention with white fish on waist circumference (P rise (P syndrome, regular consumption of hake reduces LDL cholesterol concentrations, waist circumference and blood pressure components of the metabolic syndrome. White Fish for Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Study, Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01758601. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum-converted platelet lysate can substitute for fetal bovine serum in human mesenchymal stromal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Jacobson, Pam; Morris, Julie; Kelley, Linda; Pierce, Jan; Boyer, Michael; Reems, Jo-Anna

    2013-12-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used as a serum supplement for culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, human cells grown in FBS, especially for extended periods, risk potential exposure to bovine immunogenic proteins and infectious agents. To address this issue, we investigated the ability of a novel human platelet serum supplement to substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Platelet lysate-serum (PL-serum) was converted from platelet lysate-plasma (PL-plasma) that was manufactured from pooled platelet-rich plasma (PRP) apheresis units. Growth factor levels and the number of residual intact platelets in PL-serum and PL-plasma were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Proliferation responses of hMSCs cultured in PL-serum, PL-plasma, or FBS were assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the immunophenotype of harvested hMSCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and tri-lineage differentiation potential was evaluated by assessing adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic development. Selected growth factor levels in PL-serum were not significantly different from PL-plasma (P > 0.05). hMSC cultures supplemented with PL-serum had comparable growth kinetics to PL-plasma, and hMSC yields were consistently greater than with FBS. hMSCs harvested from cultures supplemented with PL-serum, PL-plasma or FBS had similar cell surface phenotypes and maintained tri-lineage differentiation potential. PL-serum, similar to PL-plasma, can substitute for FBS in hMSC cultures. Use of PL-serum, in contrast to PL-plasma, has an added advantage of not requiring addition of a xenogeneic source of heparin, providing a completely xeno-free culture medium. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of hepatitis B virus in Aden, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amen Ahmed Bawazir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: There is little published data concerning hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in Aden and no data concerning risk factors for infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and risk factors for infection in Aden, Yemen. Methods: A prospective cross sectional survey of individuals attending primary health care facilities was stratified by age and population size. Five hundred and thirty five participants were interviewed and serum was screened for the presence of Immunoglobin G HBV core antibodies (antiHBc. AntiHBc positive participants were tested for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. A case–control analysis of risk factors for HBV was undertaken comparing risk factors between antiHBc positive cases and seronegative controls. Results: The age-standardized seroprevalence for antiHBc was 16.2% (95% confidence interval (CI 13.1–19.3 and for HBsAg was 1.5% (95% CI 0.5–2.5. The seroprevalence of antiHBc and HBsAg was estimated to range from 5.5% and 0% in infants to 40% and 4.6% in adults, respectively (p 5–9 members, AOR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1–7.6 and ownership of a landline telephone (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3–5.8 were independent risk factors for HBV infection. Conclusions: HBV is still a public health problem in this community, with older individuals having much higher prevalence than younger generations. The results of this study would categorise Aden as a low HBV endemic zone. Perinatal transmission does not seem to be a major route of transmission. Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Seroepidemiology, Risk factors, Aden, Yemen

  20. Prognostic factors and risk stratification in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving docetaxel-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shimpei; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Iguchi, Takashi; Koike, Hiroyuki; Kusumoto, Hiroki; Iba, Akinori; Kikkawa, Kazuro; Kodama, Yoshiki; Matsumura, Nagahide; Hara, Isao

    2016-03-22

    While novel drugs have been developed, docetaxel remains one of the standard initial systemic therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Despite the excellent anti-tumor effect of docetaxel, its severe adverse effects sometimes distress patients. Therefore, it would be very helpful to predict the efficacy of docetaxel before treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential value of patient characteristics in predicting overall survival (OS) and to develop a risk classification for CRPC patients treated with docetaxel-based chemotherapy. This study included 79 patients with CRPC treated with docetaxel. The variables, including patient characteristics at diagnosis and at the start of chemotherapy, were retrospectively collected. Prognostic factors predicting OS were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Risk stratification for overall survival was determined based on the results of multivariate analysis. PSA response ≥50 % was observed in 55 (69.6 %) of all patients, and the median OS was 22.5 months. The multivariate analysis showed that age, serum PSA level at the start of chemotherapy, and Hb were independent prognostic factors for OS. In addition, ECOG performance status (PS) and the CRP-to-albumin ratio were not significant but were considered possible predictors for OS. Risk stratification according to the number of these risk factors could effectively stratify CRPC patients treated with docetaxel in terms of OS. Age, serum PSA level at the start of chemotherapy, and Hb were identified as independent prognostic factors of OS. ECOG PS and the CRP-to-albumin ratio were not significant, but were considered possible predictors for OS in Japanese CRPC patients treated with docetaxel. Risk stratification based on these factors could be helpful for estimating overall survival.

  1. Genetic regulation of serum phytosterol levels and risk of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teupser, Daniel; Baber, Ronny; Ceglarek, Uta; Scholz, Markus; Illig, Thomas; Gieger, Christian; Holdt, Lesca M; Leichtle, Alexander; Greiser, Karin H; Huster, Dominik; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Schäfer, Arne; Braund, Peter S; Tiret, Laurence; Stark, Klaus; Raaz-Schrauder, Dorette; Fiedler, Georg M; Wilfert, Wolfgang; Beutner, Frank; Gielen, Stephan; Grosshennig, Anika; König, Inke R; Lichtner, Peter; Heid, Iris M; Kluttig, Alexander; El Mokhtari, Nour E; Rubin, Diana; Ekici, Arif B; Reis, André; Garlichs, Christoph D; Hall, Alistair S; Matthes, Gert; Wittekind, Christian; Hengstenberg, Christian; Cambien, Francois; Schreiber, Stefan; Werdan, Karl; Meitinger, Thomas; Loeffler, Markus; Samani, Nilesh J; Erdmann, Jeanette; Wichmann, H-Erich; Schunkert, Heribert; Thiery, Joachim

    2010-08-01

    Phytosterols are plant-derived sterols that are taken up from food and can serve as biomarkers of cholesterol uptake. Serum levels are under tight genetic control. We used a genomic approach to study the molecular regulation of serum phytosterol levels and potential links to coronary artery disease (CAD). A genome-wide association study for serum phytosterols (campesterol, sitosterol, brassicasterol) was conducted in a population-based sample from KORA (Cooperative Research in the Region of Augsburg) (n=1495) with subsequent replication in 2 additional samples (n=1157 and n=1760). Replicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with premature CAD in a metaanalysis of 11 different samples comprising 13 764 CAD cases and 13 630 healthy controls. Genetic variants in the ATP-binding hemitransporter ABCG8 and at the blood group ABO locus were significantly associated with serum phytosterols. Effects in ABCG8 were independently related to SNPs rs4245791 and rs41360247 (combined P=1.6 x 10(-50) and 6.2 x 10(-25), respectively; n=4412). Serum campesterol was elevated 12% for each rs4245791 T-allele. The same allele was associated with 40% decreased hepatic ABCG8 mRNA expression (P=0.009). Effects at the ABO locus were related to SNP rs657152 (combined P=9.4x10(-13)). Alleles of ABCG8 and ABO associated with elevated phytosterol levels displayed significant associations with increased CAD risk (rs4245791 odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.14; P=2.2 x 10(-6); rs657152 odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.19; P=9.4 x 10(-6)), whereas alleles at ABCG8 associated with reduced phytosterol levels were associated with reduced CAD risk (rs41360247 odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.91; P=1.3 x 10(-5)). Common variants in ABCG8 and ABO are strongly associated with serum phytosterol levels and show concordant and previously unknown associations with CAD.

  2. Prediagnostic serum tocopherol levels and the risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma: the multiethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Cooney, Robert V; Wilkens, Lynne R; Franke, Adrian A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Goodman, Marc T; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2013-11-01

    Compromised immunity and chronic inflammation are thought to contribute to the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Because tocopherols protect cells through antioxidant mechanisms, they may play a role in NHL etiology. This nested case-control study within the Multiethnic Cohort examined the association of prediagnostic serum tocopherols levels measured in 271 NHL cases and 538 matched controls by high-pressure liquid chromatography/photodiode array detection with NHL risk. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We observed U-shaped associations with NHL for total and α-tocopherols [Ptrend tocopherols, which consisted primarily of α-tocopherol, were 0.41 (0.25-0.68), 0.52 (0.32-0.85), 0.39 (0.23-0.65), and 0.78 (0.47-1.29) for the second to fifth quintiles as compared with the first. The risk estimates were similar for α-tocopherol but nonsignificant for β- and γ-tocopherol combined and for γ-tocopherol. Adjustment for serum lipids strengthened the nonlinear associations for total and α-tocopherols. Serum total tocopherol levels were higher for vitamin E supplement users at cohort entry than nonusers (21.32 ± 9.04 vs. 17.72 ± 7.43 μg/mL; P tocopherols, at levels likely reflecting adequate dietary intakes, may be protective against NHL, whereas higher intakes from supplementation may not be beneficial. The association between serum tocopherol levels and NHL risk provides possible new insights into the etiology of NHL. ©2013 AACR.

  3. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  4. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  5. Genetic factors account for most of the variation in serum tryptase—a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; van der Sluis, Sophie; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mast cells are involved in a number of diseases, including inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Tryptase is a known marker of mast cell burden and activity. However, little is known about the genetic influence on serum tryptase variation. Also, only few and conflicting data exist...... on serum tryptase in asthma. Objective: To estimate the overall contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the variation in serum tryptase and to examine the correlation between serum tryptase and asthma, rhinitis, markers of allergy, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR...

  6. Fasting serum blood measures of bone and lipid metabolism in children with myelomeningocele for early detection of cardiovascular and bone fragility risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Speybroeck, Alexander; Mueske, Nicole M; Mittelman, Steven D; Kremer, Richard K; Ryan, Deirdre D; Wren, Tishya A L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined serum levels in children with myelomeningocele to identify the prevalence of pre-clinical signs of disease. A prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients were actively recruited from multidisciplinary care clinics at tertiary children's hospitals from 2010-2012. The control comparison group was recruited by word-of-mouth. Twenty-eight children with myelomeningocele (93% Hispanic; 17 males; 10.0 ± 2.1 years) and 58 controls (84% Hispanic; 30 males; 10.4 ± 2.4 years) provided ≥ 8-hour fasting blood samples with concomitant dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body fat. Not applicable. The serum analysis included a lipid panel (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein), insulin, glucose, leptin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, calcium, phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Children with myelomeningocele had higher body fat (35.2% versus 29.9%, p=0.01) and altered lipid profiles (lower high-density lipoprotein levels, 43.9 mg/dL versus 51.6 mg/dL, P = 0.03) suggesting elevated risk of metabolic syndrome. They also had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (43% versus 17%, p=0.02) and significantly lower levels of calcium (9.4 mg/dL versus 9.7 mg/dL, P = 0.003) and alkaline phosphatase (187.0 U/L versus 237.0 U/L, P = 0.003). Unexpectedly children with myelomeningocele had lower parathyroid hormone levels (14.5 pg/mL versus 18.4 pg/mL, P = 0.02) than controls despite lower calcium, vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase levels. This suggests an alteration in the sensing mechanism or response of the parathyroid gland to normal physiological stimuli in patients with myelomeningocele. Children with myelomeningocele have abnormal biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and bone and mineral metabolism. Early recognition and monitoring of these risk factors in patients with

  7. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  8. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  9. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-01-01

    AIM To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). METHODS A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. RESULTS Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve (R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. CONCLUSION Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy

  10. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-03-28

    To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve ( R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy associated with vitamin B12

  11. Contribution of environmental factors to the risk of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Spira, A; Multigner, L

    2001-08-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. We investigated the relationships between exposure to environmental agents and seminal characteristics, and the concentrations of reproductive hormones in the serum of men seeking infertility treatment. We studied 225 male partners from consecutively recruited couples, who had their first infertility consultation between 1995 and 1998, in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina, one of the most productive farming regions in the world. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that exposure to pesticides and solvents is significantly associated with sperm threshold values well below the limit for male fertility. We also found that men exposed to pesticides had higher serum oestradiol concentrations, and that men exposed to solvents had lower LH concentrations than non-exposed men. All of these effects were greater in men with primary infertility than in men with secondary infertility. We have shown that environmental factors contribute to the severity of infertility, and that this may worsen the effects of pre-existing genetic or medical risk factors.

  12. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal pain in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, A; Prodi, A; Pesel, G; Ronchese, F; Bovenzi, M; Negro, C; Larese Filon, F

    2017-12-30

    The serum level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) has been suggested as a biological marker of stress. To assess the association between serum DHEA-S, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal (MS) pain in university workers. The study population included voluntary workers at the scientific departments of the University of Trieste (Italy) who underwent periodical health surveillance from January 2011 to June 2012. DHEA-S level was analysed in serum. The assessment tools included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and a modified Nordic musculoskeletal symptoms questionnaire. The relation between DHEA-S, individual characteristics, pain perception and psychological factors was assessed by means of multivariable linear regression analysis. There were 189 study participants. The study population was characterized by high reward and low effort. Pain perception in the neck, shoulder, upper limbs, upper back and lower back was reported by 42, 32, 19, 29 and 43% of people, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, gender, age and pain perception in the shoulder and upper limbs were significantly related to serum DHEA-S. Effort and overcommitment were related to shoulder and neck pain but not to DHEA-S. The GHQ score was associated with pain perception in different body sites and inversely to DHEA-S but significance was lost in multivariable regression analysis. DHEA-S was associated with age, gender and perception of MS pain, while effort-reward imbalance dimensions and GHQ score failed to reach the statistical significance in multivariable regression analysis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Berendschot, T.T.J.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Vries, A.J. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and

  14. Relations of serum phosphorus and calcium levels to the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Ravi; Sullivan, Lisa M; Fox, Caroline S; Wang, Thomas J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Gaziano, J Michael; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2007-05-14

    Higher levels of serum phosphorus and the calcium-phosphorus product are associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or prior CVD. However, it is unknown if serum phosphorus levels influence vascular risk in individuals without CKD or CVD. We prospectively evaluated 3368 Framingham Offspring study participants (mean age, 44 years; 51% were women) free of CVD and CKD. We used multivariable Cox models to relate serum phosphorus and calcium levels to CVD incidence. On follow-up (mean duration, 16.1 years), there were 524 incident CVD events (159 in women). In multivariable analyses and adjusting for established risk factors and additionally for glomerular filtration rate and for hemoglobin, serum albumin, proteinuria, and C-reactive protein levels, a higher level of serum phosphorus was associated with an increased CVD risk in a continuous fashion (adjusted hazard ratio per increment of milligrams per deciliter, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.63; P=.02; P value for trend across quartiles = .004). Individuals in the highest serum phosphorus quartile experienced a multivariable-adjusted 1.55-fold CVD risk (95% confidence interval, 1.16%-2.07%; P=.004) compared with those in the lowest quartile. These findings remained robust in time-dependent models that updated CVD risk factors every 4 years and in analyses restricted to individuals without proteinuria and an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Serum calcium was not related to CVD risk. Higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with an increased CVD risk in individuals free of CKD and CVD in the community. These observations emphasize the need for additional research to elucidate the potential link between phosphorus homeostasis and vascular risk.

  15. A STUDY ON RISK FACTORS AND LIPID PROFILE PATTERN IN PATIENTS OF STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawgam Umbon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke is usually end result of predisposing conditions that originated years before the ictus. Creating awareness and treatment of its modifiable risk factors will reduce the incidence of stroke. OBJECTIVE To study the risk factors and lipid profile pattern in stroke patients. METHODS Patients with diagnosis of stroke comprising 50 consecutive patients each of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes who were admitted in Jorhat Medical College & Hospital, Assam over a period of 1 year (May 2015 - April 2016 included in the study, while patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded from the study. History of risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcoholism were taken. To determine the subtype of stroke, clinical examination followed by CT scan/MRI of brain were done. A serum sample after 8 hours of overnight fasting was taken on the next day of admission for both groups of patients. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was determined, using enzymatic colorimetric method. RESULTS A total of 100 patients were studied, of whom 66 were males and 34 were females. The mean age for the ischaemic group was 62±12 years and for the haemorrhagic group were 55±14 years. In this study, dyslipidaemia was present in 58 (58% patients. Patients with high total cholesterol - 33 (18 ischaemic, 15 haemorrhagic, high LDL-cholesterol was found in 38 (22 ischaemic, 16 haemorrhagic, high triglycerides in 31 (14 ischaemic, 17 haemorrhagic and low HDL-cholesterol in 47 (29 ischaemic, 18 haemorrhagic. Among 100 patients, 66 had hypertension, 20 had diabetes mellitus, 18 had both diabetes and hypertension, 43 were smokers, 36 consumed alcohol and >2 risk factor were found in 44. CONCLUSION Dyslipidaemia was found in 58% of patients and most striating features were low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides level, indicating they are independent risk factors for stroke. No

  16. Serum cystatin C level is associated with locomotive syndrome risk and can be an early predictor in community-living people: The Yakumo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Seki, Taisuke; Suzuki, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Imagama, Shiro

    2018-03-02

    The locomotive syndrome (LS) risk has been recently proposed as a criterion for evaluating physical ability. Serum cystatin C level is an early renal function marker and a cardiovascular disease predictor. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum cystatin C level and LS risk. We enrolled 54 participants and conducted the two-step test, stand-up test, 25-question geriatric locomotive function scale, LS risk test, Timed Up and Go test, back muscle strength, grip strength, blood test and serum cystatin C level measurement. A comparative study was conducted in participants with and without LS risk and in subgroups aged C level in subgroups aged C level for LS risk was 0.824. The serum cystatin C level is significantly related to LS risk and can be an early predictor. In middle-aged and elderly people with high serum cystatin C levels, it is strongly recommended to enforce LS risk test and intervention.

