WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk factors inflammation

  1. Risk factors for idiopathic orbital inflammation: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Ward R.; van Gils, Carla H.; Paridaens, Dion; Mourits, Maarten P.; Kalmann, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors involved in the development of idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI). Methods Case-control study of 69 adults who had had a first episode of IOI and 296 adult controls with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) selected from three orbital centres in The

  2. Iron in Child Obesity. Relationships with Inflammation and Metabolic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bouglé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe sequestration is described in overweight and in its associated metabolic complications, i.e., metabolic syndrome (MetS and non-alcoholic liver fatty disease (NAFLD; however, the interactions between Fe, obesity and inflammation make it difficult to recognize the specific role of each of them in the risk of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Even the usual surrogate marker of Fe stores, ferritin, is influenced by inflammation; therefore, in obese subjects inflammation parameters must be measured together with those of Fe metabolism. This cross-sectional study in obese youth (502 patients; 57% girls: 11.4 ± 3.0 years old (x ± SD; BMI z score 5.5 ± 2.3, multivariate regression analysis showed associations between Fe storage assessed by serum ferritin with risk factors for MetS and NAFLD, assessed by transaminase levels, which were independent of overweight and the acute phase protein fibrinogen. Further studies incorporating the measurement of complementary parameters of Fe metabolism could improve the comprehension of mechanisms involved.

  3. Inflammation and infection do not promote arterial aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors among lean horticulturalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane.Peripheral arterial disease (PAD, based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI, and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+. Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI.Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small-scale subsistence

  4. [Chronic low-grade inflammation, lipid risk factors and mortality in functionally dependent elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasović, Olga; Trifunović, Danijela; Despotovié, Nebojsa; Milosević, Dragoslav P

    2010-07-01

    It has been proved that a highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) can be used as an established marker of chronic inflammation for cardiovascular risk assessment. Since mean values of both low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decrease during aging, the knowledge that increased hsCRP concentration predicts mortality (Mt) would influence therapy and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to examine importance of chronic low grade inflammation and its association with lipid risk factors for all-cause Mt in functionally dependent elderly. The participants of this longitudinal prospective study were 257 functionally dependent elderly aged 65-99 years. Baseline measurements: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, hemoglobin Alc (HbA1c) were recorded and different lipid ratios were calculated. Inflammation was assessed by the levels of white blood cells, fibrinogen and hsCRP. The participants with hsCRP grater than 10 mg/L were excluded from the study. The residual participants (77.4% women) were divided into three groups according to their hsCRP levels: a low (agressive lipid lowering treatment.

  5. Obesity and Inflammation: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Markers of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Rodríguez-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions with an increasing worldwide prevalence. The global emergence of obesity increases the risk of developing chronic metabolic disorders. Thus, it is an economic issue that increased the costs of the comorbidities associated. Moreover, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that obesity is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, this status is conditioned by the innate immune system activation in adipose tissue that promotes an increase in the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to the triggering of the systemic acute-phase response which is characterized by elevation of acute-phase protein levels. On this regard, low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic of various chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some cancers, among others, which are also characterized by obesity condition. Thus, a growing body of evidence supports the important role that is played by the inflammatory response in obesity condition and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related.

  6. Chronic low-grade inflammation, lipid risk factors and mortality in functionally dependent elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Olga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It has been proved that a highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP can be used as an established marker of chronic inflammation for cardiovascular risk assessment. Since mean values of both low-density cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C decrease during aging, the knowledge that increased hsCRP concentration predicts mortality (Mt would influence therapy and treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to examine importance of chronic low grade inflammation and its association with lipid risk factors for all-cause Mt in functionally dependent elderly. Methods. The participants of this longitudinal prospective study were 257 functionally dependent elderly aged 65-99 years. Baseline measurements: anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, non- HDL-C, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c were recorded and different lipid ratios were calculated. Inflammation was assessed by the levels of white blood cells, fibrinogen and hsCRP. The participants with hsCRP grater than 10 mg/L were excluded from the study. The residual participants (77.4% women were divided into three groups according to their hsCRP levels: a low (< 1 mg/L, n = 70, average (1 to 3 mg/L, n = 69, and high (3-10 mg/L, n = 69 hsCRP group. Associations of all-cause Mt with different risk factors were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results. The hsCRP level showed a significant positive correlation with waist (r = 0.199, p = 0.004 and hip (r = 0.187, p = 0.007 circumferences, body mass index (r = 0.143, p = 0.040 and serum triglyceride level (r = 0.139, p = 0.045 and significant negative correlation with HDL-C (r = -0.164, p = 0.018. Ratios TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were significantly smaller in the low hsCRP group compared to the average hsCRP group (p = 0.019, p = 0.045, respectively and without significant differences compared with the high hsCRP group. Two years after the

  7. Malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Choi, Hana; Kim, Kyu-Hwang; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Park, Ki-Soo

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fractures, as defined by the criteria of the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS). A total of 327 elderly patients with hip fractures were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The main outcome measure was the nutritional status and nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients. Diagnosis of sarcopenia was made according to the guidelines of the AWGS. Whole body densitometry analysis was used to measure skeletal muscle mass, and muscle strength was evaluated by handgrip testing. Multivariable regression analysis was utilized to analyze the nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures. Of 327 patients with hip fractures (78 men and 249 women), the prevalence of sarcopenia was 60.3% and 30.1% in men and women, respectively. The rates of three indicators of malnutrition in men and women (low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoproteinemia) in sarcopenia patients with hip fractures were 23.4%, 31.9%, and 53.2% and 21.3%, 21.3%, and 37.3%, respectively. The prevalence of markers of chronic inflammation (increased CRP and ESR) in men and women with sarcopenia and hip fractures were 74.9% and 52.2%, and 49.3% and 85.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, low BMI and hypoproteinemia in women were associated with a 2.9- and 2.1-fold greater risk of sarcopenia than non-sarcopenia, respectively. The present study revealed a strong relationship between sarcopenia and malnutrition and chronic inflammatory factors in elderly patients with hip fractures.

  8. Depressive symptoms and inflammation are independent risk factors of fatigue in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C; Miller, A H; Felger, J; Mister, D; Liu, T; Torres, M A

    2017-07-01

    Psychosocial and inflammatory factors have been associated with fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Nevertheless, the relative contribution and/or interaction of these factors with cancer-related fatigue have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study enrolled 111 stage 0-III breast cancer patients treated with breast surgery followed by whole breast radiotherapy. Fatigue was measured by the total score of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20. Potential risk factors included inflammatory markers (plasma cytokines and their receptors and C-reactive protein; CRP), depressive symptoms (as assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Reported), sleep (as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and perceived stress (as assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale) as well as age, race, marital status, smoking history, menopause status, endocrine treatment, chemotherapy and cancer stage. Linear regression modeling was employed to examine risk factors of fatigue. Only risk factors with a significance level fatigue. At 1 year post-radiotherapy, depressive symptoms (pfatigue. Mediation analysis showed that depressive symptoms also mediated the associations of fatigue with sleep and stress. Depressive symptoms and inflammation were independent risk factors for cancer-related fatigue at 1 year post-radiotherapy, and thus represent independent treatment targets for this debilitating symptom.

  9. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore...... to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection...... in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6...

  10. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  11. Liver inflammation is a Risk Factor for Prediabetes in At-Risk Latinos with and without Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Blaire E; Bacchetti, Peter; Ayala, Claudia E.; Gelman, Nicholas; Melgar, Jennifer; Khalili, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Early recognition of prediabetes can lead to timely clinical interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Both Latino ethnicity and chronic hepatitis C (HCV) have been identified as diabetic risk factors. We aimed to investigate predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), a common prediabetic state, among Latinos with and without HCV. Methods One hundred Latino adults with no history of diabetes or cirrhosis underwent clinical, laboratory, and metabolic evaluation, including oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and insulin suppression testing to quantify directly measured insulin resistance (IR). Isolated IFG was defined as fasting glucose ≥100mg/dL and prediabetes among Latinos with and without HCV. Among HCV-infected individuals, early antiviral therapy could mitigate the effect of inflammation and represent an important intervention to prevent diabetes in this at-risk population. PMID:25156890

  12. Cumulative childhood risk is associated with a new measure of chronic inflammation in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Moffitt, Terrie E; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). We aimed to test...... the hypothesis that childhood exposure to risk factors for adult disease is associated with elevated suPAR in adulthood and to compare suPAR with the oft-reported inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: Prospective study of a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort; the Dunedin...... Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years. Main childhood predictors were poor health, socioeconomic disadvantage, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), low IQ, and poor self-control. Main adult outcomes were adulthood inflammation measured as suPAR and high...

  13. Inflammation-modulating cytokine profile and lipid interaction in HIV-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gori E

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Gori,1,2 Takafira Mduluza,3,4 Mudavanhu Nyagura,2 Babill Stray-Pedersen,5 Zvenyika Alfred Gomo1 1Chemical Pathology Department, College of Health Sciences, 2Preclinical Veterinary Studies Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, 3Biochemistry Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; 4School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway Abstract: HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART are associated with changes in plasma levels of lipoproteins, thus posing the risk of cardiovascular complications in infected individuals. The alteration in plasma lipoprotein levels results from dysregulation of inflammation-modulating cytokines that control lipid metabolism. Little is understood regarding the relationship between the cytokines and serum lipid levels, which have been reported to be altered in adults receiving ART. The objective of this study was to describe the profiles of inflammation-modulating cytokines and their relationship to lipids as cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in HIV infection. This observational cross-sectional study measured plasma levels of interleukin (IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, IL-4, total cholesterol (TC, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c in HIV-infected and uninfected adults. A total of 219 HIV-infected participants were enrolled from an HIV treatment center; of them, 187 were receiving ART and 32 were ART naïve, while 65 were HIV-uninfected blood donors. HIV-infected individuals had higher levels of IL-10 (HIV-infected ART-naïve [P=0.0024] and ART-receiving [P=0.033] than their uninfected counterparts. ART-naïve subjects had significantly higher plasma levels of IL-10 than ART-receiving subjects (P=0.0014. No significant difference was observed in plasma levels of IL-4 and TNF

  14. Effect of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Suen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS and inflammatory processes initiate the first stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Flavonoid consumption has been related to significantly improved flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are thought to be involved. The effect of flavonoids on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in at risk individuals is yet to be reviewed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases. Randomised controlled trials in a Western country providing a food-based flavonoid intervention to participants with one or two modifiable risk factors for CVD measuring a marker of OS and/or inflammation, were included. Reference lists were hand-searched. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. The search strategy retrieved 1248 articles. Nineteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Eight studies were considered at low risk of bias. Cocoa flavonoids provided to Type 2 diabetics and olive oil flavonoids to mildly-hypertensive women reduced OS and inflammation. Other food sources had weaker effects. No consistent effect on OS and inflammation across patients with varied CVD risk factors was observed. Study heterogeneity posed a challenge for inter-study comparisons. Rigorously designed studies will assist in determining the effectiveness of flavonoid interventions for reducing OS and inflammation in patients at risk of CVD.

  15. Effect of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Jenni; Thomas, Jolene; Kranz, Amelia; Vun, Simon; Miller, Michelle

    2016-09-14

    Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes initiate the first stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Flavonoid consumption has been related to significantly improved flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are thought to be involved. The effect of flavonoids on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in at risk individuals is yet to be reviewed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SCOPUS databases. Randomised controlled trials in a Western country providing a food-based flavonoid intervention to participants with one or two modifiable risk factors for CVD measuring a marker of OS and/or inflammation, were included. Reference lists were hand-searched. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess study quality. The search strategy retrieved 1248 articles. Nineteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Eight studies were considered at low risk of bias. Cocoa flavonoids provided to Type 2 diabetics and olive oil flavonoids to mildly-hypertensive women reduced OS and inflammation. Other food sources had weaker effects. No consistent effect on OS and inflammation across patients with varied CVD risk factors was observed. Study heterogeneity posed a challenge for inter-study comparisons. Rigorously designed studies will assist in determining the effectiveness of flavonoid interventions for reducing OS and inflammation in patients at risk of CVD.

  16. Association of malnutrition-inflammation score, dialysis-malnutrition score and serum albumin with novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'habi, Atefeh; Tabibi, Hadi; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Nozary-Heshmati, Behnaz

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the associations between malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), dialysis-malnutrition score (DMS) and serum albumin with novel risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 291 HD patients were randomly selected from among 2302 adult HD patients in Tehran HD centers. The MIS and DMS were determined during one of the dialysis sessions in these patients. In addition, 4 mL blood was obtained before dialysis and analyzed for serum albumin and novel risk factors for CVD, including C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1), sE-selectin, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)]. MIS and DMS were significantly positively correlated with serum CRP (p protein-energy wasting indicators in HD patients are associated with serum CRP and sICAM-1, as two CVD risk factors.

  17. Interactions among insulin resistance, inflammation factors, obesity-related gene polymorphisms, environmental risk factors, and diet in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yang; Jiang, Chen-Dong; Chang, Ai-Min; Shi, Ying; Gao, Junjun; Zhu, Linlin; Zhang, Zhan

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations and interactions between the polymorphisms of insulin resistance-related genes (ADIPOQ rs2241766), inflammation factors (TNF-α rs1800629, IL-6 rs1800795), obesity-related genes (GNB3 rs5443, ADRB rs1042714), and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) such as diet structure in the development of GDM. This research was conducted among women who visited the third-affiliate hospital of Zhengzhou University for pregnancy checkups from 1 June 2014 to 30 December 2014. Based on the results of a 75-g glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 140 pregnant women with GDM were randomly selected as a part of the GDM group and140 healthy, pregnant women as part of the control group. Relevant clinical and laboratory data for the child and the mother including her pregnancy outcomes and the delivery mode were collected for the epidemiological survey. The results showed that risk factors for GDM are advanced age, the hepatitis B virus, family history of diabetes, high body mass index before pregnancy, and weight gain of ≥10 kg before 24-week gestation. We found that diet structures were severely unbalanced. The polymorphisms rs2241766 and rs5443 were found to potentially be associated with GDM; moreover, a positive interaction was demonstrated between rs2241766 and age, and a negative interaction was demonstrated with weight gain of ≥10 kg before 24-week gestation. Our findings demonstrate that both environmental risk factors and genetic background contribute to the development of GDM.

  18. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation? A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Osler, Merete; Schmidt, Lone

    2018-06-01

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6 was significantly higher among men with male factor infertility compared with other men adjusted for potential confounders. This was not found for the two other inflammatory markers. The lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility were 10.2% and 17.9%, respectively. The findings suggest that male factor infertility might be associated with an increased level of interleukin-6.

  19. [Vaginal disbacteriosis--social and sexual risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health.

  20. Cumulative childhood risk is associated with a new measure of chronic inflammation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Moffitt, Terrie E; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate M; Poulton, Richie; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2018-05-09

    Childhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). We aimed to test the hypothesis that childhood exposure to risk factors for adult disease is associated with elevated suPAR in adulthood and to compare suPAR with the oft-reported inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Prospective study of a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years. Main childhood predictors were poor health, socioeconomic disadvantage, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), low IQ, and poor self-control. Main adult outcomes were adulthood inflammation measured as suPAR and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP). Participants with available plasma samples at age 38 were included (N = 837, 50.5% male). suPAR (mean 2.40 ng/ml; SD 0.91) was positively correlated with hsCRP (r 0.15, p childhood risks were aggregated into a Cumulative Childhood Risk index, and controlling for sex, BMI, and smoking, Cumulative Childhood Risk was associated with higher suPAR (b 0.10; SE 0.03; p = .002). Cumulative Childhood Risk predicted elevated suPAR, after controlling for hsCRP (b 0.18; SE 0.03; p childhood risk factors was associated with higher suPAR levels, independent of CRP. suPAR is a useful addition to studies connecting childhood risk to adult inflammatory burden. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Paska A.; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

  2. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prostate cancer aetiology, with a specific focus on recent advances regarding the following: (i) potential stimuli for prostatic inflammation; (ii) prostate cancer immunobiology; (iii) inflammatory pathways and cytokines in prostate cancer risk and development; (iv) proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) as a risk factor lesion to prostate cancer development; and (v) the role of nutritional or other antiinflammatory compounds in reducing prostate cancer risk. PMID:22212087

  3. An inflammation-responsive transcription factor in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Alpana; Ray, Bimal K

    2008-01-01

    A number of risk factors including biomechanical stress on the articular cartilage imposed by joint overloading due to obesity, repetitive damage of the joint tissues by injury of the menisci and ligaments, and abnormal joint alignment play a significant role in the onset of osteoarthritis (OA). Genetic predisposition can also lead to the formation of defective cartilage matrix because of abnormal gene expression in the cartilage-specific cells. Another important biochemical event in OA is the consequence of inflammation. It has been shown that synovial inflammation triggers the synthesis of biological stimuli such as cytokines and growth factors which subsequently reach the chondrocyte cells of the articular cartilage activating inflammatory events in the chondrocytes leading to cartilage destruction. In addition to cartilage degradation, hypertrophy of the subchondral bone and osteophyte formation at the joint margins also takes place in OA. Both processes involve abnormal expression of a number of genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for cartilage degradation and those associated with bone formation during osteophyte development. To address how diverse groups of genes are activated in OA chondrocyte, we have studied their induction mechanism. We present evidence for abundant expression of an inflammation-responsive transcription factor, SAF-1, in moderate to severely damaged OA cartilage tissues. In contrast, cells in normal cartilage matrix contain very low level of SAF-1 protein. SAF-1 is identified as a major regulator of increased synthesis of MMP-1 and -9 and pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). While VEGF by stimulating angiogenesis plays a key role in new bone formation in osteophyte, increase of MMP-1 and -9 is instrumental for cartilage erosion in the pathogenesis of OA. Increased expression in degenerated cartilage matrix and in the osteophytes indicate for a key regulatory role of SAF-1 in directing catabolic

  4. Contamination Level of Staphylococcus spp. in Raw Goat Milk and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in raw goat milk by using Staphylococcus spp. as indicator bacteria, and also to evaluate the potential risk factors associated with them. Information regarding potential risk factors was collected by questionnaire. The conventional bacteriological method for bacterial isolation and the indirect test (California Mastitis Test (CMT for determining udder inflammation status were employed. A sample size of 300 udder halves milk samples from three commercial dairy goat farms in the Bogor District, West Java Province, Indonesia were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median value of indicator bacterial count from overall udder-half milk samples was 3.00 log cfu/ml. The indicator bacterial count from udder-half milk samples was significantly different (P<0.05 among farms. Overall prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. was 78.7%. As one of potential risk factors, udder inflammation status was found to be risk factor for Staphylococcus spp. contamination in milk. Udders with inflammation had significant association and a higher chance of having contaminated samples by Staphylococcus spp. as compared to udders without inflammation. Additionally, according to these study results, CMT can be used as an effective, reliable, cheap and “farm and farmer friendly test” for screening test of intramammary infection (IMI or sub clinical mastitis in dairy goats.

  5. Homocysteine and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, N; Samir, N; Megahed, H; Farid, E

    2014-11-01

    Chronic inflammation was found to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk factors. Homocysteine (Hcy) and fibrinogen have been identified as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lichen planus is assumed to be closely related to dyslipidaemia. Several cytokines involved in lichen planus pathogenesis, could explain its association with dyslipidaemia. Also chronic inflammation with lichen planus has been suggested as a component of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to detect a panel of cardiovascular risk factors in patients of lichen planus. This study was done on 40 patients of lichen planus and 40 healthy controls. All patients and controls were subjected to clinical examination. Serum levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Metabolic syndrome parameters including anthropometric measures, lipid profiles, blood sugar and blood pressure were studied. Patients with lichen planus showed significant association with metabolic syndrome parameters than controls (P lichen planus patients than controls (P lichen planus were found to have higher makers of both metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in relation to controls most probably due to long standing inflammation. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Modifiable risk factors in periodontitis: at the intersection of aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation is a prominent feature of aging and of common age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer and periodontitis. This volume examines modifiable risk factors for periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Oral bacterial communities and viral infections, particularly with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses, elicit distinct immune responses and are central in the initiation of periodontal diseases. Risk of disease is dynamic and changes in response to complex interactions of genetic, environmental and stochastic factors over the lifespan. Many modifiable risk factors, such as smoking and excess caloric intake, contribute to increases in systemic markers of inflammation and can modify gene regulation through a variety of biologic mechanisms (e.g. epigenetic modifications). Periodontitis and other common chronic inflammatory diseases share multiple modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, psychological stress and depression, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. Interventions that target modifiable risk factors have the potential to improve risk profiles for periodontitis as well as for other common chronic diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Immune-Mediated Inflammation Promotes Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Recent-Onset Psoriatic Arthritis Patients without Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo A. Kolliker Frers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the inflammatory burden in recent-onset psoriatic arthritis (PsA patients without conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs are not available. This preliminary study focuses on cardiovascular risk in cutaneous psoriasis (CPs and recent-onset PsA patients. Blood biochemistry (glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, lipid profile and apolipoprotein B was analyzed using standard kits. Proatherogenic inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, and endothelial activators monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ultrasound images allowed measuring carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT. Our study first shows an increase in cIMT, and in serum levels of sICAM-1 and CRP in recent-onset PsA patients not presenting conventional CVRFs over the non-medicated time-period, from disease diagnosis to the beginning of pharmacological treatment, compared with healthy subjects. The outcome highlights the importance of monitoring serum level of sICAM1, CRP, and cIMT, and the value of primary prevention in psoriatic patients even with no history of cardiovascular events.

  8. Phenylketonuria is not a risk factor for changes of inflammation status as assessed by interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozrzymas, Renata; Duś-Żuchowska, Monika; Kałużny, Łukasz; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    High oxidative stress and a reduced potential for free radical scavenging in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, a phenomenon confirmed in a few studies, may lead to systemic chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare the inflammation status, as assessed by interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 concentrations, in patients with PKU and in healthy controls. Twenty patients with classical PKU, aged 18-34 years and under dietary control, were enrolled in the study. The control group comprised of 20 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Interleukin 6 and 8 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in all study participants. IL-6 concentrations in the study group ranged from 0.74 pg/ml to 1.34 pg/ml. No significant differences were found between IL-6 concentration between the study group and the control group (p = 0.989). IL-8 concentrations ranged from 17.56 pg/ml to 20.87 pg/ml. The obtained results of IL-8 levels did not differ significantly between the study group and control group (p = 0.192). No significant correlation was observed between Phe blood levels and IL-6 or IL-8 concentrations in the study group (ρ respectively: -0.225, 0.177). In a multivariate analysis, neither IL-6 nor IL-8 concentrations were correlated with sex, age, BMI and Phe levels. Phenylketonuria is not a risk factor for changes of inflammation status as assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations.

  9. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and inflammation: Prospects for biomarkers of risk and nutritional intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Badawi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alaa Badawi1, Amira Klip2, Pierre Haddad3, David EC Cole4, Bibiana Garcia Bailo1,5, Ahmed El-Sohemy5, Mohamed Karmali11Office for Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Natural Health Products and Metabolic Diseases Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology and Montreal Diabetes Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which is a significant health problem worldwide. Active disease is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation resulting in part from the activation of the innate immune system. In obesity, this activation leads to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 that block major anabolic cascades downstream of insulin signaling and thus disrupt insulin homeostasis and action. Cytokines also trigger the production of acute-phase reactants such as C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, serum amyloid-A, and haptoglobin. The elevated synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins (inflammatory network characterizes the early (or pre-clinical stages of T2DM and exhibits a graded increase with the disease progression. Current evidence suggests that understanding inflammatory networks can point to new biomarkers that may permit capturing the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Such biomarkers have a significant public health potential in the prediction of disease occurrence beyond risk factors presently monitored, such as family history, lifestyle assessment and standard clinical chemistry profiles. Furthermore, inflammatory markers may assist in the

  10. The epigenetic factor PCAF regulates vascular inflammation and is essential for intimal hyperplasia development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob C M de Jong

    Full Text Available Genetic P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF variation affects restenosis-risk in patients. PCAF has lysine acetyltransferase activity and promotes nuclear factor kappa-beta (NFκB-mediated inflammation, which drives post-interventional intimal hyperplasia development. We studied the contributing role of PCAF in post-interventional intimal hyperplasia.PCAF contribution to inflammation and intimal hyperplasia was assessed in leukocytes, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in vitro and in a mouse model for intimal hyperplasia, in which a cuff is placed around the femoral artery. PCAF deficiency downregulate CCL2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs, leukocytes and macrophages. PCAF KO mice showed a 71.8% reduction of vSMC-rich intimal hyperplasia, a 73.4% reduction of intima/media ratio and a 63.7% reduction of luminal stenosis after femoral artery cuff placement compared to wild type (WT mice. The association of PCAF and vascular inflammation was further investigated using the potent natural PCAF inhibitor garcinol. Garcinol treatment reduced CCL2 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs and leukocytes. To assess the effect of garcinol treatment on vascular inflammation we used hypercholesterolemic ApoE*3-Leiden mice. After cuff placement, garcinol treatment resulted in reduced arterial leukocyte and macrophage adherence and infiltration after three days compared to untreated animals.These results identify a vital role for the lysine acetyltransferase PCAF in the regulation of local inflammation after arterial injury and likely the subsequent vSMC proliferation, responsible for intimal hyperplasia.

  11. On the heart, the mind, and how inflammation killed the Cartesian dualism. Commentary on the 2015 Named Series: Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Valeria; Pariante, Carmine M

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 Named Series on "Psychological Risk Factors and Immune System Involvement in Cardiovascular Disease" was conceived with the idea of drawing attention to the interdisciplinary work aimed at investigating the relationships between the heart, metabolic system, brain, and mental health. In this commentary, we provide a brief overview of the manuscripts included in this Named Series and highlight how a better understanding of immune regulation will help us to move forward from the current "dualistic" perspective of the heart as separate from the mind to a more comprehensive understanding of the physiological links between cardiovascular and mental disorders. The manuscripts included in this Named Series range across a wide spectrum of topics, from understanding biological mechanisms explaining comorbidity between cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders to new insights into the dysregulation of inflammation associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Clearly, inflammation emerges as a cross-cutting theme across all studies. Data presented in this Series contribute to putting an end to an era in which the heart and the mind were considered to be separate entities in which the responses of one system did not affect the other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Placental histological inflammation and reproductive tract infections in a low risk pregnant population in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeberga, Dace; Lazdane, Gunta; Kroica, Juta; Sokolova, Ludmila; Donders, Gilbert G G

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and endogenous vaginal flora at first antenatal consultation with placental histological inflammation. In a follow-up study, 154 low risk women with no miscarriage risk factors were examined for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (GDS) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). At delivery, outcome data were collected and the histology of the placenta was studied. Some 85 (56.3%) of all pregnant women had RTI or endogenous vaginal flora. Placental histological inflammation correlated with genital tract colonisation with G. vaginalis (p =0.013), BV (p =0.031), S. aureus (p =0.04) and aerobic vaginitis (p =0.017). BV and BV-related G. vaginalis correlated with the presence of parietal and placental chorioamnionitis in 53.8 and 43.5% of cases. Genital tract colonisation with GDS and other aerobic flora in combination with inflammatory vaginitis correlated with the presence of funisitis in 33.3 and 40.0% of cases. Mycoplasmas increased the risk for intrauterine infection only when present in combination with other RTIs (p =0.023). Histological placental inflammation is associated with both BV and genital tract colonisation with aerobic bacteria, while funisitis is associated with colonisation of aerobic bacteria at first prenatal visit before the 17th gestational week.

  13. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome and chronic inflammation: pharmacotherapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmans, Susan Maureen; Weidman-Evans, Emily; Everton, Victoria; Thompson, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    To examine the relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and chronic inflammation and analyze data regarding pharmacologic therapies that are recommended to reduce CVD risk in PCOS and the impact of those therapies on chronic inflammation. A search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2011) was conducted to identify clinical studies pertaining to the identification and treatment of CVD and chronic low-grade inflammation in PCOS. Search terms included polycystic ovary syndrome, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, metformin, thiazolidinedione, and statin. Bibliographies of these studies and review articles were also examined. English-language clinical studies evaluating the effect of metformin, thiazolidinediones, and statins on inflammatory markers, endothelial function, adhesion molecules, fibrinolysis, cytokines, and adipokines in PCOS were included. Women with PCOS have an increased prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, android fat distribution, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Markers of chronic low-grade inflammation, which are associated with an increased risk of CVD, are also elevated in PCOS. Clinical guidelines recommend the use of insulin sensitizers and statins to prevent CVD in some patients with PCOS. Current literature indicates that each of these medication classes has beneficial effects on inflammation, as well. Although there are currently no studies to determine whether these treatments decrease CVD in PCOS, it can be hypothesized that drugs impacting chronic inflammation may reduce cardiovascular risk. Some studies show that metformin, thiazolidinediones, and statins have beneficial effects on inflammatory markers in PCOS; however, the data are inconsistent. There is insufficient information to recommend any pharmacologic therapies for their antiinflammatory effects in PCOS in the

  15. Portal vein thrombosis; risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, Kirstine K; Astrup, Lone B; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    and treatment of portal vein thrombosis in a single-centre. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients were identified in the electronic records from 1992 to 2005. All data were obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: One or more risk factors (e.g. prothrombotic disorder or abdominal inflammation) were present in 87......BACKGROUND: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly frequently being diagnosed, but systematic descriptions of the natural history and clinical handling of the condition are sparse. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe risk factors, clinical presentation, complications...

  16. Perinatal risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy: an unmatched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tann, Cally J; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Willey, Barbara A; Sewegaba, Margaret; Webb, Emily L; Oke, Ibby; Mutuuza, Emmanuel Derek; Peebles, Donald; Musoke, Margaret; Harris, Kathryn A; Sebire, Neil J; Klein, Nigel; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Elliott, Alison M; Robertson, Nicola J

    2018-05-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is the third leading cause of child mortality. Preclinical studies suggest infection and inflammation can sensitise or precondition the newborn brain to injury. This study examined perinatal risks factor for NE in Uganda. Unmatched case-control study. Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. 210 term infants with NE and 409 unaffected term infants as controls were recruited over 13 months. Data were collected on preconception, antepartum and intrapartum exposures. Blood culture, species-specific bacterial real-time PCR, C reactive protein and placental histology for chorioamnionitis and funisitis identified maternal and early newborn infection and inflammation. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations with NE. Neonatal bacteraemia (adjusted OR (aOR) 8.67 (95% CI 1.51 to 49.74), n=315) and histological funisitis (aOR 11.80 (95% CI 2.19 to 63.45), n=162) but not chorioamnionitis (aOR 3.20 (95% CI 0.66 to 15.52), n=162) were independent risk factors for NE. Among encephalopathic infants, neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher when exposed to early neonatal bacteraemia (OR 1.65 (95% CI 0.62 to 4.39), n=208). Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve neonatal survival (p=0.826). After regression analysis, other identified perinatal risk factors (n=619) included hypertension in pregnancy (aOR 3.77), male infant (aOR 2.51), non-cephalic presentation (aOR 5.74), lack of fetal monitoring (aOR 2.75), augmentation (aOR 2.23), obstructed labour (aOR 3.8) and an acute intrapartum event (aOR 8.74). Perinatal infection and inflammation are independent risk factors for NE in this low-resource setting, supporting a role in the aetiological pathway of term brain injury. Intrapartum antibiotic administration did not mitigate against adverse outcomes. The importance of intrapartum risk factors in this sub-Saharan African setting is highlighted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  17. The Interplay between Inflammation and Fibrosis in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serial surveillance renal allograft biopsies have shown that early subclinical inflammation constitutes a risk factor for the development of interstitial fibrosis. More recently, it has been observed that persistent inflammation is also associated with fibrosis progression and chronic humoral rejection, two histological conditions associated with poor allograft survival. Treatment of subclinical inflammation with steroid boluses prevents progression of fibrosis and preserves renal function in patients treated with a cyclosporine-based regimen. Subclinical inflammation has been reduced after the introduction of tacrolimus based regimens, and it has been shown that immunosuppressive schedules that are effective in preventing acute rejection and subclinical inflammation may prevent the progression of fibrosis and chronic humoral rejection. On the other hand, minimization protocols are associated with progression of fibrosis, and noncompliance with the immunosuppressive regime constitutes a major risk factor for chronic humoral rejection. Thus, adequate immunosuppressive treatment, avoiding minimization strategies and reinforcing educational actions to prevent noncompliance, is at present an effective approach to combat the progression of fibrosis.

  18. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  19. Platelet activation and inflammation markers as emerging risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Platelet activation and inflammation markers were assessed by measuring plasma levels of sP-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF4), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Results: HIV infected patients had higher levels of sP- selectin, PF4 and IL-6 than uninfected controls (p<0.001). ART naïve subjects had higher levels ...

  20. Adverse Psychosocial, socioeconomic, and developmental processes and risk of inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters

    Introduction: Identifying risk factors for inflammation and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at different times over life could help to inform on prevention strategies aimed at reducing the later monetary and human cost associated with T2DM and inflammatory mediated diseases. Aim: The overall......, the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study. All three of the data sets included comprehensive life style, socioeconomic and health status measurements and a clinical examination. The two main statistical methods employed in this thesis are path analysis...... and multivariable logistic regression. Results: In study I, maternal pre-pregnancy-BMI was associated with offspring inflammation through its effect on offspring body weight in adult life. Higher body weight at birth was protective against later inflammation independently of adult body size however increases...