  17. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  18. Risk Factors for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz Fatma Yavaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in subjects aged over 40 years in Western Turkey and to quantify its association with several systemic risk factors. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The research was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. A total of 1533 subjects aged 40 years or more were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiac disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habitus (meat, chicken, and fish consumption were asked. Level of blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin B12, and thyroid-stimulating-hormone were determined. Ophthalmic examination was performed, and intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen. Subjects with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more and/or with a cupping/disc ratio of 0.3 or more were told to come to the clinic for visual field analysis and gonioscopy. Subjects with a typical glaucomatous visual field defect and an open angle were recorded as POAG. Risk factors for POAG were determined by chi-square test. Re sults: Prevalence of POAG was found to be 2% (30 subjects and the only associated risk factor was age (p=0.05. Dietary habitus was also not associated with glaucoma (p>0.05. Dis cus si on: This study provides a population-based data about the prevalence and risk factors of POAG in Turkey. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 87-90

  19. Serum pentraxin-3 and tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK predict severity of infections in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients

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    Wen-Chien Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 and soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK are new candidate prognostic markers for comorbidities and mortality in various inflammatory diseases. Acute decompensation of cirrhosis is characterized by acute exacerbation of chronic systemic inflammation. Recently, increased circulating PTX3 levels have been reported in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patients and positively correlated with disease severity. This study aims to explore serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and their relationship with clinical outcomes in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Methods: We analyzed serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels in relation to inhospital and 3-month new clinical events and survivals in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Results: During admission, serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels were significantly higher in acute decompensated cirrhotic patients than controls and positively correlated with protein-energy wasting (PEW, new infections, long hospital stays, high medical costs, and high mortality. During a 3-month follow-up, acute decompensated cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels had more episodes of unplanned readmission and high 3-month mortality. On multivariate analysis, high PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW were independent risk factors for high mortality. Conclusion: High serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels and PEW are common in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. As compared with low serum PTX3 and sTWEAK cases, cirrhotic patients with high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels a have higher probability of new severe infections, severe sepsis, septic shock, type 1 hepatorenal syndrome, in-hospital, and 3-month follow-up mortalities. Therefore, high serum PTX3/sTWEAK levels on hospital admission predict disease severity and case fatality in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Keywords: pentraxin-3, protein-energy wasting, soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis

  20. Association of predialysis serum bicarbonate levels with risk of mortality and hospitalization in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommer, Jürgen; Locatelli, Francesco; Satayathum, Sudtida; Keen, Marcia L; Goodkin, David A; Saito, Akira; Akiba, Takashi; Port, Friedrich K; Young, Eric W

    2004-10-01

    Experimental and some clinical data suggest that metabolic acidosis contributes to poor nutritional status, a strong predictor for mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, recent cross-sectional studies indicate that severe predialysis metabolic acidosis is associated with a greater normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) and greater serum albumin levels. Given this controversy, we analyzed data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study (DOPPS) for associations between predialysis serum bicarbonate and albumin concentrations, nPCR, and patient risk for mortality and hospitalization. Data from more than 7,000 representative and randomly selected hemodialysis DOPPS patients from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States were analyzed. Serum bicarbonate (total CO2 ) levels predialysis were corrected to the midweek interdialytic interval. The midweek predialysis serum bicarbonate level averaged 21.9 mEq/L (mmol/L) and correlated inversely with nPCR, serum albumin, and serum phosphorus values. Before and after adjusting for 15 comorbidities, nutrition, and equilibrated Kt/V, a U-curve best represented the association between predialysis serum bicarbonate level and risk for mortality or hospitalization. Patients with midweek predialysis serum bicarbonate levels of 20.1 to 21.0 mEq/L (mmol/L) faced the lowest risk for mortality, whereas those with bicarbonate levels of 21.1 to 22.0 mEq/L faced the lowest risk for hospitalization. Both high (>27 mEq/L) and low (nutritional status and lower relative risk for mortality or hospitalization than is observed in patients with normal ranges of midweek predialysis serum bicarbonate concentration (approximately 24 mEq/L) or severe acidosis (<16 mEq/L).

  1. Association of serum uric acid and risk of hypertension in adults: a prospective study of Kailuan Corporation cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liu-Fu; Shi, Hui-Jing; Wu, Shou-Ling; Shu, Rong; Liu, Na; Wang, Guan-Ying; Zhou, Bin; Sun, Kai; Yu, Ping; Wang, Jian; Song, Hai-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Hao; Wang, Jie-Rui; Han, Yi-Xuan; Mu, Rong

    2017-05-01

    Whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension in adults is still under debate. To determine the association between serum uric acid and risk of hypertension in the Chinese population, we conducted a prospective study using the "Kailuan Corporation cohort." A total of 39,233 adult subjects with available data on serum uric acid were enrolled from 2006 to 2007. Subjects with established hypertension were excluded and were then grouped based on the gender and baseline quartile serum uric acid into F1-4 for women and M1-4 for men with F1 and M1 being the lowest quartiles. Incidence of newly described primary hypertension was reevaluated in 2010-2011. The median (interquantile range) baseline uric acid (UA) was 290 (243-344) μmol/L in men and 230 (194-274) μmol/L in women. During a 4-year follow-up period, 12,844 subjects (31.31 %) were newly diagnosed with hypertension. The incidence of hypertension was 14.36, 16.57, 19.06, and 22.35 % in F1 to F4 and 33.64, 33.97, 36.54, and 40.74 % in M1 to M4, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratios (ORs) of incident hypertension were 1.17 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.37, P = 0.055], 1.24 (95 % CI 1.06-1.45, P = 0.009), and 1.20 (95 % CI 1.02-1.41, P = 0.027) in F2 to F4 compared to the F1 and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.91-1.05, P = 0.534), 1.05 (95 % CI 0.98-1.13, P = 0.190), and 1.13 (95 % CI 1.05-1.22, P = 0.002) in M2 to M4 compared to the M1. Elevated level of serum uric acid is associated with an increased risk of hypertension in adults.

  2. New assessment for the risk of ischemic stroke or carotid artery stenosis. Prognostic factor analysis in hypercholesterolemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    Concise and non-invasive methods to detect the risk of cerebrovascular disease in high risk patients are considered useful. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the contribution to ischemic cerebrovascular risk of the Revised Atherosclerotic Index (RAI) which is calculated from the Atherogenic Index (AI), patient's age and number of risk factors of atherosclerotic disease. I studied retrospectively the serum lipid levels, carotid stenosis measured by ultrasonography and cerebral infarction diagnosed from the symptoms and CT in 56 hypercholesterolemic outpatients. I assessed the relation between the RAI and carotid stenoic findings, history of cerebral infarction, and type of cerebral infarction. I also assessed the relation between the RAI and changes in LDL-cholesterol level before and after atorvastatin administration. The RAI was significantly increased in patients with carotid lesions and cerebral infarction, but the AI was not. While the odds ratio of the AI for carotid lesions was high but not significantly so, that of the RAI increased with statistical significance. The odds ratio for cerebral infarction was high for the RAI but not for the AI. Furthermore, the RAI was significantly high in patients with aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction as compared to that in patients without any infarction. The serum lipids were well controlled under administration of atorvastatin and the mean RAI was also significantly decreased; however, more comprehensive control of risk factors might be necessary. The AI adjusted for patient's age and number of risk factors might be useful for assessing the risk of carotid lesion atherosclerosis and aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction. (author)

  3. New assessment for the risk of ischemic stroke or carotid artery stenosis. Prognostic factor analysis in hypercholesterolemia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Daisuke [Uematsu Neurological Clinic, Saitama, Saitama (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    Concise and non-invasive methods to detect the risk of cerebrovascular disease in high risk patients are considered useful. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the contribution to ischemic cerebrovascular risk of the Revised Atherosclerotic Index (RAI) which is calculated from the Atherogenic Index (AI), patient's age and number of risk factors of atherosclerotic disease. I studied retrospectively the serum lipid levels, carotid stenosis measured by ultrasonography and cerebral infarction diagnosed from the symptoms and CT in 56 hypercholesterolemic outpatients. I assessed the relation between the RAI and carotid stenoic findings, history of cerebral infarction, and type of cerebral infarction. I also assessed the relation between the RAI and changes in LDL-cholesterol level before and after atorvastatin administration. The RAI was significantly increased in patients with carotid lesions and cerebral infarction, but the AI was not. While the odds ratio of the AI for carotid lesions was high but not significantly so, that of the RAI increased with statistical significance. The odds ratio for cerebral infarction was high for the RAI but not for the AI. Furthermore, the RAI was significantly high in patients with aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction as compared to that in patients without any infarction. The serum lipids were well controlled under administration of atorvastatin and the mean RAI was also significantly decreased; however, more comprehensive control of risk factors might be necessary. The AI adjusted for patient's age and number of risk factors might be useful for assessing the risk of carotid lesion atherosclerosis and aortic thrombotic cerebral infarction. (author)

  4. The serum levels of connective tissue growth factor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F-M; Yu, F; Tan, Y; Liu, G; Zhao, M-H

    2014-06-01

    The expression of connective tissue growth factor mRNA in human kidneys may serve as an early marker for lupus nephritis progression. Therefore, we speculated that connective tissue growth factor may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. In this study, we set out to investigate the associations between serum connective tissue growth factor levels and clinicopathological features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. Serum samples from patients with non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus, renal biopsy-proven lupus nephritis and healthy control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum connective tissue growth factor levels. The associations between connective tissue growth factor levels and clinicopathological features of the patients were further analysed. The levels of serum connective tissue growth factor in patients with non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis were both significantly higher than those in the normal control group (34.14 ± 12.17 ng/ml vs. 22.8 ± 3.0 ng/ml, plupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis group (34.14 ± 12.17 ng/ml vs. 44.1 ± 46.8 ng/ml, p = 0.183). Serum connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly higher in lupus nephritis patients with the following clinical manifestations, including anaemia (51.3 ± 51.4 ng/ml vs. 23.4 ± 9.7 ng/ml, plupus nephritis (63.3 ± 63.4 ng/ml vs. 38.3 ± 37.9 ng/ml, p = 0.035, respectively). Serum connective tissue growth factor levels were negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.46, plupus nephritis (plupus and correlated with chronic renal interstitial injury and doubling of serum creatinine in patients with lupus nephritis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease (GSD and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians.This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model.The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08 and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22 predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13, and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73 are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians.Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1 age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2 age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  6. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chun; Chiou, Chia; Lin, Ming-Nan; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians. This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model. The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22) predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73) are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians. Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1) age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2) age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  7. Osteocalcin and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 as biochemical skeletal maturity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Tripathi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With change in concepts of growth determination methods, there is a surge in the measurement of biomarkers for appraisal of growth status. Osteocalcin is a bone-specific protein and was observed to parallel the normal growth curve. Hence, the present study was intended to assess the levels of serum osteocalcin and serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and compare them with cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI stages. Methods The cross-sectional study was performed on 150 subjects (75 males and 75 females in the age group of 8–20 years and segregated into six CVMI stages. Serum osteocalcin and IGF-1 were estimated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean ranks of serum osteocalcin and serum IGF-1 with different CVMI stages. Spearman correlation was performed to find association between serum osteocalcin and serum IGF-1 across six CVMI stages. Results Peak serum IGF-1 levels were obtained at CVMI stages 4 and 3 for males and females, respectively, with insignificant difference between stages 3 and 4 in females. Peak serum osteocalcin levels were found at stage 5 and 3 for males and females with insignificant difference from other stages except stages 5 and 6 in males. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum IGF-1 and serum osteocalcin across six CVMI stages (P < 0.01. Conclusions Osteocalcin followed IGF-1 across all CVMI stages but showed insignificant interstage differences.

  8. The Association between Serum Resistin Level and Presence or Severity of Coronary Heart Disease

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    Roozbeh Mortazavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a well-known principal risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Resistin is one of adipocyte-derived molecules, which plays important roles in inflammation as well as in endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the association between serum resistin level and presence/severity of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 155 individuals referred for coronary angiography. Information about the patients’ age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors was recorded. Their weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences were measured, as well. Each coronary angiogram was reported for two scoring methods (number of vessel diseases (usual method and Gensini scoring system by one cardiologist who was not aware of the participants’ serum resistin levels. Then, the relationship between serum resistin level and presence/severity of CHD was evaluated. Results: The results revealed no significant associations between the mean serum resistin level and the presence of CHD by both methods of evaluation of the coronary angiograms after adjustment for all conventional risk factors for CHD. In addition, no significant association was detected between serum resistin level and the severity of CHD based on the usual method of reporting the coronary angiograms (number of vessel diseases (P = 0.332. Yet, serum resistin level was positively correlated to body mass index and waist and hip circumferences and negatively related to height and fasting blood sugar level. Moreover, no linear correlation was found between serum resistin level and Gensini score (P = 0.35. Finally, hip circumference (P = 0.002 and height (P = 0.018 were determined as the predictors of serum resistin level. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study showed no significant associations between serum resistin level and presence/severity of CHD.

  9. Incidental Parathyroidectomy during Total Thyroidectomy: Risk Factors and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the incidence of accidental parathyroidectomy in our series of total thyroidectomies, to investigate its clinical and biochemical consequences, and to identify potential risk factors. Methods. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between January 2006 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Pathology reports were reviewed to identify those cases who had an incidental parathyroidectomy and these were compared to patients with no parathyroidectomy, in terms of clinical (age, sex, and symptoms of hypocalcemia, pathological (thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy, and biochemical (serum calcium and phosphate levels factors. Results. 281 patients underwent total thyroidectomy during the study period. Incidental parathyroidectomy was noticed in 24.9% of cases, with 44.3% of parathyroid glands found in an intrathyroidal location. Evidence of postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia was noticed in 28.6% of patients with parathyroidectomy, compared with 13.3% in the no-parathyroidectomy group (p=0.003. Symptomatic hypocalcemia was observed in 5.7% and 3.8%, respectively (p=0.49. Age, sex, thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions. Our study found an association of incidental parathyroidectomy with transient postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia, but not with clinically symptomatic disease. Age, sex, thyroid gland weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy were not identified as risk factors.

  10. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

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    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  11. Factor Structure of Indices of the Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram with Metabolic Components and Other Cardiovascular Risk Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kawada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study was conducted to clarify the factor structure of indices of the SDPTG in combination with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, to elucidate the significance of the SDPTG among various cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsThe SDPTG was determined in the second forefinger of the left hand in 1,055 male workers (mean age, 44.2±6.4 years. Among 4 waves of SDPTG components, the ratios of the height of the "a" wave to that of the "b" and "d" waves were expressed as b/a and d/a, and used as SDPTG indices for the analysis.ResultsPrincipal axis factoring analysis was conducted using age, SDPTG indices, components of MetS, and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and uric acid. Three factors were extracted, and the SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age as the third factor. Metabolic components and the SDPTG indices were independently categorized. These three factors explained 44.4% of the total variation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age, d/a, serum uric acid, serum CRP, and regular exercise as independent determinants of the risk of MetS. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11, 0.10 (0.01 to 0.73, 1.24 (1.06 to 1.44, 3.59 (2.37 to 5.42, and 0.48 (0.28 to 0.82, respectively.ConclusionThe SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age, and they differed in characteristics from components of MetS or inflammatory markers. In addition, this cross-sectional study also revealed decrease of the d/a as a risk factor for the development of MetS.

  12. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-05

    Jun 5, 2011 ... This study compared serum antioxidant vitamin levels in oral cancer patients and controls in order to validate ... Key words: Antioxidant vitamins, Nigeria, oral cancer risk. Date of ..... Sex. (MSL±SD) cancer. P1. (MSL±SD) control. P2. Vitamin A. Male. Female .... cancer. J Clin Lab Anal 2001;15:324‑30. 19.

  13. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  14. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increase with age and pubertal development. The large variation in circulating IGF-I levels in adolescence makes it difficult to use the IGF-I value of a single child in the assessment of his growth status. In addition, the interference of IGF......-binding proteins in many IGF-I assays contributes to this problem. We measured IGF-I in acid-ethanol-extracted serum from 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults, employing a RIA that reduces interference of IGF-binding proteins by using monoiodinated Tyr31-[125I]des-(1-3)IGF-I as radioligand. Mean serum...... volume. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum IGF-I levels predicted height velocity in the following year (r = 0.33; P

  15. Androgenetic alopecia and risk of coronary artery disease

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    Lata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA or male pattern baldness (MPB has been found to be associated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. The well-known risk factors are family history of CAD, hypertension, increased body mass index (BMI, central obesity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. The newer risk factors are serum lipoprotein-a (SL-a, serum homocysteine (SH, and serum adiponectin (SA. Aim : Identifying individuals at risk of CAD at an early age might help in preventing CAD and save life. Hence, a comparative study of CAD risk factors was planned in 100 males of AGA between the age of 25 and 40 years with equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. Materials and Methods : Patients of AGA grade II or more of Hamilton and Norwood (HN Scale and controls were examined clinically and advised blood test. The reports were available for fasting blood sugar (FBS, serum total serum cholesterol (SC in 64 cases, 64 controls; lipoproteins (high, low, very low density, HDL, LDL, VLDL, serum triglycerides (ST in 63 cases, 63 controls; SL-a in 63 cases, 74 controls; SH in 56 cases, 74 controls; and SA in 62 cases, 74 controls. Results : In these cases family history (FH of AGA and CAD was significantly high. The blood pressure (BP was also found to be significantly high in the cases. The difference of mean serum HDL, LDL, VLDL, ST, SH, and SL-a in cases and controls were statistically significant and with increasing grade of AGA, the risk factors also increased. Conclusion : Patients with AGA appear to be at an increased risk of developing CAD, therefore, clinical evaluation of cases with AGA of grade II and above may be of help in preventing CAD in future.

  16. Changes in serum growth factors in stroke rehabilitation patients and their relation to hemiparesis improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hideto; Beppu, Hidehiko; Mizutani, Kenmei; Okamoto, Sayaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    Predicting recovery from hemiparesis after stroke is important for rehabilitation. A few recent studies reported that the levels of some growth factors shortly after stroke were positively correlated with the clinical outcomes during the chronic phase. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the serum levels of growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I], and hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) and improvement in hemiparesis in stroke patients who received rehabilitation in a postacute rehabilitation hospital. Subjects were 32 stroke patients (cerebral infarction: 21 and intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH]: 11). We measured serum levels of VEGF, IGF-I, and HGF and 5 items of the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS) for hemiparesis on admission and at discharge. Age-matched healthy subjects (n=15) served as controls. Serum levels of VEGF and HGF in cerebral infarct patients on admission were higher than those in control subjects, and the serum levels of IGF-I in stroke patients were lower than those in controls. The level of HGF in ICH patients on admission was negatively correlated with gains in SIAS, and higher outliers in HGF concentration were correlated with lower gains in SIAS. Focusing on the extremely high levels of these factors may be a predictor of the low recovery from hemiparesis after stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail; Isa, Zaleha Md; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Lin, Khor Geok; Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Hassan, Haslinda; Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana

    2016-07-13

    Pregnant women form one of the high risk groups facing hypovitaminosis D. Low level of vitamin D will affect directly or indirectly both mother and fetus. Screening vitamin D in the first trimester of pregnancy is important to determine the necessary preventive action. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its risk factors among pregnant women in the first trimester. A cross sectional study was carried out among first trimester pregnant women during their first antenatal visit. Samples were taken from different ethnicities in an urban district in Malaysia. A total of 396 respondents (99 % response rate) aged 18-40 years completed self-administered and guided questionnaire (characteristics and risk factors), validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for vitamin D in Malaysia (FFQ vitamin D/My), anthropometric measures (weight and height), blood test for serum 25(OH)D, skin measurement using Mexameter (MX 18) and Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM). Data were analyzed to determine the association between risk factors and hypovitaminosis D. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 90.4 % (358). The mean age of respondents was 28.06 ± 4.09 years old. The independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D were Malay ethnicity (OR 33.68; 95 % CI: 12.81, 88.56), Indian ethnicity (OR 16.86; 95 % CI: 3.78,75.20), secondary education (OR 12.12; 95 % CI: 2.71, 54.16) and tertiary education (OR 14.38; 95 % Cl: 3.31, 62.45). Awareness should be raised among Malay and Indian pregnant women with secondary and tertiary education who consumed vitamin D (especially milk) poorly in order to prevent adverse health outcomes. Further studies need to be conducted among health care workers to determine their level of knowledge related to vitamin D, as they are front liner in detecting the hypovitaminosis D.

  18. Age-Dependent Decrease in Serum Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-Beta 1 in Healthy Japanese Individuals; Population Study of Serum TGF-Beta 1 Level in Japanese

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    Yoshihiro Okamoto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1, a multi-functional cytokine, is involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities and the serum/plasma TGF-β1 level is altered with various diseases. However, most published reports have described adult patients, and so we investigated the clinical significance of serum TGF-β1 level in pediatric patients. The diagnostic application of the measurement of serum TGF-β1 level depends critically on the control value, however, there is no information on the control value of serum TGF-β1 for children.

  19. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

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    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  20. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study

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    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine’s main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. Results There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59–1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69–1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3–126.6, 126.7–152.9, and 153.0–308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37–1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26–0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS. PMID:26866594

  1. Herd-level risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea infection in cattle of Tamil Nadu.

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    Kumar, Subbiah Krishna; Palanivel, K M; Sukumar, K; Ronald, B Samuel Masilamoni; Selvaraju, G; Ponnudurai, G

    2018-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in 62 randomly selected dairy herds which were tested for BVD serum antibodies by using an indirect ELISA kit (IDEXX). Results from the chi-square test analysis were interpreted by analyzing by chi-square test. A sum of 500 sera samples were screened and 66 animals (13.20%) showed positive for BVDV antibody. Within herd, BVD seroprevalence was 12-65%. This study concluded that epidemiological risk factors like location, herd size, housing patterns like, tail to tail system, roofing pattern, distance between the manure pit and farm, and distance between farms were significantly associated with BVDV serological status (P < 0.05).

  2. Risk factors for tuberculosis in dialysis patients: a prospective multi-center clinical trial

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    Goumenos Demetrios S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profound alterations in immune responses associated with uraemia and exacerbated by dialysis increase the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB in chronic haemodialysis patients (HDPs. In the current study, was determined the impact of various risk factors on TB development. Our aim was to identify which HDPs need anti-TB preventive therapy. Methods Prospective study of 272 HDPs admitted, through a 36-month period, to our institutions. Specific Relative Risk (RR for TB was estimated, considering age matched subjects from the general population as reference group. Entering the study all patients were tested with tuberculin (TST. Using Cox's proportional hazard model the independent effect of various risk factors associated with TB development was estimated. Results History of TB, dialysis efficiency, use of Vitamin D supplements, serum albumin and zinc levels were not proved to influence significantly the risk for TB, in contrast to: advanced age (>65 years, BMI, diabetes mellitus, tuberculin reactivity, healed TB lesions on chest X-ray and time on dialysis. Elderly (>70 years old HDPs (Adjusted RR 25.3, 95%CI 20.4-28.4, P Conclusion The above mentioned factors have to be considered by the clinicians, evaluating for TB in HDPs. Positive TST, the existence of predisposing risk factors and/or old TB lesions on chest X-ray, will guide the diagnosis of latent TB infection and the selection of those HDPs who need preventive chemoprophylaxis.

  3. Our Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis Risk Factors and Relationship with Osteoarhritis-Osteoporosis

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    Nadide Torlak Koca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative disease, that developes as a result of the impairment of formation and destruction processes in cartilage and sinovial tissues, with the effect of various traumatic, biomechanic, inflammatory and genetic factors. Material and Methods: In this study, risk factors and relation between OA and OP (osteoporosis is evaluated in 127 patients with knee OA. Age, gender, obesity, menopause, ligamentous laxity, DM, injury of joint, genetic predisposition and proprioceptive defects are the risk factors in knee OA. Results: No relation was observed between radiographic knee OA and scores of tests which evaluate pain and disability such as WOMAC and Lequesne; but there was a significant relation between obesity and WOMAC and Lequesne scores. Thus, obesity is a disability determinant in knee OA. We think that smoking has protective effects on OA, but this claim has to be proven with studies containing large control groups. In accordance with literature, we determined a significant concurrence between hand and knee OA. This relation gets stronger as severity of radiographic disease increases. In our patients with knee OA depriving clinical inflammation signs, CRP values were higher than control group and this was statistically significant. Therefore, we may not deny a chronic inflammatory response in OA. No significant relation observed between serum cholesterol values, lipid values, blood pressure and OA. However, presence of DM accelerates the radiographic progression of OA. Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher in our OA patients than in controls. The literature data, that high serum uric acid levels play role especially in generalised OA’s multifactorial etiology, is also supported by our results. Conclusion: Age, gender, menopause and genetic predisposition seemed to have more effects on the incidence of knee OA; while obesity, period of menopause, ligamantous laxity and DM seemed to have more effects

  4. Age-related changes in Serum Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Somatostatin in System Lupus Erythematosus

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    Malemud Charles J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is an age- and gender-associated autoimmune disorder. Previous studies suggested that defects in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis contributed to systemic lupus erythematosus disease progression which could also involve growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin function. This study was designed to compare basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels in female systemic lupus erythematosus patients to a group of normal female subjects. Methods Basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels were measured by standard radioimmunoassay. Results Serum growth hormone levels failed to correlate with age (r2 = 3.03 in the entire group of normal subjects (i.e. 20 – 80 years. In contrast, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were inversely correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.092. Of note, serum growth hormone was positively correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.269 in the 20 – 46 year range which overlapped with the age range of patients in the systemic lupus erythematosus group. In that regard, serum growth hormone levels were not significantly higher compared to either the entire group of normal subjects (20 – 80 yrs or to normal subjects age-matched to the systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly elevated (p 55 yrs systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions These results indicated that systemic lupus erythematosus was not characterized by a modulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 paracrine axis when serum samples from systemic lupus erythematosus patients were compared to age- matched normal female subjects. These results in systemic lupus erythematosus differ from those previously reported in other musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, diffuse idiopathic skeletal

  5. Risk Factors of Acute Pancreatitis in Oral Double Balloon Enteroscop

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    Marcela Kopáčová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE was introduced 15 years ago. The complications of diagnostic DBE are rare, acute pancreatitis is most redoubtable one (incidence about 0.3%. Hyperamylasemia after DBE seems to be a rather common condition respectively. The most probable cause seems to be a mechanical straining of the pancreas. We tried to identify patients in a higher risk of acute pancreatitis after DBE. We investigated several laboratory markers before and after DBE (serum cathepsin B, lactoferrin, E-selectin, SPINK 1, procalcitonin, S100 proteins, alfa-1-antitrypsin, hs-CRP, malondialdehyde, serum and urine amylase and serum lipase. Serum amylase and lipase rose significantly with the maximum 4 hours after DBE. Serum cathepsin and procalcitonin decreased significantly 4 hours after DBE compared to healthy controls and patients values before DBE. Either serum amylase or lipase 4 hours after DBE did not correlate with any markers before DBE. There was a trend for an association between the number of push-and-pull cycles and procalcitonin and urine amylase 4 hours after DBE; between procalcitonin and alfa-1-antitrypsin, cathepsin and hs-CRP; and between E-selectin and malondialdehyde 4 hours after DBE. We found no laboratory markers determinative in advance those patients in a higher risk of acute pancreatitis after DBE.

  6. Risk Factors of Acute Pancreatitis in Oral Double Balloon Enteroscopy.

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    Kopáčová, Marcela; Bureš, Jan; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Vávrová, Jaroslava; Bártová, Jolana; Soukup, Tomáš; Tomš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja

    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) was introduced 15 years ago. The complications of diagnostic DBE are rare, acute pancreatitis is most redoubtable one (incidence about 0.3%). Hyperamylasemia after DBE seems to be a rather common condition respectively. The most probable cause seems to be a mechanical straining of the pancreas. We tried to identify patients in a higher risk of acute pancreatitis after DBE. We investigated several laboratory markers before and after DBE (serum cathepsin B, lactoferrin, E-selectin, SPINK 1, procalcitonin, S100 proteins, alfa-1-antitrypsin, hs-CRP, malondialdehyde, serum and urine amylase and serum lipase). Serum amylase and lipase rose significantly with the maximum 4 hours after DBE. Serum cathepsin and procalcitonin decreased significantly 4 hours after DBE compared to healthy controls and patients values before DBE. Either serum amylase or lipase 4 hours after DBE did not correlate with any markers before DBE. There was a trend for an association between the number of push-and-pull cycles and procalcitonin and urine amylase 4 hours after DBE; between procalcitonin and alfa-1-antitrypsin, cathepsin and hs-CRP; and between E-selectin and malondialdehyde 4 hours after DBE. We found no laboratory markers determinative in advance those patients in a higher risk of acute pancreatitis after DBE.

  7. Risk factors for stress fractures.

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    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  8. Clinicopathological Risk Factors and Biochemical Predictors of Safe Discharge after Total Thyroidectomy and Central Compartment Node Dissection for Thyroid Cancer: A Prospective Study

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    Yu-mi Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the clinicopathological risk factors and reliable biochemical predictors of the development of hypocalcemic symptoms after total thyroidectomy on the basis of serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH levels measured 1 hour after surgery, a prospective study was performed on 817 patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND due to well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the correlations between hypocalcemic symptom development and clinicopathological factors. And the predictability for hypocalcemic symptom development of intact PTH cut-offs (<10 pg/mL and <20 pg/mL, resp. according to serum calcium level subgroup was analyzed. Female gender (P<0.001 was the only independent risk factor for hypocalcemic symptom development in multivariate regression analysis. The negative predictive value (NPV of intact PTH, signifying nondevelopment of hypocalcemic symptoms, was higher than the positive predictive value (PPV which signified development of hypocalcemic symptoms. In addition, when we applied the different adoption of the intact PTH cut-off according to serum calcium level, we could obtain more increased NPVs. A female gender and the application of more specific cut-offs for intact PTH according to the serum calcium levels measured 1 hour after surgery may help the patients to be more safely discharged.

  9. Effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

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    Xiao-Bin Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Methods: A total of 85 patients with common bile duct stones or obstructive jaundice were divided into the observation group (n=45 and the control group (n=40 according to the different treatment methods, both two groups patients were treated with ERCP, patients in the observation group was given indomethacin suppositories 50 mg preoperative 30 min. Serum amylase, inflammatory factors and T cell subsets were detected preoperative, postoperative 6 h and postoperative 24 h. Inflammatory factors including interleukin -10 (IL-10, interleukin -6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4. T cell subsets including CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and calculated CD4+ / CD8+ . Results: In both two groups, postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly higher than before surgery; in the observation group, the postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly lower than in the control group at the same time point and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum proinflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α increased first and then decreased, both were significantly higher than before surgery; both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 gradually increased, both were significantly higher than before surgery, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05; In the observation group, antiinflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 significantly increased while pro-inflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α significantly decreased compared with the control group at the same time point 6 h and 24 h after surgery, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h T cell subsets CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4

  10. STUDY OF LIPOPROTEIN (A LEVELS AS A RISK FACTOR IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Arun S. Menon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipoprotein (a has been identified as an important, independent, causal risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases, but its association with hypertension has shown differing results. The studies regarding this association are limited. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In the present study, the levels of Lp (a and other lipid parameters like Serum Total Cholesterol, Serum LDL Cholesterol, Serum HDL Cholesterol, serum triglycerides have been studied in hypertensive and non-hypertensive patients to investigate any significant relationship between the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 essential hypertensive patients were selected and were compared with 30 controls matched in terms of age and sex. Lipid profile including Total cholesterol, LDL- Cholesterol, HDL- Cholesterol, Triglycerides and Lp (a were studied in both groups. RESULTS Hypertensive patients were observed to have higher levels of Serum Total Cholesterol, Serum Triglycerides, Serum LDL cholesterol, but it was not found to be significant. But lipoprotein (a was found to be significantly higher (p<0.01 in cases than in controls.