  1. Sex Differences in Depression: Does Inflammation Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Padin, Avelina C; Kuo, Jennifer L; Hughes, Spenser; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-10-01

    Women become depressed more frequently than men, a consistent pattern across cultures. Inflammation plays a key role in initiating depression among a subset of individuals, and depression also has inflammatory consequences. Notably, women experience higher levels of inflammation and greater autoimmune disease risk compared to men. In the current review, we explore the bidirectional relationship between inflammation and depression and describe how this link may be particularly relevant for women. Compared to men, women may be more vulnerable to inflammation-induced mood and behavior changes. For example, transient elevations in inflammation prompt greater feelings of loneliness and social disconnection for women than for men, which can contribute to the onset of depression. Women also appear to be disproportionately affected by several factors that elevate inflammation, including prior depression, somatic symptomatology, interpersonal stressors, childhood adversity, obesity, and physical inactivity. Relationship distress and obesity, both of which elevate depression risk, are also more strongly tied to inflammation for women than for men. Taken together, these findings suggest that women's susceptibility to inflammation and its mood effects may contribute to sex differences in depression. Depression continues to be a leading cause of disability worldwide, with women experiencing greater risk than men. Due to the depression-inflammation connection, these patterns may promote additional health risks for women. Considering the impact of inflammation on women's mental health may foster a better understanding of sex differences in depression, as well as the selection of effective depression treatments.

  2. Lipid profile, hyperglycaemia, systemic inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and nutrition challenges in Southern Africa. ... and anthropometry as cardiovascular risk factors and their association with dietary intakes in ... Hyperglycaemia and systemic inflammation was also prevalent, but no obesity was observed.

  3. Low somatic cell count : a risk factor for subsequent clinical mastitis in a dairy herd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriyasathaporn, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Nielen, M.; Brand, A.

    2000-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate factors measured at the udder inflammation-free state as risk factors for subsequent clinical mastitis. The factors including somatic cell count (SCC), body condition score, milk yield, percentages of milk fat and milk protein, and diseases were

  4. The impact of passive and active smoking on inflammation, lipid profile and the risk of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Ritienne; Dingli, Philip; Doggen, Carine J M; Cassar, Karen; Farrugia, Rosienne; Wettinger, Stephanie Bezzina

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of passive smoking, active smoking and smoking cessation on inflammation, lipid profile and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 423 cases with a first MI and 465 population controls from the Maltese Acute Myocardial Infarction (MAMI) Study were analysed. Data were collected through an interviewer-led questionnaire, and morning fasting blood samples were obtained. ORs adjusted for the conventional risk factors of MI (aORs) were calculated as an estimate of the relative risk of MI. The influence of smoking on biochemical parameters was determined among controls. Current smokers had a 2.7-fold (95% CI 1.7 to 4.2) and ex-smokers a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.0 to 2.4) increased risk of MI. Risk increased with increasing pack-years and was accompanied by an increase in high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels and an abnormal lipid profile. Smoking cessation was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Exposure to passive smoking increased the risk of MI (aOR 3.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 6.3)), with the OR being higher for individuals exposed to passive smoking in a home rather than in a public setting (aOR 2.0 (95% CI 0.7 to 5.6) vs aOR 1.2 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.0)). Passive smoke exposure was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compared with individuals not exposed to passive smoking. Both active and passive smoking are strong risk factors for MI. This risk increased with increasing pack-years and decreased with smoking cessation. Such effects may be partly mediated through the influence of smoking on inflammation and lipid metabolism.

  5. So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Pasco, Julie A; Moylan, Steven; Allen, Nicholas B; Stuart, Amanda L; Hayley, Amie C; Byrne, Michelle L; Maes, Michael

    2013-09-12

    We now know that depression is associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response and activation of cell-mediated immunity, as well as activation of the compensatory anti-inflammatory reflex system. It is similarly accompanied by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), which contribute to neuroprogression in the disorder. The obvious question this poses is 'what is the source of this chronic low-grade inflammation?' This review explores the role of inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress as possible mediators of known environmental risk factors in depression, and discusses potential implications of these findings. A range of factors appear to increase the risk for the development of depression, and seem to be associated with systemic inflammation; these include psychosocial stressors, poor diet, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, altered gut permeability, atopy, dental cares, sleep and vitamin D deficiency. The identification of known sources of inflammation provides support for inflammation as a mediating pathway to both risk and neuroprogression in depression. Critically, most of these factors are plastic, and potentially amenable to therapeutic and preventative interventions. Most, but not all, of the above mentioned sources of inflammation may play a role in other psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism and post-traumatic stress disorder.

  6. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  7. WNT signaling pathway gene polymorphisms and risk of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in HCV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Liu

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, a highly lethal malignancy with rapidly increasing prevalence in the United States. Little is known about genetic variations and HCC risk. This study aimed to determine if genetic variation in Wnt signaling pathway genes are associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis and inflammation risk in a hepatitis C virus (HCV infected population.We performed a genetic association cross-sectional study evaluating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 58 candidate genes and risk of FibroSURE-Acti Test determined advanced fibrosis (F3/F4-F4 advanced cases vs. F0-F3 mild controls and inflammation (A2/A3-A3 advanced cases vs. A0-A2 mild controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs employing multivariate logistic regression. Haplotypes were inferred by the HAPLO.STAT program, interactions were evaluated using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR analysis.Among 425 chronically HCV-infected male veterans, 155 (37% had advanced fibrosis and 180 (42% had advanced inflammation. Of 3016 SNPs evaluated, eight were significantly associated with fibrosis risk (e.g., SFRP2 rs11937424: OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.23, P = 0.00004, and seven were significantly associated with inflammation risk (e.g., SFRP1 rs16890282: OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.39-3.16, P = 0.0004. MDR analysis identified overweight/obese, SOST rs1405952, SFRP2 rs11937424, and FZD4 rs11234870 as the best interaction model for predicting risk of fibrosis; whereas race/ethnicity, FZD1 rs1346665, and TBX3 rs1520177 as the best interaction model for predicting risk of inflammation.Polymorphisms in several genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway were associated with hepatic fibrosis or inflammation risk in HCV-infected males. Additional studies in other multi-ethnic HCV cohorts are needed to validate our findings in males and to assess if similar associations exist in chronically HCV

  8. The Role of Inflammation in Venous Thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Branchford

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT, and pulmonary embolism (PE, is becoming increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics, particularly among hospitalized children. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that suggests the inflammatory response may be a cause, as well as consequence, of VTE, but current anticoagulation treatment regimens are not designed to inhibit inflammation. In fact, many established clinical VTE risk factors such as surgery, obesity, cystic fibrosis, sepsis, systemic infection, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and lupus likely modulate thrombosis through inflammatory mediators. Unlike other traumatic mechanisms of thrombosis involving vascular transection and subsequent exposure of subendothelial collagen and other procoagulant extracellular matrix materials, inflammation of the vessel wall may initiate thrombosis on an intact vein. Activation of endothelial cells, platelets, and leukocytes with subsequent formation of microparticles can trigger the coagulation system through the induction of tissue factor (TF. Identification of biomarkers to evaluate VTE risk could be of great use to the clinician caring for a patient with inflammatory disease to guide decisions regarding the risk:benefit ratio of various types of potential thromboprophylaxis strategies, or suggest a role for anti-inflammatory therapy. Unfortunately, no such validated inflammatory scoring system yet exists, though research in this area is ongoing. Elevation of C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha during a response to systemic inflammation have been associated with increased VTE risk. Consequent platelet activation enhances the prothrombotic state, leading to VTE development, particularly in patients with other risk factors, most notably central venous catheters.

  9. Critical role of aldehydes in cigarette smoke-induced acute airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; de Bruin, Harold G.; Gras, Renee; Rezayat, Delaram; Jorge, Lucie; Sandra, Koen; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking (CS) is the most important risk factor for COPD, which is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. We hypothesize, that highly reactive aldehydes are critical for CS-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation. Methods: BALB/c mice were exposed to CS, water

  10. Cognitive patterns in relation to biomarkers of cerebrovascular disease and vascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; López-Oloriz, Jorge; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Galán, Amparo; Cáceres, Cynthia; Alzamora, Maite; Pera, Guillem; Toran, Pere; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) are the same as traditional risk factors for cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Early identification of subjects at higher risk of VCI is important for the development of effective preventive strategies. In addition to traditional vascular risk factors (VRF), circulating biomarkers have emerged as potential tools for early diagnoses, as they could provide in vivo measures of the underlying pathophysiology. While VRF have been consistently linked to a VCI profile (i.e., deficits in executive functions and processing speed), the cognitive correlates of CVD biomarkers remain unclear. In this population-based study, the aim was to study and compare cognitive patterns in relation to VRF and circulating biomarkers of CVD. The Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study included 747 subjects older than 50, without a prior history of stroke or coronary disease and with a moderate to high vascular risk (mean age, 66 years; 34.1% women). Three cognitive domains were derived from factoral analysis: visuospatial skills/speed, verbal memory and verbal fluency. Multiple linear regression was used to assess relationships between cognitive performance (multiple domains) and a panel of circulating biomarkers, including indicators of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and resistin, endothelial dysfunction, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), thrombosis, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), as well as traditional VRF, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, years of education and depressive symptoms. Traditional VRF were related to lower performance in verbal fluency, insulin resistance accounted for lower performance in visuospatial skills/speed and the metabolic syndrome predicted lower performance in both cognitive domains. From the biomarkers of CVD, CRP was negatively related to verbal fluency performance and increasing ADMA

  11. Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.

  12. Racial differences in the relationship between clinical prostatitis, presence of inflammation in benign prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, B A; Kryvenko, O N; Wang, Y; Jankowski, M; Trudeau, S; Chitale, D A; Gupta, N S; Rundle, A; Tang, D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies, primarily done in white men, suggest that a history of clinically-diagnosed prostatitis increases prostate cancer risk, but that histological prostate inflammation decreases risk. The relationship between a clinical history of prostatitis and histologic inflammation in terms of how these two manifestations of prostatic inflammation jointly contribute to prostate cancer risk and whether racial differences exist in this relationship is uncertain. Using a nested design within a cohort of men with benign prostate tissue specimens, we analyzed the data on both clinically-diagnosed prostatitis (NIH categories I-III) and histological inflammation in 574 prostate cancer case-control pairs (345 white, 229 African American). Clinical prostatitis was not associated with increased prostate cancer risk in the full sample, but showed a suggestive inverse association with prostate cancer in African Americans (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.27-0.81). In whites, clinical prostatitis increased risk by 40%, but was only associated with a significant increased prostate cancer risk in the absence of evidence of histological inflammation (OR=3.56; 95% CI=1.15-10.99). Moreover, PSA velocity (P=0.008) and frequency of PSA testing (P=0.003) were significant modifiers of risk. Clinical prostatitis increased risk of prostate cancer almost three-fold (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.40-6.30) in white men with low PSA velocity and about twofold in white men with more frequent PSA testing (OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.09-3.35). In our cohort of men with benign prostate specimens, race, and histological inflammation were important cofactors in the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer. Clinical prostatitis was associated with a slightly decreased risk for prostate cancer in African American men. In white men, the relationship between clinical prostatitis and prostate cancer risk was modified by histological prostatic inflammation, PSA velocity, and

  13. Nerve growth factor regulates neurolymphatic remodeling during corneal inflammation and resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci M Fink

    Full Text Available The cellular and physiologic mechanisms that regulate the resolution of inflammation remain poorly defined despite their widespread importance in improving inflammatory disease outcomes. We studied the resolution of two cardinal signs of inflammation-pain and swelling-by investigating molecular mechanisms that regulate neural and lymphatic vessel remodeling during the resolution of corneal inflammation. A mouse model of corneal inflammation and wound recovery was developed to study this process in vivo. Administration of nerve growth factor (NGF increased pain sensation and inhibited neural remodeling and lymphatic vessel regression processes during wound recovery. A complementary in vivo approach, the corneal micropocket assay, revealed that NGF-laden pellets stimulated lymphangiogenesis and increased protein levels of VEGF-C. Adult human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells did not express canonical NGF receptors TrkA and p75NTR or activate downstream MAPK- or Akt-pathway effectors in the presence of NGF, although NGF treatment increased their migratory and tubulogenesis capacities in vitro. Blockade of the VEGF-R2/R3 signaling pathway ablated NGF-mediated lymphangiogenesis in vivo. These findings suggest a hierarchical relationship with NGF functioning upstream of the VEGF family members, particularly VEGF-C, to stimulate lymphangiogenesis. Taken together, these studies show that NGF stimulates lymphangiogenesis and that NGF may act as a pathogenic factor that negatively regulates the normal neural and lymphatic vascular remodeling events that accompany wound recovery.

  14. Biomedical Risk Factors of Achilles Tendinopathy in Physically Active People: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Ashton, Kevin J; Hughes, David C

    2017-12-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is the most prevalent tendon disorder in people engaged in running and jumping sports. Aetiology of Achilles tendinopathy is complex and requires comprehensive research of contributing risk factors. There is relatively little research focussing on potential biomedical risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify studies and summarise current knowledge of biomedical risk factors of Achilles tendinopathy in physically active people. Research databases were searched for relevant articles followed by assessment in accordance with PRISMA statement and standards of Cochrane collaboration. Levels of evidence and quality assessment designation were implemented in accordance with OCEBM levels of evidence and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, respectively. A systematic review of the literature identified 22 suitable articles. All included studies had moderate level of evidence (2b) with the Newcastle-Ottawa score varying between 6 and 9. The majority (17) investigated genetic polymorphisms involved in tendon structure and homeostasis and apoptosis and inflammation pathways. Overweight as a risk factor of Achilles tendinopathy was described in five included studies that investigated non-genetic factors. COL5A1 genetic variants were the most extensively studied, particularly in association with genetic variants in the genes involved in regulation of cell-matrix interaction in tendon and matrix homeostasis. It is important to investigate connections and pathways whose interactions might be disrupted and therefore alter collagen structure and lead to the development of pathology. Polymorphisms in genes involved in apoptosis and inflammation, and Achilles tendinopathy did not show strong association and, however, should be considered for further investigation. This systematic review suggests that biomedical risk factors are an important consideration in the future study of propensity to the development

  15. Influence of pre-existing inflammation on the outcome of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odeberg, J.; Freitag, M.; Forssell, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, less is known about its influence on the outcome of ACS. The aim of this study was to determine if blood biomarkers of inflammation were...... that a pre-existing low-grade inflammation may dispose towards MI over UA....

  16. Inflammation and Cancer: Two Pieces of the Same Puzzle? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation, in Crohn’s disease for example, is a known risk factor for malignant transformation, however the role inflammation plays in cancer initiation is poorly understood. STAT2, an important protein that regulates gene activation, is known to be stimulated by immune factors that inhibit cell growth. STAT2 also has reduced expression in the immune cells of

  17. Cancer-related fatigue--mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E

    2014-10-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common adverse effects of cancer that might persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and might be a risk factor of reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in patients with cancer have been well characterized and there is growing understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation seems to have a key role in fatigue before, during, and after cancer-treatment. However, there is a considerable variability in the presentation of cancer-related fatigue, much of which is not explained by disease-related or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors might be important in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have identified genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioural risk factors associated with cancer-related fatigue. Although no current gold-standard treatment for fatigue is available, a variety of intervention approaches have shown beneficial effects in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. This Review describes the mechanisms, risk factors, and possible interventions for cancer-related fatigue, focusing on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients.

  18. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Risk, and Inflammation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios D. Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and C-reactive protein (CRP in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years. Data was obtained for children’s anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (<0.001 and CRP (<0.007, compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood.

  19. DNA Checkpoint and Repair Factors Are Nuclear Sensors for Intracellular Organelle Stresses—Inflammations and Cancers Can Have High Genomic Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Under inflammatory conditions, inflammatory cells release reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS which cause DNA damage. If not appropriately repaired, DNA damage leads to gene mutations and genomic instability. DNA damage checkpoint factors (DDCF and DNA damage repair factors (DDRF play a vital role in maintaining genomic integrity. However, how DDCFs and DDRFs are modulated under physiological and pathological conditions are not fully known. We took an experimental database analysis to determine the expression of 26 DNA DDCFs and 42 DNA DDRFs in 21 human and 20 mouse tissues in physiological/pathological conditions. We made the following significant findings: (1 Few DDCFs and DDRFs are ubiquitously expressed in tissues while many are differentially regulated.; (2 the expression of DDCFs and DDRFs are modulated not only in cancers but also in sterile inflammatory disorders and metabolic diseases; (3 tissue methylation status, pro-inflammatory cytokines, hypoxia regulating factors and tissue angiogenic potential can determine the expression of DDCFs and DDRFs; (4 intracellular organelles can transmit the stress signals to the nucleus, which may modulate the cell death by regulating the DDCF and DDRF expression. Our results shows that sterile inflammatory disorders and cancers increase genomic instability, therefore can be classified as pathologies with a high genomic risk. We also propose a new concept that as parts of cellular sensor cross-talking network, DNA checkpoint and repair factors serve as nuclear sensors for intracellular organelle stresses. Further, this work would lead to identification of novel therapeutic targets and new biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of metabolic diseases, inflammation, tissue damage and cancers.

  20. Polymorphisms in inflammation pathway genes and endometrial cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Ryan J.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Spurdle, Amanda; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Long, Jirong; Thompson, Deborah; Tomlinson, Ian; Yu, Herbert; Lambrechts, Diether; Dörk, Thilo; Goodman, Marc T.; Zheng, Ying; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bao, Ping-Ping; Amant, Frederic; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Coosemans, An; Dubrowinskaja, Natalia; Dunning, Alison; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Easton, Douglas; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Halle, Mari K.; Hein, Alexander; Howarth, Kimberly; Gorman, Maggie; Kaydarova, Dylyara; Krakstad, Camilla; Lose, Felicity; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; O’Mara, Tracy; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Pharoah, Paul; Risch, Harvey; Corssen, Madeleine; Trovik, Jone; Turmanov, Nurzhan; Wen, Wanqing; Lu, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Background Experimental and epidemiological evidence have suggested that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in endometrial carcinogenesis. Methods To investigate this hypothesis, a two-stage study was carried out to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammatory pathway genes in association with endometrial cancer risk. In stage 1, 64 candidate pathway genes were identified and 4,542 directly genotyped or imputed SNPs were analyzed among 832 endometrial cancer cases and 2,049 controls, using data from the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study. Linkage disequilibrium of stage 1 SNPs significantly associated with endometrial cancer (PAsian- and European-ancestry samples. Conclusions These findings lend support to the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory pathway may contribute to genetic susceptibility to endometrial cancer. Impact Statement This study adds to the growing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in endometrial carcinogenesis. PMID:23221126

  1. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low levels of activation (para-inflammation). In many cases, this para-inflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), this para-inflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal para-inflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and old age. Dysregulated para-inflammation (chronic inflammation) in AMD damages the blood retina barrier (BRB), resulting in the breach of retinal immune privilege leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in AMD, and explores the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of AMD. PMID:26292978

  2. Adipose Tissue Inflammation Induces B Cell Inflammation and Decreases B Cell Function in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Frasca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Inflamm-aging, the age-related increase in low-grade chronic inflammation, may be a common link in age-related diseases. This review summarizes recent published data on potential cellular and molecular mechanisms of the age-related increase in inflammation, and how these contribute to decreased humoral immune responses in aged mice and humans. Briefly, we cover how aging and related inflammation decrease antibody responses in mice and humans, and how obesity contributes to the mechanisms for aging through increased inflammation. We also report data in the literature showing adipose tissue infiltration with immune cells and how these cells are recruited and contribute to local and systemic inflammation. We show that several types of immune cells infiltrate the adipose tissue and these include macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils, T cells, B1, and B2 cells. Our main focus is how the adipose tissue affects immune responses, in particular B cell responses and antibody production. The role of leptin in generating inflammation and decreased B cell responses is also discussed. We report data published by us and by other groups showing that the adipose tissue generates pro-inflammatory B cell subsets which induce pro-inflammatory T cells, promote insulin resistance, and secrete pathogenic autoimmune antibodies.

  3. Environmental factors in the development of chronic inflammation: A case-control study on risk factors for Crohn's disease within New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dug Yeo; Fraser, Alan G.; Dryland, Philippa; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of environmental factors in the risk for Crohn's disease (CD), an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), was investigated in a North Island-based New Zealand case-control cohort. A total of 315 CD patients and 536 controls were recruited through various sources to the Auckland CD Risk Factor Study. As well as demographic characteristics, the self-reported questionnaire included (1) smoking and drinking alcohol, (2) breastfeeding in infancy, (3) early life exposures to allergens and microbes, (4) health conditions lasting 6 months or longer and (5) taking antibiotics and any medications. There was strong evidence for familial associations of the disease, and minor effects of birth order and number of siblings. Being a smoker, especially over a long time period, and exposure to smoking during childhood and adolescence periods increased risk, whereas drinking alcohol at least once per week showed a slight protective effect. Long term use of the oral contraceptive pill increased the risk of developing CD, but breastfeeding and immunisation during infancy showed no significant association. Long term and debilitating illness (lasting 6 months or more), taking antibiotics prior to developing CD, or taking four or more antibiotics or any regular medication in a year during adolescence substantially increased the CD risk. Having a pet during childhood was a protective factor, but regularly feeding an animal was not sufficient to protect. Many of these significant factors are likely to impact on the colonic microflora and/or immune system. We conclude that, in addition to strong evidence for genetic associations, factors likely to impact on immune response or reduce early exposure to microbes provide a main risk factor for CD in this New Zealand population.

  4. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 13,2017 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  5. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  6. Treatment-related changes in serum lipids and inflammation: clinical relevance remains unclear. Analyses from the Women's Interagency HIV Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Landay, Alan L; Hodis, Howard N; Gange, Stephen J; Norris, Philip J; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Tien, Phyllis C; Xue, Xiaonan; Lazar, Jason; Benning, Lorie; Tracy, Russell P; Kaplan, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Among 127 HIV-infected women, the magnitude of HDLc increases after HAART initiation predicted the magnitude of concurrent decreases in inflammation biomarkers. After HAART initiation, changes in LDLc and inflammation were unrelated. In the same population, predicted risk of coronary heart disease based upon levels of standard clinical risk factors was similar before and after HAART treatment. Thus, it remains unknown whether short-term treatment-related changes in standard risk factors may appreciably change risk of CVD. PMID:23435295

  7. Smoking is a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, M; Tsuruta, M; Hasegawa, H; Okabayashi, K; Toyoda, N; Iwama, N; Morita, S; Kitagawa, Y

    2017-09-01

    The hepatic microenvironment, which may include chronic inflammation and fibrosis, is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. A similar mechanism is anticipated for pulmonary metastases, although no reports are available. Smoking causes pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that smokers would be especially affected by pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. In this study, we attempted to clarify the impact of smoking on pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Between September 2005 and December 2010 we reviewed 567 patients with pathological Stage I, II or III colorectal cancer, whose clinicopathological background included a preoperative smoking history, pack-year history from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to determine the independent prognostic factors for pulmonary metastasis-free survival. Pulmonary metastases occurred in 39 (6.9%) patients. The smoking histories revealed 355 never smokers, 119 former smokers and 93 current smokers among the subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that being a current smoker (hazard ratio = 2.72, 95% CI 1.18-6.25; P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for pulmonary metastases. Smoking may be a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Cessation of smoking should be recommended to prevent pulmonary metastasis, although further basic and clinical studies are required. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Short repeats in the heme oxygenase 1 gene promoter is associated with increased levels of inflammation, ferritin and higher risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mónica; Leiva, Elba; Arredondo-Olguín, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the relationship between the HO1 genotype, ferritin levels and the risk of type-2 diabetes and inflammation. Eight hundred thirty-five individuals were evaluated and classified according to their nutritional status and the presence of type-2 diabetes: 153 overweight (OW); 62 obese (OB); 55 type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM); 202 OWDM; 239 OBDM and 124 controls (C). We studied biochemical (glycemia, insulin, lipid profile, liver enzyme, creatinine, hsCRP), hematological (hemoglobin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, transferrin receptor and serum Fe and ferritin) and oxidative stress (SOD, GHS and TBARS) parameters. We determined heme oxygenase activity and the (GT)n polymorphism in its gene promoter. Individuals with diabetes, independent of nutritional status, showed high levels of ferritin and HO activity compared to control subjects. Allelic frequency was not different between the groups (Chi(2), NS) however, genotypes were different (Chi(2), P1). The SS (short-short) genotype was higher in all DM individuals compared to controls and MM was higher in controls. SM (short-medium) genotype was an independent risk factor for DM in logistic regression analysis. We observed high risk for type-2 diabetes mellitus in the presence of SM genotype and high levels of ferritin (OR adjusted: 2.7; 1.9-3.6; p1; compared to control group). It was also significantly related to inflammation. The SM genotype in HO1 gene promoter and ferritin levels were associated with higher risk for type-2 diabetes and for having a higher marker of inflammation, which is the main risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the association between optimistic cardiovascular risk perceptions and lower rates of cardiovascular disease mortality explained by biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial function? A case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramling Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More optimistic perceptions of cardiovascular disease risk are associated with substantively lower rates of cardiovascular death among men. It remains unknown whether this association represents causality (i.e. perception leads to actions/conditions that influence cardiovascular disease occurrence or residual confounding by unmeasured factors that associate with risk perceptions and with physiological processes that promote cardiovascular disease (i.e. inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Purpose To evaluate whether previously unmeasured biological markers of inflammation or endothelial dysregulation confound the observed association between cardiovascular disease risk perceptions and cardiovascular disease outcomes; Methods We conducted a nested case-cohort study among community-dwelling men from Southeastern New England (USA who were interviewed between 1989 and 1990 as part of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF levels from stored sera for a random sample of the parent cohort (control sample, n = 127 and all cases of cardiovascular death observed through 2005 (case sample, n = 44. We evaluated potential confounding using stratified analyses and logistic regression modeling. Results Optimistic ratings of risk associated with lower odds of dying from cardiovascular causes among men (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.91. Neither CRP nor VEGF confounded these findings. Conclusions The strong cardio-protective association between optimistic ratings of cardiovascular disease risk and lower rates of cardiovascular mortality among men is not confounded by baseline biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction.

  10. Risk factors for tube exposure as a late complication of glaucoma drainage implant surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaku M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meenakshi Chaku,1 Peter A Netland,2 Kyoko Ishida,3 Douglas J Rhee4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for tube exposure after glaucoma drainage implant surgery.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective case-controlled observational study of 64 eyes from 64 patients. Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with tube erosion requiring surgical revision were compared with 32 matched control eyes of 32 patients. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analyses were performed.Results: Mean age was significantly younger in the tube exposure group compared with the control group (48.2±28.1 years versus 67.3±18.0 years, respectively; P=0.003. The proportion of diabetic patients (12.5% in the tube exposure group was significantly less (P=0.041 compared with the control group (37.5%. Comparisons of the type and position of the drainage implant were not significantly different between the two groups. The average time to tube exposure was 17.2±18.0 months after implantation of the drainage device. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, younger age (P=0.005 and P=0.027 and inflammation prior to tube exposure (P≤0.001 and P=0.004 were significant risk factors. Diabetes was a significant risk factor only in the univariate analysis (P=0.027.Conclusion: Younger age and inflammation were significant risk factors for tube exposure after drainage implant surgery. Keywords: glaucoma drainage implant complications, Ahmed Glaucoma Valve, Baerveldt implant, tube erosion, pericardial patch graft

  11. Dietary inflammation potential and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a German case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Isabell; Rudolph, Anja; Shivappa, Nitin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Hébert, James R; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-08-01

    Unhealthy dietary habits can increase the risk for serious medical conditions, such as cancer, yet the association between diet and breast cancer remains unclear. We investigated whether individual diets based on their inflammatory potential are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk by employing an energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index. In a German population-based case-control study, 2887 postmenopausal breast cancer patients (aged 50-74 years, first diagnosed between 2002 and 2005) and 5512 healthy age-matched controls provided information on dietary habits for the year prior to diagnosis (cases) or recruitment (controls) using a 176-items food frequency questionnaire. Associations between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammation index (E-DII) score (both as continuous variable and in quintiles) and risk for breast cancer were assessed using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. No significant associations between the E-DII score and postmenopausal breast cancer risk were observed (adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.17). Associations did not differ by estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor status (ER + PR+: adjusted OR Q5 vs Q1: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.88-1.27; ER + or PR+: OR Q5 vs Q1: 1,07, 95% CI: 0.79-1.45; ER-PR-: OR Q5 vs Q1: 0.87 95% CI: 0.63-1.20). Our results regarding E-DII are consistent with previous studies reporting a lack of association between C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. The findings may reflect a real absence of association between dietary inflammatory potential and postmenopausal cancer risk or an underestimation of association due to recall bias. Further investigation is warranted in cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea and inflammation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is not fully understood but is likely multifactorial in origin. Inflammatory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and circulating levels of several markers of inflammation have been associated with future cardiovascular risk. These include cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and selectins, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6, chemokines such as interleukin 8, and C-reactive protein. There is also increasing evidence that inflammatory processes play an important role in the cardiovascular pathophysiology of OSAS and many of the inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular risk have been reported as elevated in patients with OSAS. Furthermore, animal and cell culture studies have demonstrated preferential activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia, which is an integral feature of OSAS. The precise role of inflammation in the development of cardiovascular disease in OSAS requires further study, particularly the relationship with oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and obesity.

  13. Pneumonia risks in bedridden patients receiving oral care and their screening tool: Malnutrition and urinary tract infection-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Kaoru; Kawakami, Genichiro; Kamekawa, Hatsumi; Momma, Haruki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Itoh, Jun; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2018-05-01

    Pneumonia develops in bedridden patients even when they are receiving oral care. However, the pneumonia risk in bedridden patients remains unclear, and no screening tool has been developed to assess this risk by using daily hospital data. We retrospectively examined pneumonia risk factors by analyzing the records of 102 bedridden patients receiving oral care. Body mass index, peripheral blood hemoglobin, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, total cholesterol and uric acid in the pneumonia group (n = 51; mean age 73.4 years) were lower than those in the non-pneumonia group (n = 51; mean age 68.1 years). In the univariate analysis, body mass index; leukocytosis; high C-reactive protein; low levels of hemoglobin, total protein and albumin (bedridden patient pneumonia risk (BPPR) score using these two risk factors to assess pneumonia risk. We applied scores of zero (0) or one (1) according to the absence or presence of the two risk factors and summed the scores in each patient. The proportion of pneumonia patients increased with increasing BPPR score when the patients were divided into three groups - low, moderate and high risk - according to the BPPR score (0, 1 or 2, respectively). Malnutrition, urinary tract infection-induced inflammation and anemia were associated with pneumonia in bedridden patients. BPPR scoring might be useful for assessing pneumonia risk and managing affected patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 714-722. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  15. A descriptive review of the prevalence and risk factors of hock lesions in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, E.; Holzhauer, M.; Frankena, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on hock lesions in dairy cattle, focusing in particular on their prevalence and associated clinical signs, as well as the scoring systems used to assess them and the data on risk factors. This analysis was limited to hock lesions where there was inflammation and

  16. Effect of resveratrol and aerobic exercise on some cardiovascular risk factors in rats with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jamali Qarakhanlou

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Regular exercise and resveratrol supplementation is likely to be effective on cardiovascular risk factors and the combination of the two variables in the prevention of inflammation and will have a significant role in heart damage caused by myocardial infarction

  17. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ulrich Weiss

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic pancreatic inflammation with an early onset, mostly during childhood. Hereditary pancreatitis often starts with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and the clinical phenotype is not very much different from other etiologies of the disease. The long-lasting inflammation however generates a tumor promoting environment and represents a major risk factor for tumor development This review will reflect our knowledge concerning the specific risk of hereditary pancreatitis patients to develop pancreatic cancer.

  18. Intracranial atherosclerosis and inflammation: Lessons from the East and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Arenillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS is a major cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Patients affected by this disease have a high risk of suffering further ischemic strokes and other major vascular events despite the best medical therapy available. However, identification of factors that characterize a high-risk ICAS patient is a clinical problem that is yet to be solved. Inflammation is known to play a crucial role in all the stages of atherosclerosis affecting extracranial arterial beds but its role in ICAS is not firmly established. Circulating inflammatory biomarkers may represent a valuable tool to assess the importance of systemic and local (intraplaque inflammation in ICAS pathogenesis. In this article, we have reviewed studies with inflammatory biomarkers performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic ICAS patients published in the recent literature. Their findings strongly support the hypothesis that inflammation determines the risk of progression and complication of symptomatic ICAS.

  19. Risk factors for mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults: a social ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye A; Fleury, Julie; Keller, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Although a variety of risk factors for mobility limitation in older adults have been examined, a collective review of relevant literature has not been reported. The purposes of this review are to report the intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, and organizational risk factors related to mobility limitation using a social ecological perspective and to discuss the direction of future clinical practice consistent with current literature on mobility limitation of community-dwelling older adults. Intrapersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include advanced age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, lack of motivation (i.e., dependent personality, decreased self-efficacy), lifestyle factors (i.e., sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity), and physiological factors (i.e., vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, poor nutritional status). Interpersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include weak social networks and limited social activities. Geriatric clients may also experience a decline in mobility when they encounter environmental challenges such as an inconvenient home environment and lack of availability of services in their community, as well as lack of organizational resources stemming from social policy. Potential intervention strategies focused on modifiable risk factors may include lifestyle modifications, social networking programs, and enhancing awareness of environmental and organizational resources in the community for older adults at risk for mobility limitation.