  11. Risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in veterinary medicine students.

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    de Rooij, Myrna M T; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in The Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1:32 and above. Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction 'farm animals' (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14-5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22-4.39] OR year 3-5 1.83 [1.07-3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07-2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59-4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction 'farm animals' to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students.

  12. Is serum albumin an independent predictor of post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, L.; Zahid, N.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between serum albumin and risk of post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of oncology, Liaquat National Hospital, from 1st Jan 2015 to 31st Dec 2016. Material and Method: One hundred and sixty-six biopsy proven cancer patients with Eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG) performance status <2 and without significant co-morbidities received first cycle of chemotherapy during two years study period. Different chemotherapies with moderate to severe risk of FN were used. Patient's pre-treatment serum albumin was measured and patients followed for occurrence of FN. Association between serum albumin and post chemotherapy FN was analyzed. Results: Data of 166 patients was available for final analysis. Post chemotherapy FN was observed in 19.9% (33/166) patients. Pre-chemotherapy serum albumin level was <3.5 mg/dl in (35/166) 21.1% of patients, out of which (15/35) 42.9% developed FN. Serum albumin (p=0.0005) was highly significantly associated with a risk of FN. On analysis of other factors age, gender, body surface area (BSA) and pre-chemotherapy hemoglobin level were not significantly associated with a risk of FN while body mass index (p=0.0005) was found to be associated with risk of FN. Conclusion: Pre-chemotherapy serum albumin levels were found to be statistically significant predictor of postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia.

  13. Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for new onset micro-albuminuria in a middle-aged and elderly population: a prospective cohort study in taiwan.

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    Hung-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Micro-albuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that elevated serum uric acid (UA is associated with development of micro-albuminuria in the general population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study. A total of 1862 subjects from southern Taiwan, all older than 40 years, were screened and 993 of these participants without micro-albuminuria were followed for 4 years. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured two times per year. A multiple linear regression model indicated that serum UA was independently associated with ln(ACR after adjustment for 8 factors (age, sex, and 6 metabolic metrics (β = 0.194, p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each 1 mg/dL increase of UA was associated with a 1.42-fold increased risk of micro-albuminuria after adjustment for the same 8 factors (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27-1.59, p<0.01. A Cox regression model using subjects with serum UA less than 5 mg/dL as reference group indicated higher hazard ratios (HRs only found in subjects with serum UA more than 7 mg/dL (HR = 3.54, 95% CI: 2.11-5.93, p<0.01 and not in subjects with serum UA of 5 to 7 mg/dL (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.82-2.07, p = 0.15. CONCLUSION: Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with micro-albuminuria in middle-aged and elderly males and females from a general population in Taiwan. Elevated serum UA is an independent predictor for development of micro-albuminuria in this population.

  14. Acyl/free carnitine ratio is a risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masafumi; Nakata, Kohei; Matsumoto, Hideo; Ohtsuka, Takao; Yoshida, Koji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Hino, Keisuke

    Hepatic steatosis, one of the most frequent long-term complications of pancreatectomy, influences not only hepatic function but also survival rate. However, its risk factors and pathogenesis have not been established. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk factors for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. In this retrospective study of 21 patients who had undergone pancreatectomy (19 cases of pancreatoduodenectomy and 2 cases of total pancreatectomy), serum carnitine concentrations, fractions of carnitine, and hepatic attenuation on computed tomography images were analyzed with the aim of identifying risk factors for hepatic steatosis. Thirteen (61.9%) of the 21 patients were diagnosed as having hypocarnitinemia after pancreatectomy. Average hepatic attenuation was as low as 42.2HU (±21.3 SD). A high ratio of acyl/free carnitine was associated with less pronounced hepatic attenuation according to both univariate (P pancreatectomy in some patients. The statistical analyses suggest that a high ratio of acyl/free carnitine is an independent risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence and risk factors of hypomagnesemia in head and neck cancer patients treated with cetuximab

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    Tomohiro Enokida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypomagnesemia is a common adverse event during cetuximab (Cmab treatment. However, few reports have investigated the incidence and risk factors of hypomagnesemia in head and neck cancer patients treated with Cmab. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 131 head and neck cancer patients who received Cmab-containing therapy. Main eligibility criteria were ≥3 Cmab administrations, no prior EGFR-directed therapy, and no prophylactic Mg supplementation.Results Median baseline serum Mg level and number of Cmab administrations were 2.2 mg/dl and eight, respectively. Overall incidence of hypomagnesemia was 50.4% (grade 1, 46.6%; grade 2, 3.1%; grade 3, 0%; grade 4, 0.8% and differed between patients treated with palliative chemotherapy and bioradiation (Cmab and radiation (63% vs. 24%; p<0.01. Independent risk factors were low baseline serum Mg [Odds ratio (OR 161.988, 95% confidence interval (CI 9.436-2780.895], ≥7 Cmab administrations (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.16-13.98, and concurrent administration of platinum (cisplatin; OR 23.695, 95% CI 5.219-107.574, carboplatin; OR 5.487, 95% CI 1.831-16.439. Respective incidence of hypomagnesemia in patients in high- (concurrent platinum and ≥7 Cmab administrations and low-risk (no concurrent platinum and <7 Cmab administrations groups was 66.0% and 6.6% (P<0.001, OR 28.0. Conclusion Cmab is associated with a significant risk of hypomagnesemia in patients with head and neck cancer with longer term administration and concurrent platinum therapy. High-risk patients should be treated with particular care.

  16. Serum albumin is an important prognostic factor for carotid blowout syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hsuehju; Chen Kuowei; Chen Minghuang; Tzeng Chenghwai; Chang Peter Muhsin; Yang Muhhwa; Chu Penyuan; Tai Shyhkuan

    2013-01-01

    Carotid blowout syndrome is a severe complication of head and neck cancer. High mortality and major neurologic morbidity are associated with carotid blowout syndrome with massive bleeding. Prediction of outcomes for carotid blowout syndrome patients is important for clinicians, especially for patients with the risk of massive bleeding. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011, 103 patients with carotid blowout syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into groups with and without massive bleeding. Prognostic factors were analysed with proportional hazard (Cox) regressions for carotid blowout syndrome-related prognoses. Survival analyses were based on the time from diagnosis of carotid blowout syndrome to massive bleeding and death. Patients with massive bleeding were more likely to have hypoalbuminemia (albumin 1000 cells/μl, P=0.041) and hypoalbuminemia (P=0.010) were important to prognosis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (P=0.007), elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>250 U/l; P=0.050), local recurrence (P=0.022) and hypoalbuminemia (P=0.038) were related to poor prognosis in carotid blowout syndrome-related death. In multivariate analysis, best supportive care and hypoalbuminemia were independent factors for both carotid blowout syndrome-related massive bleeding (P=0.000) and carotid blowout syndrome-related death (P=0.013), respectively. Best supportive care and serum albumin are important prognostic factors in carotid blowout syndrome. It helps clinicians to evaluate and provide better supportive care for these patients. (author)

  17. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares

    2013-01-01

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP

  18. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo, E-mail: goliveira@cardiol.br; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP.

  19. Trophic enrichment factors for blood serum in the European badger (Meles meles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    Full Text Available Ecologists undertaking stable isotopic analyses of animal diets require trophic enrichment factors (TEFs for the specific animal tissues that they are studying. Such basic data are available for a small number of species, so values from trophically or phylogenetically similar species are often substituted for missing values. By feeding a controlled diet to captive European badgers (Meles meles we determined TEFs for carbon and nitrogen in blood serum. TEFs for nitrogen and carbon in blood serum were +3.0 ± 0.4‰ and +0.4 ± 0.1‰ respectively. The TEFs for serum in badgers are notably different from those published for the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. There is currently no data for TEFs in the serum of other mustelid species. Our data show that species sharing similar niches (red fox do not provide adequate proxy values for TEFs of badgers. Our findings emphasise the importance of having species-specific data when undertaking trophic studies using stable isotope analysis.

  20. Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Different Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Ventriglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence indicates the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. In the present study, we compared serum BDNF in 624 subjects: 266 patients affected by AD, 28 by frontotemporal dementia (FTD, 40 by Lewy body dementia (LBD, 91 by vascular dementia (VAD, 30 by PD, and 169 controls. Our results evidenced lower BDNF serum levels in AD, FTD, LBD, and VAD patients (P<0.001 and a higher BDNF concentration in patients affected by PD (P=0.045. Analyses of effects of pharmacological treatments suggested significantly higher BDNF serum levels in patients taking mood stabilizers/antiepileptics (P=0.009 and L-DOPA (P<0.001 and significant reductions in patients taking benzodiazepines (P=0.020. In conclusion, our results support the role of BDNF alterations in neurodegenerative mechanisms common to different forms of neurological disorders and underline the importance of including drug treatment in the analyses to avoid confounding effects.

  1. Levels of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in type 2 diabetics with retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, N.; Rahman, S.; Khan, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ischemic retina in diabetic patients releases a number of chemical substances including vascular endothelial growth factor which leads to retinal vascular proliferation and blindness following rupture and bleeding of vessels. Strategies to control this action can considerably halt this process. Objectives: To determine the relationship of various stages of diabetic retinopathy with the levels vascular endothelial growth factor in the serum of type 2 diabetic patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional analytical study was done over one year (2010-2011) in three major public sector hospitals of Peshawar. Patients and Methods: Adult patients of either gender having type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative or non proliferative retinopathy and those without retinopathy were selected for the study. Retinopathy was diagnosed on fundoscopy. Non-diabetic patients without retinopathy were selected as controls. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were done in patients and controls using ELISA. Results: Serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels were significantly higher in all cases having retinopathy as compared to controls. These levels progressively increased with the grades of retinopathy. Levels were higher in females. Conclusions: Levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are raised in diabetic retinopathy and rising levels can alert the clinician in worsening of retinopathy so that preventive and therapeutic measures can be taken promptly. Policy message: Further larger scale studies are recommended on national level to pave way for the establishment of appropriate management paradigms for diabetic retinopathy through anti-VEGF treatment. (author)

  2. Evidence for disturbed insulin and growth hormone signaling as potential risk factors in the development of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beveren, N J M; Schwarz, E; Noll, R; Guest, P C; Meijer, C; de Haan, L; Bahn, S

    2014-08-26

    Molecular abnormalities in metabolic, hormonal and immune pathways are present in peripheral body fluids of a significant subgroup of schizophrenia patients. The authors have tested whether such disturbances also occur in psychiatrically ill and unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients with the aim of identifying potential contributing factors to disease vulnerability. The subjects were recruited as part of the Genetic Risk and OUtcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. The authors used multiplexed immunoassays to measure the levels of 184 molecules in serum from 112 schizophrenia patients, 133 siblings and 87 unrelated controls. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, serum from schizophrenia patients contained higher levels of insulin, C-peptide and proinsulin, decreased levels of growth hormone and altered concentrations of molecules involved in inflammation. In addition, significant differences were found in the levels of some of these proteins in siblings diagnosed with mood disorders (n=16) and in unaffected siblings (n=117). Most significantly, the insulin/growth hormone ratio was higher across all groups compared with the controls. Taken together, these findings suggest the presence of a molecular endophenotype involving disruption of insulin and growth factor signaling pathways as an increased risk factor for schizophrenia.

  3. [Concentration of selected angiogenic factors in serum and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogacz, Marek; Gałczyński, Krzysztof; Romanek-Piva, Katarzyna; Winkler, Izabela; Rechberger, Tomasz; Adamiak-Godlewska, Aneta

    2015-03-01

    Endometriosis is a sex hormone-dependent and successively progressing gynecological disease, characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The etiology of endometriosis is known to be multifactorial, and its growth depends on immunological, hormonal, genetic and environmental factors. Angiogenesis plays a key role in implantation and growth of endometriotic lesions, as well as in adhesion formation. Physiologically angiogenesis is responsible for neoangiogenesis and recruitment of new capillaries from the already existing capillaries. It is well-documented that altered angiogenesis provokes improper follicular maturation, infertility recurrent miscarriages, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and carcinogenesis. Factors stimulating angionesis include angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). The aim of the study was to analyze angiogenic factor concentration (angiogenin, VEGF, FGF) in blood serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with diagnosed endometriosis and idiopathic infertility. A total of 39 patients were recruited for the study including 19 patients (study group) diagnosed with endometriosis during the laparoscopic procedure and 20 patients (control group) with idiopathic infertility and no morphologic changes within the pelvis revealed during the laparoscopic procedure. All patients underwent laparoscopy during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Vein blood sample was obtained before the procedure and during laparoscopy the entire peritoneal fluid was aspirated for further measurement of VEGF, FGF and angiogenin concentrations. Angiogenin concentration in peritoneal fluid was statistically higher in patient with idiopathic infertility in comparison to endometriosis (pendometriosis, but no statistical significance was found. VEGF and FGF concentration in blood serum and peritoneal fluid was similar in both groups (p>0.05). There were no significant differences between serum

  4. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal Serum and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and have been reported to be a risk factor for human neural tube defects (NTDs). We investigated the relationship between PAH concentrations in maternal serum and NTD risk in offspring using a case-control study design, and explored the link between PAH concentrations to household energy usage characteristics and life styles. One hundred and seventeen women who had NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 121 women who delivered healthy infants (controls) were recruited in Northern China. Maternal blood samples were collected at pregnancy termination or at delivery. Twenty-seven PAHs were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 13 individual PAHs detected were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Clear dose–response relationships between concentrations of most individual PAHs and the risk of total NTDs or subtypes were observed, even when potential covariates were adjusted for. High-molecular-weight PAHs (H-PAHs) showed higher risk than low-molecular-weight PAHs (L-PAHs). No associations between PAH concentrations and indoor life styles and energy usage characteristics were observed. It was concluded that maternal exposure to PAHs was associated with an increased risk of NTDs, and H-PAHs overall posed a higher risk for NTDs than L-PAHs. PMID:25488567

  5. Serum bilirubin and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juping, Du; Yuan, Yuan; Shiyong, Chen; Jun, Li; Xiuxiu, Zhou; Haijian, Ying; Jianfeng, Shi; Bo, Shen

    2017-11-01

    Oxidative stress and immune imbalance play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Bilirubin is a powerful antioxidant and also regarded as immunomodulator. Increased evidence shows that bilirubin should be a protective factor for autoimmune disease. However, the relationship between bilirubin and RA remain unclear. We analyzed serum bilirubin levels and other laboratory and clinical data in 130 RA patients (35 patients without any complications), 81 osteoarthritis (OA) patients and 96 healthy controls. Binary logistic regression adjusted by age and gender revealed that the levels of serum total, indirect bilirubin were significantly lower in RA patients, when compared with healthy controls (P=.015, OR=0.767, 95% CI=0.619-0.951; P=.010, OR=0.664, 95% CI=0.487-0.906, respectively) or OA patients (P=.000, OR=0.763, 95% CI=0.661-0.882; P=.000, OR=0.656, 95% CI=0.532-0.808, respectively). A reduced trend of levels of bilirubin has been detected along with increased disease activity, despite with no significance (P>.05). Spearman rank test further demonstrated that IgG and ESR were negative associated with total, indirect bilirubin, and albumin, prealbumin, APOA, HDL-C were positively associated with bilirubin. In conclusion, the levels of serum bilirubins were decreased in RA, and decreased levels could be associated with IgG, albumin and inflammatory marker ESR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Serum Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Mercury, and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Men: A Prospective Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Laukkanen, Jari A.; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially sudden cardiac death (SCD). Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. Methods A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42–60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984–1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. Results During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend  = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93), whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction  = 0.01). Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. Conclusion High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD. PMID:22815906

  7. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mercury, and risk of sudden cardiac death in men: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki K Virtanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD. Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93, whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction = 0.01. Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. CONCLUSION: High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD.

  8. Cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of early childhood transient wheezing and atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baïz, Nour; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Wark, John D; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the effect of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy on the risk of asthma and allergic outcomes in offspring. However, studies on the relationship between cord levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and asthma and allergic diseases are very few. Our aim was to investigate the associations between cord serum 25(OH)D levels and asthma, wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the offspring from birth to 5 years. Cord blood samples were collected at birth and analyzed for 25(OH)D levels in 239 newborns from the Etude des Déterminants pré et post natals du développement et de la santé de l'Enfant (EDEN) birth cohort. The children were followed up until age 5 years by using International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood-based symptom questionnaires. The median cord serum level of 25(OH)D was 17.8 ng/mL (interquartile range, 15.1 ng/mL). By using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, a significant inverse association was observed between cord serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of transient early wheezing and early- and late-onset atopic dermatitis, as well as atopic dermatitis, by the ages of 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. We found no association between cord serum 25(OH)D levels and asthma and allergic rhinitis at age 5 years. Cord serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the risk of transient early wheezing and atopic dermatitis by the age of 5 years, but no association was found with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative serum levels of epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant and benign ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Jeppesen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    , and malignant ovarian tumors. Patients and Methods: Serum from 233 patients (75 serous ovarian/tubal/peritoneal cancers, 24 borderline tumors, 110 benign ovarian tumors, and 24 with normal ovaries) were analyzed for EGFR, HER2, and VEGF using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA......). Results: The median EGFR serum level in patients with ovarian cancer was 51 ng/mL, and this was significantly lower than the median serum levels in borderline tumors (P =.0054) and benign ovarian tumors (P ovaries (P =.00028). The HER2 median serum level...... as in patients with normal ovaries (P =.00024). Conclusion: Significantly lower serum EGFR levels and higher VEGF levels were noted in patients with ovarian cancer compared with the levels in benign tumors and normal ovaries. Vascular endothelial growth factor and EGFR could have clinical importance as serum...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in combination with hypertension depending on body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sіrenko O.Yu.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on body weight. The study involved 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and stably selected therapy for more than 6 months at the age from 45 to 65 years (mean age 53,19 ± 5,40 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk was assessed, taking into account risk factors by SCORE scale and amended for patients with RA. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, body mass index, body area index were determined. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 41 (41% patients with rheuma¬toid arthritis and was associated with traditional risk factors (age, obesity, rheumatoid factor, hyperuricemia and the duration of glucocorticoid therapy. Obesity and excess body mass occurred in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, herewith the highest level of inflammation indicators and risk of cardiovascular events was in overweight patients. Obesity was associated with duration of rheumatoid arthritis, the activity of the inflammatory process, the duration of glucocorticoids taking. It is found that the traditional SCORE scale does not fully reflect the risk of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis. Identification of hypertension and obesity increases the information content of the risk assessment of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Acantosis nigricansis associated with risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in Mexican children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Pizano-Zárate, María Luisa; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Sámano, Reyna; López-Portillo, Armando

    2016-09-20

    The prevalence of obesity in Mexican children has increased during the last decade, as has the risk of early onset metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. To determine the association ofAcantosis nigricans (AN)with dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and risk factors related to eating behavior in overweight and obese children. This transverse analytical study, conducted in two Mexico City primary schools, included 300 boys and girls. Information was gathered on hereditary and perinatal background. A physical examination provided data on the presence/absence of AN, blood pressure, weight and height. The BMI and Z-score were calculated. The serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides was quantified and the lipoprotein profile determined. The prevalence of AN was 41.7%. An association was found between ANand risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including BMI (rS 0.432; p 48%) (RM: 3.591; p = 0.001). A high prevalence of ANwas found in overweight and obese children. There was an association between ANand risk factors of cardiovascular disease, including Z-score, BMI, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure.

  12. Serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations and risk of asthma in childhood: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, N; Nwaru, B I; Erlund, I; Takkinen, H-M; Ahonen, S; Toppari, J; Ilonen, J; Veijola, R; Knip, M; Kaila, M; Virtanen, S M

    2017-03-01

    The antioxidant hypothesis regarding the risk of asthma in childhood has resulted in inconsistent findings. Some data indicate that the role of antioxidants in childhood asthma risk may have a critical time window of effect, but only a well-designed longitudinal cohort study can clarify this hypothesis. To study the longitudinal associations between serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations during the first 4 years of life and asthma risk by the age of 5 years. Based on a case-control design nested within a Finnish birth cohort, 146 asthma cases were matched to 270 controls on birth time, sex, genetic risk, and birth place. Non-fasting blood samples were collected at the ages of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years and serum carotenoids and tocopherols were analysed. Parents reported the presence and age at start of persistent doctor-diagnosed asthma in the child at the age of 5 years. Data analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations. We did not find strong associations between serum carotenoids and tocopherols and the risk of asthma based on age-specific and longitudinal analyses. Both lower and higher quarters of α-carotene and γ-tocopherol increased the risk of asthma. The current findings do not support the suggestion that the increased prevalence of asthma may be a consequence of decreased intake of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, we did not confirm any critical time window of impact of antioxidants on asthma risk. Replication of these findings in similar longitudinal settings will strengthen this evidence base. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genetic variants in two pathways influence serum urate levels and gout risk: a systematic pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zheng; Zhou, Jingru; Xu, Xia; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Dongbao; Yang, Chengde; Ma, Yanyun; Wang, Yi; He, Hongjun; Ji, Hengdong; Zhang, Juan; Yuan, Ziyu; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Pang, Yafei; Jin, Li; Zou, Hejian; Wang, Jiucun

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify candidate pathways associated with serum urate and to explore the genetic effect of those pathways on the risk of gout. Pathway analysis of the loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) showed that the ion transmembrane transporter activity pathway (GO: 0015075) and the secondary active transmembrane transporter activity pathway (GO: 0015291) were both associated with serum urate concentrations, with P FDR values of 0.004 and 0.007, respectively. In a Chinese population of 4,332 individuals, the two pathways were also found to be associated with serum urate (P FDR  = 1.88E-05 and 3.44E-04, separately). In addition, these two pathways were further associated with the pathogenesis of gout (P FDR  = 1.08E-08 and 2.66E-03, respectively) in the Chinese population and a novel gout-associated gene, SLC17A2, was identified (OR = 0.83, P FDR  = 0.017). The mRNA expression of candidate genes also showed significant differences among different groups at pathway level. The present study identified two transmembrane transporter activity pathways (GO: 0015075 and GO: 0015291) were associations with serum urate concentrations and the risk of gout. SLC17A2 was identified as a novel gene that influenced the risk of gout.

  14. Serum insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and adrenomedullin (ADM) in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Lijun; Ji Naijun; Fan Bifu; Wang Chengyao; Mei Yibin; Chen Donghai; Li Fuyuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-II) and adrenomedullin (ADM) levels in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: Serum IGF-II and ADM levels were measured with RIA in 90 CHD patients and 40 controls. Results: Serum IGF-II and ADM levels were significantly higher in CHD patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Serum IGF-II and ADM levels were significantly higher in the patients complicated with myocardial infarction (MI) than those in patients without this complication (t=2.831, t=2.328, both P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and ADM levels were increased in CHD patients, most markedly in those complicated with MI. (authors)

  15. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M

    2017-03-08

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring ( n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference ( p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure ( p = 0.003), and glucose levels ( p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight ( p zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  16. Risk Factors for Brain Metastases in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Definitive Chest Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Zhe; Bi, Nan; Wang, Jingbo; Hui, Zhouguang; Xiao, Zefen; Feng, Qinfu; Zhou, Zongmei; Chen, Dongfu; Lv, Jima; Liang, Jun; Fan, Chengcheng; Liu, Lipin; Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We intended to identify risk factors that affect brain metastases (BM) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) receiving definitive radiation therapy, which may guide the choice of selective prevention strategies. Methods and Materials: The characteristics of 346 patients with stage III NSCLC treated with thoracic radiation therapy from January 2008 to December 2010 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. BM rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for BM. Results: The median follow-up time was 48.3 months in surviving patients. A total of 74 patients (21.4%) experienced BM at the time of analysis, and for 40 (11.7%) of them, the brain was the first site of failure. The 1-year and 3-year brain metastasis rates were 15% and 28.1%, respectively. In univariate analysis, female sex, age ≤60 years, non-squamous cell carcinoma, T3-4, N3, >3 areas of lymph node metastasis, high lactate dehydrogenase and serum levels of tumor markers (CEA, NSE, CA125) before treatment were significantly associated with BM (P<.05). In multivariate analysis, age ≤60 years (P=.004, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.491), non-squamous cell carcinoma (P=.000, HR=3.726), NSE >18 ng/mL (P=.008, HR=1.968) and CA125 ≥ 35 U/mL (P=.002, HR=2.129) were independent risk factors for BM. For patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 to 4 risk factors, the 3-year BM rates were 7.3%, 18.9%, 35.8%, and 70.3%, respectively (P<.001). Conclusions: Age ≤60 years, non-squamous cell carcinoma, serum NSE >18 ng/mL, and CA125 ≥ 35 U/mL were independent risk factors for brain metastasis. The possibilities of selectively using prophylactic cranial irradiation in higher-risk patients with LA-NSCLC should be further explored in the future.

  17. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Ismail, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.; Khattak, M.B.; Anwar, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  19. A combination of low serum concentrations of vitamins K1 and D is associated with increased risk of hip fractures in elderly Norwegians: a NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnes, T E; Lofthus, C M; Meyer, H E; Søgaard, A J; Tell, G S; Apalset, E M; Gjesdal, C; Grimnes, G; Schei, B; Blomhoff, R; Samuelsen, S O; Holvik, K

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the risk of incident hip fractures according to serum concentrations of vitamin K1 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in elderly Norwegians during long-term follow-up. The results showed that the combination of low concentrations of both vitamin D and K1 provides a significant risk factor for hip fractures. This case-cohort study aims to investigate the associations between serum vitamin K1 and hip fracture and the possible effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on this association. The source cohort was 21,774 men and women aged 65 to 79 years who attended Norwegian community-based health studies during 1994-2001. Hip fractures were identified through hospital registers during median follow-up of 8.2 years. Vitamins were determined in serum obtained at baseline in all hip fracture cases (n = 1090) and in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1318). Cox proportional hazards regression with quartiles of serum vitamin K1 as explanatory variable was performed. Analyses were further performed with the following four groups as explanatory variable: I: vitamin K1 ≥ 0.76 and 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, II: vitamin K1 ≥ 0.76 and 25(OH)D vitamin K1 D ≥ 50 nmol/l, and IV: vitamin K1 D vitamin K1 and the risk of hip fracture. Further, a 50 % higher risk of hip fracture was observed in subjects with both low vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D compared with subjects with high vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D (HR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.18-1.90). The association remained statistically significant after adjusting for body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, and serum α-tocopherol. No increased risk was observed in the groups low in one vitamin only. Combination of low concentrations of vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of hip fractures.

  20. Risk factors in the development of adverse reactions to N-acetylcysteine in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To identify risk factors in the development of side-effects to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients with paracetamol poisoning. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out based upon the hospital charts of 529 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning, all treated with NAC...... 2.9 times (95% CI 2.1, 4.7) more likely to develop side-effects (Chi-square: P = 0.004). Side-effects were of similar severity in asthmatics and nonasthmatics. A history of medical allergy was not a risk factor. Serum paracetamol was lower in patients with side-effects than in those without (Mann......-Whitney: P = 0.00006). CONCLUSIONS: Asthma must be considered a risk factor in the development of side-effects to NAC. However, the side-effects are easily managed and there is no reason to withhold NAC from any patient with paracetamol poisoning. Paracetamol itself seems to offer some protection against...

  1. Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of testicular germ cell carcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Mary L; Davis, Mark D; Eaton, David L; Weiss, Noel S; Barr, Dana B; Doody, David R; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men ages 20 to 34 years. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, suboptimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess antiandrogenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p'-DDE, and whether the p,p'-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18- to 44-year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n = 246) were diagnosed during 1999 to 2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n = 630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p'-DDE was modified by androgen receptor CAG ( or =23 repeats) or GGN ( or =17 repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy.

  2. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  3. Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette Vinther; Hjorth, Peter; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner; Vandborg, Kirsten; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgaard; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia using methods proven effective in short-term trials. Furthermore, we examined whether any baseline characteristics were associated with positive outcomes. All outpatients treated for schizophrenia at two Danish hospitals were included in this 1-year follow-up study. The patients were offered health interventions both individually and in groups. Weight, waist circumference, blood glucose, serum lipids, and information on smoking and alcohol were obtained. On average, small significant increases in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences were observed while small non-significant improvements in other cardiovascular risk factors were seen. Patients with high baseline BMI and patients with duration of treated illness beyond 2 years had significantly better intervention outcomes. Our results show that it was difficult to improve physical health in a group of non-selected patients with schizophrenia as part of routine care. The patients were not easily motivated to participate in the interventions, and it was difficult to monitor the recommended metabolic risk measures in the patient group. Future research should focus on simple strategies in health promotion that can be integrated into routine care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  5. Relationship of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Haseeb, Abdul; Rehman, Abdur

    2018-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The two main documented pathogenic mechanisms are hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia but there is growing evidence for increased predisposition to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study aims to analyze the association of PCOS with cardiovascular risk factors. This is a prospective study which targeted 100 PCOS patients from Civil Hospital Karachi over a period of one year (July 2016 to July 2017). An equal number of age-matched healthy control participants were also included in the study. The student's t-test was used to assess the significance of differences using SPSS version (19). The statistical significance was set at a p-value of PCOS was primary infertility seen in 72% of the patients. Mean arterial pressure, fasting glucose and insulin levels and insulin resistance was found to be significantly different in PCOS patients as compared to their controls. A classic atherosclerotic lipid profile demonstrating elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) levels and decreased serum high density lipoprotein-C(HDL-C) was observed in our study. This study established a significant yet independent association of PCOS with major cardiovascular risk factors. This association can effectively progress into CVD outcomes which necessitates early intervention programs and preventative strategies to reduce mortality from cardiovascular events. This study lays out the framework for conducting further researches on the PCOS women while exploring novel cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor and adiponectin levels in patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalandra, Carla; Coviello, Maria; Falco, Gaetano; Divella, Rosa; Trojano, Giuseppe; Laterza, Anna Maria; Quero, Carmela; Pepe, Vito; Zito, Francesco Alfredo; Quaranta, Michele

    2010-05-01

    One of the most specific and critical regulators of angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which regulates endothelial proliferation, permeability, and survival. Vascular endothelial growth factor is an angiogenic mediator in tumors and has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Adipose tissue is a major endocrine and it secretes hormones termed adipokines. These factors are derived from adipocytes and include proteins and metabolites such as adiponectin. Recently, adiponectin was also shown to modulate angiogenesis. This study was designed to determine the serum VEGF and adiponectin levels in patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases and if there was a correlation between serum VEGF and adiponectin. Serum samples, collected fasting before surgery or intervention, were available for total of 114 female patients recorded between October 2006 and December 2008. Diagnosis of benign and malignant gynaecological diseases was established by biopsy. Serum levels VEGF and adiponectin were using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (R&D Systems Inc, Minneapolis, MN), respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS 9.0 software package (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL). The correlation between serum VEGF and serum Adiponectin was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. P values of benign and malignant gynecological diseases of the patient. Only for serum VEGF levels was a significant difference observed (P = 0.004) between patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases. A significantly inverse correlation between serum VEGF and adiponectin levels among patients with benign and malignant gynecological diseases was found. Adiponectin level is not correlated with body mass index. This is one of the first report on adiponectin in benign and malignant gynecological diseases. Future studies are needed to address the clinical potential role of adiponectin in cancer.