  20. Increased arterial inflammation in individuals with stage 3 chronic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takx, Richard A.P.; MacNabb, Megan H.; Emami, Hamed; Abdelbaky, Amr; Lavender, Zachary R.; Singh, Parmanand; Di Carli, Marcelo; Taqueti, Viviany; Foster, Courtney; Mann, Jessica; Comley, Robert A.; Weber, Chek Ing Kiu; Tawakol, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    While it is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for the development and progression of atherosclerosis, it is not known whether arterial inflammation is increased in mild CKD. The aim of this study was to compare arterial inflammation using 18 F-FDG PET/CT in patients with CKD and in matched controls. This retrospective study included 128 patients undergoing FDG PET/CT imaging for clinical indications, comprising 64 patients with stage 3 CKD and 64 control patients matched by age, gender, and cancer history. CKD was defined according to guidelines using a calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Arterial inflammation was measured in the ascending aorta as FDG uptake on PET. Background FDG uptake (venous, subcutaneous fat and muscle) were recorded. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed using the CT images. The impact of CKD on arterial inflammation and CAC was then assessed. Arterial inflammation was higher in patients with CKD than in matched controls (standardized uptake value, SUV: 2.41 ± 0.49 vs. 2.16 ± 0.43; p = 0.002). Arterial SUV correlated inversely with eGFR (r = -0.299, p = 0.001). Venous SUV was also significantly elevated in patients with CKD, while subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue SUVs did not differ between groups. Moreover, arterial SUV remained significantly elevated in patients with CKD compared to controls after correcting for muscle and fat background, and also remained significant after adjusting for clinical risk factors. Further, CKD was associated with arterial inflammation (SUV) independent of the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC). Moderate CKD is associated with increased arterial inflammation beyond that of controls. Further, the increased arterial inflammation is independent of presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Current risk stratification tools may underestimate the presence of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD and thereby the risk of cardiovascular

  1. Increased arterial inflammation in individuals with stage 3 chronic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); MacNabb, Megan H.; Emami, Hamed; Abdelbaky, Amr; Lavender, Zachary R. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Singh, Parmanand [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Division of Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Di Carli, Marcelo; Taqueti, Viviany; Foster, Courtney [Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Radiology, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Mann, Jessica; Comley, Robert A.; Weber, Chek Ing Kiu [F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel (Switzerland); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiology Division, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    While it is well known that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for the development and progression of atherosclerosis, it is not known whether arterial inflammation is increased in mild CKD. The aim of this study was to compare arterial inflammation using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with CKD and in matched controls. This retrospective study included 128 patients undergoing FDG PET/CT imaging for clinical indications, comprising 64 patients with stage 3 CKD and 64 control patients matched by age, gender, and cancer history. CKD was defined according to guidelines using a calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Arterial inflammation was measured in the ascending aorta as FDG uptake on PET. Background FDG uptake (venous, subcutaneous fat and muscle) were recorded. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed using the CT images. The impact of CKD on arterial inflammation and CAC was then assessed. Arterial inflammation was higher in patients with CKD than in matched controls (standardized uptake value, SUV: 2.41 ± 0.49 vs. 2.16 ± 0.43; p = 0.002). Arterial SUV correlated inversely with eGFR (r = -0.299, p = 0.001). Venous SUV was also significantly elevated in patients with CKD, while subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue SUVs did not differ between groups. Moreover, arterial SUV remained significantly elevated in patients with CKD compared to controls after correcting for muscle and fat background, and also remained significant after adjusting for clinical risk factors. Further, CKD was associated with arterial inflammation (SUV) independent of the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC). Moderate CKD is associated with increased arterial inflammation beyond that of controls. Further, the increased arterial inflammation is independent of presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Current risk stratification tools may underestimate the presence of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD and thereby the risk of

  2. Infections, inflammation and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzani, Annamaria; Fujinami, Robert S.; White, H. Steve; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Blümcke, Ingmar; Sander, Josemir W.; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is the tendency to have unprovoked epileptic seizures. Anything causing structural or functional derangement of brain physiology may lead to seizures, and different conditions may express themselves solely by recurrent seizures and thus be labelled “epilepsy.” Worldwide, epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition. The range of risk factors for the development of epilepsy varies with age and geographic location. Congenital, developmental and genetic conditions are mostly associated with the development of epilepsy in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Head trauma, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and tumours may occur at any age and may lead to the development of epilepsy. Infections of the CNS are a major risk factor for epilepsy. The reported risk of unprovoked seizures in population-based cohorts of survivors of CNS infections from developed countries is between 6.8 and 8.3 %, and is much higher in resource-poor countries. In this review, the various viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infectious diseases of the CNS which result in seizures and epilepsy are discussed. The pathogenesis of epilepsy due to brain infections, as well as the role of experimental models to study mechanisms of epileptogenesis induced by infectious agents, is reviewed. The sterile (non-infectious) inflammatory response that occurs following brain insults is also discussed, as well as its overlap with inflammation due to infections, and the potential role in epileptogenesis. Furthermore, autoimmune encephalitis as a cause of seizures is reviewed. Potential strategies to prevent epilepsy resulting from brain infections and non-infectious inflammation are also considered. PMID:26423537

  3. Magnesium deficiency and increased inflammation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen FH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forrest H Nielsen Research Nutritionist Consultant, Grand Forks, ND, USA Abstract: Animal studies have shown that magnesium deficiency induces an inflammatory response that results in leukocyte and macrophage activation, release of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, and excessive production of free radicals. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that the primary mechanism through which magnesium deficiency has this effect is through increasing cellular Ca2+, which is the signal that results in the priming of cells to give the inflammatory response. Primary pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL-1; the messenger cytokine IL-6; cytokine responders E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; and acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein and fibrinogen have been determined to associate magnesium deficiency with chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammatory stress. When magnesium dietary intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s the presence of magnesium deficiency, it often is associated with low-grade inflammation and/or with pathological conditions for which inflammatory stress is considered a risk factor. When magnesium intake, supplementation, and/or serum concentration suggest/s an adequate status, magnesium generally has not been found to significantly affect markers of chronic low-grade inflammation or chronic disease. The consistency of these findings can be modified by other nutritional and metabolic factors that affect inflammatory and oxidative stress. In spite of this, findings to date provide convincing evidence that magnesium deficiency is a significant contributor to chronic low-grade inflammation that is a risk factor for a variety of pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Because magnesium deficiency commonly occurs in countries where foods rich in magnesium are not consumed in

  4. Environmental factors in the development of chronic inflammation: A case-control study on risk factors for Crohn's disease within New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dug Yeo [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Fraser, Alan G. [Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dryland, Philippa [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Ferguson, Lynnette R., E-mail: l.ferguson@auckland.ac.nz [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-08-07

    The role of environmental factors in the risk for Crohn's disease (CD), an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), was investigated in a North Island-based New Zealand case-control cohort. A total of 315 CD patients and 536 controls were recruited through various sources to the Auckland CD Risk Factor Study. As well as demographic characteristics, the self-reported questionnaire included (1) smoking and drinking alcohol, (2) breastfeeding in infancy, (3) early life exposures to allergens and microbes, (4) health conditions lasting 6 months or longer and (5) taking antibiotics and any medications. There was strong evidence for familial associations of the disease, and minor effects of birth order and number of siblings. Being a smoker, especially over a long time period, and exposure to smoking during childhood and adolescence periods increased risk, whereas drinking alcohol at least once per week showed a slight protective effect. Long term use of the oral contraceptive pill increased the risk of developing CD, but breastfeeding and immunisation during infancy showed no significant association. Long term and debilitating illness (lasting 6 months or more), taking antibiotics prior to developing CD, or taking four or more antibiotics or any regular medication in a year during adolescence substantially increased the CD risk. Having a pet during childhood was a protective factor, but regularly feeding an animal was not sufficient to protect. Many of these significant factors are likely to impact on the colonic microflora and/or immune system. We conclude that, in addition to strong evidence for genetic associations, factors likely to impact on immune response or reduce early exposure to microbes provide a main risk factor for CD in this New Zealand population.

  5. Radiographic progression is associated with resolution of systemic inflammation in patients with axial spondylarthritis treated with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors: A study of radiographic progression, inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging, and circulating biomarkers of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Lambert, Robert G W

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of circulating biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), cartilage turnover (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen [CTX-II], total aggrecan, matrix...... metalloproteinase 3 [MMP-3], and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP]), and bone turnover (CTX-I and osteocalcin) to inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic progression in patients with axial spondylarthritis (SpA) beginning tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) inhibitor therapy....

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease: prevalence, risk factors and supplement use in an outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suibhne, Treasa Nic

    2012-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency impacts on bone health and has potential new roles in inflammation. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and to explore vitamin D supplement usage in patients with Crohn\\'s disease (CD) in an outpatient setting, compared with controls.

  7. Incidence and risk factors for chronic uveitis following cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Kim, Stephen Jae; Chomsky, Amy; Saboori, Mazeyar

    2013-04-01

    To determine the incidence of and associated risk factors for uveitis after cataract surgery. A total of 17,757 eyes were identified and records of 42 eyes that developed uveitis and 2320 eyes that did not were reviewed. Postsurgical uveitis was defined as persistent inflammation for ≥ 6 months after surgery. Forty-two eyes of 35 patients developed uveitis (0.24%). Eleven patients underwent consecutive cataract surgery but developed unilateral uveitis, and intraoperative complications occurred in 55% of uveitic eyes compared to 0% in fellow eyes (p < 0.05). Median duration of inflammation was 8 and 11.5 months in eyes with and without vitrectomy (p < 0.05). Intraocular complications occurred in 44 and 8.3% of eyes that did and did not develop uveitis, respectively (p = 0.01). Postsurgical uveitis developed after approximately 1 in 400 cataract surgeries and occurred more frequently in eyes experiencing intraoperative complications.

  8. Changes in some of the indicators of liver inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors during a term of synthetic aerobic exercise of diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Sadat Mousavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available People with type II diabetes have more liver function abnormalities than non-diabetics. Recent studies have shown the mutual relationship between metabolic conditions of type II diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, this study explores the effects of synthetic aerobic exercises on the indicators of liver inflammation (AST & ALT and some of the cardiovascular risk factors of serum of the middle-aged women with diabetes (HDL, LDL, & triglyceride who live in Behbahan city. Methodology: In this study, 30 participants were selected randomly from among women with type II diabetes with BMI>25, aged 45-60, and divided into control and experimental groups. The participants of the practicing group practiced 12 weeks (three days a week with the intensity of 55-70 % maximum heart rate (MHR and 35-50 minutes per session. The results were analyzed with SPSS and dependent ttest was used to compare the average score of each group in pretest, and independent t-test was used to compare the averages of the different variables between two groups. Results: According to the results, 12 weeks of aerobic exercise have significant effect (p<0/05 on the level of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase of participant's serum. In addition, the results have shown that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise have significant effect (p<0/05 on high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride of the participants. Conclusion: It can be concluded that synthetic aerobic exercise can be effective in the conditions of patients with type II diabetes with reducing some indicators of liver inflammation and improving the lipid profile of serum of the participants.

  9. Ageing: From inflammation to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, G.; Accardi, G.; Monastero, R.; Nicoletti, F.; Libra, M.

    2018-01-01

    Ageing is the major risk factor for cancer development. Hallmark of the ageing process is represented by inflammaging, which is a chronic and systemic low-grade inflammatory process. Inflammation is also a hallmark of cancer and is widely recognized to influence all cancer stages from cell transformation to metastasis. Therefore, inflammaging may represent the biological phenomena able to couple ageing process with cancer development. Here we review the molecular and cellular pathway involved...

  10. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  11. A new paradigm for depression in new mothers: the central role of inflammation and how breastfeeding and anti-inflammatory treatments protect maternal mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall-Tackett Kathleen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI has revealed that depression is associated with inflammation manifested by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Discussion The old paradigm described inflammation as simply one of many risk factors for depression. The new paradigm is based on more recent research that has indicated that physical and psychological stressors increase inflammation. These recent studies constitute an important shift in the depression paradigm: inflammation is not simply a risk factor; it is the risk factor that underlies all the others. Moreover, inflammation explains why psychosocial, behavioral and physical risk factors increase the risk of depression. This is true for depression in general and for postpartum depression in particular. Puerperal women are especially vulnerable to these effects because their levels of proinflammatory cytokines significantly increase during the last trimester of pregnancy – a time when they are also at high risk for depression. Moreover, common experiences of new motherhood, such as sleep disturbance, postpartum pain, and past or current psychological trauma, act as stressors that cause proinflammatory cytokine levels to rise. Breastfeeding has a protective effect on maternal mental health because it attenuates stress and modulates the inflammatory response. However, breastfeeding difficulties, such as nipple pain, can increase the risk of depression and must be addressed promptly. Conclusion PNI research suggests two goals for the prevention and treatment of postpartum depression: reducing maternal stress and reducing inflammation. Breastfeeding and exercise reduce maternal stress and are protective of maternal mood. In addition, most current treatments for depression are anti-inflammatory. These include long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, cognitive therapy, St. John's wort, and conventional antidepressants.

  12. Arterial and Cellular Inflammation in Patients with CKD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernelot Moens, Sophie J.; Verweij, Simone L.; van der Valk, Fleur M.; van Capelleveen, Julian C.; Kroon, Jeffrey; Versloot, Miranda; Verberne, Hein J.; Marquering, Henk A.; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Vogt, Liffert; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    2017-01-01

    CKD associates with a 1.5- to 3.5-fold increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Both diseases are characterized by increased inflammation, and in patients with CKD, elevated C-reactive protein level predicts cardiovascular risk. In addition to systemic inflammation, local arterial inflammation,

  13. Mediators of low-grade chronic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Ojeda, Miriam; Murri, Mora; Insenser, María; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low-grade subclinical inflammation has been increasingly recognized as an interposer in the endocrine, metabolic and reproductive disturbances that characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abdominal adiposity and obesity are often present in PCOS. Mounting evidence indicates that adipose tissue is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Continuous release of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, acute phase proteins, and adipokines perpetuates the inflammatory condition associated with obesity in women with PCOS, possibly contributing to insulin resistance and other long-term cardiometabolic risk factors. Genetic variants in the genes encoding inflammation-related mediators underlie the development of PCOS and their interaction with environmental factors may contribute to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype of this syndrome. In the future, strategies ameliorating inflammation may prove useful for the management of PCOS and associated conditions.

  14. Mediterranean diet and low-grade subclinical inflammation: the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Cerletti, Chiara; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is an underlying pathophysiological mechanism linking risk factors and/or metabolic disorders to increased risk of chronic degenerative disease. A meat-based pattern, as the Western type diet, is positively linked to higher levels of some important biomarkers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 and fibrinogen. Conversely, a Mediterranean-like eating behavior is associated with lower degree of these biomarkers thus suggesting an anti-inflammatory action of its main food components. This chapter goes through the most important investigations addressing the relationship between dietary habits and subclinical inflammation. Attention was focussed on the findings from the Moli-sani study: this is a large prospective cohort study that recruited 24,325 men and women from the general population of the Molise Region, a Southern Italian area, with the aim of investigating genetic and environmental risk/protection factors for cardiovascular and tumor disease. For the first time, the Moli-sani study carefully investigated the Mediterranean diet as an environmental determinant of both platelet and white blood cell counts, starting from the hypothesis that a diet rich in healthy compounds could favorably influence the production and/or the clearance of these two cellular biomarkers of lowgrade inflammation. Additionally, evidence from this large Italian cohort showed that a Mediterranean-like diet was closely associated with relatively lower values of glucose, lipids, CRP, blood pressure and 10-year cardiovascular risk, while the consumption of healthy foods with high rather than low content in antioxidant vitamins and phytochemicals was associated with lower blood pressure and CRP plasma levels at least in men.

  15. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, changes in Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification index (NRI were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-β1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes increased the AUC to 0.803 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092-0.149] and 0.113 [0.093-0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model. The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028-0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model. Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013-0.038] compared to the basic model, 0.845 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028-0.059] compared to the basic model and 0.851 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003-0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of multiple

  16. Risk Factors for Heat-related Illness in U.S. Workers: An OSHA Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Aaron W; Cannon, Dawn L; Arbury, Sheila B; Thomas, Richard J; Hodgson, Michael J

    2018-05-30

    The aim of this study was to describe risk factors for heat-related illness (HRI) in U.S. workers. We reviewed a subset of HRI enforcement investigations conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) from 2011 through 2016. We assessed characteristics of the workers, employers, and events. We stratified cases by severity to assess whether risk factors were more prevalent in fatal HRIs. We analyzed 38 investigations involving 66 HRIs. Many workers had predisposing medical conditions or used predisposing medications. Comorbidities were more prevalent in workers who died. Most (73%) fatal HRIs occurred during the first week on the job. Common clinical findings in heat stroke cases included multiorgan failure, muscle breakdown, and systemic inflammation. Severe HRI is more likely when personal susceptibilities coexist with work-related and environmental risk factors. Almost all HRIs occur when employers do not adhere to preventive guidelines.

  17. Lipids, inflammation, and chronic kidney disease: a SHARP perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David D; Vogt, Liffert

    2018-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation plays a role in the initiation and progression of chronic kidney disease. In the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) trial, higher baseline C-reactive protein and higher baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were both associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, but higher baseline C-reactive protein levels were also associated with a higher risk of nonvascular events. Simvastatin/ezetimibe reduced cardiovascular events independent of baseline C-reactive protein levels. However, this observation does not exclude inflammation as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease development in chronic kidney disease patients. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayinuer Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47% with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13% with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59% with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%, HPV-51 (0.08%, HPV-31 (0.07%, HPV-58 (0.07%, and HPV-39 (0.06%. Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52% and 256 participants (28.99%, respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05. Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection.

  19. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  20. Low fitness is associated with abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Eriksen, Louise; Grønbæk, Morten

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Up to 30% of obese individuals are metabolically healthy. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals are characterized by having low abdominal adiposity, low inflammation level and low risk of developing metabolic comorbidity. In this study, we hypothesize that cardiorespiratory fit...... to be inversely associated with both abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation independent of BMI. These data suggest that, in spite of BMI, high fitness levels lead to a reduction in abdominal fat mass and low-grade inflammation.......OBJECTIVE: Up to 30% of obese individuals are metabolically healthy. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals are characterized by having low abdominal adiposity, low inflammation level and low risk of developing metabolic comorbidity. In this study, we hypothesize that cardiorespiratory...... fitness (fitness) is a determinant factor for the MHO individuals and aim to investigate the associations between fitness, abdominal adiposity and low-grade inflammation within different BMI categories. METHOD: Data from 10,976 individuals from the general population, DANHES 2007-2008, on waist...

  1. Polymorphisms in genes related to inflammation, NSAID use, and the risk of prostate cancer among Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Friis, Søren; Christensen, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of prostate cancer (PC) remains mostly unknown, but increasing evidence suggests that chronic inflammation in the prostate is associated with an increased risk of PC. Epidemiological studies have suggested that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may protect against PC....... Inborn variations in genes involved in the inflammatory response may modulate the risk of PC and interact with NSAIDs. The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of the inflammation-related genes COX-2, Il1B, NFKB1, and PPARG are associated with risk of PC; 2......) to investigate gene–environment interactions between polymorphisms and NSAID use; and 3) to examine whether the studied polymorphisms were associated with the aggressiveness of PC. The study population consisted of 370 cases of PC and 370 risk-set matched (age) controls nested within the prospective Danish “Diet...

  2. Inflammation and premature aging in advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman, Jeroen P; Dekker, Marijke J; Usvyat, Len A; Kotanko, Peter; van der Sande, Frank M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Shiels, Paul G; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Systemic inflammation in end-stage renal disease is an established risk factor for mortality and a catalyst for other complications, which are related to a premature aging phenotype, including muscle wasting, vascular calcification, and other forms of premature vascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, and frailty. Uremic inflammation is also mechanistically related to mechanisms involved in the aging process, such as telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered nutrient sensing, which can have a direct effect on cellular and tissue function. In addition to uremia-specific causes, such as abnormalities in the phosphate-Klotho axis, there are remarkable similarities between the pathophysiology of uremic inflammation and so-called "inflammaging" in the general population. Potentially relevant, but still somewhat unexplored in this respect, are abnormal or misplaced protein structures, as well as abnormalities in tissue homeostasis, which evoke danger signals through damage-associated molecular patterns, as well as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Systemic inflammation, in combination with the loss of kidney function, can impair the resilience of the body to external and internal stressors by reduced functional and structural tissue reserves, and by impairing normal organ crosstalk, thus providing an explanation for the greatly increased risk of homeostatic breakdown in this population. In this review, the relationship between uremic inflammation and a premature aging phenotype, as well as potential causes and consequences, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies. PMID:24009946

  4. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies.

  5. Inflammation and nutritional status assessment by malnutrition inflammation score and its outcome in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeswaran, D; Indhumathi, E; Hemamalini, A J; Sivakumar, V; Soundararajan, P; Jayakumar, M

    2018-01-09

    Malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS), hyperhomocysteinemia, calcium and phosphate levels derangement have been predicted as important contributing factors for the progression of cardiovascular burden. Among patients with earlier stage of CKD, hypoalbuminaemia and inflammation deliberated as non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors, which add more burden to circulatory disease, mortality and rapid advancement to CKD stage 5. The aim of the study is to evaluate inflammation and nutritional status of CKD patients not on dialysis using Malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and to verify the association with mortality in the follow-up period. In this prospective cohort study 129 (66 males, 63 females) pre-dialysis CKD patients enrolled between June 2013 to August 2014 and censored until March 2017. Malnutrition and Inflammation assessed using Malnutrition inflammation score. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, albumin, Interleukin - 6, highly sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP), total cholesterol and anthropometric data were analyzed. The Malnutrition inflammation score in pre-dialysis CKD patients ranged from 0 to 18 with the median score of two. During 36 or more months of follow-up, there were 30 (23.2%) deaths, 35 (27%) patients initiated on hemodialysis, one (0.7%) patient was initiated on peritoneal dialysis, two (1.4%) patients underwent renal transplantation and two (1.4%) patients were lost for follow-up. In this study, 33% had varying degree of malnutrition and inflammation. Patients who had MIS ≥7 had significant increase in IL-6 (p = 0.003) and HsCRP levels (p < 0.001) when compared with other tertiles of MIS. ROC curve analysis of MIS showed 56.5% sensitivity and 81% specificity in predicting death rate (AUC 0.709; 95% CI 0.604-0.815, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed MIS ≥7 had a strong association (log rank test, p < 0.001) with mortality during 36 and more months of follow-up time. In unadjusted analyses

  6. Periodontal Disease: A Possible Risk-Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anuj Singh; Katoch, Vartika; Rajguru, Sneha A; Rajpoot, Nami; Singh, Pinojj; Wakhle, Sonal

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial invasion in subgingival sites especially of gram-negative organisms are initiators for periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogens with persistent inflammation lead to destruction of periodontium. In recent years, periodontal diseases have been associated with a number of systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular-disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-term low-birth weight (PLBW) and pre-eclampsia. The factors like low socio-economic status, mother's age, race, multiple births, tobacco and drug-abuse may be found to increase risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the same are less correlated with PLBW cases. Even the invasion of both aerobic and anerobic may lead to inflammation of gastrointestinal tract and vagina hence contributing to PLBW. The biological mechanism involved between PLBW and Maternal periodontitis is the translocation of chemical mediators of inflammation. Pre-eclampsia is one of the commonest cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity as it is characterized by hypertension and hyperprotenuria. Improving periodontal health before or during pregnancy may prevent or reduce the occurrences of these adverse pregnancy outcomes and, therefore, reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, this article is an attempt to review the relationship between periodontal condition and altered pregnancy outcome.

  7. Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for clinical stroke events in addition to silent cerebral infarcts in Japanese older hypertensives: the Jichi Medical School ABPM Study, wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Tamura, Yurie; Hoshide, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2007-03-01

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation, is associated with atherosclerosis, hypertensive target organ damage, and cardiovascular events. In the general Japanese population, the level of hsCRP is reported to be lower than that in Western countries, and the relationships among hsCRP, silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs), and clinical stroke events in older Japanese hypertensives remain unclear. We conducted brain MRI and measured hsCRP at baseline in 514 older Japanese hypertensives (clinic blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg, age > or =50 years old) who were enrolled in the Jichi Medical School ABPM Study, wave 1. They were followed up for an average of 41 months (range: 1 to 68 months, 1751 person-years) and the incidence of subsequent clinical stroke events was evaluated. The subjects with SCIs at baseline (n=257) had a higher hsCRP level than those without SCIs (geometric mean hsCRP [SD range]; 0.19 [0.18 to 0.21] versus 0.14 [0.13 to 0.16] mg/L, P=0.007) after adjustment for confounding factors, and the OR for the presence of SCIs was increased with the quartile of hsCRP levels. In Cox regression analysis, the patients with above median hsCRP level (> or =0.21 mg/L) (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.24 to 5.00, P=0.01) and those with SCIs (HR: 4.60, 95% CI: 1.91 to 11.03, P=0.001) at baseline had independently higher risks for clinical stroke events after adjustment for age, smoking status, antihypertensive medication use, and 24-hour systolic blood pressure level. Compared with the patients with below median hsCRP level without SCIs, those with above median hsCRP level and SCIs at baseline had a higher risk for clinical stroke events (HR: 7.32, 95% CI: 2.17 to 24.76, P=0.001), although those with below median hsCRP level and SCIs (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 0.64 to 9.47, P=0.19) and those with above median hsCRP level without SCIs (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.22 to 5.55, P=0.90) did not have significant risks. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is a

  8. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  9. Relationships between genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related factor gene and the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan-Li; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Chen, Guang-Jun; Bai, Lu; Liu, Dan; Su, Hong-Xin; Wang, He-Tong

    2014-09-01

    Our study aims to discuss the association between inflammation-related factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility and recurrence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We used Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to characterize the genetic variation of five SNPs in 194 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 231 healthy subjects. All statistical analysis is performed with statistical product and service solutions v13.0; odds ratio (OR) value and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. There is no relationship between TGFβ1 -869 T/C, IL-6 -634C/G, TGFβ1 -509C/T, IL1 -511C/T and nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility. Both single factor and multiple factors analysis showed that IL1a -889 T/T genotype is significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in decreasing the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A highly significant association was found between IL1a -889 T/T genotype and protective genotype as defined by various pathological types. This is more obvious in the protective genotype of the non-keratin-type squamous carcinoma undifferentiated type. We also discovered that genotype G/G and C/G + G/G of IL6 -634 gene are associated with reduced recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. IL1a -889 gene polymorphism and susceptibility is related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma and can potentially decrease the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Han Chinese population in north China. IL1-889 TT genotype is protective genotype for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have provided evidence that the GG genotype of the IL6 -634 gene is associated with recurrent risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The G allele is the protective gene of nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence.

  10. Thoracic aorta calcification but not inflammation is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk: results of the CAMONA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Lam, Marnix G.E.; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Thomassen, Anders [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); Vach, Werner [University Medical Center Freiburg, Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Olsen, Michael H. [Odense University Hospital, The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Preventive Clinic, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Individualized Medicine in Arterial Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Narula, Jagat [Mount Sinai Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul F. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark)

    2017-02-15

    Arterial inflammation and vascular calcification are regarded as early prognostic markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study we investigated the relationship between CVD risk and arterial inflammation ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging), vascular calcification metabolism (Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging), and vascular calcium burden (CT imaging) of the thoracic aorta in a population at low CVD risk. Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and {sup 18}F-FDG and Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for development of CVD, based on the Framingham risk score (FRS), was estimated. CVD risk was compared across quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, Na{sup 18}F uptake, and calcium burden on CT. A total of 139 subjects (52 % men, mean age 49 years, age range 21 - 75 years, median FRS 6 %) were evaluated. CVD risk was, on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with thoracic aorta Na{sup 18}F uptake in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of the distribution (15.5 % vs. 4.2 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with a thoracic aorta calcium burden on CT in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest two quartiles of the distribution (18.0 % vs. 4.9 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was similar in subjects in all quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Our findings indicate that an unfavourable CVD risk profile is associated with marked increases in vascular calcification metabolism and vascular calcium burden of the thoracic aorta, but not with arterial inflammation. (orig.)

  11. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and pulmonary inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Anne T.; Bornholdt, Jette; Dybdahl, Marianne; Sharma, Anoop K.; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Haakan [National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen (Denmark); Loft, Steffen [Copenhagen University, Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2005-03-01

    Particle-induced carcinogenicity is not well understood, but might involve inflammation. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered to be an important mediator in inflammation. We investigated its role in particle-induced inflammation and DNA damage in mice with and without TNF signaling. TNF-/- mice and TNF+/+ mice were exposed by inhalation to 20 mg m{sup -3} carbon black (CB), 20 mg m{sup -3} diesel exhaust particles (DEP), or filtered air for 90 min on each of four consecutive days. DEP, but not CB particles, induced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocutes into the lung lining fluid (by the cellular fraction in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), and both particle types induced interleukin-6 mRNA in the lung tissue. Surprisingly, TNF-/- mice were intact in these inflammatory responses. There were more DNA strand breaks in the BAL cells of DEP-exposed TNF-/- mice and CB-exposed mice compared with the air-exposed mice. Thus, the CB-induced DNA damage in BAL-cells was independent of neutrophil infiltration. The data indicate that an inflammatory response was not a prerequisite for DNA damage, and TNF was not required for the induction of inflammation by DEP and CB particles. (orig.)

  12. Surveillance of primary sclerosing cholangitis with ERC and brush cytology: risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sonja; Mustonen, Harri; Tenca, Andrea; Jokelainen, Kalle; Arola, Johanna; Färkkilä, Martti A

    2017-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease leading to bile duct strictures and fibrosis, and predisposing to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Biliary dysplasia is a known precursor of CCA. In our unit, PSC patients undergo regular surveillance with ERC and brush cytology (BC), and liver transplantation is an option in case with biliary dysplasia. We evaluated the risk factors for biliary dysplasia and CCA based on ERC imaging, BC and liver function tests. Seven hundred and eighty-eight ERCs were performed with BC for 447 PSC patients. ERC images were evaluated using the modified Amsterdam score, neutrophilic inflammation was assessed in BC, and liver function tests were collected. Ploidy analysis with DNA flow cytometry was performed in cases with advanced PSC or previous suspicious BC/aneuploidy. The endpoint was either a benign disease course (follow-up for ≥2.4 years after the latest ERC), benign histology, biliary dysplasia or CCA. Benign disease course was seen in 424/447 (including 23 cases with biliary dysplasia), and CCA in 17 (3.8%) patients. Gallbladder carcinoma/carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in three patients. Advanced ERC findings, male gender, suspicious BC, aneuploidy in flow cytometry, inflammation, and elevation of ALP, bilirubin, ALT, AST, GGT, CEA and CA19-9 represented significant risk factors for CCA in univariate analysis. PSC patients with advanced bile duct disease and elevated liver enzymes, CEA or CA19-9, inflammation or suspicious BC are most likely to develop CCA. These patients may benefit from surveillance with BC if early liver transplantation is possible.

  13. Conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy: Multivariate analysis of preoperative risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Some patients require conversion to open surgery and several preoperative variables have been identified as risk factors that are helpful in predicting the probability of conversion. However, there is a need to devise a risk-scoring system based on the identified risk factors to (a predict the risk of conversion preoperatively for selected patients, (b prepare the patient psychologically, (c arrange operating schedules accordingly, and (d minimize the procedure-related cost and help overcome financial constraints, which is a significant problem in developing countries. AIM: This study was aimed to evaluate preoperative risk factors for conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy in our setting. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: A case control study of patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery from January 1997 to December 2001 was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All those patients who were converted to open surgery (n = 73 were enrolled as cases. Two controls who had successful laparoscopic surgery (n = 146 were matched with each case for operating surgeon and closest date of surgery. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistics were computed and, univariate and multivariate analysis was done through multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The final multivariate model identified two risk factors for conversion: ultrasonographic signs of inflammation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3, 21.9 and age > 60 years (aOR = 8.1; 95% CI: 2.9, 22.2 after adjusting for physical signs, alkaline phosphatase and BMI levels. CONCLUSION: Preoperative risk factors evaluated by the present study confirm the likelihood of conversion. Recognition of these factors is important for understanding the characteristics of patients at a higher risk of conversion.

  14. Pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic adipose tissues contribute to systemic inflammation and calcified coronary atherosclerosis independent of body fat composition, anthropometric measures and traditional cardiovascular risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Lin, Tin-Yu; Wu, Yih-Jer; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I.; Yang, Fei-Shih; Chen, Su-Chiu; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Cury, Ricardo C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary atherosclerosis has traditionally been proposed to be associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometric measures. However, clinical data regarding the independent value of visceral adipose tissue in addition to such traditional predictors remains obscure. Materials and methods: We subsequently studied 719 subjects (age: 48.1 ± 8.3 years, 25% females) who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for coronary calcium score (CCS) quantification. Baseline demographic data and anthropometric measures were taken with simultaneous body fat composition estimated. Visceral adipose tissue of pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic fat was quantified by MDCT using TeraRecon Aquarius workstation (San Mateo, CA). Traditional cardiovascular risk stratification was calculated by metabolic (NCEP ATP III) and Framingham (FRS) scores and high-sensitivity CRP (Hs-CRP) was taken to represent systemic inflammation. The independent value of visceral adipose tissue to systemic inflammation and CCS was assessed by utilizing multivariable regression analysis. Results: Of all subjects enrolled in this study, the mean values for pericardial and peri-aortic adipose tissue were 74.23 ± 27.51 and 7.23 ± 3.69 ml, respectively. Higher visceral fat quartile groups were associated with graded increase of risks for cardiovascular diseases. Both adipose burdens strongly correlated with anthropometric measures including waist circumference, body weight and body mass index (all p < 0.001). In addition, both visceral amount correlates well with ATP and FRS scores, all lipid profiles and systemic inflammation marker in terms of Hs-CRP (all p < 0.001). After adjustment for baseline variables, both visceral fat were independently related to Hs-CRP levels (all p < 0.05), but only pericardial fat exerted independent role in coronary calcium deposit. Conclusion: Both visceral adipose tissues strongly correlated with systemic inflammation beyond traditional

  15. Vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, A; Naderpoor, N; Teede, H J; De Courten, M P J; Scragg, R; De Courten, B

    2015-09-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most common preventable causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Insulin resistance, which is a shared feature in these conditions, is also strongly linked to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disease in women of reproductive age and a major cause of infertility. Vitamin D deficiency has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, primarily due to the shift to sedentary, indoor lifestyles and sun avoidance behaviours to protect against skin cancer. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes, PCOS and CVD, and has been shown to be associated with their risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, as well as chronic low-grade inflammation. Treating vitamin D deficiency may offer a feasible and cost-effective means of reducing cardiometabolic risk factors at a population level in order to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD. However, not all intervention studies show that vitamin D supplementation alleviates these risk factors. Importantly, there is significant heterogeneity in existing studies with regards to doses and drug regimens used, populations studied (i.e. vitamin D deficient or sufficient), and the lengths of supplementation, and only few studies have directly examined the effect of vitamin D on insulin secretion and resistance with the use of clamp methods. Therefore, there is a need for well-designed large scale trials to clarify the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, PCOS, and CVD.