  7. Prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease in an urban Indian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, T; Kanwar, R S; Wilfred, R; Chugh, P; Chhillar, M; Aggarwal, R; Sharma, Y K; Sethi, J; Sundriyal, J; Bhadra, K; Singh, S; Rautela, N; Chand, Tek; Singh, M; Singh, S K

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in government employees across India. Methods The study population consisted of government employees in different parts of India ({n=10 642 men and n=1966 women; age 20–60 years}) and comprised various ethnic groups living in different environmental conditions. Recruitment was carried out in 20 cities across 14 states, and in one union territory. All selected individuals were subjected to a detailed questionnaire, medical examinations and anthropometric measurements. Blood samples were collected for blood glucose and serum lipid profile estimation, and resting ECG was recorded. Results were analysed using appropriate statistical tools. Results The study revealed that 4.6% of the study population had a family history of premature CAD. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 16% (5.6% diagnosed during the study and the remaining 10.4% already on medication). Hypertension was present in 21% of subjects. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was significantly high, with 45.6% of study subjects having a high total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. Overall, 78.6% subjects had two or more risk factors for CAD. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of CAD risk factors in the Indian urban population. Therefore, there is an immediate need to initiate measures to raise awareness of these risk factors so that individuals at high risk for future CAD can be managed. PMID:25488095

  8. Physical Fitness and Serum Vitamin D and Cognition in Elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jeong-Deok; Kang, Hyunsik

    2015-12-01

    Poor physical fitness and low serum vitamin D are known to be modifiable risk factors for cognitive declines with normal aging. We investigated the association of physical fitness and serum vitamin D levels with global cognitive function in older adults. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 412 older Korean adults (108 men aged 74.4 ± 6.0 years and 304 women aged 73.1 ± 5.4 years) completed the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess global cognitive performance and the senior fitness test to assess strength, flexibility, agility, and endurance domains of physical fitness. Body mass index, percent body fat, serum vitamin D, geriatric depression scale (GDS), level of education, smoking, and history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were also assessed as covariates. Age, sex, GDS, and body fatness were negatively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Serum vitamin D and physical fitness were positively associated with MMSE-based cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression showed that agility (partial R(2) = -0.184, p = 0.029) and endurance (partial R(2) = 0.191, p = 0.022) domains of physical fitness along with serum vitamin D (partial R(2) = 0.210, p = 0.012) were significant predictors for global cognitive performance after controlling for covariates (i.e., age, sex, education, GDS, body fatness, and comorbidity index). The current findings of the study suggest that promotion of physical fitness and vitamin D supplementation should be key components of interventions to prevent cognitive decline with normal aging. Key pointsCognitive declines are associated with normal aging as well as modifiable lifestyle risk factors, and there is an increasing need to identify the modifiable risk factors for the onset of cognitive declines and to provide evidence-based strategies for healthy and successful aging.In Korea, little is known about the relationships of physical fitness and serum vitamin D with cognitive

  9. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  10. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Wulaningsih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years. We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88–0.99, p value for trend 0.04 and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66–0.97. No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Luxembourg Adults: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors (ORISCAV-LUX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on vitamin D status and related risk factors in Luxembourg adults is lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and related risk factors among healthy adults in Luxembourg. Based on clinicians’ observations, it was hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be common in our population, constituting a significant public health concern. A nationally representative random sample of 1432 adults was enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study, 2007–2008. The participants were divided into four categories according to their serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD]. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses used weighted methods to account for the stratified sampling scheme. Only 17.1% of the population had a “desirable” serum 25(OHD level ≥75 nmol/L, whereas 27.1% had “inadequate” [serum 25(OHD level 50–74 nmol/L], 40.4% had “insufficient” [serum 25(OHD level 25–49 nmol/L], and 15.5% had “deficient” [serum 25(OHD level <25 nmol/L]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was greater among current smokers, obese subjects, those having reduced HDL-cholesterol level and fair/poor self-perception of health, compared to their counterparts. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was additionally higher among nondrinkers of alcohol, Portuguese and subjects from non-European countries. The final multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smoking status and obesity were independent correlates of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, respectively. Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent among adults in Luxembourg and is associated with specific lifestyle factors. Along with the effect of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency on the risk of several diseases, cancer and mortality, our findings have practical implications for public health dietary recommendations, and of particular importance for healthcare

  12. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  14. Sedentary risk factors across genders and job roles within a university campus workplace: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether sedentary job role and gender are reflected by sedentary risk factors within a university campus. Following institutional ethical approval, 80 U.K. university campus employees were recruited, and 34 of them (age 47.8 ± 11.9 years, height 169 ± 1.0 cm, body mass 72.0 ± 14.1 kg) were measured for their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (Glu), total serum blood cholesterol (Cho), dominant (DHG) and nondominant handgrip strength (NHG), body fat percentage (Fat%), trunk flexibility (Flex), peak cardiorespiratory capacity (V.O2max), and answered a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with job role and gender as independent factors, and each measured risk as a dependent factor. Gender had significant effects (pworkplace.

  15. Factoring in Factor VIII With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, James E; Samai, Alyana; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-10-01

    There is growing research interest into the etiologies of cryptogenic stroke, in particular as it relates to hypercoagulable states. An elevation in serum levels of the procoagulant factor VIII is recognized as one such culprit of occult cerebral infarctions. It is the objective of the present review to summarize the molecular role of factor VIII in thrombogenesis and its clinical use in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. We also discuss the utility of screening for serum factor VIII levels among patients at risk for, or those who have experienced, ischemic stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Serum placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and -2 levels in periodontal disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Tuba; Kırzıoğlu, F Yeşim; Fentoğlu, Ozlem; Aylak, Firdevs; Mungan, Tamer

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of levels of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PIGF), and soluble VEGF receptor (sVEGFR)-1 and -2 in the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. One hundred and nine mothers, who recently gave birth, and 51 women who were not recently pregnant, aged 18 to 35 years, were included in this study. The mothers were classified as term birth, preterm birth (PTB), and preterm low birth weight (PLBW) in respect to their gestational age and baby's birth weight. The birth mothers were grouped as having gingivitis or periodontitis. The non-pregnant group also included periodontally healthy patients. Venous blood samples were collected to evaluate serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF, PIGF, and sVEGFR-1 and -2 levels. Mother's weight, education, and income level were significantly associated with pregnancy outcomes. Serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, VEGF, and sVEGFR-1 and -2 showed an increase in significance when related to pregnancy. Whereas in the PLBW group IL-1β, VEGF, and sVEGFR-2 levels were increased, in the PTB group sVEGFR-1 levels were increased. Additionally, the patients in the PLBW group with periodontitis had higher serum levels of IL-1β, VEGF, sVEGFR-2, and IL-1β/IL-10. The serum levels of IL-1β, VEGF, and sVEGFR-1 and -2 may have a potential effect on the mechanism of the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Serum Progranulin Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Azam; Marjani, Abdoljalal; Khoshnia, Masoud

    2016-12-01

    The role of progranulin in individuals with metabolic syndrome is not exactly clear.We aimed to assess the serum level of progranulin in type 2 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome and compare them with healthy controls. The study included 60 patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 healthy individuals as control groups. Biochemical parameters and progranulin levels were determined. Subjects with metabolic syndrome showed significantly higher levels of triglyceride, waist circumference, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure than subjects without metabolic syndrome and the control groups, while HDL-cholesterol level was significantly lower in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Fasting blood sugar was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in the control groups. Serum level of progranulin was slightly increased in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Serum progranulin level had no significant relationship with metabolic syndrome components. Serum progranulin was also not dependent on cardiometabolic risk factors for subjects with metabolic syndrome, but it could be considered for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are recommended to explain the effect of progranulin on the pathogenesis of metabolic risk factors.

  18. Risk Factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever) Seropositivity in Veterinary Medicine Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R.; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in the Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1∶32 and above. Results Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction ‘farm animals’ (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14–5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22–4.39] OR year 3–5 1.83 [1.07–3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07–2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59–4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction ‘farm animals’ to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. Conclusions C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students. PMID:22363803

  19. Meta-analysis of early nonmotor features and risk factors for Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Alastair J; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Hawkes, Christopher H; Giovannoni, Gavin; Lees, Andrew J; Schrag, Anette

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the association between diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) and risk factors or early symptoms amenable to population-based screening. A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for PD. The strongest associations with later diagnosis of PD were found for having a first-degree or any relative with PD (odds ratio [OR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.65-3.93 and OR, 4.45; 95% CI, 3.39-5.83) or any relative with tremor (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.10-3.57), constipation (relative risk [RR], 2.34; 95% CI, 1.55-3.53), or lack of smoking history (current vs never: RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.39-0.50), each at least doubling the risk of PD. Further positive significant associations were found for history of anxiety or depression, pesticide exposure, head injury, rural living, beta-blockers, farming occupation, and well-water drinking, and negative significant associations were found for coffee drinking, hypertension, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcium channel blockers, and alcohol, but not for diabetes mellitus, cancer, oral contraceptive pill use, surgical menopause, hormone replacement therapy, statins, acetaminophen/paracetamol, aspirin, tea drinking, history of general anesthesia, or gastric ulcers. In the systematic review, additional associations included negative associations with raised serum urate, and single studies or studies with conflicting results. The strongest risk factors associated with later PD diagnosis are having a family history of PD or tremor, a history of constipation, and lack of smoking history. Further factors also but less strongly contribute to risk of PD diagnosis or, as some premotor symptoms, require further standardized studies to demonstrate the magnitude of risk associated with them. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  20. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

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    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Associations between Dietary Acid-Base Load and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

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    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn this study we investigated the associations of dietary acid-base load, identified by potential renal acid load (PRAL and protein to potassium (Pro:K ratio, with cardiometabolic risk factors in Tehranian adults.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2009 to 2011 on 5,620 men and women aged 19 to 70 years. Dietary data were collected by a trained dietitian using a validated, 147-food item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary PRAL and Pro:K ratio were calculated. Multiple linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding variables were used to evaluate the associations of dietary acid-base load with anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, serum creatinine, and fasting blood glucose.ResultsThe mean±SD age of the participants was 39.8±12.8 years and 54% of participants were women. Mean±SD PRAL was -22.0±29.1; mean PRAL was -15.6 in men and -26.8 in women. Dietary PRAL was associated with weight (β=0.098, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.062, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.143, P<0.01, HDL-C (β=-0.11, P<0.01, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.062, P<0.01, and serum creatinine (β=0.142, P<0.001. Pro:K ratio was associated with weight (β=0.055, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.04, P<0.01, serum HDL-C (β=-0.06, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.03, P<0.05, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.026, P<0.05, and serum creatinine (β=0.07, P<0.01.ConclusionA more acidic dietary acid-base load may be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders.

  2. Clinical research of serum transforming growth factor-α in old patients with silicotuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yixiu; Wang Wei; Liu Weimin; Li Hongmin; Yao Hao; Zhang Tao; Ouyang Xiaohui; Jiang Ping; Chen Dongjin; Feng Bai

    2002-01-01

    To study the change of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) in old patients with silicotuberculosis, the serum TGF-α in 69 patients with silicotuberculosis were measured by RIA, and compared with that in the group of old patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and the old normal control. The level of serum TGF-α in old patients with silicotuberculosis was significantly higher than that in the others (P 0.05). The level of TGF-α does not correlate with numbers of bacterium in sputum. The level of serum TGF-α in old patients with silicotuberculosis was higher than that of pulmonary tuberculosis and old normal control. The change regularity of TGF-α should been studied further

  3. Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Iranian Adolescents: the CASPIAN III Study

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    Enayat Kalantar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: At least half the world’s population is colonized the stomach by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori which are a key constituent of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with H. pylori infection in Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted along with the third survey of a national school-based surveillance system in Iran, entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Disease" (CASPIAN study. Detailed questionnaires on demographic, socioeconomic, dietary, and health-related information of the participants were filled by one of the parents under supervision of trained health-care workers. Trained healthcare professionals measured anthropometric indices, blood pressures according to standard protocols. Fasting venous blood was examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: Overall 882 serum samples were suitable for testing. H. pylori antibody was found in 643 serum samples (72.9%. Among cardiometabolic risk factors, only the mean weight of participants was different between two groups (44.6±11.8 in H. pylori positive and 42.8±11.3 in H. pylori negative group; p=0.04. Overall, 5.1% of adolescents with positive H. pylori tests were overweight or obese, while 1.7% of negative ones were so (p=0.02. In the multivariate regression model, H. pyloriseropositivity increased the risk of overweight (OR, 3.3; 95%CI, 1.2-9.3; p= 0.03. In the multivariate model, association of other cardiometabolic risk factors with H. pylori infection was not statistically significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: Results of present study showed that H. pylori infection was associated with excess weight in adolescents. H. pylori eradication may be decrease the risk of obesity.

  4. Hepatotoxicity with antituberculosis drugs: the risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Samo, A.H.; Jairamani, K.L.; Talib, A.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the severity and frequency of hepatotoxicity caused by different antituberculosis (ATT) drugs and to evaluate whether concurrence of risk factors influence the antituberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity. This prospective cohort study was conducted in Medical Unit-V and OPD department of Civil Hospital Karachi from July 2004 to July 2005. A total of 339 patients diagnosed of active tuberculosis infection with normal pretreatment liver function were monitored clinically as well as biochemically. Their data were collected on proforma and patients were treated with Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Pyrazinamide. Duration after which derangement in function, if any, occurred and time taken for normalization was noted. Treatment was altered as needed, with exclusion of culprit drug. Finally data was analyzed by SPSS version 10.0. ATT induced hepatotoxicity was seen in 67 (19.76%) out of 339 patients. Females were more affected as compared to males (26.3% vs. 19.7%). BMI (kg/m2) of 91% of diseased group were less than 18.5 (p<0.01) most of them were anemic having low albumin level suggestive of lean body mass. Hepatotoxicity was more severe in AFB smear positive patients. Concomitant use of alcohol, paracetamol and low serum cholesterol were proved as predisposing factors. Isoniazid (37 patients (55.21%), p<0.01) was the main culprit followed by Rifampicin (23 patients, 34.21%) and Pyrazinamide (7 patients, 10.5%). Most of the patients (61%) developed the hepatotoxicity within two weeks of starting antituberculosis therapy with mild to moderate alteration in ALT and AST. ATT-induced hepatitis is significantly more frequent and more severe in patients with hepatotoxicity risk factors. (author)

  5. Serum selenium levels and the risk of progression of laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiński, Jan; Marciniak, Wojciech; Muszynska, Magdalena; Jaworowska, Ewa; Sulikowski, Mieczyslaw; Jakubowska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Falco, Michal; Baszuk, Piotr; Mojsiewicz, Magdalena; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A; Lubiński, Jan A

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies have reported an inverse relationship between selenium status (blood or toenail) and the risk of laryngeal cancer; however, the impact of low serum selenium level on survival has not been evaluated. We conducted a prospective study of 296 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer in Szczecin, Poland. Serum selenium was measured at diagnosis and prior to treatment. Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis to death at five years. Vital status was obtained by linkage to the Polish National Death Registry. The five-year survival after diagnosis was 82.0% (95% CI: 68% to 91%) for individuals in the highest quartile of serum selenium (> 66.8 μg/L) and was 28.6% (95% CI 19% to 42%) for individuals in the lowest quartile (selenium, compared to those in the highest quartile. The corresponding multivariate HR was 3.07 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.94). This study suggests that a selenium level in excess of 70 μg/L is associated with improved outcome among patients undergoing treatment for laryngeal cancer. Further studies are needed to evaluate if selenium supplementation to achieve this level might improve overall prognosis.

  6. Association between Serum Albumin Concentration and Ketosis Risk in Hospitalized Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Ren; Cheng, Yun-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the association between serum albumin concentration and ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were endocrinology ward inpatients exceeding 21 years of age, with preexisting diagnosis of T2DM, and blood glucose above 13.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) at admission. Individuals without measurement of serum albumin, urine ketone, or hemoglobin A1C, or harboring active infection, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular event, cirrhosis, malignancy, or overt proteinuria were excluded. Using serum albumin concentration below 3.0 grams per deciliter to define hypoalbuminemia, 151 hypoalbuminemic cases and 104 normoalbuminemic controls were enrolled. The presence of ketones in urine established ketosis. Results. The prevalence of ketonuria was 48% in hypoalbuminemic subjects compared to 30% in normoalbuminemic controls (odds ratio (OR): 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-3.57; P = 0.004). Moreover, among the 156 subjects with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate measurement in addition to urine ketone, 33% of the hypoalbuminemic individuals had ketonemia exceeding 3 mmol/L compared to 19% of those with normoalbuminemia (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 0.99-4.48, P = 0.051). Conclusions. Serum albumin concentration is inversely associated with ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with T2DM.

  7. Serum chemerin level in women with PCOS and its relation with the risk of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Wei, Qipeng; Ye, Jinhai; Yin, Xiaofang; Ji, Zhisong; Xing, Hui; Yang, Ying

    2018-04-16

    Insulin resistance (IR) was recognized as a risk factor for the occurrence of abortion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Chemerin was an adipokine which could induce IR and associated with reproductive process closely. However, few studies have inquired the relativity between chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in patients with PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in women with PCOS. We recruited 198 women with PCOS to participate in our study. On the third day of menstrual cycle or a random day in women with amenorrhea, we obtained their venous blood and measured the fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, chemerin, and hormones including FSH, E2, P, PRL, LH, and T. Additionally, BMI, HOMA-IR and LH/FSH of each subject were calculated. Finally, 58 of them were included in the study, in which 30 of them had normal pregnancy and the other 28 had an early miscarriage. We compared the biochemical characteristics between the normal pregnancy group and abortion group by independent-samples t test. In our study, those with a normal pregnancy had a lower level of BMI, FINs, HOMA-IR, and chemerin compared to abortion patients (p PCOS patients (p PCOS. Thus, serum chemerin may serve as a biomarker to identify pregnant women with PCOS who are at particular risk for later abortion, and who may benefit from prevention strategies.