  16. Dietary Modulation of Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer through PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee B. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC is dramatically increased for patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. For instance, patients with Crohn's Disease (CD or Ulcerative Colitis (UC have a 12–20% increased risk for developing CRC. Preventive strategies utilizing nontoxic natural compounds that modulate immune responses could be successful in the suppression of inflammation-driven colorectal cancer in high-risk groups. The increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ expression and its transcriptional activity has been identified as a target for anti-inflammatory efforts, and the suppression of inflammation-driven colon cancer. PPARγ down-modulates inflammation and elicits antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions in epithelial cells. All of which may decrease the risk for inflammation-induced CRC. This review will focus on the use of orally active, naturally occurring chemopreventive approaches against inflammation-induced CRC that target PPARγ and therefore down-modulate inflammation.

  17. State of oral hygiene and identification of the main risk factors for inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko M.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of plaque indices OHI-S (simplified oral hygiene index Green Vermilyona and Silness Loe were used. Studies of oral hygiene status suggests that in patients with different etiologies of periodontal tissue inflammation, oral hygienic condition ranged from "satisfactory" to "poor." Therefore the results of study of hygiene and periodontal indices and samples confirmed presence of moderately expressed inflammation in the gums in young adults with chronic catarrhal gingivitis. Most often inflammation in the gums, namely, chronic catarrhal gingivitis was determined in patients with fixed prosthesis designs in the mouth or in violation of the bite, related to the major risk factors for periodontal disease occurring in young adults aged from 18 to 30 years.

  18. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use is associated with reduced risk of inflammation-associated cancers: NIH-AARP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M Shebl

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation has been linked to cancers, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has been associated with reduced risk of several cancers. To further refine the magnitude of NSAID-related associations, in particular for cancers related to inflammation, such as alcohol-, infection-, obesity-, and smoking-related cancers, as well as for less common cancers, we evaluated the use of NSAIDs and cancer risk in a very large cohort. We used propensity scores to account for potential selection bias and hypothesized that NSAID use is associated with decreased cancer incidence.We conducted a prospective study among 314,522 participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Individuals who completed the lifestyle questionnaire, which included NSAID use, in 1996-1997 were followed through 2006. Information on cancer incidence was ascertained by linking to cancer registries and vital status databases.During 2,715,994 person-years of follow-up (median 10.1 person-years, there were 51,894 incident cancers. Compared with non-users of NSAIDs, individuals who reported use in the 12 months prior to interview had a significantly lower risk of all inflammation-related cancer, alcohol-related, infection-related, obesity-related, and smoking-related cancers [hazard ratio (HR (95% CI 0.90 (0.87-0.93, 0.80 (0.74-0.85, 0.82 (0.78-0.87, 0.88 (0.84-0.92, and 0.88 (0.85-0.92 respectively].After accounting for potential selection bias, our data showed an inverse association between NSAID use and alcohol-related, infection-related, obesity-related, and smoking-related cancers and support the hypothesis that inflammation is related to an increased risk of certain cancers.

  19. Osteosarcopenic Visceral Obesity and Osteosarcopenic Subcutaneous Obesity, Two New Phenotypes of Sarcopenia: Prevalence, Metabolic Profile, and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccini, Daniele; Nichetti, Mara; Avanzato, Ilaria; Faliva, Milena Anna

    2018-01-01

    Background The main criticism of the definition of “osteosarcopenic obesity” (OSO) is the lack of division between subcutaneous and visceral fat. This study describes the prevalence, metabolic profile, and risk factors of two new phenotypes of sarcopenia: osteosarcopenic visceral obesity (OSVAT) and osteosarcopenic subcutaneous obesity (OSSAT). Methods A standardized geriatric assessment was performed by anthropometric and biochemical measures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess body composition, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), osteoporosis, and sarcopenia. Results A sample of 801 subjects were assessed (247 men; 554 women). The prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) was 6.79%; OSSAT and OSOVAT were, respectively, 2.22% and 4.56%. OSVAT (versus the others) showed a higher level of inflammation (CRP and ESR, p < 0.05), bilirubin (p < 0.05), and risk of fractures (FRAX index over 15%, p < 0.001). Subjects with OSSAT did not show any significant risk factors associated to obesity. Conclusions The osteosarcopenic visceral obesity phenotype (OSVAT) seems to be associated with a higher risk of fractures, inflammation, and a worse metabolic profile. These conditions in OSVAT cohort are associated with an increase of visceral adipose tissue, while patients with OSSAT seem to benefit related to the “obesity paradox”. PMID:29862078

  20. Risk factors for cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) in Norwegian salmon farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang Jensen, Britt; Brun, Edgar; Fineid, Birgitte; Larssen, Rolf Bjerke; Kristoffersen, Anja B

    2013-12-12

    Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) has been an economically important disease in Norwegian aquaculture since the 1990s. In this study, data on monthly production characteristics and case registrations were combined in a cohort study and supplemented with a questionnaire-based case-control survey on management factors in order to identify risk factors for CMS. The cohort study included cases and controls from 2005 to 2012. From this dataset differences between all cases and controls were analyzed by a mixed effect multivariate logistic regression. From this we found that the probability of CMS increased with increasing time in the sea, infection pressure, and cohort size, and that cohorts which had previously been diagnosed with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation or which were in farms with a history of CMS in previous cohorts had double the odds of developing CMS. The model was then used to calculate the predicted value for each cohort from which additional data were obtained via the questionnaire-based survey and used as offset for calculating the probability of CMS in a semi-univariate analysis of additional risk factors. Finally, the model was used to calculate the probability of developing CMS in 100 different scenarios in which the cohorts were subject to increasingly worse conditions with regards to the risk factors from the dataset. We believe that this exercise is a good way of communicating the findings to farmers, so they can make informed decisions when trying to avoid CMS in their fish cohorts.

  1. Childhood victimization and inflammation in young adulthood: A genetically sensitive cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jessie R; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Fisher, Helen L; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Ambler, Antony; Dove, Rosamund; Kepa, Agnieszka; Matthews, Timothy; Menard, Anne; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Danese, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Childhood victimization is an important risk factor for later immune-related disorders. Previous evidence has demonstrated that childhood victimization is associated with elevated levels of inflammation biomarkers measured decades after exposure. However, it is unclear whether this association is (1) already detectable in young people, (2) different in males and females, and (3) confounded by genetic liability to inflammation. Here we sought to address these questions. Participants were 2232 children followed from birth to age 18years as part of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study. Childhood victimization was measured prospectively from birth to age 12years. Inflammation was measured through C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in dried blood spots at age 18years. Latent genetic liability for high inflammation levels was assessed through a twin-based method. Greater exposure to childhood victimization was associated with higher CRP levels at age 18 (serum-equivalent means were 0.65 in non-victimized Study members, 0.74 in those exposed to one victimization type, and 0.81 in those exposed to poly-victimization; p=0.018). However, this association was driven by a significant association in females (serum-equivalent means were 0.75 in non-victimized females, 0.87 in those exposed to one type of victimization, and 1.19 in those exposed to poly-victimization; p=0.010), while no significant association was observed in males (p=0.19). Victimized females showed elevated CRP levels independent of latent genetic influence, as well as childhood socioeconomic status, and waist-hip ratio and body temperature at the time of CRP assessment. Childhood victimization is associated with elevated CRP levels in young women, independent of latent genetic influences and other key risk factors. These results strengthen causal inference about the effects of childhood victimization on inflammation levels in females by accounting for potential genetic confounding. Copyright

  2. An investigation of vago-regulatory and health-behavior accounts for increased inflammation in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Paul A; Weinberg, J Brice; Calhoun, Patrick S; Watkins, Lana L; Sherwood, Andrew; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to chronic inflammation, a condition that poses a risk for cardiovascular disease. Attenuated vagal activity has been proposed as a potential mediator of PTSD and inflammation, although associated behavioral health risks-namely cigarette smoking and alcohol dependence-might also account for that link. Inflammation was quantified by fasting serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17 collected from 85 participants with PTSD and 82 without PTSD. Latent variable modeling was used to assess the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and inflammation along with potential mediators vagal activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA), smoking status, and lifetime alcohol dependence. PTSD symptom severity was associated with increased inflammation (β=.18, p=.02). However, this association was reduced in models that adjusted for RSA, smoking status, and lifetime alcohol dependence. Independent mediation effects were deemed significant via bootstrapping analyses. Together, RSA, smoking status, and lifetime alcohol dependence accounted for 95% of the effect of PTSD symptom severity on inflammation. Although RSA accounted for a modest proportion of the association between posttraumatic stress and pro-inflammatory responses, behavioral factors-specifically cigarette smoking and alcohol dependence-proved to be larger mediators. The benefits of PTSD treatment may be enhanced by additional interventions aimed at modifying these health behaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Increased Intestinal Inflammation and Digestive Dysfunction in Preterm Pigs with Severe Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    The risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are well known, but the factors involved in the different NEC presentations remain unclear. We hypothesized that digestive dysfunction and intestinal inflammation are mainly affected by severe NEC lesions. In 48 preterm pigs, the association...... between the macroscopic NEC score (range 1-6) and the expression of 48 genes related to inflammation, morphological, and digestive parameters in the distal small intestine was investigated. Only severe NEC cases (score of 5-6) were associated with the upregulation of genes involved in inflammation (CCL2...... and decreased hydrolase activity. A severe inflammatory response and digestive dysfunction are associated mainly with severe NEC. Still, it remains difficult to separate the initial causes of NEC and the later intestinal consequences of NEC in both infants and experimental models....

  4. Syringe needle skull penetration reduces brain injuries and secondary inflammation following intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mou; Dong, Qin; Zhang, Hongtian; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Jianwei; Yang, Zhijun; Xu, Minhui; Xu, Ruxiang

    2017-03-01

    Intracerebral neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is beneficial for delivering stem cell grafts effectively, however, this approach may subsequently result in brain injury and secondary inflammation. To reduce the risk of promoting brain injury and secondary inflammation, two methods were compared in the present study. Murine skulls were penetrated using a drill on the left side and a syringe needle on the right. Mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=84/group): Group A, receiving NSCs in the left hemisphere and PBS in the right; group B, receiving NSCs in the right hemisphere and PBS in the left; and group C, receiving equal NSCs in both hemispheres. Murine brains were stained for morphological analysis and subsequent evaluation of infiltrated immune cells. ELISA was performed to detect neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factors in the brain. The findings indicated that brain injury and secondary inflammation in the left hemisphere were more severe than those in the right hemisphere, following NSC transplantation. In contrast to the left hemisphere, more neurotrophic factors but less pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected in the right hemisphere. In addition, increased levels of neurotrophic factors and interleukin (IL)-10 were observed in the NSC transplantation side when compared with the PBS-treated hemispheres, although lower levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected. In conclusion, the present study indicated that syringe needle skull penetration vs. drill penetration is an improved method that reduces the risk of brain injury and secondary inflammation following intracerebral NSC transplantation. Furthermore, NSCs have the potential to modulate inflammation secondary to brain injuries.

  5. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  6. Mechanical stress as the common denominator between chronic inflammation, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eLevy Nogueira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of common diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and cancer are currently poorly understood. Inflammation is a common risk factor for cancer and AD. Recent data, provided by our group and from others, demonstrate that increased pressure and inflammation are synonymous. There is a continuous increase in pressure from inflammation to fibrosis and then cancer. This in line with the numerous papers reporting high interstitial pressure in cancer. But most authors focus on the role of pressure in the lack of delivery of chemotherapy in the center of the tumor. Pressure may also be a key factor in carcinogenesis. Increased pressure is responsible for oncogene activation and cytokine secretion. Accumulation of mechanical stress plays a key role in the development of diseases of old age such as cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis. Growing evidence suggest also a possible link between mechanical stress in the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of this review is to describe environmental and endogenous mechanical factors possibly playing a pivotal role in the mechanism of chronic inflammation, AD and cancer.

  7. Von Willebrand factor indicates bacterial translocation, inflammation, and procoagulant imbalance and predicts complications independently of portal hypertension severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandorfer, M; Schwabl, P; Paternostro, R; Pomej, K; Bauer, D; Thaler, J; Ay, C; Quehenberger, P; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Peck-Radosavljevic, M; Trauner, M; Reiberger, T; Ferlitsch, A

    2018-04-01

    Elevated plasma von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF) has been shown to indicate the presence of clinically significant portal hypertension, and thus, predicts the development of clinical events in patients with cirrhosis. To investigate the impact of bacterial translocation and inflammation on vWF, as well as the association between vWF and procoagulant imbalance. Moreover, we assessed whether vWF predicts complications of cirrhosis, independent of the severity of portal hypertension. Our study population comprised 225 patients with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) ≥ 10 mm Hg without active bacterial infections or hepatocellular carcinoma. vWF correlated with markers of bacterial translocation (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein [LBP; ρ = 0.201; P = 0.021]), inflammation (interleukin 6 [IL-6; ρ = 0.426; P protein [CRP; ρ = 0.249; P protein C ratio; ρ = 0.507; P model for transplant-free mortality. Finally, the independent prognostic value of vWF/CRP groups for mortality was confirmed by competing risk analysis. Our results demonstrate that vWF is not only a marker of portal hypertension but also independently linked to bacterial translocation, inflammation and procoagulant imbalance, which might explain its HVPG-independent association with most clinical events. Prognostic groups based on vWF/CRP efficiently discriminate between patients with a poor 5-year survival and patients with a favourable prognosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in combination with hypertension depending on body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sіrenko O.Yu.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on body weight. The study involved 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and stably selected therapy for more than 6 months at the age from 45 to 65 years (mean age 53,19 ± 5,40 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk was assessed, taking into account risk factors by SCORE scale and amended for patients with RA. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, body mass index, body area index were determined. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 41 (41% patients with rheuma¬toid arthritis and was associated with traditional risk factors (age, obesity, rheumatoid factor, hyperuricemia and the duration of glucocorticoid therapy. Obesity and excess body mass occurred in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, herewith the highest level of inflammation indicators and risk of cardiovascular events was in overweight patients. Obesity was associated with duration of rheumatoid arthritis, the activity of the inflammatory process, the duration of glucocorticoids taking. It is found that the traditional SCORE scale does not fully reflect the risk of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis. Identification of hypertension and obesity increases the information content of the risk assessment of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Microbial Composition Predicts Genital Tract Inflammation and Persistent Bacterial Vaginosis in South African Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Katie; Dabee, Smritee; Barnabas, Shaun L; Havyarimana, Enock; Blakney, Anna; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Botha, Gerrit; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lewis, David A; Gray, Glenda; Mulder, Nicola; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B

    2018-01-01

    Young African females are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV-negative South African adolescent females aged 16 to 22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, the microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation. We identified 40 taxa significantly associated with inflammation, including those reported previously ( Prevotella , Sneathia , Aerococcus , Fusobacterium , and Gemella ) as well as several novel taxa (including increased frequencies of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 [BVAB1], BVAB2, BVAB3, Prevotella amnii , Prevotella pallens , Parvimonas micra , Megasphaera , Gardnerella vaginalis , and Atopobium vaginae and decreased frequencies of Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , and Lactobacillus iners ). Women with inflammation-associated microbiomes had significantly higher body mass indices and lower levels of endogenous estradiol and luteinizing hormone. Community functional profiling revealed three distinct vaginal microbiome subtypes, one of which was characterized by extreme genital inflammation and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV); this subtype could be predicted with high specificity and sensitivity based on the Nugent score (≥9) or BVAB1 abundance. We propose that women with this BVAB1-dominated subtype may have chronic genital inflammation due to persistent BV, which may place them at a particularly high risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. T-cell activation promotes tumorigenesis in inflammation-associated cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairmore Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic inflammation has long been associated with a wide range of malignancies, is now widely accepted as a risk factor for development of cancer, and has been implicated as a promoter of a variety of cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. We have described a mouse model uniquely suited to examine the link between inflammation and lymphoma in which the Tax oncogene, expressed in activated T and NK cells, perpetuates chronic inflammation that begins as microscopic intraepithelial lesions and develops into inflammatory nodules, subcutaneous tumors, and large granular lymphocytic leukemia. The use of bioluminescent imaging in these mice has expanded our ability to interrogate aspects of inflammation and tumorigenesis non-invasively. Here we demonstrate that bioluminescence induction in these mice correlated with inflammation resulting from wounding, T cell activation, and exposure to chemical agents. In experiments in which long-term effects of inflammation on disease outcome were monitored, the development of lymphoma was promoted by an inflammatory stimulus. Finally we demonstrated that activation of T-cells in T-cell receptor (TCR transgenic TAX-LUC animals dramatically exacerbated the development of subcutaneous TCR- CD16+ LGL tumors. The role of activated T-cells and acquired immunity in inflammation-associated cancers is broadly applicable to hematopoietic malignancies, and we propose these mice will be of use in dissecting mechanisms by which activated T-cells promote lymphomagenesis in vivo.

  11. Vegetarian diet reduces the risk of hypertension independent of abdominal obesity and inflammation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Hsiung, Chao A; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-11-01

    A vegetarian diet may prevent elevation of blood pressures and lower the risk for hypertension through lower degrees of obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. This study investigated the association between a vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence in a cohort of Taiwanese adult nonsmokers and examined whether this association was mediated through inflammation, abdominal obesity, or insulin resistance (using fasting glucose as a proxy). This matched cohort study was from the 1994-2008 MJ Health Screening Database. Each vegetarian was matched with five nonvegetarians by age, sex, and study site. The analysis included 4109 nonsmokers (3423 nonvegetarians and 686 vegetarians), followed for a median of 1.61 years. The outcome includes hypertension incidence, as well as SBP and DBP levels. Regression analysis was performed to assess the association between vegetarian diet and hypertension incidence or future blood pressure levels in the presence/absence of potential mediators. Vegetarians had a 34% lower risk for hypertension, adjusting for age and sex (odds ratio: 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.87; SBP: -3.3 mmHg, P vegetarian diet and hypertension appeared to be consistent across age groups. Taiwanese vegetarians had lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians. Vegetarian diets may protect against hypertension beyond lower abdominal obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  12. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and hemostatic factors in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation and hemostasis contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease due to an improved the lipid profile. In addition to these beneficial changes, the alcohol medi...

  13. Biomarkers for insulin resistance and inflammation and the risk for all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our aim was to investigate the contribution of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis (adiponectin, glucose, glycated albumin, and insulin levels) and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) levels) to the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) a...

  14. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  15. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  16. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and dysregulated iron homeostatis in rat models of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects. Therefore, rodent models of CVD are increasingly used to examine mechanisms ofvariation in susceptibility. Pulmonary oxidative stress, inflammation and altere...

  17. Inflammation and intracranial aneurysms: mechanisms of initiation, growth, and rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Amenta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remain poor in many patients, despite advances in microsurgical and endovascular management. Consequently, considerable effort has been placed in determining the mechanisms of aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. Various environmental and genetic factors are implicated as key components in the aneurysm pathogenesis. Currently, sufficient evidence exists to incriminate the inflammatory response as the common pathway leading to aneurysm generation and rupture. Central to this model is the interaction between the vessel wall and inflammatory cells. Dysfunction of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs promotes a chronic pathological inflammatory response that progressively weakens the vessel wall. We review the literature pertaining to the cellular and chemical mechanisms of inflammation that contribute to aneurysm development. Hemodynamic stress and alterations in blood flow are discussed regarding their role in promoting chronic inflammation. Endothelial cell and VSMC dysfunction are examined concerning vascular remodeling. The contribution of inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor-α is illustrated. Inflammatory cell infiltration, particularly macrophage-mediated deterioration of vascular integrity, is reviewed. We discuss the inflammation as a means to determine aneurysms at greatest risk of rupture. Finally, future therapeutic implications of pharmacologic modulation of the inflammation are discussed.

  18. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  19. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  20. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Inflammation in End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. In patients affected by CKD, a progressive destruction of the nephrons is observed not only in structuralbut also in functional level. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is characterized by the deposition of lipids and fibrous elements and is a common complication of the uremic syndrome because of the coexistence of a wide range of risk factors. High blood pressure, anaemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, high oxidative stress are some of the most common factors that cause cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis in patients suffering from End Stage Kidney Disease (ESRD. At the same time, the inflammatory process constitutes a common element in the apparition and development of CKD. A wide range of possible causes can justify the development of inflammation under uremic conditions. Such causes are oxidative stress, oxidation, coexistentpathological conditions as well as factors that are due to renal clearance techniques. Patients in ESRD and coronary disease usually show increased acute phase products. Pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-a, and acute phase reactants, such as CRP and fibrinogen, are closely related. The treatment of chronic inflammation in CKD is of high importance for the development ofthe disease as well as for the treatment of cardiovascular morbidity.Conclusions: The treatment factors focus on the use of renin-angiotensic system inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, statins and anti-oxidant treatment in order to prevent the action of inflammatorycytokines that have the ability to activate the mechanisms of inflammation.

  1. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  2. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens; Sales, Allan Robson Kluser; Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p sex < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions

  3. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE PREVALENCE OF THE PERIODONTAL DISEASE VERSUS SYSTEMIC AND LOCAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia MÂRŢU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The periodontal disease represents a malady characterized by an extremely high incidence. The manifestations and evolution of the periodontal diseases vary for each form in part, being influenced by systemic and local risk factors. Scope of the study: To evaluate the periodontal status on a group of patients, versus the syste‐ mic and local factors. Materials and method: The study was performed on a group of 170 patients, whose odonto‐periodontal status was evaluated by strict clinical and paraclinical examinations, on establishing the inflammation indices and the periodontal diagnosis. Results: The main cause of the analysis was gingival ble‐ eding; an increased number of smokers was registered among the patients. Out of the local factors, especially important were edentations and malocclusions. Also, a higher number of aggressive generalized periodontites has been noticed. Discussion: The forms of the periodontal diseases are obviously influenced by the systemic context, while the forms of localized chronic periodontitis associa‐ ted with generalized chronic gingivitis reflect the role pla‐ yed by the local risk factors. Conclusions: Stress and smoking represent significant risk factors in the installation of periodontal pathology, with a really alarming preva‐ lence. The aggressive forms of periodontitis showed a higher frequency than that recorded in literature.

  5. Effects of Bariatric Surgery on Adipokine-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep eGoktas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a third of the US population is obese and at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders. Obesity is considered a chronic low grade inflammatory condition that is primarily attributed to expansion and inflammation of adipose tissues. Indeed, adipocytes produce and secrete numerous proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines known as adipokines. When the balance of these adipokines is shifted towards higher production of proinflammatory factors, local inflammation within adipose tissues and subsequently systemic inflammation occur. These adipokines including leptin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4 can regulate inflammatory responses and contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes. These effects are mediated by key inflammatory signaling molecules including activated serine kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and serine kinases inhibitor κB kinase (IKK and insulin signaling molecules including insulin receptor substrates, protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Bariatric surgery can decrease body weight and improve insulin resistance in morbidly obese subjects. However, despite reports suggesting reduced inflammation and weight-independent effects of bariatric surgery on glucose metabolism, mechanisms behind such improvements are not yet well understood. This review article focuses on some of these novel adipokines and discusses their changes after bariatric surgery and their relationship to insulin resistance, fat mass, inflammation, and glucose homeostasis.

  6. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  7. Contribution of inflammation to vascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, Mohamed E.; Stenvinkel, P.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an exceptionally high mortality rate, much of which results from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic low-grade inflammation, as evidenced by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP), is a common feature of CKD and may cause atherosclerotic CVD through various pathogenetic mechanisms. Evidence suggests that persistent inflammation may also be a risk factor for progression of CKD, which may result in a vicious inflammation-driven circle. The causes of inflammation in CKD are multifactorial. The influence of various comorbidities may contribute to inflammation in the setting of progressive loss of renal function. Available data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines also play a central role in the genesis of the metabolic syndrome. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and consequences of inflammation in relation to protein-energy wasting (PEW) and CVD in CKD patients from developing countries. The westernization of nutritional intakes and changes of life style besides the high prevalence of chronic infections in developing countries are possible additive contributors to a high prevalence of inflammation, PEW and CVD among CKD patients. Also, genetic differences may affect inflammatory responses and nutritional status and thus the susceptibility to CVD in different regions. (author)

  8. EZH2 regulates dental pulp inflammation by direct effect on inflammatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Tianqian; A, Peng; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Jing; Ye, Ling; Wang, Chenglin

    2018-01-01

    Pulpitis is a multi-factorial disease that could be caused by complex interactions between genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors. We aimed to evaluate the role of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) in the inflammatory response of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and dental pulp tissues. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines in HDPCs treated by EZH2 complex or EZH2 siRNA with or without rhTNF-α were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). The levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, CCL2 and CXCL12 in culture supernatants were measured by Luminex assay. In rat pulpitis model, the effects of EZH2 on dental pulp tissues were verified by histology. We invested the mechanisms of the effect of EZH2 on the inflammatory factors by ChIP assay. EZH2 down-regulation inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, CCL2 and CXCL12 in HDPCs. EZH2 complex promoted the expression and secretion of these inflammatory factors in HDPCs, while EZH2 silencing could attenuate the promotion of inflammatory factors that were induced by rhTNF-α. In pulpitis models of rats, EZH2 down-regulation inhibited the inflammatory process of dental pulp while EZH2 complex showed no significant facilitation of pulpal inflammation. In addition, EZH2 could bind on the promoters of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2, but not IL-15 and CXCL12, to affect the transcription of these proinflammatory cytokines. In HDPCs, EZH2 could induce inflammation, while EZH2 down-regulation could attenuate the inflammatory responses. EZH2 plays an important role in this inflammatory process of dental pulp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohra, Rupali; Tsai, James C; Kolko, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disorder characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons. There are various hypotheses concerning the cause of RGC death. Previously, glaucoma was defined by high intraocular pressure (IOP); during the past decade, however, glaucoma...... specialists have acknowledged that elevated IOP is the most important risk factor for glaucoma, but does not define the disease. Other factors such as genetics, blood flow, and excitotoxicity are suggested as potential causal factors for progressive RGC death observed in glaucoma. We review recent studies...... elucidating a possible role of low-grade inflammation as a causal factor in the pathogenesis of glaucoma....

  10. Systemic inflammation and intelligence in early adulthood and subsequent risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: a longitudinal cohort and co-relative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappelmann, Nils; Khandaker, Golam M; Dal, Henrik; Stochl, Jan; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B; Dalman, Christina; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-04-06

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired neurodevelopment as indexed by lower premorbid IQ. We examined associations between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation, IQ, and subsequent schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses (ONAP) to elucidate the role of neurodevelopment and inflammation in the pathogenesis of psychosis. Population-based data on ESR and IQ from 638 213 Swedish men assessed during military conscription between 1969 and 1983 were linked to National Hospital Discharge Register for hospitalisation with schizophrenia and ONAP. The associations of ESR with IQ (cross-sectional) and psychoses (longitudinal) were investigated using linear and Cox-regression. The co-relative analysis was used to examine effects of shared familial confounding. We examined mediation and moderation of effect between ESR and IQ on psychosis risk. Baseline IQ was associated with subsequent risk of schizophrenia (adjusted HR per 1-point increase in IQ = 0.961; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.960-0.963) and ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.973; 95% CI 0.971-0.975). Higher ESR was associated with lower IQ in a dose-response fashion. High ESR was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia (adjusted HR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.28) and decreased risk for ONAP (adjusted HR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.74-0.96), although these effects were specific to one ESR band (7-10 mm/hr). Familial confounding explained ESR-IQ but not ESR-psychoses associations. IQ partly mediated the ESR-psychosis relationships. Lower IQ is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and with an increased risk of schizophrenia and ONAP in adulthood. Low-grade inflammation may influence schizophrenia risk by affecting neurodevelopment. Future studies should explore the differential effects of inflammation on different types of psychosis.

  11. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Ong, Anthony D; Almeida, David M

    2015-12-01

    Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (substudy of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e., positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = .01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = .03) but not men (p = .57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Affective reactivity to daily stressors is associated with elevated inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Ong, Anthony D.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (sub-study of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. Results People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e, positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = 0.01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = 0.03) but not men (p = 0.57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Conclusions Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. PMID:26030309

  13. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  14. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari Soltani, Saman; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Tabibi, Hadi; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Atabak, Shahnaz; Loh, Su-Peng; Rahmani, Leila

    2013-04-01

    Inflammation and lipid abnormalities are two important risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. This was an unblinded, randomized clinical trial. Thirty HD patients with dyslipidemia (triglyceride >200 mg/dL and/or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) consumption improves lipid abnormalities and reduces systemic inflammation in HD patients with lipid abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. Association of six CpG-SNPs in the inflammation-related genes with coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaomin; Chen, Xiaoying; Xu, Yan; Yang, William; Wu, Nan; Ye, Huadan; Yang, Jack Y.; Hong, Qingxiao; Xin, Yanfei; Yang, Mary Qu; Deng, Youping; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been widely considered to be the major risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of our study was to explore the possible association with CHD for inflammation-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides. A total of 784 CHD patients and 739 non-CHD controls were recruited from Zhejiang Province, China. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform, we measured the genotypes of six inflammatio...

  16. The effect of PPE-induced emphysema and chronic LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation on atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-LEIDEN mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Wong, M.C.; Wagenaar, G.T.M.; Plomp, J.J.; Eck, M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Berbée, J.F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by pulmonary inflammation, airways obstruction and emphysema, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the contribution of these individual COPD components to this increased risk is unknown. Therefore,

  17. Inflammable materials stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandagopan, V.

    2017-01-01

    A new Inflammable Materials Stores has been constructed by A and SED, BARC near Gamma Field for storage of inflammable materials falling into Petroleum Class ‘A’ ‘B’ and “C” mainly comprising of oils and lubricants, Chemicals like Acetone, Petroleum Ether etc. which are regularly procured by Central Stores Unit (CSU) for issue to the various divisions of BARC. The design of the shed done by A and SED, BARC was duly got approved from Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (PESO) which is a mandatory requirement before commencement of the construction. The design had taken into account various safety factors which is ideally required for an inflammable materials stores

  18. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  19. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  20. Targeting factor VIII expression to platelets for hemophilia A gene therapy does not induce an apparent thrombotic risk in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C K; Mattson, J G; Weiler, H; Shi, Q; Montgomery, R R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Platelet-Factor (F) VIII gene therapy is a promising treatment in hemophilia A. This study aims to evaluate if platelet-FVIII expression would increase the risk for thrombosis. Targeting FVIII expression to platelets does not induce or elevate thrombosis risk. Platelets expressing FVIII are neither hyper-activated nor hyper-responsive. Background Targeting factor (F) VIII expression to platelets is a promising gene therapy approach for hemophilia A, and is successful even in the presence of inhibitors. It is well known that platelets play important roles not only in hemostasis, but also in thrombosis and inflammation. Objective To evaluate whether platelet-FVIII expression might increase thrombotic risk and thereby compromise the safety of this approach. Methods In this study, platelet-FVIII-expressing transgenic mice were examined either in steady-state conditions or under prothrombotic conditions induced by inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation. Native whole blood thrombin generation assay, rotational thromboelastometry analysis and ferric chloride-induced vessel injury were used to evaluate the hemostatic properties. Various parameters associated with thrombosis risk, including D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, tissue fibrin deposition, platelet activation status and activatability, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates, were assessed. Results We generated a new line of transgenic mice that expressed 30-fold higher levels of platelet-expressed FVIII than are therapeutically required to restore hemostasis in hemophilic mice. Under both steady-state conditions and prothrombotic conditions induced by lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation or the FV Leiden mutation, supratherapeutic levels of platelet-expressed FVIII did not appear to be thrombogenic. Furthermore, FVIII-expressing platelets were neither hyperactivated nor hyperactivatable upon agonist activation. Conclusion We conclude that, in mice, more than 30-fold higher levels of

  1. A crucial role for CDC42 in senescence-associated inflammation and atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi K Ito

    Full Text Available Risk factors for atherosclerosis accelerate the senescence of vascular endothelial cells and promote atherogenesis by inducing vascular inflammation. A hallmark of endothelial senescence is the persistent up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes. We identified CDC42 signaling as a mediator of chronic inflammation associated with endothelial senescence. Inhibition of CDC42 or NF-κB signaling attenuated the sustained up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes in senescent human endothelial cells. Endothelium-specific activation of the p53/p21 pathway, a key mediator of senescence, also resulted in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory molecules in mice, which was reversed by Cdc42 deletion in endothelial cells. Likewise, endothelial-specific deletion of Cdc42 significantly attenuated chronic inflammation and plaque formation in atherosclerotic mice. While inhibition of NF-κB suppressed the pro-inflammatory responses in acute inflammation, the influence of Cdc42 deletion was less marked. Knockdown of cdc-42 significantly down-regulated pro-inflammatory gene expression and restored the shortened lifespan to normal in mutant worms with enhanced inflammation. These findings indicate that the CDC42 pathway is critically involved in senescence-associated inflammation and could be a therapeutic target for chronic inflammation in patients with age-related diseases without compromising host defenses.

  2. Reversal of acute and chronic synovial inflammation by anti-transforming growth factor beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Allen, J B; Costa, G L; Wong, H L; Dasch, J R

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) induces leukocyte recruitment and activation, events central to an inflammatory response. In this study, we demonstrate that antagonism of TGF-beta with a neutralizing antibody not only blocks inflammatory cell accumulation, but also tissue pathology in an experimental model of chronic erosive polyarthritis. Intraarticular injection of monoclonal antibody 1D11.16, which inhibits both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bioactivity, into animals receiving an arthropathic dose of bacterial cell walls significantly inhibits arthritis. Inhibition was observed with a single injection of 50 micrograms antibody, and a 1-mg injection blocked acute inflammation > 75% compared with the contralateral joints injected with an irrelevant isotype control antibody (MOPC21) as quantitated by an articular index (AI = 0.93 +/- 0.23 for 1D11.16, and AI = 4.0 +/- 0 on day 4; p histopathologic and radiologic evidence of a therapeutic response. These data implicate TGF-beta as a profound agonist not only in the early events responsible for synovial inflammation, but also in the chronicity of streptococcal cell wall fragment-induced inflammation culminating in destructive pathology. Interrupting the cycle of leukocyte recruitment and activation with TGF-beta antagonists may provide a mechanism for resolution of chronic destructive lesions.

  3. Association of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status with Chronic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Batty, G. David; Bovet, Pascal; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.; Kumari, Meena; Tabak, Adam G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic adversity in early life has been hypothesized to “program” a vulnerable phenotype with exaggerated inflammatory responses, so increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes incidence is explained by chronic inflammation. Methods and Findings We use data from the British Whitehall II study, a prospective occupational cohort of adults established in 1985. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured repeatedly and type 2 diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over an 18-year follow-up (from 1991–1993 until 2007–2009). Our analytical sample consisted of 6,387 non-diabetic participants (1,818 women), of whom 731 (207 women) developed type 2 diabetes over the follow-up. Cumulative exposure to low socioeconomic status from childhood to middle age was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.48–2.58 for low cumulative lifecourse socioeconomic score and HR = 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.91 for low-low socioeconomic trajectory). 25% of the excess risk associated with cumulative socioeconomic adversity across the lifecourse and 32% of the excess risk associated with low-low socioeconomic trajectory was attributable to chronically elevated inflammation (95% confidence intervals 16%–58%). Conclusions In the present study, chronic inflammation explained a substantial part of the association between lifecourse socioeconomic disadvantage and type 2 diabetes. Further studies should be performed to confirm these findings in population-based samples, as the Whitehall II cohort is not representative of the general population, and to examine the extent to which social inequalities attributable to chronic inflammation are reversible

  4. Chronic Intraocular Inflammation as a Risk Factor for XEN Gel Stent Occlusion: A Case of Microscopic Examination of a Fibrin-obstructed XEN Stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmann, Kevin; Mansouri, Kaweh; Bravetti, Giorgio Enrico; Mermoud, André

    2018-06-05

    In recent years microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) has risen in popularity. Amongst MIGS options is the XEN gel stent (Allergan Plc, Dublin, Ireland), a 45▒μm wide ab-interno microstent. It has proven effective in lowering IOP with low complication rates. However, XEN gel stents can become obstructed and cause postoperative rise in IOP. The causes and predicting factors for such obstructions still requires further research. We describe the case of a 69-year old male patient, with traumatic glaucoma and chronic intraocular inflammation demonstrated by laser flare photometry, following childhood trauma and anterior segment surgery. Uncontrollable IOP despite maximal antiglaucomatous therapy was managed with XEN-augmented Baerveldt surgery. Despite good initial filtration and IOP control, the XEN stent became obstructed and was surgically replaced. After a month, the new stent became obstructed and was replaced by a thicker-lumened Baerveldt tube. This restored good filtration, and adequate IOP was maintained post-operatively. Microscopic examination of the obstructed XEN stent showed a dense fibrin plug. This case report shows that fibrin formation could be an important factor in XEN gel stent obstruction, even in initially successfully filtering stents. The association of fibrinogenesis and intraocular inflammation could add a note of caution to the use of XEN gel stents in complicated cataract surgery, or advocate for aggressive anti-inflammatory treatments post-operatively. This could lead to a refinement in success predictors and better patient selection for XEN surgery. Finally, this could open the way to new management options for persistent obstructions, including pharmaceutical fibrinolysis.

  5. COPD and stroke: are systemic inflammation and oxidative stress the missing links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Victoria; Crack, Peter J; Bozinovski, Steven; Miller, Alyson A; Vlahos, Ross

    2016-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and loss of lung function, and is currently the third largest cause of death in the world. It is now well established that cardiovascular-related comorbidities such as stroke contribute to morbidity and mortality in COPD. The mechanisms linking COPD and stroke remain to be fully defined but are likely to be interconnected. The association between COPD and stroke may be largely dependent on shared risk factors such as aging and smoking, or the association of COPD with traditional stroke risk factors. In addition, we propose that COPD-related systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may play important roles by promoting cerebral vascular dysfunction and platelet hyperactivity. In this review, we briefly discuss the pathogenesis of COPD, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and cardiovascular comorbidities associated with COPD, in particular stroke. We also highlight and discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning the link between COPD and stroke, with a particular focus on the roles of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Inflammation: depression fans the flames and feasts on the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Derry, Heather M; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2015-11-01

    Depression and inflammation fuel one another. Inflammation plays a key role in depression's pathogenesis for a subset of depressed individuals; depression also primes larger cytokine responses to stressors and pathogens that do not appear to habituate. Accordingly, treatment decisions may be informed by attention to questions of how (pathways) and for whom (predispositions) these links exist, which are the focus of this article. When combined with predisposing factors (moderators such as childhood adversity and obesity), stressors and pathogens can lead to exaggerated or prolonged inflammatory responses. The resulting sickness behaviors (e.g., pain, disturbed sleep), depressive symptoms, and negative health behaviors (e.g., poor diet, a sedentary lifestyle) may act as mediating pathways that lead to further, unrestrained inflammation and depression. Depression, childhood adversity, stressors, and diet can all influence the gut microbiome and promote intestinal permeability, another pathway to enhanced inflammatory responses. Larger, more frequent, or more prolonged inflammatory responses could have negative mental and physical health consequences. In clinical practice, inflammation provides a guide to potential targets for symptom management by signaling responsiveness to certain therapeutic strategies. For example, a theme across research with cytokine antagonists, omega-3 fatty acids, celecoxib, and exercise is that anti-inflammatory interventions have a substantially greater impact on mood in individuals with heightened inflammation. Thus, when inflammation and depression co-occur, treating them in tandem may enhance recovery and reduce the risk of recurrence. The bidirectional links between depression, inflammation, and disease suggest that effective depression treatments could have a far-reaching impact on mood, inflammation, and health.

  7. The effect of increasing body mass index on cardio-metabolic risk and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in nascent metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Roma; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2017-05-01

    The effect of BMI defined obesity on cardio-metabolic features and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with nascent metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is poorly defined. Hence the aim of this study was to examine the effect of increasing obesity on the cardio metabolic risk profile, pro-oxidant state and pro-inflammatory features in nascent MetS patients without Diabetes or CVD. MetS was diagnosed by ATPIII criteria using waist circumference (WC) as the measure of adiposity. Patients (n=58) were stratified into overweight, obese and extreme obesity groups using BMI cut offs of 25-29.9, 30-39.9kg/m 2 and ≥40kg/m 2 and cardio-metabolic features, circulating and cellular biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were determined and correlated with BMI. None of the main cardio-metabolic features including blood pressure, blood glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, free fatty acids were increased with increasing BMI. Also none of the biomarkers of oxidative stress (ox-LDL, nitrotyrosine and monocyte superoxide anion release) were increased with increasing BMI. However, significant increase in hsCRP, the soluble TNFR1 and sTNFR2 and leptin, were observed with increasing adiposity. Other inflammatory bio-mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, Toll-like receptors 2-4), endotoxin, LBP, sCD14 and HMGB1, adiponectin, and chemerin did not show significant increases with increasing BMI. Leptin, hsCRP, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 correlated significantly with BMI. In conclusion, capturing the cardio-metabolic cluster of MetS that predisposed to both increased risk of diabetes and CVD, using waist circumference, as one of the 5 diagnostic criteria is sufficient and BMI does not appear to afford any major incremental benefit on the cardio-metabolic risk factors, increased oxidative stress and the majority of both cellular and circulating biomarkers of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Aluminum enhances inflammation and decreases mucosal healing in experimental colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, G; Body-Malapel, M; Frey-Wagner, I; Djouina, M; Deknuydt, F; Atrott, K; Esquerre, N; Altare, F; Neut, C; Arrieta, M C; Kanneganti, T-D; Rogler, G; Colombel, J-F; Cortot, A; Desreumaux, P; Vignal, C

    2014-01-01

    The increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in developing countries has highlighted the critical role of environmental pollutants as causative factors in their pathophysiology. Despite its ubiquity and immune toxicity, the impact of aluminum in the gut is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant intoxication with aluminum in murine models of colitis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Oral administration of aluminum worsened intestinal inflammation in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis and chronic colitis in interleukin 10-negative (IL10−/−) mice. Aluminum increased the intensity and duration of macroscopic and histologic inflammation, colonic myeloperoxidase activity, inflammatory cytokines expression, and decreased the epithelial cell renewal compared with control animals. Under basal conditions, aluminum impaired intestinal barrier function. In vitro, aluminum induced granuloma formation and synergized with lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory cytokines expression by epithelial cells. Deleterious effects of aluminum on intestinal inflammation and mucosal repair strongly suggest that aluminum might be an environmental IBD risk factor. PMID:24129165

  9. Obesity is associated with fatal coronary heart disease independently of traditional risk factors and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jennifer; Murray, Heather M; Welsh, Paul; Shepherd, James; Packard, Chris; Macfarlane, Peter; Cobbe, Stuart; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed

    2011-04-01

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is attenuated when mediators of this risk (such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia) are accounted for. However, there is now evidence of a differential effect of risk factors on fatal and non-fatal CHD events, with markers of inflammation more strongly associated with fatal than non-fatal events. To describe the association with BMI separately for both fatal and non-fatal CHD risk after accounting for classical risk factors and to assess any independent effects of obesity on CHD risk. In the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study BMI in 6082 men (mean age 55 years) with hypercholesterolaemia, but no history of diabetes or CVD, was related to the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD events. After excluding participants with any event in the first 2 years, 1027 non-fatal and 214 fatal CHD events occurred during 14.7 years of follow-up. A minimally adjusted model (age, sex, statin treatment) and a maximally adjusted model (including known CVD risk factors and deprivation) were compared, with BMI 25-27.4 kg/m² as referent. The risk of non-fatal events was similar across all BMI categories in both models. The risk of fatal CHD events was increased in men with BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m² in both the minimally adjusted model (HR = 1.75 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.74)) and the maximally adjusted model (HR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.53)). These hypothesis generating data suggest that obesity is associated with fatal, but not non-fatal, CHD after accounting for known cardiovascular risk factors and deprivation. Clinical trial registration WOSCOPS was carried out and completed before the requirement for clinical trial registration.

  10. Oral white lesion-histomorhological assessment and associated risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orakzai, G.; Nisa, W.U.; Orakzai, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Oral white lesions constitute a major clinical problem in Pakistan and South Asian countries. The study was done with the objective to analyse oral white lesions histologically and clinically, and evaluate association between various risk factors in different ages, gender, ethnic groups, sites and sizes of the lesion. Methods: A total of 80 patients presenting with oral white lesions were included in this cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. The biopsy sample was fixed in 10% formalin and after standardized processing, slides were prepared, stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin, with special stains when required. The histo-pathological diagnosis of lesion was recorded. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variable. Frequency and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables. Results: Out of total 80 patients 43 were females and 37 males. The mean age of cases was 47.92 years. Majority of the patients were between 30-39 years. Buccal mucosa was affected in majority of the cases (55%), followed by lateral border of tongue 17.5% and lip mucosa (8.8%). No risk factor had been observed in almost half of the patients. Histologically Lichen Planus was the most common lesion (32.5%), followed by chronic nonspecific inflammation in (22.5%), keratosis without dysplasia (10%), keratosis with dysplasia (8.8%), Pemphigus vulgaris (7.5%), fungal infestation (5%) and Squamous cell carcinoma (3.8%). Conclusion: Oral Lichen Planus was the most common oral white lesion in our set up, with buccal mucosa involved in majority of the cases. Association between histo-pathological diagnosis with age and gender was insignificant. However, significant association was observed between histopathological diagnosis and site. Among risk factors significant association was seen between snuff dippers and pan users. (author)

  11. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Frank U.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic...

  12. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  13. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 11. Risk factors for failure of trabeculectomy and argon laser trabeculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the association of pre-intervention and post-intervention patient and eye characteristics with failure of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) and trabeculectomy. Cohort study of participants in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study. This multicenter study took place between 1988 and 2001. Between 1988 and 1992, 789 eyes of 591 patients aged 35 to 80 years with advanced glaucoma were randomized into one of two surgical treatment sequences: argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT)-trabeculectomy-trabeculectomy or trabeculectomy-ALT-trabeculectomy. Upon study-defined failure (based on maximum medications, sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, visual field defect, and disk rim deterioration) of each intervention, patients were offered the subsequent intervention. Potential follow-up was 8 to 13 years. This report is based on data from 779 eyes that had at least 3 months of follow-up. The main outcome measures are failure of ALT and trabeculectomy, whether as first or second interventions. Effect size is measured by the hazard ratio (HR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) obtained from Cox multiple regression analysis, where HR corresponds to the coefficient of change in risk associated with a unit increase in a factor. For binary factors, this corresponds to the change in risk in eyes with the factor relative to the risk in eyes without the factor. Pre-intervention factors associated with failure of ALT are younger age (HR = 0.98, CI = 0.96-0.99, P =.009) and higher IOP (1.11, 1.08-1.15, P <.001). Pre-intervention factors associated with failure of trabeculectomy are younger age (HR = 0.97, CI = 0.95-0.99, P =.005) and higher IOP (1.04, 1.01-1.06, P =.002), as well as diabetes (2.86, 1.88-4.36, P <.001) and any postoperative complication (1.99, 1.35-2.93, P <.001). Individual postoperative complications significantly associated with increased risk of failure of trabeculectomy are elevated IOP (3.4, 1.9-6.1, P <.001) and marked

  14. Causes and Risk Factors for Male-Factor Infertility in Nigeria: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    In Nigeria, the problem is further compounded by a variety of factors such as sexually transmitted infections, genito-urinary tract infections/inflammations and ... Indonesia and Finland12,13. Infertility is a problem of public health ... addition, infertility leading to depopulation of some areas limits the social and economic.

  15. Effects of acute systemic inflammation on the interplay between sad mood and affective cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sven; Brinkhoff, Alexandra; Lueg, Larissa; Roderigo, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2017-12-11

    Experimental endotoxemia is a translational model to study inflammatory mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression. Disturbed affective cognition constitutes a core aspect in depression, but has never been studied in the context of inflammation. We combined experimental endotoxemia with an established experimental mood induction procedure to assess the interaction between acute inflammation and sad mood and their effects on affective cognition. In this randomized cross-over study, N = 15 healthy males received endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide iv) on one study day and placebo an otherwise identical study day. The affective Go/Nogo task was conducted after experimental induction of neutral and sad mood. Inflammatory markers were assessed hourly. Endotoxin application induced a transient systemic inflammation, characterized by increased leukocyte counts, TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 plasma concentrations (all p sadness ratings, with highest ratings when sad mood was induced during inflammation (p sad vs. neutral mood) × 2 (sad vs. happy Go/Nogo target words) factorial design, we observed a significant target × endotoxin condition interaction (p sad targets during endotoxemia. Additionally, we found a valence × mood interaction (p sad targets in sad mood. In summary, acute inflammation and sad mood are risk factors for disturbed affective cognition. The results may reflect a mood-congruency effect, with prolonged and sustained processing of mood-congruent information during acute inflammation, which may contribute to depression risk.

  16. Radiographic progression is associated with resolution of systemic inflammation in patients with axial spondylarthritis treated with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Lambert, Robert G W

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of circulating biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), cartilage turnover (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen [CTX-II], total aggrecan, matrix...... metalloproteinase 3 [MMP-3], and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP]), and bone turnover (CTX-I and osteocalcin) to inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic progression in patients with axial spondylarthritis (SpA) beginning tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor therapy....

  17. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor treatment ameliorates diarrhea and bowel inflammation in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, L Grier; Schwartz, Marshall Z; Kuenzler, Keith A; Birbe, Ruth

    2004-02-01

    Transfection of the HLA-B27 gene into normal Fischer rats induces phenotypic changes similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the benefits of 2 doses of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the manifestations of IBD in this rat model. Fischer rats and HLA-B27 rats were divided into 4 groups: Fischer rats treated with saline, HLA-B27 rats treated with saline, HGF at 150 microg/kg/d, and HGF at 300 microg/kg/d. HGF or saline was infused for 14 days via an osmotic pump attached to a catheter in the internal jugular vein. After treatment, rats were evaluated for diarrhea and reduction in gross and microscopic bowel inflammation. Statistics were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P value diarrhea by 40%, gross inflammation by 41%, and microscopic inflammation by 72% (P diarrhea by 46%, gross inflammation by 45%, and microscopic inflammation by 54% (P < or =.05). HGF administration reduces the clinical manifestations of IBD in this rat model. Similar effects were seen at both doses of HGF administration, implying that there is a plateau above which further increases in HGF levels provides no added benefit. HGF administration may be clinically useful in the management of IBD.

  19. Neurobiology of inflammation-associated anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gautron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling data demonstrate that inflammation-associated anorexia directly results from the action of pro-inflammatory factors, primarily cytokines and prostaglandins E2, on the nervous system. For instance, the aforementioned pro-inflammatory factors can stimulate the activity of peripheral sensory neurons, and induce their own de novo synthesis and release into the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Ultimately, it results in the mobilization of a specific neural circuit that shuts down appetite. The present article describes the different cell groups and neurotransmitters involved in inflammation-associated anorexia and examines how they interact with neural systems regulating feeding such as the melanocortin system. A better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inflammation-associated anorexia will help to develop appetite stimulants for cancer and AIDS patients.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  1. Associations Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Inflammation, and Progression of Carotid Atherosclerosis Among Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Sarah; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Locatelli, Isabella; Nanchen, David; Depairon, Michèle; Bovet, Pascal; Cornuz, Jacques; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The high risk of cardiovascular events in smokers requires adequate control of other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) to curtail atherosclerosis progression. However, it is unclear which CVRFs have the most influence on atherosclerosis progression in smokers. In 260 smokers aged 40-70 included in a smoking cessation trial, we analyzed the association between traditional CVRFs, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), smoking cessation and 3-year progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, assessed by repeated ultrasound measurements) in a longitudinal multivariate model. Participants (mean age 52 years, 47% women) had a mean smoking duration of 32 years with a median daily consumption of 20 cigarettes. Baseline CIMT was 1185 μm (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1082-1287) and increased by 93 μm (95% CI: 25-161) and 108 μm (95% CI: 33-183) after 1 and 3 years, respectively. Age, male sex, daily cigarette consumption, systolic blood pressure (SBP), but neither low-density lipoprotein cholesterol nor hs-CRP, were independently associated with baseline CIMT (all P ≤ .05). Baseline SBP, but neither low-density lipoprotein cholesterol nor hs-CRP, was associated with 3-year atherosclerosis progression (P = .01 at 3 years). The higher the SBP at baseline, the steeper was the CIMT increase over 3-year follow-up. We found an increase of 26 μm per each 10-mmHg raise in SBP at 1 year and an increase of 39 μm per each 10 mmHg raise in SBP at 3 years. Due to insufficient statistical power, we could not exclude an effect of smoking abstinence on CIMT progression. Control of blood pressure may be an important factor to limit atherosclerosis progression in smokers, besides support for smoking cessation. Among 260 smokers aged 40-70 years with a mean smoking duration of 32 years, baseline SBP was associated with atherosclerosis progression over 3 years, as measured by CIMT (P = .01 at 3 years), independently of smoking variables and other CVRFs. The higher the

  2. Autoimmune diseases and severe infections as risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Nielsen, Philip R; Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. It has been suggested that brain-reactive autoantibodies are part of the mechanisms behind this association. Furthermore, an increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier has been observed during periods...... of infection and inflammation. The authors therefore investigated whether autoimmune diseases combined with exposures to severe infections may increase the risk of schizophrenia...

  3. Metabolically induced liver inflammation leads to NASH and differs from LPS- or IL-1β-induced chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen; Lindeman, Jan H; Menke, Aswin L; Koonen, Debby P; Morrison, Martine; Havekes, Louis M; van den Hoek, Anita M; Kleemann, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The nature of the chronic inflammatory component that drives the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear and possible inflammatory triggers have not been investigated systematically. We examined the effect of non-metabolic triggers (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), administered by slow-release minipumps) and metabolic dietary triggers (carbohydrate, cholesterol) of inflammation on the progression of bland liver steatosis (BS) to NASH. Transgenic APOE3*Leiden.huCETP (APOE3L.CETP) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) developed BS after 10 weeks. Then, inflammatory triggers were superimposed or not (control) for six more weeks. Mouse livers were analyzed with particular emphasis on hallmarks of inflammation which were defined in human liver biopsies with and without NASH. Livers of HFD-treated control mice remained steatotic and did not progress to NASH. All four inflammatory triggers activated hepatic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) significantly and comparably (≥5-fold). However, HFD+LPS or HFD+IL-1β did not induce a NASH-like phenotype and caused intrahepatic accumulation of almost exclusively mononuclear cells. By contrast, mice treated with metabolic triggers developed NASH, characterized by enhanced steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and formation of mixed-type inflammatory foci containing myeloperoxidase-positive granulocytes (neutrophils) as well as mononuclear cells, essentially as observed in human NASH. Specific for the metabolic inducers was an activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), neutrophil infiltration, and induction of risk factors associated with human NASH, that is, dyslipidemia (by cholesterol) and insulin resistance (by carbohydrate). In conclusion, HFD feeding followed by NF-κB activation per se (LPS, IL-1β) does not promote the transition from BS to NASH. HFD feeding followed by metabolically evoked inflammation induces additional inflammatory components

  4. Inflammation and neuronal plasticity: a link between childhood trauma and depression pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Annamaria; Macchi, Flavia; Plazzotta, Giona; Veronica, Begni; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Riva, Marco Andrea; Pariante, Carmine Maria

    2015-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding and characterizing the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder (MDD). Indeed, several are the evidences linking alterations in the inflammatory system to Major Depression, including the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with other mediators of inflammation. However, it is still not clear whether inflammation represents a cause or whether other factors related to depression result in these immunological effects. Regardless, exposure to early life stressful events, which represent a vulnerability factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, act through the modulation of inflammatory responses, but also of neuroplastic mechanisms over the entire life span. Indeed, early life stressful events can cause, possibly through epigenetic changes that persist over time, up to adulthood. Such alterations may concur to increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies. In this review we will discuss the role of inflammation and neuronal plasticity as relevant processes underlying depression development. Moreover, we will discuss the role of epigenetics in inducing alterations in inflammation-immune systems as well as dysfunction in neuronal plasticity, thus contributing to the long-lasting negative effects of stressful life events early in life and the consequent enhanced risk for depression. Finally we will provide an overview on the potential role of inflammatory system to aid diagnosis, predict treatment response, enhance treatment matching, and prevent the onset or relapse of Major Depression.

  5. Environmental risk factors for autism: an evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Velthorst, Eva; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD. On the contrary, advanced parental age is associated with higher risk of ASD. Birth complications that are associated with trauma or ischemia and hypoxia have also shown strong links to ASD, whereas other pregnancy-related factors such as maternal obesity, maternal diabetes, and caesarian section have shown a less strong (but significant) association with risk of ASD. The reviews on nutritional elements have been inconclusive about the detrimental effects of deficiency in folic acid and omega 3, but vitamin D seems to be deficient in patients with ASD. The studies on toxic elements have been largely limited by their design, but there is enough evidence for the association between some heavy metals (most important inorganic mercury and lead) and ASD that warrants further investigation. Mechanisms of the association between environmental factors and ASD are debated but might include non-causative association (including confounding), gene-related effect, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, endocrine disruption, neurotransmitter alterations, and interference with signaling pathways. Compared to genetic studies of ASD, studies of environmental risk factors are in their infancy and have significant methodological limitations. Future studies of ASD risk factors would benefit from a developmental psychopathology approach, prospective design, precise exposure

  6. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pwatermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (Pwatermelon was consumed (Pwatermelon group without DSS (Pwatermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence of lung inflammation in unaffected family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Keogh, B.A.; Wewers, M.D.; Adelberg, S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated 17 clinically unaffected members of three families with an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for evidence of alveolar inflammation. Each person in the study was examined by gallium-67 scanning for a general estimate of pulmonary inflammation, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for characterization of the types of recovered cells and their state of activation. Eight of the 17 subjects had evidence of alveolar inflammation on the lavage studies. Supporting data included increased numbers of neutrophils and activated macrophages that released one or more neutrophil chemoattractants, and growth factors for lung fibroblasts--findings similar to those observed in patients with overt idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four of these eight also had a positive gallium scan; in all the other clinically unaffected subjects the scan was normal. During a follow-up of two to four years in seven of the eight subjects who had evidence of inflammation, no clinical evidence of pulmonary fibrosis has appeared. These results indicate that alveolar inflammation occurs in approximately half the clinically unaffected family members at risk of inheriting autosomal dominant idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether these persons with evidence of pulmonary inflammation but no fibrosis will proceed to have clinically evident pulmonary fibrosis is not yet known

  8. Risk factors for pancreatic stone formation in autoimmune pancreatitis over a long-term course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Arakura, Norikazu; Ozaki, Yayoi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ito, Tetsuya; Yoneda, Suguru; Maruyama, Masafumi; Muraki, Takashi; Hamano, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2012-05-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has the potential to progress to a chronic state that forms pancreatic stones. The aim of this study was to clarify the risk factors underlying pancreatic stone formation in AIP. Sixty-nine patients with AIP who had been followed for at least 3 years were enrolled for evaluation of clinical and laboratory factors as well as computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography findings. During the course of this study, increased or de novo stone formation was seen in 28 patients, who were defined as the stone-forming group. No stones were observed in 32 patients, who were defined as the non-stone-forming group. Nine patients who had stones at diagnosis but showed no change during the course of this study were excluded from our cohort. Univariate analysis revealed no significant differences in clinical or laboratory factors associated with AIP-specific inflammation between the two groups. However, pancreatic head swelling (P = 0.006) and narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts in the pancreatic head region (P = 0.010) were significantly more frequent in the stone-forming group. Furthermore, multivariate analysis identified Wirsung and Santorini duct narrowing at diagnosis as a significant independent risk factor for pancreatic stone formation (OR 4.4, P = 0.019). A primary risk factor for pancreatic stone formation in AIP was narrowing of both Wirsung's and Santorini's ducts, which most presumably led to pancreatic juice stasis and stone development.

  9. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  10. More inflammation but less brain-derived neurotrophic factor in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Hu, Ming-Chuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Li, Chia-Ling; Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Po See; Chen, Shih-Heng; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2017-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is highly comorbid with substance use disorders (SUDs). We hypothesize that chronic neuroinflammation and the loss of neurotrophic factors prompts the pathogenesis of both disorders. We used ELISA to measure plasma levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], C-reactive protein [CRP]) and anti-inflammatory factors (transforming growth factor-β1 [TGF-β1] and interleukin-10 [IL-10]), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male patients with ASPD (n=74), SUDs (n=168), ASPD comorbid with SUDs (ASPD+SUDs) (n=438), and Healthy Controls (HCs) (n=81). A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) controlled for possible confounders was used to compare cytokines and BDNF levels between groups. The results of MANCOVA adjusted for age showed a significant (pdisorder (OUD) and other SUDs groups showed that the IL-10 levels were specifically higher in OUD and ASPD±OUD groups than other SUDs (P≤0.001). We conclude that uncontrolled inflammation and losing neurotrophic factors, with or without comorbid SUDs, underlies ASPD. IL-10 expression might be more specifically associated with OUD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  12. Vascular Factors and Markers of Inflammation in Offspring With a Parental History of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Exel, Eric; Eikelenboom, Piet; Comijs, Hannie; Frölich, Marijke; Smit, Johannes H.; Stek, Max L.; Scheltens, Philip; Eefsting, Jan E.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex disorder with a strong heritable component. Amyloid pathology, vascular factors, and inflammation are postulated to be involved in its pathogenesis, but causality has not been established unequivocally. Objective: To identify heritable traits in middle

  13. Prostate cancer and inflammation: the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sfanos, Karen S; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is now known to contribute to several forms of human cancer, with an estimated 20% of adult cancers attributable to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents, chronic noninfectious inflammatory diseases and / or other environmental factors. Indeed, chronic inflammation is now regarded as an ‘enabling characteristic’ of human cancer. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the evidence for a role for chronic inflammation in prosta...

  14. Leukocyte count, systemic inflammation, and health status in older adults: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that elevated leukocyte count within the normal range can predict cardiovascular and total mortality in older adults. These findings are remarkable because this simple and common laboratory test is included in routine medical check-ups. It is well known that chronic systemic inflammation (inflammaging is one of the hallmarks of aging and an important component of obesity-associated insulin resistance that can lead to type 2 diabetes and other health problems in both overweight individuals and elderly people. To understand the molecular mechanisms linking increased systemic inflammation with aging-associated diseases and elevated leukocyte counts in the elderly is to unravel the multiplicity of molecular factors and mechanisms involved in chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, the gradual accumulation of random molecular damage, age-related diseases, and the process of leukopoiesis. There are several possible mechanisms through which chronic low-grade systemic inflammation is associated with both higher leukocyte count and a greater risk of aging-associated conditions in older adults. For example, the IL-6 centric model predicts that this biomediator is involved in chronic systemic inflammation and leukopoiesis, thereby suggesting that elevated leukocyte count is a signal of poor health in older adults. Alternatively, an increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts can be a direct cause of cardiovascular events in the elderly. Interestingly, some authors assert that the predictive ability of elevated leukocyte counts with regard to cardiovascular and allcause mortality among older adults surpass the predictive value of total cholesterol. This review reports the recent findings on the links between elevated but normal leukocyte counts and the increased risks of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The possible molecular mechanisms linking higher but normal leukocyte counts with increased

  15. Interferon-γ Promotes Inflammation and Development of T-Cell Lymphoma in HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mitagami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is an etiological agent of several inflammatory diseases and a T-cell malignancy, adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ is the only viral gene that is constitutively expressed in HTLV-1-infected cells, and it has multiple functions on T-cell signaling pathways. HBZ has important roles in HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, since HBZ transgenic (HBZ-Tg mice develop systemic inflammation and T-cell lymphomas, which are similar phenotypes to HTLV-1-associated diseases. We showed previously that in HBZ-Tg mice, HBZ causes unstable Foxp3 expression, leading to an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs and the consequent induction of IFN-γ-producing cells, which in turn leads to the development of inflammation in the mice. In this study, we show that the severity of inflammation is correlated with the development of lymphomas in HBZ-Tg mice, suggesting that HBZ-mediated inflammation is closely linked to oncogenesis in CD4+ T cells. In addition, we found that IFN-γ-producing cells enhance HBZ-mediated inflammation, since knocking out IFN-γ significantly reduced the incidence of dermatitis as well as lymphoma. Recent studies show the critical roles of the intestinal microbiota in the development of Tregs in vivo. We found that even germ-free HBZ-Tg mice still had an increased number of Tregs and IFN-γ-producing cells, and developed dermatitis, indicating that an intrinsic activity of HBZ evokes aberrant T-cell differentiation and consequently causes inflammation. These results show that immunomodulation by HBZ is implicated in both inflammation and oncogenesis, and suggest a causal connection between HTLV-1-associated inflammation and ATL.

  16. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  17. Assessment of Risk Factors of Intrauterine Adhesions in Patients With Induced Abortion and the Curative Effect of Hysteroscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiaoliang; Qin, Guirong; Zhou, Zhoulin; Jiang, Xiaoli

    2017-10-03

    To explore the risk factors for intrauterine adhesions in patients with artificial abortion and clinical efficacy of hysteroscopic dissection. 1500 patients undergoing artificial abortion between January 2014 and June 2015 were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups with or without intrauterine adhesions. Univariate and Multiple logistic regression were conducted to assess the effects of multiple factors on the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. The incidence rate for intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion is 17.0%. Univariate showed that preoperative inflammation, multiple pregnancies and suction evacuation time are the influence risk factors of intrauterine adhesions. Multiple logistic regression demonstrates that multiple pregnancies, high intrauterine negative pressure, and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. Additionally, intrauterine adhesions were observed in 105 mild, 80 moderate, and 70 severe cases. The cure rates for these three categories of intrauterine adhesions by hysteroscopic surgery were 100.0%, 93.8%, and 85.7%, respectively. Multiple pregnancies, high negative pressure suction evacuation and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortions. Hysteroscopic surgery substantially improves the clinical outcomes of intrauterine adhesions.

  18. Risk factors for the development of pneumonia in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pneumonia is the most frequent complication in acute psychotropic drugs poisoning, which results in substantial morbidity and mortality, but which also increases the costs of treatment. Risk factors for pneumonia are numerous: age, sex, place of the appearance of pneumonia, severity of underlying disease, airway instrumentation (intubation, reintubation, etc. The incidence of pneumonia varies in poisoning caused by the various groups of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia in the patients with acute psychotropic drugs poisoning. Methods. A group of 782 patients, out of which 614 (78.5% with psychotropic and 168 (21.5% nonpsychotropic drug poisoning were analyzed prospectively during a two-year period. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made according to: clinical presentation, new and persistent pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography, positive nonspecific parameters of inflammation, and the microbiological confirmation of causative microorganisms. To analyze predisposing risk factors for pneumonia, the following variables were recorded: sex, age, underlying diseases, endotracheal intubation, coma, severity of poisoning with different drugs, histamine H2 blockers, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheter. The univariate analysis for pneumonia risk factors in all patients, and for each group separately was done. The multivariate analysis was performed using the logistic regression technique. Results. Pneumonia was found in 94 (12.02% of the patients, 86 of which (91.5% in psychotropic and 8 (8.5% in nonpsychotropic drug poisoning. In the psychotropic drug group, pneumonia was the most frequent in antidepressant (47%, and the rarest in benzodiazepine poisoning (3.8%. A statistically significant incidence of pneumonia was found in the patients with acute antidpressant poisoning (p < 0.001. Univariate analysis showed statistical significance for the

  19. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  20. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  1. Systemic Inflammation during the First Postnatal Month and the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Characteristics among 10 year-old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Elizabeth N; Dammann, Olaf; Fichorova, Raina N; Hooper, Stephen R; Hunter, Scott J; Joseph, Robert M; Kuban, Karl; Leviton, Alan; O'Shea, Thomas Michael; Scott, Megan N

    2017-09-01

    Although multiple sources link inflammation with attention difficulties, the only human study that evaluated the relationship between systemic inflammation and attention problems assessed attention at age 2 years. Parent and/or teacher completion of the Childhood Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) provided information about characteristics that screen for attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) among 793 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation who had an IQ ≥ 70. The concentrations of 27 proteins in blood spots obtained during the first postnatal month were measured. 151 children with ADHD behaviors were identified by parent report, while 128 children were identified by teacher report. Top-quartile concentrations of IL-6R, TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF, VEFG-R1, and VEGF-R2 on multiple days were associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms as assessed by a teacher. Some of this increased risk was modulated by top-quartile concentrations of IL-6R, RANTES, EPO, NT-4, BDNF, bFGF, IGF-1, PIGF, Ang-1, and Ang-2. Systemic inflammation during the first postnatal month among children born extremely preterm appears to increase the risk of teacher-identified ADHD characteristics, and high concentrations of proteins with neurotrophic properties appear capable of modulating this increased risk.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in a treatment-naïve, human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Felistas Mashinya

    The study was conducted in Dikgale Health and Demographic. Surveillance System .... Fasting venous blood samples were drawn by registered nurses. Whole blood was used to ..... provide more in-depth knowledge of the risk of CVD in this rural population. ... particles and markers of inflammation and thrombotic activity in ...