  8. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Calabria, Donato; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2017-04-18

    There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5-6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  9. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA, which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men, but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL. In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  10. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Serum phosphate and cognitive function in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinin, Yelena; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Murray, Anne M; Schousboe, John; Langsetmo, Lisa; Ensrud, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    Determine whether serum phosphate is associated with concurrent cognitive impairment and subsequent cognitive decline in older men independent of demographic covariates and atherosclerotic risk factors. In a prospective study of 5529 men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study, we measured baseline serum phosphate, baseline cognitive function, and change in cognitive function between baseline and follow-up exams an average of 4.6 years later using the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination and Trails B. There was no association between serum phosphate and odds of cognitive impairment as assessed by baseline 3MS score or risk of cognitive decline as assessed by longitudinal change in 3MS score. Higher baseline serum phosphate was associated with higher odds of poor executive function as assessed by Trails B with fully adjusted odds ratios 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.52), 1.31 (0.97-1.77), and 1.45 (1.08-1.94) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.007). However, higher phosphate level was not associated with risk of decline in executive function as assessed by longitudinal change in Trails B score with fully adjusted odds ratios 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.28), 0.96 (0.70-1.32), and 1.21 (0.89-1.66) for men in the second, third, and fourth versus the bottom quartile (referent group) of serum phosphate (p-trend 0.22). Higher serum phosphate in older men was associated with a higher likelihood of poor executive function, but not with impaired global cognitive function or decline in executive or global cognition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Frequency of soup intake is inversely associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but not with other metabolic risk factors in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and blood pressure, suggesting that soup intake reduces metabolic risk. However, the correlation between soup intake and various metabolic risk factors has not been well-established. Especially, it has not been investigated in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors such as BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, serum cholesterol, serum triacylglycerol, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. A cross-sectional study of 103 Japanese men aged 24 to 75 years was conducted. The intake of soup and other food was investigated by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. The correlation between the frequency of soup intake and metabolic risk factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis with a linear model. The median value of frequency of soup intake was 7.0 times per week. After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, energy intake, energy from alcohol intake, current smoking, and estimated energy expenditure, the frequency of soup intake was found to have a significant inverse association with BMI (P=0.040), waist circumference (P=0.024), and waist-to-hip ratio (P=0.001). However, no significant associations with other metabolic risk factors were found. Frequency of soup intake is negatively correlated with obesity-related physical parameters in Japanese men. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Serum and Oxygen Concentration on Gene Expression and Secretion of Paracrine Factors by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Patrick Page

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC secrete paracrine factors that may exert a protective effect on the heart after coronary artery occlusion. This study was done to determine the effect of hypoxia and serum levels on the mRNA expression and secretion of paracrine factors. Mouse bone marrow MSC were cultured with 5% or 20% serum and in either normoxic (21% O2 or hypoxic (1% O2 conditions. Expression of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 was determined by RT-qPCR. Secretion into the culture media was determined by ELISA. Hypoxia caused a reduction in gene expression for MCP-1 and an increase for VEGF (5% serum, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MMP-2. Serum reduction lowered gene expression for VEGF (normoxia, MCP-1 (hypoxia, MIP-1α (hypoxia, MIP-1β (hypoxia, and MMP-2 (hypoxia and increased gene expression for MMP-2 (normoxia. The level of secretion of these factors into the media generally paralleled gene expression with some exceptions. These data demonstrate that serum and oxygen levels have a significant effect on the gene expression and secretion of paracrine factors by MSC which will affect how MSC interact in vivo during myocardial ischemia.

  14. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical ketosis and association with production parameters in dairy cows in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholder, T; Papen, J; Bemers, R; Vertenten, G; Berge, A C B

    2015-02-01

    Ketosis is associated with many transition cow diseases and the subclinical form has been found to be a common condition in high-producing dairy cows. The objectives of this field study in the Netherlands were (1) to determine risk factors for subclinical ketosis [SCK; 1.2-2.9mmol of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA)/L of serum] and clinical ketosis (CK: ≥3.0mmol of BHBA/L of serum) at 7 to 14 d in milk and (2) to assess the association of SCK and CK with production parameters at the first dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Twenty-three dairies were enrolled by a local veterinary practice from 2009 to 2010, and 1,715 cows were screened for ketosis by measuring serum BHBA concentrations at 7 to 14 d in milk. Overall, 47.2% of cows had SCK and 11.6% had CK. Mixed generalized logit models with a random effect of herd were used to evaluate cow level factors associated with SCK and CK. The associations of SCK and CK with milk production parameters were tested using mixed linear models with a random effect of herd. Cows at a moderate (3.25-3.75) or fat (≥4) body condition score before calving were more likely to develop SCK and CK than thin (body condition score≤3.0) cows. The risk for developing SCK was higher in parity 2 and older cows compared with heifers, whereas for CK only, parity ≥3 cows had a higher risk. The quarter of the year in which a cow calved was associated with the risk for SCK and CK. For SCK quarter 1 (January-March) and quarter 2 (April-June), and for CK quarter 1, quarter 2, and quarter 3 (July-September) all increased the risk of development of the condition compared with quarter 4 (October-December). An increased yield of colostrum at first milking was associated with increasing risk for SCK and CK. Prolonged previous lactation length and dry period length were both associated with increased odds for SCK and CK. Subclinical ketosis and CK were associated with a higher milk yield, a higher milk fat percentage, and a lower milk protein percentage

  15. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and cattle from Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Jorge Rodrigues Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease of global distribution that affects all warm-blooded animals. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and identify the risk factors associated with its occurrence in domestic ruminants raised on the island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil, and to confirm that cattle and sheep raised in Fernando de Noronha Island present statistically different T. gondii prevalence rates. Serum samples were collected from sheep (n=240 and cattle (n=140 for the detection of antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Samples were collected from all the animals on all the farms. Risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and logistic regression. The prevalence rate of positive sheep was 85.0% while that of cattle was 10.7%. A multivariate analysis revealed that the site of contact of sheep with felines was a risk factor. For cattle, the risk factors identified in this study were: extensive farming system, water source, more than three cats per farm, and the presence of rats in feed storage locations. The findings revealed a significant difference in the prevalence rates in sheep and cattle raised in this insular environment.

  16. Bone health and risk factors of cardiovascular disease--a cross-sectional study in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD are diseases that comprise a growing medical and economic burden in ageing populations. They share many risk factors, including ageing, low physical activity, and possibly overweight. We aimed to study associations between individual risk factors for CVD and bone mineral density (BMD and turnover markers (BTMs in apparently healthy cohort. DESIGN: A cross-sectional assessment of 155 healthy 32-year-old adults (74 males was performed for skeletal status, CVD risk factors and lifestyle factors. METHODS: We analysed serum osteocalcin, procollagen I aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP, collagen I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP and urine collagen I aminoterminal telopeptide (U-NTX, as well as serum insulin, plasma glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. BMD, fat and lean mass were assessed using DXA scanning. Associations were tested with partial correlations in crude and adjusted models. Bone status was compared between men with or without metabolic syndrome (defined according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Osteocalcin and P1NP correlated inversely with insulin (R = -0.243, P = 0.003 and R = -0.187, P = 0.021 and glucose (R = -0.213, P = 0.009 and R = -0.190, P = 0.019, but after controlling for fat mass and lifestyle factors, the associations attenuated with insulin (R = -0.162, P = 0.053 and R = -0.093, P = 0.266 and with glucose (R = -0.099, P = 0.240 and R = -0.133, P = 0.110, respectively. Whole body BMD associated inversely only with triglycerides in fully adjusted model. In men with metabolic syndrome, whole body BMD, osteocalcin and P1NP were lower compared to healthy men, but these findings disappeared in fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: In young adults, inverse associations between BTM/BMD and risk factors of CVD appeared in crude models, but after adjusting for fat mass

  17. INTRAOCULAR AND SERUM LEVELS OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS AND OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiertz, Karin; De Visser, Lenneke; Rijkers, Ger; De Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda; Los, Leonie; Rothova, Aniki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the intraocular and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) and compare those with VEGF levels found in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). Methods: Paired intraocular fluid and serum samples of 17 patients with

  18. History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in US Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostrom, Derrick C V; Sun, Yangbo; Oleson, Jacob J; Snetselaar, Linda G; Bao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Findings from previous studies examining the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been inconsistent and inconclusive. We aimed to examine the associations of a previous history of GDM with risk of CVD and status of cardiovascular risk factors in a nationwide population-based study in the United States. This study included 8,127 parous women aged 20 years or older in the 2007-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the United States. The exposure was self-reported diagnostic history of GDM and the outcomes were self-reported diagnostic history of CVD and measurements of cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure and blood lipids. Regression models with sample weights were used to examine the associations of GDM with CVD and cardiovascular risk factors. Among women with a history of both GDM and CVD, CVD was diagnosed on average 22.9 years after the diagnosis of GDM. After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors, a history of GDM was associated with 63% higher odds of CVD [odds ratio (OR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 2.62, p -value = 0.04]. Further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) modestly attenuated the association (OR 1.52, 95% CI 0.95, 2.44, p -value = 0.08). A history of GDM was significantly associated with lower serum level of HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β-coefficient -3.33, 95% CI -5.17, -1.50, p -value ≤ 0.001), but not associated with total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, or systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Similarly, the association between a history of GDM and HDL cholesterol was attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI (adjusted β-coefficient -1.68, 95% CI -3.38, 0.03, p -value = 0.54). Women with a previous history of GDM have significantly higher risk for developing CVD and lower serum level of HDL cholesterol, compared to women without a history of

  19. Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor is Related to Platelet Reactivity but not to Genetic Polymorphisms within BDNF Encoding Gene in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyileten, Ceren; Zaremba, Małgorzata; Janicki, Piotr K; Rosiak, Marek; Cudna, Agnieszka; Kapłon-Cieślicka, Agnieszka; Opolski, Grzegorz; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Kosior, Dariusz A; Mirowska-Guzel, Dagmara; Postula, Marek

    2016-01-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum concentrations of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), platelet reactivity and inflammatory markers, as well as its association with BDNF encoding gene variants in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) during acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy. This retrospective, open-label study enrolled 91 patients. Serum BDNF, genotype variants, hematological, biochemical, and inflammatory markers were measured. Blood samples were taken in the morning 2-3 h after the last ASA dose. The BDNF genotypes for selected variants were analyzed by use of the iPLEX Sequenom assay. In multivariate linear regression analysis, CADP-CT >74 sec (pBDNF. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, CADP-CT >74 sec (p=0.02) and IL-6 concentration (p=0.03) were risk factors for serum BDNF above the median. Non-significant differences were observed between intronic SNP rs925946, missense SNP rs6265, and intronic SNP rs4923463 allelic groups and BDNF concentrations in the investigated cohort. Chronic inflammatory condition and enhanced immune system are associated with the production of BDNF, which may be why the serum BDNF level in T2DM patients with high platelet reactivity was higher compared to subjects with normal platelet reactivity in this study.

  20. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Aitkenhead, M; Caldwell, C; McCracken, G; Wilson, D; McClure, N

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was first to determine if vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a vascular permeability agent, is increased in the serum of women with preclinical and clinical preclampsia (PE), and second to determine how these levels change after delivery. Twenty preeclamptic and 25 normotensive women at term consented to have blood taken pre- and post-delivery. Ten preeclamptic, 10 gestational hypertensive, and 28 normotensive women had blood collected respectively at 12, 20, and 30 weeks gestation and predelivery. Serum was extracted from all samples, and VEGF concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Predelivery, the median serum VEGF concentration in the preeclamptic group was 51.7 ng/mL, and in the control group the concentration was 13.9 ng/mL (P<0.0001). Serum VEGF concentrations fell within 24 hours of delivery in both groups, which resulted in median values of 3.8 ng/mL and 3.2 ng/mL respectively (P<0.3). At 12 and 20 weeks, there was no significant difference between the serum VEGF concentrations in the 3 groups (P<0.3, 0.052 respectively). At 30 weeks, prior to the onset of clinical PE, the serum VEGF levels in the eventual preeclamptic group were elevated significantly compared with the gestational hypertensive and normotensive groups (P<0.001). Predelivery serum VEGF concentrations were significantly elevated in the preeclamptic group and were similar to those in the first study (P<0.0001). These findings suggest that VEGF may be important in the pathophysiology of PE and has the potential to act as a preclinical marker for the condition.

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Hosseini, Roya; Nourbakhsh, Fereshteh; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2014-10-01

    To compare the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Iranian infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and women without PCOS after pregnancies resulting from either assisted reproductive technology (ART) or spontaneous as well as to determine the risk factors of GDM in PCOS women. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated medical records of 234 spontaneous pregnant women without PCOS in Akbarabadi Women's Hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran, along with 234 pregnant women with PCOS and 234 pregnant non-PCOS women with ART conception who were treated at Royan institute, Tehran, Iran, at the same period of time, 2012 to February 2013. Exclusion criteria were as following: maternal age ≥40, family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives, pre-pregnancy diabetes and history of gestational diabetes, history of stillbirth, recurrent miscarriage, birth weight baby ≥4kg (macrosomia), parity >4, Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and overt hypothyroidism. The GDM diagnosis was according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Incidence and the risk factors for GDM were evaluated. The incidence rates of GDM were 44.4%, 29.9% and 7.3% for PCOS ART, non-PCOS ART and non-PCOS spontaneous pregnant women, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used for determining risk factors of GDM in PCOS women with adjusted odds ratios for age, parity and hypothyroidism, the results revealed the most important and significant predictors for development of GDM in PCOS women as follow: menstrual irregularity (OR=4.2; 95% CI=1.7-10.6), serum triglycerides level ≥150mg/dL (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.07-3.6) and pregestational metformin use (OR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2-0.7). Pregnant Iranian women with a history of infertility and PCOS are at increased risk for developing GDM. It is recommendable to perform screening test for GDM in PCOS women with ART treatment, irregular menses and high serum

  2. Critical serum creatinine values in very preterm newborns.

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    Alexandra Bruel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal failure in neonates is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. But critical values are not known. OBJECTIVE: To define critical values for serum creatinine levels by gestational age in preterm infants, as a predictive factor for mortality and morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of all preterm infants born before 33 weeks of gestational age, hospitalized in Nantes University Hospital NICU between 2003 and 2009, with serum creatinine levels measured between postnatal days 3 to 30. Children were retrospectively randomized into either training or validation set. Critical creatinine values were defined within the training set as the 90(th percentile values of highest serum creatinine (HSCr in infants with optimal neurodevelopmental at two years of age. The relationship between these critical creatinine values and neonatal mortality, and non-optimal neural development at two years, was then assessed in the validation set. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The analysis involved a total of 1,461 infants (gestational ages of 24-27 weeks (n=322, 28-29 weeks (n=336, and 30-32 weeks (803, and 14,721 creatinine assessments. The critical values determined in the training set (n=485 were 1.6, 1.1 and 1.0 mg/dL for each gestational age group, respectively. In the validation set (n=976, a serum creatinine level above the critical value was significantly associated with neonatal mortality (Odds ratio: 8.55 (95% confidence interval: 4.23-17.28; p<0.01 after adjusting for known renal failure risk factors, and with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at two years (odds ratio: 2.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.36; p=0.004 before adjustment. Creatinine values greater than 1.6, 1.1 and 1.0 mg/dL respectively at 24-27, 28-29, 30-32 weeks of gestation were associated with mortality before and after adjustment for risk factors, and with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome, before adjustment.

  3. Correlation of Estradiol Serum Levels with Classification of Osteoporosis Risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in Menopause Women

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    Eva Maya Puspita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In postmenopausal women, decreasing estrogen levels is a marker of ovarian dysfunction. Hypoestrogenic state has known increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the correlation between estradiol serum levels with classification of osteoporosis risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in menopausal women. Methods: This study was case series study which examined estradiol serum in menopausal women by ELISA and assess the osteoporosis risk using osteoporosis risk classification OSTA. Total 47 samples was collected at Dr. H.Adam malik, dr. Pirngadi, and RSU Networking in Medan. This research was conducted from May to December 2016. Data were statistically analyzed, and presented with Spearman test. Results: In this study, we found the mean levels of estradiol in menopausal women was 18.62 ± 16.85 ng / ml with OSTA osteoporosis risk score of 2.09 ± 2.45. There was a significant positive correlation between estradiol and risk of osteoporosis OSTA with correlation coefficient r = 0.825 and p <0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong positive correlation between serum levels of estradiol with OSTA osteoporosis risk assessment in menopausal women.