  3. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  4. Diets That Promote Colon Inflammation Associate With Risk of Colorectal Carcinomas That Contain Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Tabung, Fred K; Zhang, Xuehong; Nowak, Jonathan A; Qian, Zhi Rong; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Nevo, Daniel; Bullman, Susan; Mima, Kosuke; Kosumi, Keisuke; da Silva, Annacarolina; Song, Mingyang; Cao, Yin; Twombly, Tyler S; Shi, Yan; Liu, Hongli; Gu, Mancang; Koh, Hideo; Li, Wanwan; Du, Chunxia; Chen, Yang; Li, Chenxi; Li, Wenbin; Mehta, Raaj S; Wu, Kana; Wang, Molin; Kostic, Aleksander D; Giannakis, Marios; Garrett, Wendy S; Hutthenhower, Curtis; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2018-04-24

    Specific nutritional components are likely to induce intestinal inflammation, which is characterized by increased levels of interleukin 6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and TNF receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) in the circulation and promotes colorectal carcinogenesis. The inflammatory effects of a diet can be estimated based on empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score, calculated based on intake of 18 foods associated with plasma levels of IL6, CRP, and TNFRSF1B. An inflammatory environment in the colon (based on increased levels of IL6, CRP, and TNFRSF1B in peripheral blood) contributes to impairment of the mucosal barrier and altered immune cell responses, affecting the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Colonization by Fusobacterium nucleatum has been associated with presence and features of colorectal adenocarcinoma. We investigated the association between diets that promote inflammation (based on EDIP score) and colorectal cancer subtypes classified by level of F nucleatum in the tumor microenvironment. We calculated EDIP scores based on answers to questionnaires collected from participants in the Nurses' Health Study (through June 1, 2012) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (through January 31, 2012). Participants in both cohorts reported diagnoses of rectal or colon cancer in biennial questionnaires; deaths from unreported colorectal cancer cases were identified through the National Death Index and next of kin. Colorectal tumor tissues were collected from hospitals where the patients underwent tumor resection and F nucleatum DNA was quantified by a PCR assay. We used multivariable duplication-method Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the associations of EDIP scores with risks of colorectal cancer subclassified by F nucleatum status. During 28 years of follow up of 124,433 participants, we documented 951 incident cases of colorectal carcinoma with tissue F nucleatum data. Higher EDIP scores associated with

  5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Nita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP. Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2 and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages; however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages.

  6. Synthesizing Risk from Summary Evidence Across Multiple Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Colditz, Graham A; Steele, Russell J

    2018-07-01

    Although meta-analyses provide summary effect estimates that help advise patient care, patients often want to compare their overall health to the general population. The Harvard Cancer Risk Index was published in 2004 and uses risk ratio estimates and prevalence estimates from original studies across many risk factors to provide an answer to this question. However, the published version of the formula only uses dichotomous risk factors and its derivation was not provided. The objective of this brief report was to provide the derivation of a more general form of the equation that allows the incorporation of risk factors with three or more levels.

  7. The Relationship Between Retinol/Retinol Binding Protein 4 ratio, resistin and inflammation in non diabetic obese Indonesian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To verify the correlation between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio, and resistin with inflammation (represented by hsCRP in non-diabetic obese Indonesian menMethods This was a cross sectional study using 125 subjects. Measured parameters were retinol, RBP4, resistin, and hsCRP. Correlation between retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio was calculated. Cut off point of hsCRP were classiied as follows: <1 mg/l for low risk of inflammation, 1-3 mg/l for moderate risk, and 3-10 mg/l for high risk (according to CVD risk. The Retinol/RBP4 ratio was dichotomized into high (>0.9 and low ratio (≤0.9. The cross tabulation test was performed to predict the inflammation trends described by Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin.Results Retinol was found strongly correlated with RBP4 and resistin (r=0.53; p<0.01. A positive but not significant correlation was found between resistin and Retinol/RBP4 Ratio with hsCRP. In high ratio group, 17.6% subjects were found with low risk inflammation, 26.4% with moderate risk, and 20.8% with high risk, in low ratio group, 8% subjects were low risk inflammation, 20% moderate risk, and 7.2% high risk. Combination between ratio and resistin showed that in “high ratio and low resistin” group, 12% subjects have low risk of inflammation and 8% have high risk. Meanwhile in “low ratio and high resistin” group, 3.2% subjects were found having low risk and 13.6% high risk of inflammation.Conclusions Combination between Retinol/RBP4 Ratio and resistin showed better description about the inflammation risk in non-diabetic obese subjects compare to the ratio itself. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:57-63Keywords: Retinol, RBP4, resistin, hsCRP, obesity, inflammation

  8. Cardiovascular risk-factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioe, Patricia A; Crawford, Sybil L; Stein, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in noninfected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk [F(1, 117) = 0.13, p > .05]. Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly but significantly correlated; r (126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk-factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Insights From Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies on the Role of Innate Inflammation in Atherosclerosis Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary artery (CAD and other cardiovascular diseases, is initiated by macrophage-mediated immune responses to lipoprotein and cholesterol accumulation in artery walls, which result in the formation of plaques. Unlike at other sites of inflammation, the immune response becomes maladaptive and inflammation fails to resolve. The most common treatment for reducing the risk from atherosclerosis is low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C lowering. Studies have shown, however, that while significant lowering of LDL-C reduces the risk of heart attacks to some degree, there is still residual risk for the majority of the population. We and others have observed “residual inflammatory risk” of atherosclerosis after plasma cholesterol lowering in pre-clinical studies, and that this phenomenon is clinically relevant has been dramatically reinforced by the recent Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS trial. This review will summarize the role of the innate immune system, specifically macrophages, in atherosclerosis progression and regression, as well as the pre-clinical and clinical models that have provided significant insights into molecular pathways involved in the resolution of plaque inflammation and plaque regression. Partnered with clinical studies that can be envisioned in the post-CANTOS period, including progress in developing targeted plaque therapies, we expect that pre-clinical studies advancing on the path summarized in this review, already revealing key mechanisms, will continue to be essential contributors to achieve the goals of dampening plaque inflammation and inducing its resolution in order to maximize the therapeutic benefits of conventional risk factor modifications, such as LDL-C lowering.

  10. Glucose ingestion stimulates atherothrombotic inflammation in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, John P.; Rote, Neal S.; Minium, Judi

    2013-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have chronic low-grade inflammation that can increase the risk of atherothrombosis. We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the effect of glucose ingestion on markers of atherothrombotic inflammation in mononuclear cells (MNC) of 16 women with PCOS (8 lean, 8 obese) and 16 weight-matched controls. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and the protein content of early growth response-1 (EGR-1), matrix matalloproteinases-2 (MMP2), and tissue factor (TF) were quantified from MNC obtained from blood drawn fasting and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Plasma MMP9 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured from fasting blood samples. Truncal fat was determined by DEXA. Lean women with PCOS exhibited greater AP-1 activation and MMP2 protein content after glucose ingestion and higher plasma MMP9 and CRP levels than lean controls. Obese women with PCOS exhibited greater EGR-1 and TF protein content after glucose ingestion, and plasma CRP levels were even higher compared with lean subjects regardless of PCOS status. Truncal fat correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated increases in AP-1 activation and EGR-1 and TF protein content. Testosterone correlated with glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation, and androstenedione correlated with MMP9 and CRP levels and glucose-stimulated AP-1 activation. Thus, both PCOS and obesity contribute to an atherothrombotic state in which excess abdominal adiposity and hyperandrogenism may be specific risk factors for developing atherothrombosis. PMID:23249695

  11. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giniatullina Raisa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF is protective in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated whether pegfilgrastim, GCSF with sustained action, is protective in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with manifestations of upper and lower motoneuron death and muscle atrophy accompanied by inflammation in the CNS and periphery. Methods Human mutant G93A superoxide dismutase (SOD1 ALS mice were treated with pegfilgrastim starting at the presymptomatic stage and continued until the end stage. After long-term pegfilgrastim treatment, the inflammation status was defined in the spinal cord and peripheral tissues including hematopoietic organs and muscle. The effect of GCSF on spinal cord neuron survival and microglia, bone marrow and spleen monocyte activation was assessed in vitro. Results Long-term pegfilgrastim treatment prolonged mutant SOD1 mice survival and attenuated both astro- and microgliosis in the spinal cord. Pegfilgrastim in SOD1 mice modulated the inflammatory cell populations in the bone marrow and spleen and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine in monocytes and microglia. The mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into the circulation was restored back to basal level after long-term pegfilgrastim treatment in SOD1 mice while the storage of Ly6C expressing monocytes in the bone marrow and spleen remained elevated. After pegfilgrastim treatment, an increased proportion of these cells in the degenerative muscle was detected at the end stage of ALS. Conclusions GCSF attenuated inflammation in the CNS and the periphery in a mouse model of ALS and thereby delayed the progression of the disease. This mechanism of action targeting inflammation provides a new perspective of the usage of GCSF in the treatment of ALS.

  12. Interaction Between Dietary Factors and Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Marzo, Angelo M

    2007-01-01

    We are investigating whether inflammation can enhance prostate carcinogenesis in a rat model of dietary charred meat carcinogen induced cancers, and, whether antioxidant and other chemopreventative...

  13. Interactions between Dietary Factors and Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeMarzo, Angelo M

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating whether inflammation can enhance prostate carcinogenesis in a rat model of dietary charred meat carcinogen induced cancers, and, whether antioxidant and other chemopreventative...

  14. Adipokines and inflammation markers and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossus, Laure; Franceschi, Silvia; Biessy, Carine

    2018-01-01

    Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight...

  15. Aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue in mice: a paracrine mechanism contributing to vascular redox dysregulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gautam, Tripti; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-07-01

    Obesity in the elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that aging exacerbates obesity-induced inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue, which contributes to increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in a paracrine manner. To test this hypothesis, we assessed changes in the secretome, reactive oxygen species production, and macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue of young (7 month old) and aged (24 month old) high-fat diet-fed obese C57BL/6 mice. High-fat diet-induced vascular reactive oxygen species generation significantly increased in aged mice, which was associated with exacerbation of endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. In young animals, high-fat diet-induced obesity promoted oxidative stress in the perivascular adipose tissue, which was associated with a marked proinflammatory shift in the profile of secreted cytokines and chemokines. Aging exacerbated obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and significantly increased macrophage infiltration in periaortic adipose tissue. Using cultured arteries isolated from young control mice, we found that inflammatory factors secreted from the perivascular fat tissue of obese aged mice promote significant prooxidative and proinflammatory phenotypic alterations in the vascular wall, mimicking the aging phenotype. Overall, our findings support an important role for localized perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in exacerbation of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, an effect that likely enhances the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases from obesity in the elderly individuals.

  16. Role of Perinatal Inflammation in Neonatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Giraud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the review of the literature, perinatal inflammation often induced by infection is the only consistent independent risk factor of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS. Preclinical studies show that acute inflammatory processes take place in placenta, cerebral arterial wall of NAIS-susceptible arteries and neonatal brain. A top research priority in NAIS is to further characterize the nature and spatiotemporal features of the inflammatory processes involved in multiple levels of the pathophysiology of NAIS, to adequately design randomized control trials using targeted anti-inflammatory vasculo- and neuroprotective agents.

  17. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  18. Quantifying cardiometabolic risk using modifiable non-self-reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non-self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut-off points for risk categories. We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14-year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender-specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non-self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10-year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012-2013. HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit chi-square=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk on the basis of modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual's commitment to prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  20. Low-grade inflammation decreases emotion recognition - Evidence from the vaccination model of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Leonie J T; Hulsken, Sasha; Aldred, Sarah; Drayson, Mark T; Higgs, Suzanne; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Raymond, Jane E; Bosch, Jos A

    2018-05-06

    The ability to adequately interpret the mental state of another person is key to complex human social interaction. Recent evidence suggests that this ability, considered a hallmark of 'theory of mind' (ToM), becomes impaired by inflammation. However, extant supportive empirical evidence is based on experiments that induce not only inflammation but also induce discomfort and sickness, factors that could also account for temporary social impairment. Hence, an experimental inflammation manipulation was applied that avoided this confound, isolating effects of inflammation and social interaction. Forty healthy male participants (mean age = 25, SD = 5 years) participated in this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Inflammation was induced using Salmonella Typhi vaccination (0.025 mg; Typhim Vi, Sanofi Pasteur, UK); saline-injection was used as a control. About 6 h 30 m after injection in each condition, participants completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a validated test for assessing how well the mental states of others can be inferred through observation of the eyes region of the face. Vaccination induced systemic inflammation, elevating IL-6 by +419% (p  .21). Importantly, compared to placebo, vaccination significantly reduced RMET accuracy (p valence (positive, negative, neutral) provided no evidence of a selective impact of treatment. By utilizing an inflammation-induction procedure that avoided concurrent sicknesses or symptoms in a double-blinded design, the present study provides further support for the hypothesis that immune activation impairs ToM. Such impairment may provide a mechanistic link explaining social-cognitive deficits in psychopathologies that exhibit low-grade inflammation, such as major depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Placental Growth Factor Contributes to Liver Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Fibrosis in Mice by Promoting Hepatic Macrophage Recruitment and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Placental growth factor (PlGF, a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family, mediates wound healing and inflammatory responses, exerting an effect on liver fibrosis and angiogenesis; however, the precise mechanism remains unclear. The aims of this study are to identify the role of PlGF in liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL in mice and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. PlGF small interfering RNA (siRNA or non-targeting control siRNA was injected by tail vein starting 2 days after BDL. Liver inflammation, fibrosis, angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs activation were examined. Our results showed that PlGF was highly expressed in fibrotic livers and mainly distributed in activated HSCs and macrophages. Furthermore, PlGF silencing strongly reduced the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis, and inhibited the activation of HSCs. Remarkably, PlGF silencing also attenuated BDL-induced hepatic angiogenesis, as evidenced by attenuated liver endothelial cell markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor immunostaining and genes or protein expression. Interestingly, these pathological ameliorations by PlGF silencing were due to a marked reduction in the numbers of intrahepatic F4/80+, CD68+, and Ly6C+ cell populations, which were reflected by a lower expression of these macrophage marker molecules in fibrotic livers. In addition, knockdown of PlGF by siRNA inhibited macrophages activation and substantially suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in fibrotic livers. Mechanistically, evaluation of cultured RAW 264.7 cells revealed that VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 mainly involved in mediating the role of PlGF in macrophages recruitment and activation, since using VEGFR1 neutralizing antibody blocking PlGF/VEGFR1 signaling axis significantly inhibited macrophages migration and inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate

  2. Prostaglandin E2 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Play a Critical Role in Suppression of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sup Cho

    Full Text Available The role of soluble factors in the suppression of allergic airway inflammation by adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the major soluble factors responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of ASCs in allergic airway diseases have not been well documented. We evaluated the effects of ASCs on allergic inflammation in asthmatic mice treated with a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 inhibitor or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β neutralizing antibodies.Asthmatic mice were injected intraperitoneally with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies at approximately the same time as ASCs injection and were compared with non-treated controls. In asthmatic mice, ASCs significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and serum total and allergen-specific IgE and IgG1. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and enhanced the Th1 cytokine (Interferon-γ and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β in the BALF and lung draining lymph nodes (LLNs. ASCs engraftment caused significant increases in the regulatory T cell (Treg and IL-10+ T cell populations in LLNs. However, blocking PGE2 or TGF-β eliminated the immunosuppressive effect of ASCs in allergic airway inflammation.ASCs are capable of secreting PGE2 and TGF-β, which may play a role in inducing Treg expansion. Furthermore, treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies eliminated the beneficial effect of ASCs treatment in asthmatic mice, suggesting that PGE2 and TGF-β are the major soluble factors responsible for suppressing allergic airway inflammation.

  3. Sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of inflammation: Moderating influences of social integration and social isolation in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lauderdale, Diane S; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Both sleep disturbance and social isolation increase the risk for morbidity and mortality. Systemic inflammation is suspected as a potential mechanism of these associations. However, the complex relationships between sleep disturbance, social isolation, and inflammation have not been examined in a population-based longitudinal study. This study examined the longitudinal association between sleep disturbance and systemic inflammation, and the moderating effects of social isolation on this association. The CARDIA study is a population-based longitudinal study conducted in four US cities. Sleep disturbance - i.e., insomnia complaints and short sleep duration - was assessed in 2962 African-American and White adults at baseline (2000-2001, ages 33-45years). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured at baseline and follow-up (2005-2006). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and subjective and objective social isolation (i.e., feelings of social isolation and social network size) were measured at follow-up. Sleep disturbance was a significant predictor of inflammation five years later after full adjustment for covariates (adjusted betas: 0.048, P=0.012 for CRP; 0.047, P=0.017 for IL-6). Further adjustment for baseline CRP revealed that sleep disturbance also impacted the longitudinal change in CRP levels over five years (adjusted beta: 0.044, P=0.013). Subjective social isolation was a significant moderator of this association between sleep disturbance and CRP (adjusted beta 0.131, P=0.002). Sleep disturbance was associated with heightened systemic inflammation in a general population over a five-year follow-up, and this association was significantly stronger in those who reported feelings of social isolation. Clinical interventions targeting sleep disturbances may be a potential avenue for reducing inflammation, particularly in individuals who feel socially isolated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic Vascular Syndrome: New Insights into a Multidimensional Network of Risk Factors and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Gerhard H; Hanefeld, Markolf

    2016-10-01

    Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases. To establish a close link between the traits of the metabolic vascular syndrome, we focused our literature search on recent original work and comprehensive reviews dealing with the topics metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity, fatty liver, fat tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent research supports the concept that the metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional and interactive network of risk factors and diseases based on individual genetic susceptibility and epigenetic changes where metabolic dysregulation/metabolic inflexibility in different organs and vascular dysfunction are early interconnected. The metabolic vascular syndrome is not only a risk factor constellation but rather a life-long abnormality of a closely connected interactive cluster of developing diseases which escalate each other and should continuously attract the attention of every clinician.

  5. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on the Regulation of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safieh Ebrahimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The month of Ramadan, as a model of intermittent fasting, is a valuable opportunity to investigate the effects of dietary modifications on human metabolism. Fasting improves insulin sensitivity, reduces atherogenic risk, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different disorders including atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Ramadan fasting can positively modulate cardiovascular risks and improves the metabolic syndrome features through suppression of inflammatory responses. In this review we attempt to present recent studies that addressed the regulatory role(s of this nutritional status on inflammation in patients with inflammatory diseases. These studies suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of fasting is significant and could be considered as a complementary therapeutic approach in treatment of inflammatory disorders in patients.Keywords: Ramadan fasting, Inflammation, Metabolic syndrome, Cardiovascular diseaseAbstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract

  6. Is periodontitis a comorbidity of COPD or can associations be explained by shared risk factors/behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, Stephanie; Chapple, Iain Lc; Sapey, Elizabeth; Stockley, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    COPD is recognized as having a series of comorbidities potentially related to common inflammatory processes. Periodontitis is one of the most common human inflammatory diseases and has previously been associated with COPD in numerous observational studies. As periodontitis and COPD are both chronic, progressive conditions characterized by neutrophilic inflammation with subsequent proteolytic destruction of connective tissue, it has been proposed that they share common pathophysiological processes. The mechanisms proposed to link COPD and periodontitis include mechanical aspiration of oral contents into the respiratory tree, overspill of locally produced inflammatory mediators into the systemic circulation or oral or lung-derived bacteremia activating an acute-phase response and also reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine release by systemic neutrophils at distant sites. Studies of systemic neutrophils in COPD and chronic periodontitis describe altered cellular functions that would predispose to inflammation and tissue destruction both in the lung and in the mouth, again potentially connecting these conditions. However, COPD and periodontitis also share risk factors such as age, chronic tobacco smoke exposure, and social deprivation that are not always considered in observational and interventional studies. Furthermore, studies reporting associations have often utilized differing definitions of both COPD and periodontitis. This article reviews the current available evidence supporting the hypothesis that COPD and inflammatory periodontal disease (periodontitis) could be pathologically associated, including a review of shared inflammatory mechanisms. It highlights the potential limitations of previous studies, in particular, the lack of uniformly applied case definitions for both COPD and periodontitis and poor recognition of shared risk factors. Understanding associations between these conditions may inform why patients with COPD suffer such a burden of comorbid

  7. C-reactive protein, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.W.; Olsen, M.H.; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR), a metabolic disorder, are closely related. CRP and IR have both been identified as significant risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors...

  8. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  9. Pioglitazone slows progression of atherosclerosis in prediabetes independent of changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Aramesh; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A.; Clement, Stephen C.; Henry, Robert R.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E.; Stentz, Frankie B.; Musi, Nicolas; Tripathy, Devjit; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Reaven, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether changes in standard and novel risk factors during the ACT NOW trial explained the slower rate of CIMT progression with pioglitazone treatment in persons with prediabetes. Methods and Results CIMT was measured in 382 participants at the beginning and up to three additional times during follow-up of the ACT NOW trial. During an average follow-up of 2.3 years, the mean unadjusted annual rate of CIMT progression was significantly (P=0.01) lower with pioglitazone treatment (4.76 × 10−3 mm/year, 95% CI, 2.39 × 10−3 – 7.14 × 10−3 mm/year) compared with placebo (9.69 × 10−3 mm/year, 95% CI, 7.24 × 10−3 – 12.15 × 10−3 mm/year). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting and 2-hour glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin, Matsuda insulin sensitivity index, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels improved significantly with pioglitazone treatment compared with placebo (P < 0.001). However, the effect of pioglitazone on CIMT progression was not attenuated by multiple methods of adjustment for traditional, metabolic and inflammatory risk factors and concomitant medications, and was independent of changes in risk factors during pioglitazone treatment. Conclusions Pioglitazone slowed progression of CIMT, independent of improvement in hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation in prediabetes. These results suggest a possible direct vascular benefit of pioglitazone. PMID:23175674

  10. New risk factors for atherosclerosis and patient risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Nierman, Melchior C.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Duriez, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the ways in which the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including standard lipid (eg, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and nonlipid (eg, hypertension) risk factors, interact to initiate

  11. Prevalence, severity, and risk indicators of gingival inflammation in a multi-center study on South American adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Carvajal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation and associated risk indicators in South American adults. Material and Methods: Multi-stage samples totaling 1,650 adults from Porto Alegre (Brazil, Tucumán (Argentina, and Santiago (Chile were assessed. The sampling procedure consisted of a 4-stage process. Examinations were performed in mobile dental units by calibrated examiners. A multivariable logistic regression model was utilized for associating variables as indicators of gingival inflammation (GI (Gingival Index ≥0.5. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: A total of 96.5% of the adults have GI. Regarding the severity of GI, 22.5% of participants examined have mild GI, 74.0% have moderate GI, and 3.6% have severe GI. The multivariate analyses identify the main risk indicators for GI as adults with higher mean of Calculus Index (OR=18.59; with a Visible Plaque Index ≥30% (OR=14.56; living in Santiago (OR=7.17; having ≤12 years of schooling (OR=2.18, and females (OR=1.93. Conclusions: This study shows a high prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation, being the first one performed in adult populations in three cities of South America.

  12. Risk Factors for Pancreatitis in Older Women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizment, Anna E.; Jensen, Eric H.; Hopper, Anne M; Virnig, Beth A.; Anderson, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatitis – an inflammation of pancreas – is a severe and costly disease. While many risk factors for pancreatitis are known, many cases, especially in elderly, are of unknown etiology. Methods Risk factors for acute (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) were assessed in a prospective cohort (n=36,436 women, aged ≥65 years). Exposures were self-reported at baseline. Pancreatitis was ascertained by linkage to Medicare claims (1986–2004) categorized by a physician as: “AP”, 1 AP episode (n=511); or “CP”, 2+ AP or 1+ CP episodes (n=149). Results Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for AP and CP were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Alcohol use was not associated with AP or CP. Heavy smoking (40+ versus 0 pack-years) was associated with a 2-fold increased OR for CP. For BMI ≥30 versus <25 kg/m2, the ORs were 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for AP (p-trend=0.009) and 0.59 (0.37–0.94) for CP (p-trend=0.01). ORs for AP and CP were increased for HRT use, heart disease, and hypertension. There were positive significant associations between protein and total fat intake for CP and AP. Conclusions We identified factors associated with AP and CP that may be specific to older women. PMID:25656921

  13. [Independent risk factors for severe cardiovascular events in male patients with gout: Results of a 7-year prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, M S; Denisov, I S; Markelova, E I; Glukhova, S I; Nasonov, E L

    To determine risk factors for severe cardiovascular (CV) events (CVEs) in male patients with crystal-verified gout. 251 male patients with crystal-verified gout were prospectively followed up in 2003 to 2013. The mean follow-up period was 6.9±2.0 years. New severe CVE cases and deaths were recorded. Logistic regression was used to analyze the impact of traditional and other risk factors and allopurinol use on the risk for severe CVEs. 32 patients died during the follow-up period. Severe CVEs were recorded in 58 (23.1%) patients; CVE deaths were notified in 22 (8.8%) patients. The risk of all severe CVEs was high for hypertension, increased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (>5 mg/l), ≥ stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD) (glomerular filtration rate, 20 g/day), coronary heart disease (CHD), and a family history of premature CHD. The risk of fatal CVEs was highest for elevated serum hs-CRP level, ≥ stage III CKD, a family history of premature CHD, hypercholesterolemia, upper quartile of serum uric acid levels (>552 µmol/l), and regular intake of allopurinol. In addition to the traditional risk factors of CV catastrophes, the presence of chronic inflammation and the impact of high serum uric acid levels may explain the high frequency of CV catastrophes.

  14. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  15. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  17. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  18. Risk factors for pancreatitis in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizment, Anna E; Jensen, Eric H; Hopper, Anne M; Virnig, Beth A; Anderson, Kristin E

    2015-07-01

    Pancreatitis-an inflammation of pancreas-is a severe and costly disease. Although many risk factors for pancreatitis are known, many pancreatitis cases, especially in elderly women, are of unknown etiology. Risk factors for acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) were assessed in a prospective cohort (n = 36,436 women, aged ≥ 65 years). Exposures were self-reported at baseline. Pancreatitis was ascertained by linkage to Medicare claims (1986-2004) categorized by a physician as follows: "AP", one AP episode (n = 511) or "CP", 2+ AP or 1+ CP episodes (n = 149). Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for AP and CP were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Alcohol use was not associated with AP or CP. Heavy smoking (40+ vs. 0 pack-years) was associated with a twofold increased OR for CP. For body mass index greater than or equal to 30 versus less than 25 kg/m(2), the ORs were 1.35 (1.07-1.70) for AP (P trend = .009) and 0.59 (0.37-0.94) for CP (P trend = .01). ORs for AP and CP were increased for hormone replacement therapy use, heart disease, and hypertension. There were positive significant associations between protein and total fat intake for CP and AP. We identified factors associated with AP and CP that may be specific to older women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PPARs, Obesity, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinke Stienstra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders is rising rapidly, increasing the burden on our healthcare system. Obesity is often accompanied by excess fat storage in tissues other than adipose tissue, including liver and skeletal muscle, which may lead to local insulin resistance and may stimulate inflammation, as in steatohepatitis. In addition, obesity changes the morphology and composition of adipose tissue, leading to changes in protein production and secretion. Some of these secreted proteins, including several proinflammatory mediators, may be produced by macrophages resident in the adipose tissue. The changes in inflammatory status of adipose tissue and liver with obesity feed a growing recognition that obesity represents a state of chronic low-level inflammation. Various molecular mechanisms have been implicated in obesity-induced inflammation, some of which are modulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, and overall energy homeostasis. Importantly, PPARs also modulate the inflammatory response, which makes them an interesting therapeutic target to mitigate obesity-induced inflammation and its consequences. This review will address the role of PPARs in obesity-induced inflammation specifically in adipose tissue, liver, and the vascular wall.

  20. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Albers, Lucia; Straube, Andreas; Gerstl, Lucia; Blum, Bernhard; Langhagen, Thyra; Jahn, Klaus; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Landgraf, Mirjam N

    2017-01-01

    To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies. The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking. Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively. Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  1. The effect of aging on aortic atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and molecular calcification: A FDG and NaF PET CT imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Hildebrandt, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Aging is an important independent determinant of plaque biology. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aging on atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and calcification metabolism. Methods: Thirteen healthy volunteers without traditional cardiovascular risk factors were...... and correlation coefficients summarized the data. Results: A quadratic relationship was observed between aging and aortic 18-FDG and aortic Na-18F avidity. A second order polynomial regression established that aging is a predictor of the degree of aortic plaque inflammation (R = 0.524; F statistic = 4.93; P = 0...... data, a quadratic relationship appears to exist between aging and plaque inflammation. Furthermore, a quadratic relationship was observed between aging and plaque calcification metabolism. In line with these observations, a linear relationship was observed between atherosclerotic plaque inflammation...

  2. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  3. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signaling in Trigeminal Ganglion Contributes to Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Masseter Muscle During Temporomandibular Joint Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Reio; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Urata, Kentaro; Lee, Jun; Maruno, Mitsuru; Soma, Kumi; Okada, Shinji; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iwata, Koichi

    To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined. Student t test or two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were used for statistical analyses. P < .05 was considered to reflect statistical significance. Mechanical allodynia in the masseter muscle was induced without any inflammatory cell infiltration in the muscle after TMJ inflammation. SGC activation and an increased number of TNFα-immunoreactive cells were induced in the TG following TMJ inflammation. Intra-TG administration of an inhibitor of SGC activity or of TNFα-neutralizing antibody depressed both the increased number of TG cells encircled by activated SGCs and the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter following TMJ inflammation. These findings suggest that persistent masseter hypersensitivity associated with TMJ inflammation was mediated by SGC-TG neuron interactions via TNFα signaling in the TG.

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption, adiponectin, inflammation and type 2 diabetes risk : prospective cohort studies and randomized crossover trials

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in various populations. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. The aims of this thesis were 1) to substantiate the evidence of the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes in observational research and 2) to examine physiological mechanisms in randomized trials with specific attention to adiponectin, inflammation and insulin sensitivity which may mediate the...

  5. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipp M Filippopulos

    Full Text Available To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies.The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking.Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively.Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  6. Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors in Blacks and Whites: Dissecting Racial Paradox of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Osei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.

  7. Ionizing radiation, inflammation, and their interactions in colon carcinogenesis in Mlh1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Takamitsu; Miyoshi-Imamura, Tomoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Kaminishi, Mutsumi; Kokubo, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kito, Seiji; Tokairin, Yutaka; Tani, Shusuke; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko; Yoshimi, Naoki; Shimada, Yoshiya; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2015-03-01

    Genetic, physiological and environmental factors are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Mutations in the mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene, one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, are a main cause of hereditary colon cancer syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. Long-term chronic inflammation is also a key risk factor, responsible for colitis-associated colorectal cancer; radiation exposure is also known to increase colorectal cancer risk. Here, we studied the effects of radiation exposure on inflammation-induced colon carcinogenesis in DNA mismatch repair-proficient and repair-deficient mice. Male and female Mlh1(-/-) and Mlh1(+/+) mice were irradiated with 2 Gy X-rays when aged 2 weeks or 7 weeks and/or were treated with 1% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days at 10 weeks old to induce mild inflammatory colitis. No colon tumors developed after X-rays and/or DSS treatment in Mlh1(+/+) mice. Colon tumors developed after DSS treatment alone in Mlh1(-/-) mice, and exposure to radiation prior to DSS treatment increased the number of tumors. Histologically, colon tumors in the mice resembled the subtype of well-to-moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human Lynch syndrome. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of both p53 and β-catenin and loss of p21 and adenomatosis polyposis coli proteins were observed at the later stages of carcinogenesis, suggesting a course of molecular pathogenesis distinct from typical sporadic or colitis-associated colon cancer in humans. In conclusion, radiation exposure could further increase the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis induced by inflammation under the conditions of Mlh1 deficiency. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  9. Population-Attributable Risk Proportion of Clinical Risk Factors for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Natalie J; Golmakani, Marzieh K; Miglioretti, Diana L; Sprague, Brian L; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-09-01

    Many established breast cancer risk factors are used in clinical risk prediction models, although the proportion of breast cancers explained by these factors is unknown. To determine the population-attributable risk proportion (PARP) for breast cancer associated with clinical breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Case-control study with 1:10 matching on age, year of risk factor assessment, and Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registry. Risk factor data were collected prospectively from January 1, 1996, through October 31, 2012, from BCSC community-based breast imaging facilities. A total of 18 437 women with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ were enrolled as cases and matched to 184 309 women without breast cancer, with a total of 58 146 premenopausal and 144 600 postmenopausal women enrolled in the study. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density (heterogeneously or extremely dense vs scattered fibroglandular densities), first-degree family history of breast cancer, body mass index (>25 vs 18.5-25), history of benign breast biopsy, and nulliparity or age at first birth (≥30 years vs breast cancer. Of the 18 437 women with breast cancer, the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (3.7) years among premenopausal women and 61.7 (7.2) years among the postmenopausal women. Overall, 4747 (89.8%) premenopausal and 12 502 (95.1%) postmenopausal women with breast cancer had at least 1 breast cancer risk factor. The combined PARP of all risk factors was 52.7% (95% CI, 49.1%-56.3%) among premenopausal women and 54.7% (95% CI, 46.5%-54.7%) among postmenopausal women. Breast density was the most prevalent risk factor for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and had the largest effect on the PARP; 39.3% (95% CI, 36.6%-42.0%) of premenopausal and 26.2% (95% CI, 24.4%-28.0%) of postmenopausal breast cancers could potentially be averted if all women with heterogeneously or extremely dense

  10. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  11. Obesity as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Pergola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer cases caused by being obese is estimated to be 20% with the increased risk of malignancies being influenced by diet, weight change, and body fat distribution together with physical activity. Reports from the International Agency for Research into Cancer and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF have shown that the strongest evidence exists for an association of obesity with the following cancer types: endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal, whereas the less common malignancies are leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and thyroid tumours. To be able to develop novel methods in prevention and treatment, we first must understand the underlying processes which link cancer to obesity. Four main systems have been identified as potential producers of cancer in obesity: insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, sex steroids, and adipokines. Various novel candidate mechanisms have been proposed: chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, crosstalk between tumour cells and surrounding adipocytes, migrating adipose stromal cells, obesity-induced hypoxia, shared genetic susceptibility, and the functional defeat of immune function. Herein, we review the major pathogenic links between obesity and susceptibility to cancer.

  12. Salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Könönen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte chemoattr......Salivary protein levels have been studied in periodontitis. However, there is lack of information on salivary cytokine levels in early gingival inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine salivary levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, monocyte...

  13. The difference in correlation between insulin resistance index and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes with and without metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Pourfarzam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In T2DM with MetS, coexistence of elevated atherogenic indices, systemic inflammation, and association between HOMA-IR and TG/HDL-C ratio were seen. These factors are considered having important role in elevated CVD risk beyond MetS components in these patients.

  14. Vitamin D status and biomarkers of inflammation in runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis KS

    2012-04-01

    particular marker of inflammation. Future investigations are necessary to determine whether increased inflammation in athletes with reduced vitamin D status could increase risk for inflammation-related injury.Keywords: health, exercise training, tumor necrosis factor alpha, cytokines, injury risk

  15. Risk factors for and impact of respiratory failure on mortality in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Tilde; Kristensen, Marlene Østermark; Rysgaard, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    : Retrospective cohort study including 359 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis. Information was gathered from electronic patient records. We defined respiratory failure based on the modified Marshall scoring system in the revised Atlanta criteria. Predictors of respiratory failure were evaluated......, or pneumonia may develop respiratory failure, suggests that acute lung injury, possibly associated with systemic inflammation, may be important.......BACKGROUND: The incidence of respiratory failure and other respiratory complications in the early phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) is not well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of respiratory failure, and its impact on mortality in the early phase AP. METHODS...

  16. Helicobacter pylori coinfection is a confounder, modulating mucosal inflammation in oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity has been considered a potential reservoir for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori , from where the organism causes recurrent gastric infections. Aim: With this case-control study we tried to evaluate the role of H pylori in the etiology of mucosal inflammation, a condition that compounds the morbid state associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF. Materials and Methods : Subjects ( n = 150 were selected following institutional regulations on sample collection and grouped into test cases and positive and negative controls based on the presence of mucosal fibrosis and inflammation. The negative controls had none of the clinical signs. All patients underwent an oral examination as well as tests to assess oral hygiene/periodontal disease status; a rapid urease test (RUT of plaque samples was also done to estimate the H pylori bacterial load. We used univariate and mutivariate logistic regression for statistical analysis of the data and calculated the odds ratios to assess the risk posed by the different variables. Results : The RUT results differed significantly between the groups, reflecting the variations in the bacterial loads in each category. The test was positive in 52% in the positive controls (where nonspecific inflammation of oral mucosa was seen unassociated with fibrosis, in 46% of the test cases, and in 18% of the negative controls (healthy volunteers (χ2 = 13.887; P < 0.01. A positive correlation was seen between the oral hygiene/periodontal disease indices and RUT reactivity in all the three groups. Conclusions: The contribution of the H pylori in dental plaque to mucosal inflammation and periodontal disease was significant. Logistic regression analysis showed gastrointestinal disease and poor oral hygiene as being the greatest risk factors for bacterial colonization, irrespective of the subject groups. A positive correlation exists between RUT reactivity and the frequency of mucosal inflammation.

  17. The relationship between duration of psoriasis, vascular inflammation, and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Joshi, Aditya A; Mallbris, Lotus; Gislason, Gunnar H; Wu, Jashin J; Rodante, Justin; Lerman, Joseph B; Ahlman, Mark A; Gelfand, Joel M; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-10-01

    Psoriasis is associated with risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) and a major adverse CV event (MACE). Whether psoriasis duration affects risk of vascular inflammation and MACEs has not been well characterized. We utilized two resources to understand the effect of psoriasis duration on vascular disease and CV events: (1) a human imaging study and (2) a population-based study of CVD events. First, patients with psoriasis (N = 190) underwent fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (duration effect reported as a β-coefficient). Second, MACE risk was examined by using nationwide registries (adjusted hazard ratios in patients with psoriasis (n = 87,161) versus the general population (n = 4,234,793). In the human imaging study, patients were young, of low CV risk by traditional risk scores, and had a high prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases. Vascular inflammation by fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography/computed tomography was significantly associated with disease duration (β = 0.171, P = .002). In the population-based study, psoriasis duration had strong relationship with MACE risk (1.0% per additional year of psoriasis duration [hazard ratio, 1.010; 95% confidence interval, 1.007-1.013]). These studies utilized observational data. We found detrimental effects of psoriasis duration on vascular inflammation and MACE, suggesting that cumulative duration of exposure to low-grade chronic inflammation may accelerate vascular disease development and MACEs. Providers should consider inquiring about duration of disease to counsel for heightened CVD risk in psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome and low-grade inflammation with special reference to YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, M; Wissing, M L M; Naver, K V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the plasma level of YKL-40 in a Danish polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) population and to investigate whether YKL-40 is associated with CVD risk factors such as waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance (IR), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, blood lipids......, triglycerides, and CRP. Total and free testosterone were independent predictors of YKL-40. CONCLUSION: YKL-40, the marker of low-grade inflammation is not increased in women with PCOS....

  19. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  20. Effect of Flavonoids on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jenni Suen; Jolene Thomas; Amelia Kranz; Simon Vun; Michelle Miller

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes initiate the first stage of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Flavonoid consumption has been related to significantly improved flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms are thought to be involved. The effect of flavonoids on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in at risk individuals is yet to be reviewed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and SC...

  1. The Emerging Role of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Pathophysiology of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorakae, Soulmaz; Teede, Helena; de Courten, Barbora; Lambert, Gavin; Boyle, Jacqueline; Moran, Lisa J

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has become increasingly common over recent years and is associated with reproductive features as well as cardiometabolic risk factors, including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose homeostasis, and potentially cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that these long-term metabolic effects are linked to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state with the triad of hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenism, and low-grade inflammation acting together in a vicious cycle in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system may also act as an important component, potentially creating a tetrad in the pathophysiology of PCOS. The aim of this review is to examine the role of chronic inflammation and the sympathetic nervous system in the development of obesity and PCOS and review potential therapeutic options to alleviate low-grade inflammation in this setting. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J. Williams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNFα (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP ≥3.0 mg/mL who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16, these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK, zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5 and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  3. Biomarkers for insulin resistance and inflammation and the risk for all-cause dementia and alzheimer disease: results from the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Himbergen, Thomas M; Beiser, Alexa S; Ai, Masumi; Seshadri, Sudha; Otokozawa, Seiko; Au, Rhoda; Thongtang, Nuntakorn; Wolf, Philip A; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the contribution of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis (adiponectin, glucose, glycated albumin, and insulin levels) and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) levels) to the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) and all-cause dementia. Prospective cohort study. Dementia-free Framingham Heart Study participants had sera measured for these biomarkers at the 19th biennial examination (1985-1988) and were followed up prospectively for the development of AD and all-cause dementia. Eight hundred forty (541 women, median age of 76 years) subjects participated in the study. We used sex-pooled and sex-specific multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, recent change in weight, APOE ε4 allele status, and plasma docosahexaenoic acid levels to determine association of these biomarkers with the development of all-cause dementia and AD. Over a mean follow-up period of 13 years, 159 persons developed dementia (including 125 with AD). After adjustment for other risk factors, only adiponectin in women was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.66; P=.054) and AD (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.76; P=.050) per 1-SD increase in adiponectin level. Women with baseline adiponectin values more than the median had a higher risk of all-cause dementia (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.03-2.56; P=.04) and AD (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13-3.10; P=.01) as compared with those with values less than the median. In women, increased plasma adiponectin levels are an independent risk factor for the development of both all-cause dementia and AD.

  4. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Mi Jung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-12-27

    Background : Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods : Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results : The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions : These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  5. [Orbital inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Coffin-Pichonnet, S; Robert, P-Y; Abad, S; Martin-Silva, N

    2014-12-01

    Orbital inflammation is a generic term encompassing inflammatory pathologies affecting all structures within the orbit : anterior (involvement up to the posterior aspect of the globe), diffuse (involvement of intra- and/or extraconal fat), apical (involvement of the posterior orbit), myositis (involvement of only the extraocular muscles), dacryoadenitis (involvement of the lacrimal gland). We distinguish between specific inflammation and non-specific inflammation, commonly referred to as idiopathic inflammation. Specific orbital inflammation corresponds to a secondary localization of a "generalized" disease (systemic or auto-immune). Idiopathic orbital inflammation corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without generalized disease, and thus an unknown etiology. At the top of the differential diagnosis for specific or idiopathic orbital inflammation are malignant tumors, represented most commonly in the adult by lympho-proliferative syndromes and metastases. Treatment of specific orbital inflammation begins with treatment of the underlying disease. For idiopathic orbital inflammation, treatment (most often corticosteroids) is indicated above all in cases of visual loss due to optic neuropathy, in the presence of pain or oculomotor palsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among First Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Krishna Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of cardiovascular risk in young age is important to motivate them to modify life styles and seek health care early to lower the chances of acquiring cardiovascular disease in later age. This study was done to assess cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout September and October 2017 in which all first year medical students from a medical college were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants’ demography, family history of illness, anthropometric measurements, and blood reports of lipid profile and fasting glucose were acquired. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-21. Result: There were 99 participants; 55 males and 44 females. One or more risk factors were present in 87 (87.9% participants. Moreover, 67.7% (n = 67 participants had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common (n = 55, 55.6% risk factor followed by elevated triacylglycerol (n = 47, 47.5% and family history of hypertension (n = 45, 45.5%. There was no significant difference in presence of various risk factors between genders. Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Majority of them had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common risk factor. The risk factors were comparable in males and females.

  7. Chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV with respect to risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammatory infiltrate (CII might be involved in prostate cancer (PCA and benign hyperplasia (BPH; however, its significance is controversial. Chronic inflammatory prostatitis type IV is the most common non cancer diagnosis in men undergoing biopsy because of suspected PCA. Objective: To evaluate potential associations of coexistent CII and PCA in biopsy specimens after prostate assessment. Design, setting, and participants: Between January 2007 and December 2008, 415 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. The investigated variables included Age (years and PSA (ug/l; moreover, CII+, glandular atrophy (GA+, glandular hyperplasia (GH+, prostate Intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN+, atypical small acinar cell proliferation (ASAP+ and PCA positive cores (P+ were evaluated as categorical and continuous (proportion of positive cores. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Associations of CII+ and PCA risk were assessed by statistical methods. Results and limitations: In the patient population, a biopsy core positive for PCA was detected in 34.2% of cases and the rate of high grade PCA (HGPCA: bGS ! 8 resulted 4.82%. CII+ significantly and inversely associated with a positive biopsy core P+ (P < 0.0001; OR = 0.26 and HGPCA (P = 0.0005; OR = 0.05. Moreover, the associations indicated that patients with coexistent CII+ on needle biopsy were 74% less likely to have coexistent PCA than men without CII+ as well as 95% less likely to have HGPCA in the biopsy core than men without coexistent CII+. There were limits in our study which was single centre and included only one dedicated pathologist. Conclusions: There was an inverse association of chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV and risk of PCA; moreover, HGPCA was less likely to be detected in cancers associated with coexistent CII. In prostate microenvironment, prostate chronic inflammation may be protective; however, its role in

  8. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  9. C-reactive protein, inflammation and coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Shrivastava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is widely considered to be an important contributing factor of the pathophysiology of coronary heart disease (CHD, and the inflammatory cascade is particularly important in the atherosclerotic process. In consideration of the important role that inflammatory processes play in CHD, recent work has been focused on whether biomarkers of inflammation may help to improve risk stratification and identify patient groups who might benefit from particular treatment strategies. Of these biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP has emerged as one of the most important novel inflammatory markers. CRP an acute phase protein is synthesized by hepatocytes in response to proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-6. Many large-scale prospective studies demonstrate that CRP strongly and independently predicts adverse cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and sudden cardiac death in individuals both with and without overt CHD. CRP is believed to be both a marker and a mediator of atherosclerosis and CHD. CRP plays a pivotal role in many aspects of atherogenesis including, activation of complement pathway, lipids uptake by macrophage, release of proinflammatory cytokines, induces the expression of tissue factor in monocytes, promotes the endothelial dysfunction and inhibits nitric oxide production. The commercial availability of CRP high sensitive assays has made screening for this marker simple, reliable, and reproducible and can be used as a clinical guide to diagnosis, management, and prognosis of CHD.

  10. Allergic Conjunctivitis-induced Retinal Inflammation Promotes Myopia Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ching Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myopia is a highly prevalent eye disease. There is limited information suggesting a relationship between myopia and inflammation. We found children with allergic conjunctivitis (AC had the highest adjusted odds ratio (1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72–1.77 for myopia among the four allergic diseases. A cohort study was conducted and confirmed that children with AC had a higher incidence and subsequent risk of myopia (hazard ratio 2.35, 95%CI 2.29–2.40 compared to those without AC. Lower refractive error and longer axial length were observed in an AC animal model. Myopia progression was enhanced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α or interleukin (IL-6 administration, two cytokines secreted by mast cell degranulation. The TNF-α or IL-6 weakened the tight junction formed by corneal epithelial (CEP cells and inflammatory cytokines across the layer of CEP cells, which increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 secreted by retinal pigment epithelial cells. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and nuclear factor kappa B were up-regulated in eyes with AC, whereas IL-10 and the inhibitor of kappa B were down-regulated. In conclusion, the experimental findings in mice corroborate the epidemiological data showing that allergic inflammation influences the development of myopia.

  11. The role of inflammation in cerebral aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Turkmani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs is poorly understood. At present, risk factors for aneurysm rupture are limited to demographics and rudimentary anatomic features of the aneurysm. The first sign of aneurysm destabilization and rupture may be subarachnoid hemorrhage, a potentially devastating brain injury with high morbidity and mortality. An emerging body of literature suggests a complex inflammatory cascade likely promotes aneurysm wall remodeling and progressive ballooning of the arterial wall, ultimately terminating in aneurysm rupture. These events likely begin with hemodynamic, flow-related endothelial injury; the injured endothelium stimulates inflammation, including the recruitment and transmigration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages. Various proteases are secreted by the inflammatory infiltrate, resulting in degradation of the extracellular matrix and the structural changes unique to IAs. Detailed understanding of these inflammatory processes may result in (1 early identification of patients at high risk for aneurysm rupture, perhaps via arterial wall imaging, and (2 targeted, noninvasive therapies to treat or even prevent cerebral aneurysms.

  12. Pathways from childhood intelligence and socioeconomic status to late-life cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Mõttus, René; Craig, Leone C A; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase marker of systemic inflammation and considered an established risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in old age. Previous studies have suggested that low childhood intelligence, lower socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood or in later life, unhealthy behaviors, poor wellbeing, and high body mass index (BMI) are associated with inflammation. Life course models that simultaneously incorporate all these risk factors can explain how CVD risks accumulate over time, from childhood to old age. Using the data from 1,091 Scottish adults (Lothian Birth Cohort Study, 1936), a path model was constructed to predict CRP at age 70 from concurrent health behaviors, self-perceived quality of life, and BMI and adulthood SES as mediating variables, and from parental SES and childhood intelligence as distal risk factors. A well-fitting path model (CFI = .92, SRMR = .05) demonstrated significant indirect effects from childhood intelligence and parental social class to inflammation via BMI, health behaviors and quality of life (all ps intelligence, unhealthy behaviors, and higher BMI were also direct predictors of CRP. The life course model illustrated how CVD risks may accumulate over time, beginning in childhood and being both direct and transmitted indirectly via low adult SES, unhealthy behaviors, impaired quality of life, and high BMI. Knowledge on the childhood risk factors and their pathways to poor health can be used to identify high-risk individuals for more intensive and tailored behavior change interventions, and to develop effective public health policies.

  13. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Magalhães Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. Method: an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. Results: altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. Conclusions: risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation.

  14. Helicobacter pylori Infection is a Significant Factor Risk for Hyperhomocysteinemia in the Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudabeh Fallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to determine whether seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori infection was an independent risk factor for hyperhomocysteinemia patients with cardiovascular disease. The H. pylori IgG, IgA and homocystein levels in 96 patients with cardiovascular disease and 64 participants free of cardiovascular disease as control subjects were determined by ELISA assay. The results showed that seropositivity to H. pylori IgG and IgA levels of coronary artery disease (CADpatients was significantly higher than the controls and CAD patients with H. pylori IgG and IgA negative antibodies. A significant correlation was found between the seropositivity to H. pylori IgG and homocysteine levels of CAD patients in comparison with the controls and CAD patients with seronegativity to H. pylori IgG and IgA (r=0.233, P= 0.019 . The involvement of H. pylori infection in atherosclerosis process was based on the chronic inflammation, which might facilitate the CAD-related pathologies. The effect of the presence of H. pylori infection on homocysteine levels elevation in the CAD patients (as a risk factor independent of other traditional factors was remarkable.

  15. Evidence for disturbed insulin and growth hormone signaling as potential risk factors in the development of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beveren, N J M; Schwarz, E; Noll, R; Guest, P C; Meijer, C; de Haan, L; Bahn, S

    2014-08-26

    Molecular abnormalities in metabolic, hormonal and immune pathways are present in peripheral body fluids of a significant subgroup of schizophrenia patients. The authors have tested whether such disturbances also occur in psychiatrically ill and unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients with the aim of identifying potential contributing factors to disease vulnerability. The subjects were recruited as part of the Genetic Risk and OUtcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. The authors used multiplexed immunoassays to measure the levels of 184 molecules in serum from 112 schizophrenia patients, 133 siblings and 87 unrelated controls. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, serum from schizophrenia patients contained higher levels of insulin, C-peptide and proinsulin, decreased levels of growth hormone and altered concentrations of molecules involved in inflammation. In addition, significant differences were found in the levels of some of these proteins in siblings diagnosed with mood disorders (n=16) and in unaffected siblings (n=117). Most significantly, the insulin/growth hormone ratio was higher across all groups compared with the controls. Taken together, these findings suggest the presence of a molecular endophenotype involving disruption of insulin and growth factor signaling pathways as an increased risk factor for schizophrenia.

  16. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  17. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  18. The Role of Inflammation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eMüller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHigh levels of pro-inflammatory substances such as cytokines have been described in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenia patients. Animal models of schizophrenia show that under certain conditions an immune disturbance during early life, such as an infection-triggered immune activation, might trigger lifelong increased immune reactivity. A large epidemiological study clearly demonstrated that severe infections and autoimmune disorders are risk factors for schizophrenia. Genetic studies have shown a strong signal for schizophrenia on chromosome 6p22.1, in a region related to the human leucocyte antigen (HLA system and other immune functions. Another line of evidence demonstrates that chronic (disstress is associated with immune activation. The vulnerability-stress-inflammation model of schizophrenia includes the contribution of stress on the basis of increased genetic vulnerability for the pathogenesis

  19. A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; Van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-02-01

    There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk.

  20. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jung Rho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138, belief self-control (1.034, anxiety (1.086, pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105, money spent on gaming (1.005, weekday game time (1.081, offline community meeting attendance (2.060, and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors; Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29280953

  2. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  3. Pulp tissue inflammation and angiogenesis after pulp capping with transforming growth factor β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Restorative dentistry the opportunity to develop biomemitic approaches has been signalled by the possible use of various biological macromolecules in direct pulp capping reparation. The presence of growth factors in dentin matrix and the putative role indicating odontoblast differentiation during embryogenesis has led to the examination on the effect of endogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 is one of the Growth Factors that plays an important role in pulp healing. The application of exogenous TGF-β1 in direct pulp capping treatment should be experimented in fibroblast tissue in-vivo to see the responses of inflammatory cells and development of new blood vessels. The increase in food supplies always occurs in the process of inflammation therefore the development of angiogenesis is required to fulfil the requirement. This in-vivo study done on orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction between 10–15 years of age. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin to pulp exposure. The cavity was slowly irrigated with saline solution and dried using a sterile small cotton pellet. The sterile absorbable collagen membrane was applied and soaked in 5 ml TGF-β1. It was covered by a Teflon pledge to separate from Glass Ionomer Cement restoration. Evaluation was performed on day 7; 14; and 21. All samples were histopathologycally examined and data was statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and Dunnet T3.There were no inflammatory symptoms in clinical examination on both Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1, but they increased the infiltration of inflammatory cells on histopathological examination. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1 in inflammation cell and significant differences (p < 0.05 in angiogenesis on day 7 and 14. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in inflammation cell with in TGF-β1 groups and significant differences (p < 0.05 with in Ca(OH2 groups on day 7

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR PANCREATIC CANCER: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKolodecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the review:Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer.Recent Findings:Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcription factor NF-kB are important mechanisms that induce acute pancreatitis. Recurrent pancreatic injury due to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, and conditions such as obesity lead to increases in oxidative stress, impaired autophagy and constitutive activation of inflammatory pathways. These processes can stimulate pancreatic stellate cells, thereby increasing fibrosis and encouraging chronic disease development. Activation of oncogneic Kras mutations through inflammation, coupled with altered levels of tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and p16 can ultimately lead to development of pancreatic cancer. Summary:Although our understanding of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has tremendously increased over many years, much remains to be elucidated in terms of common pathways linking these conditions.

  5. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  6. Role of inflammation in cardiopulmonary health effects of PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, Ken; Mills, Nicholas; MacNee, William; Robinson, Simon; Newby, David

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between increased exposure to PM and adverse cardiovascular effects is well documented in epidemiological studies. Inflammation in the lungs, caused by deposited particles, can be seen as a key process that could mediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. There are at least three potential pathways that could lead from pulmonary inflammation to adverse cardiovascular effects. Firstly, inflammation in the lung could lead to systemic inflammation, which is well known to be linked to sudden death from cardiovascular causes. Systemic inflammation can lead to destabilization by activation of inflammatory processes in atheromatous plaques. Secondly, inflammation can cause an imbalance in coagulation factors that favor propagation of thrombi if thrombosis is initiated. Thirdly, inflammation could affect the autonomic nervous system activity in ways that could lead to alterations in the control of heart rhythm which could culminate in fatal dysrhythmia

  7. IL-1 as a target in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Kaneko, Naoe; Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Morikawa, Shinnosuke; Kaneko, Kentaro; Masumoto, Junya

    2015-03-16

    Inflammation is a protective response to eliminate cytotoxic agents and pathogens. Various factors are thought to be involved in the pathological changes in tissues caused by inflammation. Interleukin 1, an inflammatory cytokine, is thought to have diverse physiological functions and to play an important role in inflammatory disease. In this review, we discuss interleukin-1 as a target of inflammatory disease.

  8. Regulation of stem cell factor expression in inflammation and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell factor (SCF is a major mast cell growth factor, which could be involved in the local increase of mast cell number in the asthmatic airways. In vivo, SCF expression increases in asthmatic patients and this is reversed after treatment with glucocorticoids. In vitro in human lung fibroblasts in culture, IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, confirms this increased SCF mRNA and protein expression implying the MAP kinases p38 and ERK1/2 very early post-treatment, and glucocorticoids confirm this decrease. Surprisingly, glucocorticoids potentiate the IL-1beta-enhanced SCF expression at short term treatment, implying increased SCF mRNA stability and SCF gene transcription rate. This potentiation involves p38 and ERK1/2. Transfection experiments with the SCF promoter including intron1 also confirm this increase and decrease of SCF expression by IL-1beta and glucocorticoids, and the potentiation by glucocorticoids of the IL-1beta-induced SCF expression. Deletion of the GRE or kappaB sites abolishes this potentiation, and the effect of IL-1beta or glucocorticoids alone. DNA binding of GR and NF-kappaB are also demonstrated for these effects. In conclusion, this review concerns new mechanisms of regulation of SCF expression in inflammation that could lead to potential therapeutic strategy allowing to control mast cell number in the asthmatic airways.

  9. Hypercholesterolemia Tunes Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells for Inflammation and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Feng, Yingmei

    2016-07-19

    As the pathological basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), atherosclerosis is featured as a chronic inflammation. Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor for CVD. Accumulated studies have shown that hypercholesterolemia is associated with myeloid cell expansion, which stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses, strengthens inflammation, and accelerates atherosclerosis progression. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) in bone marrow (BM) expresses a panel of lipoprotein receptors to control cholesterol homeostasis. Deficiency of these receptors abrogates cellular cholesterol efflux, resulting in HSPC proliferation and differentiation in hypercholesterolemic mice. Reduction of the cholesterol level in the lipid rafts by infusion of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or its major apolipoprotein, apoA-I, reverses hypercholesterolemia-induced HSPC expansion. Apart from impaired cholesterol metabolism, inhibition of reactive oxygen species production suppresses HSPC activation and leukocytosis. These data indicate that the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypercholesterolemia on HSPC proliferation and differentiation could be multifaceted. Furthermore, dyslipidemia also regulates HSPC-neighboring cells, resulting in HSPC mobilization. In the article, we review how hypercholesterolemia evokes HSPC activation and mobilization directly or via its modification of BM microenvironment. We hope this review will bring light to finding key molecules to control HSPC expansion, inflammation, and atherosclerosis for the treatment of CVD.

  10. A comparative study between infectious and systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindhya Sundar Das

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immune system may occur as a result of either external (mostly infection-mediated inflammation or internal factors (systemic inflammation. Distinct stimuli act on the immune cells to induce diverse pathways leading to characteristic gene expressions in these cases. Bacterial inflammation, caused primarily by its lipopolysaccharides (LPS, conceives an array of diseases including intestinal bowel disease (IBD, ulcerative colitis and sepsis. In contrast, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 or TNF-α leads to chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Castleman’s disease, etc. It is important to understand the signatures of infectious and systemic gene expression for better designing of treatment regime against inflammatory diseases. To understand the distinctive pattern of gene expression between infectious inflammation and systemic inflammation, THP-1 macrophages were treated individually with LPS (100 ng/mL, IL-6 (50 ng/mL or TNF-α (10 ng/mL and global transcriptomic analysis was performed using Agilent’s human 8x15K array. The common set of differentially expressed genes in IL-6 and TNF-α-treated cohorts were compared with LPS-treated cohorts. Our analysis revealed that 2743 and 150 genes contributed to LPS-mediated inflammation and systemic inflammation with respect to untreated samples, respectively (fold change ≥ 1.5. 868 commonly expressed genes contributed to systemic inflammation with respect to LPS-mediated inflammation. Among these commonly expressed genes, only 68 genes were observed to contribute to both types of inflammation, suggesting their importance in activation of diverse pathways in LPS-mediated and systemic inflammation. A detailed functional annotation of these genes revealed that EGR1, JUN, NF-kB, REL, STAT-1 and BCL-3 are important transcription factors (TFs for distinctive signatures between these two types of inflammation

  11. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  13. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  14. Hirsutine, an indole alkaloid of Uncaria rhynchophylla, inhibits inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity and microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hwan Yong; Nam, Kyong Nyon; Woo, Byung-Choel; Kim, Kyoo-Pil; Kim, Sung-Ok; Lee, Eunjoo H

    2013-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation endangers neuronal survival through the release of various pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic factors. As such, negative regulators of microglial activation have been considered as potential therapeutic candidates to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration associated with inflammation. Uncaria rhynchophylla (U. rhynchophylla) is a traditional oriental herb that has been used for treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Hirsutine (HS), one of the major indole alkaloids of U. rhynchophylla, has demonstrated neuroprotective potential. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of HS in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial cell activation. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, HS blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-related hippocampal cell death and production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and interleukin-1β. HS was demonstrated to effectively inhibit LPS-induced NO release from cultured rat brain microglia. The compound reduced the LPS-stimulated production of PGE2 and intracellular reactive oxygen species. HS significantly decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling proteins. In conclusion, HS reduces the production of various neurotoxic factors in activated microglial cells and possesses neuroprotective activity in a model of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity.

  15. Inflammation in Parkinson’s disease: Role of glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Trinidad eHerrero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is a major characteristic feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Studies in PDpatients show evidence of augmented levels of potent pro-inflammatory molecules e.g. TNF-α, iNOS,IL-1β whereas in experimental Parkinsonism it has been consistently demonstrated that dopaminergicneurons are particularly vulnerable to activated glia releasing these toxic factors. Recent geneticstudies point to the role of immune system in the etiology of PD, thus in combination withenvironmental factors, both peripheral and CNS-mediated immune responses could play importantroles in onset and progression of PD. Whereas microglia, astrocytes and infiltrating T cells are knownto mediate chronic inflammation, the roles of other immune-competent cells are less well understood.Inflammation is a tightly controlled process. One major effector system of regulation is HPA axis.Glucocorticoids released from adrenal glands upon stimulation of HPA axis, in response to either cellinjury or presence of pathogen, activate their receptor, GR. GR regulates inflammation both throughdirect transcriptional action on target genes and by indirectly inhibiting transcriptional activities oftranscriptional factors such as NF-kB, AP-1 or interferon regulatory factors. In PD patients, the HPAaxis is unbalanced and the cortisol levels are significantly increased, implying a deregulation of GRfunction in immune cells. In experimental Parkinsonism, the activation of microglial GR has a crucialeffect in diminishing microglial cell activation and reducing dopaminergic degeneration. Moreover,glucocorticoids are also known to regulate human brain vasculature as well as blood brain barrierpermeability, any dysfunction in their actions may influence infiltration of cytotoxic moleculesresulting in increased vulnerability of dopamine neurons in PD. Overall, deregulation ofGR actions is likely important in dopamine neuron degeneration throughestablishment of chronic inflammation.

  16. An inflammation-based cumulative prognostic score system in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma in rituximab era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Zhu, Jia; Lu, Suying; Zhen, Zijun; Wang, Juan; Huang, Junting; Ding, Zonghui; Zeng, Musheng; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-02

    Systemic inflammatory parameters are associated with poor outcomes in malignant patients. Several inflammation-based cumulative prognostic score systems were established for various solid tumors. However, there is few inflammation based cumulative prognostic score system for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively reviewed 564 adult DLBCL patients who had received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) therapy between Nov 1 2006 and Dec 30 2013 and assessed the prognostic significance of six systemic inflammatory parameters evaluated in previous studies by univariate and multivariate analysis:C-reactive protein(CRP), albumin levels, the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio(NLR), the platelet-lymphocyte ratio(PLR)and fibrinogen levels. Multivariate analysis identified CRP, albumin levels and the LMR are three independent prognostic parameters for overall survival (OS). Based on these three factors, we constructed a novel inflammation-based cumulative prognostic score (ICPS) system. Four risk groups were formed: group ICPS = 0, ICPS = 1, ICPS = 2 and ICPS = 3. Advanced multivariate analysis indicated that the ICPS model is a prognostic score system independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) for both progression-free survival (PFS) (p systemic inflammatory status was associated with clinical outcomes of patients with DLBCL in rituximab era. The ICPS model was shown to classify risk groups more accurately than any single inflammatory prognostic parameters. These findings may be useful for identifying candidates for further inflammation-related mechanism research or novel anti-inflammation target therapies.

  17. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD...

  18. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  19. Assessment of risk factors for noncommunicable disease risk factors among men of working age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vasilyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.

  20. Autoimmune diseases and severe infections as risk factors for schizophrenia: a 30-year population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benros, Michael E; Nielsen, Philip R; Nordentoft, Merete; Eaton, William W; Dalton, Susanne O; Mortensen, Preben B

    2011-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. It has been suggested that brain-reactive autoantibodies are part of the mechanisms behind this association. Furthermore, an increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier has been observed during periods of infection and inflammation. The authors therefore investigated whether autoimmune diseases combined with exposures to severe infections may increase the risk of schizophrenia Nationwide population-based registers in Denmark were linked, and the data were analyzed in a cohort study using survival analysis. All analyses were adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. Incidence rate ratios and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as measures of relative risk were used. A prior autoimmune disease increased the risk of schizophrenia by 29% (incidence rate ratio=1.29; 95% CI=1.18-1.41). Any history of hospitalization with infection increased the risk of schizophrenia by 60% (incidence rate ratio=1.60; 95% CI=1.56-1.64). When the two risk factors were combined, the risk of schizophrenia was increased even further (incidence rate ratio=2.25; 95% CI=2.04-2.46). The risk of schizophrenia was increased in a dose-response relationship, where three or more infections and an autoimmune disease were associated with an incidence rate ratio of 3.40 (95% CI=2.91-3.94). The results remained significant after adjusting for substance use disorders and family history of psychiatric disorders. Hospital contact with infection occurred in nearly 24% of individuals prior to a schizophrenia diagnosis. Autoimmune disease and the number of infections requiring hospitalization are risk factors for schizophrenia. The increased risk is compatible with an immunological hypothesis in subgroups of schizophrenia patients.