  4. Risk factors of leptospirosis among febrile hospital admissions in northeastern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafizah, A A Noor; Aziah, B D; Azwany, Y N; Imran, M Kamarul; Rusli, A Mohamed; Nazri, S Mohd; Nikman, A Mohd; Nabilah, I; Asma', H Siti; Zahiruddin, W M; Zaliha, I

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Risk factors for the disease may vary among countries. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of leptospirosis among febrile cases. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 999 febrile patients admitted to 10 hospitals in northeastern Malaysia, from August 2010 to February 2011. An interviewer-guided proforma sheet on sociodemography, type of occupation and social history data was distributed to all adult patients with fever on admission. Serum sample for leptospirosis was screened by IgM Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (IgM ELISA) test and confirmed by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The cut-off point for positive MAT was ≥ 1:400 titer in single acute specimens. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8, 10.3) (n=84/999) by MAT. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the high risk occupation group (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.22, 3.13) (p=0.005) and history of recent recreational activity (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.85) (pMalaysia. Identification of high risk occupational group and history of recent recreational activity will help to increase the index of suspicion to diagnose leptospirosis among febrile inpatients due to its mimicking other common febrile illnesses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the Risk Factors and Long-Term Consequences of Cisplatin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: An Observational Cohort Study.

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    Zeenat Yousuf Bhat

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a well-known complication of cisplatin-based chemotherapy; however, its impact on long-term patient survival is unclear. We sought to determine the incidence and risk factors for development of cisplatin-associated AKI and its impact on long-term renal function and patient survival. We identified 233 patients who received 629 cycles of high-dose cisplatin (99±9mg/m2 for treatment of head and neck cancer between 2005 and 2011. These subjects were reviewed for development of AKI. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity (CN was defined as persistent rise in serum creatinine, with a concomitant decline in serum magnesium and potassium, in absence of use of nephrotoxic agents and not reversed with hydration. All patients were hydrated per protocol and none had baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR via CKD-EPI<60mL/min/1.73m2. The patients were grouped based on development of AKI and were staged for levels of injury, per KDIGO-AKI definition. Renal function was assessed via serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR via CKD-EPI at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Patients with AKI were screened for the absence of nephrotoxic medication use and a temporal decline in serum potassium and magnesium levels. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine risk factors for cisplatin-associated AKI. Twelve-month renal function was compared among groups using ANOVA. Kaplan-Maier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to study its impact on patient survival. Of 233 patients, 158(68% developed AKI; 77 (49% developed stage I, 55 (35% developed stage II, and 26 (16% developed stage III AKI. Their serum potassium and magnesium levels correlated negatively with level of injury (p<0.05. African American race was a significant risk factor for cisplatin-associated AKI, OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 6.3 and 2.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 6.7 patients with stage III AKI had the lowest eGFR value at 12 months (p = 0.05 and long

  6. Serum levels of selenium and smoking habits at age 50 influence long term prostate cancer risk; a 34 year ULSAM follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmark, Birgitta; Zethelius, Björn; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se. ULSAM, a population based Swedish male cohort (n = 2322) investigated at age 50 for s-Se and s-Se influencing factors: serum cholesterol, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits. At age 71 a subcohort, (n = 1005) was genotyped for OGG1 and MnSOD polymorphisms. In a 34-year-follow-up, national registries identified 208 PrCa cases further confirmed in medical records. Participants with s-Se in the upper tertile had a non-significantly lower risk of PrCa. Smokers with s-Se in the two lower tertiles (≤80 μg/L) experienced a higher cumulative incidence of PrCa than smokers in the high selenium tertile (Hazard Ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.09-5.25). A high tertile selenium level in combination with non-wt rs125701 of the OGG1 gene in combination with smoking status or rs4880 related variation of MnSOD gene appeared to protect from PrCa. S-Se levels and smoking habits influence long-term risk of PrCa. Smoking as a risk factor for PrCa in men with low s-Se is relevant to explore further. Exploratory analyses of variations in OGG1 and MnSOD genes indicate that hypotheses about patterns of exposure to selenium and smoking combined with data on genetic variation in genes involved in DNA repair can be valuable to pursue

  7. Sonographically Assessed Intra-Abdominal Fat And Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents with Extreme Obesity

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    Anja Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The metabolic and cardiovascular risk of obesity is predominantly defined through the amount of intra-abdominal fat (IAF. Regarding this risk and the benefits of weight reduction gender-specific differences have been described. The aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific relationship between IAF assessed via ultrasound and the cardiometabolic risk profile in extremely obese adolescents before and after weight loss. Methods: In 107 consecutively admitted adolescents (n = 59 girls, mean age 15.4 ± 2.6 years boys and 15.1 ± 2.1 years girls, mean BMI z-score 3.2 ± 0.6 boys and 3.5 ± 0.6 girls anthropometric and fasting laboratory chemical parameters were measured before and after an in-patient long-term therapy (mean durance 5.6 ± 2.3 months. IAF was determined by measuring the intra-abdominal depth (IAD via ultrasound. Results: IAD was higher in boys as compared to girls (58.0 ± 22.4 mm vs. 51.3 ± 16.0 mm. IAD values were positively associated with BMI-z scores, waist circumferences, HOMA-IR and serum levels of γGT, hs-CRP and IL-6 in both genders. In boys, but not in girls, IAD was significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglycerides, ALT as well as adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol. After a marked mean weight loss of -27.1 ± 16.2 kg (-20.1 ± 7.9% in boys and of -20.5 ± 11.5 kg (-17.3 ± 7.1% in girls, IAD decreased by -20.7 ± 16.2 mm (--32.4 ± 16.9% in boys and by -18.4 ± 12,7 mm (-34.3 ± 18.4% in girls, resulting in more pronounced ameliorations of cardiovascular risk factors in boys than in girls. Conclusions: The present study indicates that IAF assessed by ultrasound is a good indicator for the cardiometabolic risk factor profile in extremely obese adolescents. Associations between IAF and risk factors are more pronounced in boys than in girls.

  8. Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

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    Cüneyt Ölmez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is one of the most mortal subtypes of stroke. Due to the angiogenic, neurotropic, and vessel-dilating properties of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in the brain, role of bFGF has been investigated in a number of neurological disorders. So far, there is only study about serum bFGF levels in patients with ICH. The first aim of the present research is to investigate whether increased serum bFGF in patients with ICH. Also, second aim was to study the association between serum levels of bFGF and clinical status in patients with ICH.Materials and methods: We measured the serum levels of bFGF in 30 patients with ICH during acute period. Age and sex matched healthy subjects (n=30 were included in controls. Serum bFGF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.Results: The patients with intracerebral hemorrhage had higher serum levels of bFGF when compared with the healthy controls (12.89±3.23 ng/ml, 5.28±1.75 ng/ml; p=0.001. No statistically significant difference was determined between bFGF levels of the patients who died as compared to the patients who lived (13.49±4.13 ng/ml; 12.43±3.43 ng/ml, p>0.05. No statistically significant difference was found between bFGF levels of the patients with intraventricular hemorrhage as compared to the patients without intraventricular hemorrhage (13.54±3.92 ng/ml; 12.24±2.29 ng/ml, p>0.05. There was no correlation between serum bFGF, hematoma volume, Gloskow coma scale, and National Institutes of Health stroke scale (p>0.05.Conclusion: The increased bFGF level may be one of the mechanisms that lead to angiogenesis and neuroprotection after ICH in human. . J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 282-286.

  9. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  10. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Risk Factors among Employed Women in a Sunny Industrial City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassannia, Tahereh; GhaznaviRad, Ehsan; Vakili, Rosita; Taheri, Sohaila; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern associated with the pathogenesis of several chronic disorders, particularly in women. To evaluate serum vitamin D levels and its deficiency and risk factors among employed women in a sunny industrial city. In this cross-sectional study, serum vitamin D levels, biochemical and hematological factors were assessed in 382 healthy employed women. Demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire and data was analyzed by SPSS software. The mean vitamin D serum level was 22 ± 19.8 ng/ml. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 62 % and 12.94 %, respectively. Deficiency was more common among younger subjects (Organizations (15 ng/ml).Vitamin D deficiency was associated with the lack of sunlight exposure at home, and taking anti-hypertensive medications. The common symptoms in deficiency condition were history of hyperlipidemia, depression, weakness, fatigue, finger tingling, leg cramps, and body and muscle pain. Moreover, LDL-cholesterol serum levels were significantly higher in the vitamin D deficiency group, with a prevalence of 40 %. The symptoms of vitamin D deficiency including depression, weakness, fatigue, tingling, leg cramps and body and muscle pain have been observed in more than 90 % after recruitment and treatment. Therefore, for improving the health and productivity of employees, a routine monitoring system for vitamin D and the other factors should be put in place.

  11. Elevated uric acid and obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors among hypertensive youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Lauren D; Miller, Edgar R; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Loeffler, Lauren F; Holmes, Kathryn W; Appel, Lawrence J; Brady, Tammy M

    2015-12-01

    Uric acid (UA) is associated with high blood pressure in adolescents and with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. We sought to determine if UA is independently associated with CVD risk factors and left ventricular mass (LVM) over time in hypertensive youth. This was a 1-year prospective observational study of hypertensive children aged 3-19 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum UA with CVD risk factors and LVM were explored. Of the 49 children who completed both the baseline and 12-month assessments, at baseline the mean age was 13.8 years and mean UA was 5.5 mg/dL; 24% had elevated UA, 51% were overweight/obese and 39% had LVH. Measures of adiposity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LVM and LVH were all significantly associated with elevated UA at baseline, but not with change over time. Each 1 mg/dL increase in baseline UA was associated with a 2.5 g/m(2.7) increase in the LVM index at follow-up (95% confidence interval 0.64, 4.39; p = 0.01); after adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index z-score, change in UA, time, blood pressure and medication use, this association was no longer significant. Hypertensive children with elevated UA have a higher prevalence of obesity-related CVD risk factors. Among hypertensive children, UA may be a marker of adiposity and not an independent CVD risk factor.

  12. Arterial Stiffness is an Independent Risk Factor for Anemia After Percutaneous Native Kidney Biopsy

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    Keiko Tanaka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bleeding is the most common complication after renal biopsy. Although numerous predictors of bleeding have been reported, it remains unclear whether arterial stiffness affects bleeding complications. Method: We performed an observational study of the renal biopsies performed in our division over an approximately 6-year period (May 2010 to May 2016. The clinical and laboratory factors were analyzed to reveal the risk factors associated with bleeding, with a focus on anemia (defined as a ≥10% decrease in hemoglobin [Hb] after biopsy. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV was measured to evaluate arterial stiffness. Results: This study included 462 patients (male, n=244; female, n=218. Anemia (defined above was observed in 54 patients (11.7%. The risk of anemia was higher in women, older patients, and patients with lower serum albumin, lower eGFR and lower diastolic blood pressure after biopsy. We then performed a further analysis of 187 patients whose baPWV data were available. Multivariate analysis revealed that a higher baPWV was an independent risk factor for anemia. ROC analysis for predicting anemia found that a baPWV value of 1839 cm/s had the best performance (AUC 0.689. Conclusion: An increased baPWV may be a more valuable predictor of bleeding than any of the other reported risk factors.

  13. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

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    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  14. Factors associated with elevated serum chromogranin A levels in patients with autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Karakaya, Fatih; Soykan, İrfan

    2016-11-01

    Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels. The mean serum chromogranin A level was 171.17±67.3 ng/mL in autoimmune gastritis patients (n=62) without enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and 303.3±102.82 ng/mL in patients (n=126) with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (pgastritis were the presence of ECL cell hyperplasia and serum gastrin levels. Serum chromogranin A levels maybe helpful in distinguishing autoimmune gastritis patients and gastric carcinoid type I from the control group, but not useful in the differentiation of individuals with autoimmune gastritis from patients with gastric carcinoids.

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity and serum level of insulin-like growth factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjac, Lidija; Bokan, Vesna

    2012-06-01

    The aim of our study was to measure and compare serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels at postmenstrual age of 33 weeks between preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). ROP occurs in two phases. Low serum levels of IGF-1 during ROP phase 1 have been found to correlate with the severity of ROP. ROP phase 2 begins around postmenstrual week 33. We conducted a prospective cohort study to measure serum IGF-1 levels in premature infants at postmenstrual age of 33 weeks. The study included all premature infants (N = 74), gestational age large controlled study with repeated measurement of IGF-1 level in the neonatal period is needed to confirm that restoration of IGF-I level occurs in ROP phase 2, i.e. that the low level of IGF-1 is only a feature of ROP phase 1.

  16. Should variation of serum lipid levels be considered a risk factor for the development of basal cell carcinoma?

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    Abbas Zamanian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the serum lipid levels in patients with BCC has no significant difference in comparison with the control group and, therefore, relevance between BCC and serum lipid level is not proven. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary for evaluating this subject.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  18. Dietary phosphorus excess: a risk factor in chronic bone, kidney, and cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribarri, Jaime; Calvo, Mona S

    2013-09-01

    There is growing evidence in the nephrology literature supporting the deleterious health effect of excess dietary phosphorus intake. This issue has largely escaped the attention of nutrition experts until this symposium, which raised the question of whether the same health concerns should be extended to the general population. The potential hazard of a high phosphorus intake in the healthy population is illustrated by findings from acute and epidemiologic studies. Acute studies in healthy young adults demonstrate that phosphorus intakes in excess of nutrient needs may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphorus contributing to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, bone loss, and impaired kidney function. One of the hormonal factors acutely affected by dietary phosphorus loading is fibroblast growth factor-23, which may be a key factor responsible for many of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications of high phosphorus intake. Increasingly, large epidemiological studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphorus within the normal range are associated with CVD risk in healthy populations. Few population studies link high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphorus due to study design issues specific to phosphorus and inaccurate nutrient composition databases. The increasing phosphorus intake due to the use of phosphorus-containing ingredients in processed food and the growing consumption of processed convenience and fast foods is an important factor that needs to be emphasized.

  19. The analysis of hyper-homocysteine incidence rate and multi-risk factors in 200 patients with cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiudong; Yang Jianghui; Huo Aimei; Wang Yan; Chu Yanchuang; Dong Mei

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the hyperhomocysteine incidence rate and clinical significance in 200 patients with cerebral stroke, the serum homocysteine, fibrinogen, C-reaction protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels in 200 patients with cerebral stroke and 100 normal healthy controls were detected. The results showed that both serum homocysteine and plasma FIB levels in patients with cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). The hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cerebral stoke, and hyperhomocysteine may lead to the increase of Fibrinogen level, which is one of the important reasons for the high blood viscosity in the cerebral infarction patients. (authors)

  20. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level Could Predict the Risk for Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Hai-Chen; Ren, Ye-Ping; Wang, Qin; Xu, Rong; Dong, Jie

    2015-12-01

    ♦ As an immune system regulator, vitamin D is commonly deficient among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), which may contribute to their impaired immune function and increased risk for PD-related peritonitis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency could predict the risk of peritonitis in a prospective cohort of patients on PD. ♦ We collected 346 prevalent and incident PD patients from 2 hospitals. Baseline demographic data and clinical characteristics were recorded. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) was measured at baseline and prior to peritonitis. The mean doses of oral active vitamin D used during the study period were also recorded. The outcome was the occurrence of peritonitis. ♦ The mean age of patients and duration of PD were 58.95 ± 13.67 years and 28.45 (15.04 - 53.37) months, respectively. Baseline 25(OH)D level was 16.15 (12.13 - 21.16) nmol/L, which was closely associated with diabetic status, longer PD duration, malnutrition, and inflammation. Baseline serum 25(OH)D predicted the occurrence of peritonitis independently of active vitamin D supplementation with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90 - 0.98) after adjusting for recognized confounders (age, gender, dialysis duration, diabetes, albumin, residual renal function, and history of peritonitis). Compared to the low tertile, middle and high 25(OH)D level tertiles were associated with a decreased risk for peritonitis with HRs of 0.54 (95% CI 0.31 - 0.94) and 0.39 (95% CI 0.20 - 0.75), respectively. ♦ Vitamin D deficiency evaluated by serum 25(OH)D rather than active vitamin D supplementation is closely associated with a higher risk of peritonitis. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.