  1. Effects of betel nut on cardiovascular risk factors in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Mehboobali, Naseema; Haider, Ghulam; Pervez, Shahid; Azam, Iqbal

    2012-10-24

    Areca nut (commonly known as betel nut) chewing has been shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism by which betel nut ingestion could lead to development of CVD is not precisely known; however, dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and inflammation could be some of the potential risk factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two dosages of betel nut on homocysteinemia, inflammation and some of the components of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in a rat model. Thirty-six adult female Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks were divided into three equal groups. Group-1 served as the control group (n = 12) and received water, whereas groups 2 and 3 were given water suspension of betel nut orally in two dosages, 30 mg and 60 mg, respectively for a period of 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week, the animals were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and liver, kidney, spleen and stomach were removed for histological examination.Plasma/serum was analyzed for glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) - a marker of inflammation. When the mean concentration values of 3 groups were compared using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD-test, there was a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p = 0.04) in the group receiving 30 mg/day betel nut compared to the control group. However, administration of a higher dose of betel nut (60 mg/day) had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and NAG. Histological examination of spleen revealed a dose-dependent extramedullary hematopoiesis. No other remarkable change in the tissues (liver, kidney and stomach) was observed.Mean serum/plasma levels of folate

  2. Regulating inflammation through the anti-inflammatory enzyme platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo C Castro Faria Neto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor (PAF is one of the most potent lipid mediators involved in inflammatory events. The acetyl group at the sn-2 position of its glycerol backbone is essential for its biological activity. Deacetylation induces the formation of the inactive metabolite lyso-PAF. This deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH, a calcium independent phospholipase A2 that also degrades a family of PAF-like oxidized phospholipids with short sn-2 residues. Biochemical and enzymological evaluations revealed that at least three types of PAF-AH exist in mammals, namely the intracellular types I and II and a plasma type. Many observations indicate that plasma PAF AH terminates signals by PAF and oxidized PAF-like lipids and thereby regulates inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the potential of PAF-AH as a modulator of diseases of dysregulated inflammation.

  3. Increased Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers, Soluble CD40 Ligand, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Reflect Acceleration of Atherosclerosis in Male Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Active Phase and without the Classical Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary aim of the study was to assess levels of oxidative stress markers, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, and placental growth factor (PlGF as well as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS with active phase without concomitant classical cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. The observational study involved 96 male subjects: 48 AS patients and 48 healthy ones, who did not differ significantly regarding age, BMI, comorbid disorders, and distribution of classical cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups, we estimated levels of oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and inflammation parameters as well as sCD40L, serum PAPP-A, and PlGF. In addition, we estimated carotid IMT in each subject. Results. The study showed that markers of oxidative stress, lipid profile, and inflammation, as well as sCD40L, PlGF, and IMT, were significantly higher in the AS group compared to the healthy group. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that ankylosing spondylitis may be associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis.

  4. A modified portfolio diet complements medical management to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Mary; Kuliszewski, Michael A; Liao, Christine; Peeva, Valentina; Ahmed, Mavra; Tran, Susan; Sorokin, Kevin; Jenkins, David J; Errett, Lee; Leong-Poi, Howard

    2015-06-01

    Secondary prevention can improve outcomes in high risk patients. This study investigated the magnitude of cardiovascular risk reduction associated with consumption of a modified portfolio diet in parallel with medical management. 30 patients with type II diabetes, 6 weeks post bypass surgery received dietary counseling on a Modified Portfolio Diet (MPD) (low fat, 8 g/1000 kcal viscous fibres, 17 g/1000 kcal soy protein and 22 g/1000 kcal almonds). Lipid profiles, endothelial function and markers of glycemic control, oxidative stress and inflammation were measured at baseline and following two and four weeks of intervention. Seven patients with no diet therapy served as time controls. Consumption of the MPD resulted in a 19% relative reduction in LDL (1.9 ± 0.8 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L, p managed, high risk patients resulted in important reductions in risk factors. Clinical Trials registry number NCT00462436. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  6. Telomere-mediated chromosomal instability triggers TLR4 induced inflammation and death in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra N Bhattacharjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are essential to maintain chromosomal stability. Cells derived from mice lacking telomerase RNA component (mTERC-/- mice display elevated telomere-mediated chromosome instability. Age-dependent telomere shortening and associated chromosome instability reduce the capacity to respond to cellular stress occurring during inflammation and cancer. Inflammation is one of the important risk factors in cancer progression. Controlled innate immune responses mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR are required for host defense against infection. Our aim was to understand the role of chromosome/genome instability in the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the function of TLR4 in telomerase deficient mTERC-/- mice harbouring chromosome instability which did not develop any overt immunological disorder in pathogen-free condition or any form of cancers at this stage. Chromosome instability was measured in metaphase spreads prepared from wildtype (mTERC+/+, mTERC+/- and mTERC-/- mouse splenocytes. Peritoneal and/or bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to examine the responses of TLR4 by their ability to produce inflammatory mediators TNFalpha and IL6. Our results demonstrate that TLR4 is highly up-regulated in the immune cells derived from telomerase-null (mTERC-/- mice and lipopolysaccharide, a natural ligand for TLR4 stabilises NF-kappaB binding to its promoter by down-regulating ATF-3 in mTERC-/- macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings implied that background chromosome instability in the cellular level stabilises the action of TLR4-induced NF-kappaB action and sensitises cells to produce excess pro-inflammatory mediators. Chromosome/genomic instability data raises optimism for controlling inflammation by non-toxic TLR antagonists among high-risk groups.

  7. Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siponen, Taina; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Aurela, Minna; Dufva, Hilkka; Hillamo, Risto; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Huttunen, Kati; Pekkanen, Juha; Pennanen, Arto; Salonen, Iiris; Tiittanen, Pekka; Salonen, Raimo O; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare short-term effects of fine particles (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) from different sources on the blood levels of markers of systemic inflammation. Methods We followed a panel of 52 ischaemic heart disease patients from 15 November 2005 to 21 April 2006 with clinic visits in every second week in the city of Kotka, Finland, and determined nine inflammatory markers from blood samples. In addition, we monitored outdoor air pollution at a fixed site during the study period and conducted a source apportionment of PM2.5 using the Environmental Protection Agency's model EPA PMF 3.0. We then analysed associations between levels of source-specific PM2.5 and markers of systemic inflammation using linear mixed models. Results We identified five source categories: regional and long-range transport (LRT), traffic, biomass combustion, sea salt, and pulp industry. We found most evidence for the relation of air pollution and inflammation in LRT, traffic and biomass combustion; the most relevant inflammation markers were C-reactive protein, interleukin-12 and myeloperoxidase. Sea salt was not positively associated with any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25479755

  8. Sleep deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Wang, Minge; Campomayor, Capella O; Collado-Hidalgo, Alicia; Cole, Steve

    2006-09-18

    Inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and mortality. The effects of sleep loss on the cellular and genomic mechanisms that contribute to inflammatory cytokine activity are not known. In 30 healthy adults, monocyte intracellular proinflammatory cytokine production was repeatedly assessed during the day across 3 baseline periods and after partial sleep deprivation (awake from 11 pm to 3 am). We analyzed the impact of sleep loss on transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes and used DNA microarray analyses to characterize candidate transcription-control pathways that might mediate the effects of sleep loss on leukocyte gene expression. In the morning after a night of sleep loss, monocyte production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly greater compared with morning levels following uninterrupted sleep. In addition, sleep loss induced a more than 3-fold increase in transcription of interleukin 6 messenger RNA and a 2-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that the inflammatory response was mediated by the nuclear factor kappaB inflammatory signaling system as well as through classic hormone and growth factor response pathways. Sleep loss induces a functional alteration of the monocyte proinflammatory cytokine response. A modest amount of sleep loss also alters molecular processes that drive cellular immune activation and induce inflammatory cytokines; mapping the dynamics of sleep loss on molecular signaling pathways has implications for understanding the role of sleep in altering immune cell physiologic characteristics. Interventions that target sleep might constitute new strategies to constrain inflammation with effects on inflammatory disease risk.

  9. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  10. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  11. The tumor necrosis factor family member TNFSF14 (LIGHT) is required for resolution of intestinal inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Petra; Zahner, Sonja P; Kim, Gisen; Shaikh, Raziyah B; Steinberg, Marcos W; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2014-06-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a dysregulated mucosal immune response. Expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14, also known as LIGHT [homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes]) on T cells is involved in their activation; transgenic expression of LIGHT on T cells in mice promotes inflammation in multiple organs, including intestine. We investigated the roles for LIGHT in recovery from intestinal inflammation in mice. We studied the role of LIGHT in intestinal inflammation using Tnfsf14(-/-) and wild-type mice. Colitis was induced by transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells into Rag1(-/-) or Tnfsf14(-/-)Rag1(-/-) mice, or by administration of dextran sulfate sodium to Tnfsf14(-/-) or wild-type C57BL/6J mice. Mice were weighed, colon tissues were collected and measured, and histology analyses were performed. We measured infiltrating cell populations and expression of cytokines, chemokines, and LIGHT. After administration of dextran sulfate sodium, Tnfsf14(-/-) mice developed more severe colitis than controls, based on their reduced survival, accelerated loss of body weight, and histologic scores. LIGHT protected mice from colitis via the lymphotoxin β receptor and was expressed mainly by myeloid cells in the colon. Colons of Tnfsf14(-/-) mice also had increased accumulation of innate immune cells and higher levels of cytokines than colons from control mice. LIGHT, therefore, appears to regulate inflammation in the colon. Tnfsf14(-/-) mice develop more severe colitis than control mice. LIGHT signals through the lymphotoxin β receptor in the colon to regulate the innate immune response and mediate recovery from intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  13. Advances in the imaging of cerebral aneurysm inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Levitt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture are thought to be the result of a complex interaction between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and pathobiology. Recently, new evidence has emerged regarding the role of inflammation in the walls of cerebral aneurysms. Noninvasive methods to characterize the degree of inflammation in aneurysms could enable clinicians to estimate the risk of future aneurysm growth and rupture, influencing treatment. This review examines emerging techniques of imaging inflammatory biomarkers in cerebral aneurysms.

  14. Pentoxifylline, inflammation, and endothelial function in HIV-infected persons: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K Gupta

    Full Text Available Untreated HIV may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Our preliminary in vitro and in vivo research suggests that pentoxifylline (PTX reduces vascular inflammation and improves endothelial function in HIV-infected persons not requiring antiretroviral therapy.We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PTX 400 mg orally thrice daily for 8 weeks in 26 participants. The primary endpoint was change in flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery after 8 weeks. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NTGMD and circulating markers of inflammation, cellular immune activation, coagulation, and metabolism were also assessed.The difference in mean absolute change (SD in FMD after 8 weeks between the placebo [-1.06 (1.45%] and PTX [-1.93 (3.03%] groups was not significant (P = 0.44. No differences in NTGMD were observed. The only significant between-group difference in the changes in biomarkers from baseline to week 8 was in soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (sTNFRI [-83.2 pg/mL in the placebo group vs. +65.9 pg/mL in the PTX group; P = 0.03]. PTX was generally well-tolerated.PTX did not improve endothelial function and unexpectedly increased the inflammatory biomarker sTNFRI in HIV-infected participants not requiring antiretroviral therapy. Additional interventional research is needed to reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00796822.

  15. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, Geertje A M; Van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  16. Medical Management of Endometriosis: Emerging Evidence Linking Inflammation to Disease Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Herington, Jennifer L.; Duleba, Antoni J.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone action normally mediates the balance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory processes throughout the female reproductive tract. However, in women with endometriosis, endometrial progesterone resistance, characterized by alterations in progesterone responsive gene and protein expression, is now considered a central element in disease pathophysiology. Recent studies additionally suggest that the peritoneal microenvironment of endometriosis patients exhibits altered physiological characteristics that may further promote inflammation-driven disease development and progression. Within this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis with an emphasis on the role that inflammation plays in generating not only the progesterone-resistant eutopic endometrium but also a peritoneal microenvironment that may contribute significantly to disease establishment. Viewing endometriosis from the emerging perspective that a progesterone resistant endometrium and an immunologically compromised peritoneal microenvironment are biologically linked risk factors for disease development provides a novel mechanistic framework to identify new therapeutic targets for appropriate medical management. PMID:23598784

  17. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  18. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in allergic and endotoxin-induced airway inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Korsgren

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF has recently been forwarded as a critical regulator of inflammatory conditions, and it has been hypothesized that MIF may have a role in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Hence, we examined effects of MIF immunoneutralization on the development of allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation as well as on lipopolysaccaride (LPS-induced neutrophilic inflammation in lungs of mice. Anti-MIF serum validated with respect to MIF neutralizing capacity or normal rabbit serum (NRS was administered i.p. repeatedly during allergen aerosol exposure of ovalbumin (OVA-immunized mice in an established model of allergic asthma, or once before instillation of a minimal dose of LPS into the airways of mice, a tentative model of COPD. Anti-MIF treatment did not affect the induced lung tissue eosinophilia or the cellular composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in the asthma model. Likewise, anti-MIF treatment did not affect the LPS-induced neutrophilia in lung tissue, BALF, or blood, nor did it reduce BALF levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein–1 α (MIP–1 α. The present data suggest that MIF is not critically important for allergen-induced eosinophilic, and LPS-induced neutrophilic responses in lungs of mice. These findings do not support a role of MIF inhibition in the treatment of inflammatory respiratory diseases.

  19. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  20. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  1. Risk factors affecting survival in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, L; Cardo, M L; Martínez-Dolz, L; García-Palomar, C; Rueda, J; Zorio, E; Arnau, M A; Osa, A; Palencia, M

    2005-11-01

    Certain cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) patients. The sum of various risk factors may have a large cumulative negative effect, leading to a substantially worse prognosis and the need to consider whether HT is contraindicated. The objective of this study was to determine whether the risk factors usually available prior to HT result in an excess mortality in our setting that contraindicates transplantation. Consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from November 1987 to January 2004 were included. Heart-lung transplants, retransplants, and pediatric transplants were excluded. Of the 384 patients, 89% were men. Mean age was 52 years (range, 12 to 67). Underlying disease included ischemic heart disease (52%), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (36%), valvular disease (8%), and other (4%). Variables considered risk factors were obesity (BMI >25), dyslipidemia, hypertension, prior thoracic surgery, diabetes, and history of ischemic heart disease. Survival curves by number of risk factors using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank for comparison of curves. Overall patient survival at 1, 5, 10, and 13 years was 76%, 68%, 54%, and 47%, respectively. Survival at 10 years, if fewer than two risk factors were present, was 69%; 59% if two or three factors were present; and 37% if more than three associated risk factors were present (P = .04). The presence of certain risk factors in patients undergoing HT resulted in lower survival rates. The combination of various risk factors clearly worsened outcomes. However, we do not believe this should be an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  2. Microbial Induction of Immunity, Inflammation And Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John O'Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiota presents a highly active metabolic that influences the state of health of our gastrointestinal tracts as well as our susceptibility to disease. Although much of our initial microbiota is adopted from our mothers, its final composition and diversity is determined by environmental factors. Westernization has significantly altered our microbial function. Extensive experimental and clinical evidence indicates that the westernized diet, rich in animal products and low in complex carbohydrates, plus the overuse of antibiotics and underuse of breastfeeding, leads to a heightened inflammatory potential of the microbiota. Chronic inflammation leads to the expression of certain diseases in genetically predisposed individuals. Antibiotics and a ‘clean’ environment, termed the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, has been linked to the rise in allergy and inflammatory bowel disease, due to impaired beneficial bacterial exposure and education of the gut immune system, which comprises the largest immune organ within the body. The elevated risk of colon cancer is associated with the suppression of microbial fermentation and butyrate production, as butyrate provides fuel for the mucosa and is anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative. This article will summarize the work to date highlighting the complicated and dynamic relationship between the gut microbiota and immunity, inflammation and carcinogenesis.

  3. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  4. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  5. Perceptions of risk factors for road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.

  6. Inflammation and hypoxia in the kidney: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Volker H

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxic injury is commonly associated with inflammatory-cell infiltration, and inflammation frequently leads to the activation of cellular hypoxia response pathways. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cross-talk during kidney injury are incompletely understood. Yamaguchi and colleagues identify CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ as a cytokine- and hypoxia-regulated transcription factor that fine-tunes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling in renal epithelial cells and thus provide a novel molecular link between hypoxia and inflammation in kidney injury.

  7. Metabolic syndrome criteria as predictors of insulin resistance, inflammation and mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Barbara Perez; Souza, Priscilla L; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Barretti, Pasqual; Caramori, Jacqueline Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic syndrome are characterized by overlapping disorders, including glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and, in some cases, obesity. However, there are no specific criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in CKD. Metabolic syndrome can also be associated with increased risk of mortality. Some traditional risk factors may protect dialysis patients from mortality, known as "reverse epidemiology." Metabolic syndrome might undergo reverse epidemiology. The objectives were to detect differences in frequency and metabolic characteristics associated with three sets of diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, to evaluate the accuracy of insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation to identify patients with metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the effects of metabolic syndrome by three sets of diagnostic criteria on mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. An observational study was conducted. Diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome (HMetS) statement were applied to 98 hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 51%, 66.3%, and 75.3% according to NCEP ATP III, IDF, and HMetS criteria, respectively. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome by HMetS was simultaneously capable of revealing both inflammation and IR, whereas NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria were only able to identify IR. Mortality risk increased in the presence of metabolic syndrome regardless of the criteria used. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis varies according to the diagnostic criteria used. IR and inflammation predict metabolic syndrome only when diagnosed by HMetS criteria. HMetS was the diagnostic criteria that can predict the highest risk of mortality.

  8. Inflammation, caffeine and adenosine in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Winerdal, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brain injury during the neonatal period has potentially lifelong consequences for a child. Perinatal infections and inflammation can induce preterm birth and unfavorable cognitive development, Thus inflammation has received enthusiastic interest for potential therapeutic approaches seeking to protect the newborn brain. Experimental evidence demonstrates that inflammation induces brain injury succeeding the initial insult. A key cytokine in brain injury is the tumor necrosis factor...

  9. Radiation, Inflammation, and Immune Responses in Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multhoff, Gabriele [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum München, Clinical Cooperation Group Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, Munich (Germany); Radons, Jürgen, E-mail: raj10062@web.de [multimmune GmbH, Munich (Germany)

    2012-06-04

    Chronic inflammation has emerged as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Inflammation also plays a pivotal role in modulating radiation responsiveness of tumors. As discussed in this review, ionizing radiation (IR) leads to activation of several transcription factors modulating the expression of numerous mediators in tumor cells and cells of the microenvironment promoting cancer development. Novel therapeutic approaches thus aim to interfere with the activity or expression of these factors, either in single-agent or combinatorial treatment or as supplements of the existing therapeutic concepts. Among them, NF-κB, STAT-3, and HIF-1 play a crucial role in radiation-induced inflammatory responses embedded in a complex inflammatory network. A great variety of classical or novel drugs including nutraceuticals such as plant phytochemicals have the capacity to interfere with the inflammatory network in cancer and are considered as putative radiosensitizers. Thus, targeting the inflammatory signaling pathways induced by IR offers the opportunity to improve the clinical outcome of radiation therapy by enhancing radiosensitivity and decreasing putative metabolic effects. Since inflammation and sex steroids also impact tumorigenesis, a therapeutic approach targeting glucocorticoid receptors and radiation-induced production of tumorigenic factors might be effective in sensitizing certain tumors to IR.

  10. Radiation, Inflammation, and Immune Responses in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multhoff, Gabriele; Radons, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has emerged as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Inflammation also plays a pivotal role in modulating radiation responsiveness of tumors. As discussed in this review, ionizing radiation (IR) leads to activation of several transcription factors modulating the expression of numerous mediators in tumor cells and cells of the microenvironment promoting cancer development. Novel therapeutic approaches thus aim to interfere with the activity or expression of these factors, either in single-agent or combinatorial treatment or as supplements of the existing therapeutic concepts. Among them, NF-κB, STAT-3, and HIF-1 play a crucial role in radiation-induced inflammatory responses embedded in a complex inflammatory network. A great variety of classical or novel drugs including nutraceuticals such as plant phytochemicals have the capacity to interfere with the inflammatory network in cancer and are considered as putative radiosensitizers. Thus, targeting the inflammatory signaling pathways induced by IR offers the opportunity to improve the clinical outcome of radiation therapy by enhancing radiosensitivity and decreasing putative metabolic effects. Since inflammation and sex steroids also impact tumorigenesis, a therapeutic approach targeting glucocorticoid receptors and radiation-induced production of tumorigenic factors might be effective in sensitizing certain tumors to IR.

  11. A healthy diet is associated with less endothelial dysfunction and less low-grade inflammation over a 7-year period in adults at risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Bas C T; Henry, Ronald M A; Ferreira, Isabel; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Twisk, Jos W R; Feskens, Edith J M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2015-03-01

    A healthy diet rich in fish, fruit, and vegetables, but moderate in alcohol and low in dairy products and meat, has been associated with a lower rate of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation play important roles in CVD. A healthy diet might modify these phenomena. We investigated the associations between the above food groups and overall biomarker scores of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation in a 7-y longitudinal study. Using longitudinal data from 557 participants at increased CVD risk from the CODAM (Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht) Study, we assessed diet intake by food-frequency questionnaire and measured plasma biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction [von Willebrand factor, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble endothelial selectin, soluble thrombomodulin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1)] and low-grade inflammation [C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α, and sICAM-1]. At baseline, participants were aged 59.6 ± 6.9 y. Measurements were performed then and after 7 y. Biomarkers were combined into overall scores (sum of z scores; higher scores indicating worse function). Longitudinal data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations and adjusted for sex, age, glucose metabolism, energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Higher consumption of fish (per 100 g/wk), but not total consumption of vegetables, fruit, alcohol-containing beverages, dairy products, or meat, was associated with a lower overall endothelial dysfunction score over 7 y (β: -0.027; 95% CI: -0.051, -0.004). No associations were observed with the overall low-grade inflammation score. Further food component analyses indicated that consumption of more lean fish (per 100 g/wk) and raw vegetables (per 100 g/d), and fewer high-fat dairy

  12. Analysis of risk factors and risk assessment for ischemic stroke recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-ying LONG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen the risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke and to assess the risk of recurrence. Methods Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS was used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in 176 patients with ischemic stroke (96 cases of first onset and 80 cases of recurrence. Univariate and multivariate stepwise Logistic regression analysis was used to screen risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke.  Results There were significant differences between first onset group and recurrence group on age, the proportion of > 75 years old, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, peripheral angiopathy, transient ischemic attack (TIA or ischemic stroke, drinking and ESRS score (P < 0.05, for all. First onset group included one case of ESRS 0 (1.04%, 8 cases of 1 (8.33%, 39 cases of 2 (40.63%, 44 cases of 3 (45.83%, 4 cases of 4 (4.17%. Recurrence group included 2 cases of ESRS 3 (2.50%, 20 cases of 4 (25% , 37 cases of 5 (46.25% , 18 cases of 6 (22.50% , 3 cases of 7 (3.75% . There was significant difference between 2 groups (Z = -11.376, P = 0.000. Logistic regression analysis showed ESRS > 3 score was independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke (OR = 31.324, 95%CI: 3.934-249.430; P = 0.001.  Conclusions ESRS > 3 score is the independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke. It is important to strengthen risk assessment of recurrence of ischemic stroke. To screen and control risk factors is the key to secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.011

  13. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural......-born children, we observed 1193 cases of isolated CHC (0.062/1000) born children. First-borns had an increased risk of isolated CHC compared to later-borns (1.32 95% CI 1.17 to 1.49) (0.72/1000 born children). First trimester exposure to maternal use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly...

  14. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  15. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  16. Association of six CpG-SNPs in the inflammation-related genes with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Chen, Xiaoying; Xu, Yan; Yang, William; Wu, Nan; Ye, Huadan; Yang, Jack Y; Hong, Qingxiao; Xin, Yanfei; Yang, Mary Qu; Deng, Youping; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-07-25

    Chronic inflammation has been widely considered to be the major risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of our study was to explore the possible association with CHD for inflammation-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides. A total of 784 CHD patients and 739 non-CHD controls were recruited from Zhejiang Province, China. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform, we measured the genotypes of six inflammation-related CpG-SNPs, including IL1B rs16944, IL1R2 rs2071008, PLA2G7 rs9395208, FAM5C rs12732361, CD40 rs1800686, and CD36 rs2065666). Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between CHD and non-CHD individuals using the CLUMP22 software with 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations. Allelic tests showed that PLA2G7 rs9395208 and CD40 rs1800686 were significantly associated with CHD. Moreover, IL1B rs16944, PLA2G7 rs9395208, and CD40 rs1800686 were shown to be associated with CHD under the dominant model. Further gender-based subgroup tests showed that one SNP (CD40 rs1800686) and two SNPs (FAM5C rs12732361 and CD36 rs2065666) were associated with CHD in females and males, respectively. And the age-based subgroup tests indicated that PLA2G7 rs9395208, IL1B rs16944, and CD40 rs1800686 were associated with CHD among individuals younger than 55, younger than 65, and over 65, respectively. In conclusion, all the six inflammation-related CpG-SNPs (rs16944, rs2071008, rs12732361, rs2065666, rs9395208, and rs1800686) were associated with CHD in the combined or subgroup tests, suggesting an important role of inflammation in the risk of CHD.

  17. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  18. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  19. Methodologic approach for the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Aaron, Grant J; Varadhan, Ravi; Peerson, Janet M; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2017-07-01

    Background: The Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project is a multiagency and multicountry collaboration that was formed to improve micronutrient assessment and to better characterize anemia. Objectives: The aims of the project were to 1 ) identify factors associated with inflammation, 2 ) assess the relations between inflammation, malaria infection, and biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and compare adjustment approaches, and 3 ) assess risk factors for anemia in preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA). Design: The BRINDA database inclusion criteria included surveys that 1 ) were conducted after 2004, 2 ) had target groups of PSC, WRA, or both, and 3 ) used a similar laboratory methodology for the measurement of ≥1 biomarker of iron [ferritin or soluble transferrin receptor or vitamin A status (retinol-binding protein or retinol)] and ≥1 biomarker of inflammation (α-1-acid glycoprotein or C-reactive protein). Individual data sets were standardized and merged into a BRINDA database comprising 16 nationally and regionally representative surveys from 14 countries. Collectively, the database covered all 6 WHO geographic regions and contained ∼30,000 PSC and 27,000 WRA. Data were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Results: The methods that were used to standardize the BRINDA database and the analytic approaches used to address the project's research questions are presented in this article. Three approaches to adjust micronutrient biomarker concentrations in the presence of inflammation and malaria infection are presented, along with an anemia conceptual framework that guided the BRINDA project's anemia analyses. Conclusions: The BRINDA project refines approaches to interpret iron and vitamin A biomarker values in settings of inflammation and malaria infection and suggests the use of a new regression approach as well as proposes an anemia framework to

  20. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Gambling Risk Groups are Not All the Same: Risk Factors Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Li, En; Vitartas, Peter

    2018-03-20

    Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers. Thus it is essential to understand the risk factors for each level of gambling-related problems (low risk, moderate risk, problem) separately. The present study used a large sample (N = 1813) to compare each gambling risk group to non-problem gamblers, first using bivariate and then multivariate statistical techniques. A range of demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness variables were included as possible risk factors. The results indicated that some variables, such as gambling expenditure, number of accounts with different operators, number of different types of promotions used and impulsiveness were significantly higher for all risk groups, while others such as some normative factors, age, gender and particular sports betting variables only applied to those with the highest level of gambling-related problems. The results generally supported findings from previous literature for problem gamblers, and extended these findings to low risk and moderate risk groups. In the future, where statistical power allows, risk factors should be assessed separately for all levels of gambling problems.

  2. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  3. [The way of self-defence of the organism: inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos

    2013-08-11

    , pathological and biochemical caracteristics, the chronic sterile inflammation is a very different entity. It has been established that atherosclerosis is one of the ab origine chronic inflammatory syndrome. It is a long-lasting pathological entity progressing, rather than resolving with different celerity, namely a unique vasculitis syndrome. We are speaking about risk factors instead of causes, which constitute larger or smaller groups to elicite the preventing reaction of the host. The propagations and final outcomes are quite different from that of the acute process. The disadvantages or benefits for the organism are scarcely predictable, albeit the chronic process may have roles in its prolonged nature.

  4. Uncovering transcription factor and microRNA risk regulatory pathways associated with osteoarthritis by network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhenhua; Zhang, Chi; He, Lingxiao; Sui, Yanfang; Lin, Xiafei; Pan, Jingjing

    2018-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. The development of inflammation have been considered to play a key role during the progression of OA. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, deciphering these risk regulatory pathways is critical for elucidating the mechanisms underlying OA. We constructed an OA-specific regulatory network by integrating comprehensive curated transcription and post-transcriptional resource involving transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA). To deepen our understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms of OA, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify OA-specific risk regulatory pathways. In this study, we identified 89 significantly differentially expressed genes between normal and inflamed areas of OA patients. We found the OA-specific regulatory network was a standard scale-free network with small-world properties. It significant enriched many immune response-related functions including leukocyte differentiation, myeloid differentiation and T cell activation. Finally, 141 risk regulatory pathways were identified based on OA-specific regulatory network, which contains some known regulator of OA. The risk regulatory pathways may provide clues for the etiology of OA and be a potential resource for the discovery of novel OA-associated disease genes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbiota, Inflammation and Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécily Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is a multifactorial disease involving genetic, environmental and lifestyle risk factors. In addition, increased evidence has established a role for the intestinal microbiota in the development of colorectal cancer. Indeed, changes in the intestinal microbiota composition in colorectal cancer patients compared to control subjects have been reported. Several bacterial species have been shown to exhibit the pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic properties, which could consequently have an impact on colorectal carcinogenesis. This review will summarize the current knowledge about the potential links between the intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer, with a focus on the pro-carcinogenic properties of bacterial microbiota such as induction of inflammation, the biosynthesis of genotoxins that interfere with cell cycle regulation and the production of toxic metabolites. Finally, we will describe the potential therapeutic strategies based on intestinal microbiota manipulation for colorectal cancer treatment.

  6. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A.; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. Methods: We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD......Objectives: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...... met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD...

  7. Mechanisms involved in alleviation of intestinal inflammation by bifidobacterium breve soluble factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Heuvelin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Soluble factors released by Bifidobacterium breve C50 (Bb alleviate the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells, but their effect on intestinal epithelium remains elusive. To decipher the mechanisms accounting for the cross-talk between bacteria/soluble factors and intestinal epithelium, we measured the capacity of the bacteria, its conditioned medium (Bb-CM and other Gram(+ commensal bacteria to dampen inflammatory chemokine secretion. METHODS: TNFalpha-induced chemokine (CXCL8 secretion and alteration of NF-kappaB and AP-1 signalling pathways by Bb were studied by EMSA, confocal microscopy and western blotting. Anti-inflammatory capacity was also tested in vivo in a model of TNBS-induced colitis in mice. RESULTS: Bb and Bb-CM, but not other commensal bacteria, induced a time and dose-dependent inhibition of CXCL8 secretion by epithelial cells driven by both AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription pathways and implying decreased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and IkappaB-alpha molecules. In TNBS-induced colitis in mice, Bb-CM decreased the colitis score and inflammatory cytokine expression, an effect reproduced by dendritic cell conditioning with Bb-CM. CONCLUSIONS: Bb and secreted soluble factors contribute positively to intestinal homeostasis by attenuating chemokine production. The results indicate that Bb down regulate inflammation at the epithelial level by inhibiting phosphorylations involved in inflammatory processes and by protective conditioning of dendritic cells.

  8. Stress, food, and inflammation: psychoneuroimmunology and nutrition at the cutting edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2010-05-01

    Inflammation is the common link among the leading causes of death. Mechanistic studies have shown how various dietary components can modulate key pathways to inflammation, including sympathetic activity, oxidative stress, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that stressful events and depression can also influence inflammation through these same processes. If the joint contributions of diet and behavior to inflammation were simply additive, they would be important. However, several far more intriguing interactive possibilities are discussed: stress influences food choices; stress can enhance maladaptive metabolic responses to unhealthy meals; and diet can affect mood as well as proinflammatory responses to stressors. Furthermore, because the vagus nerve innervates tissues involved in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients, vagal activation can directly and profoundly influence metabolic responses to food, as well as inflammation; in turn, both depression and stress have well-documented negative effects on vagal activation, contributing to the lively interplay between the brain and the gut. As one example, omega-3 fatty acid intake can boost mood and vagal tone, dampen nuclear factor-kappaB activation and responses to endotoxin, and modulate the magnitude of inflammatory responses to stressors. A better understanding of how stressors, negative emotions, and unhealthy meals work together to enhance inflammation will benefit behavioral and nutritional research, as well as the broader biomedical community.

  9. Risk factors for an additional port in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kenichiro; Shirabe, Ken; Watanabe, Akira; Kubo, Norio; Sasaki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hideki; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Although single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now widely performed in patients with cholecystitis, some cases require an additional port to complete the procedure. In this study, we focused on risk factor of additional port in this surgery. We performed single-incision cholecystectomy in 75 patients with acute cholecystitis or after cholecystitis between 2010 and 2014 at Gunma University Hospital. Surgical indications followed the TG13 guidelines. Our standard procedure for single-incision cholecystectomy routinely uses two needlescopic devices. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors associated with use of an additional full-size port (5 or 10 mm). Surgical outcome was acceptable without biliary injury. Nine patients (12.0%) required an additional port, and one patient (1.3%) required conversion to open cholecystectomy because of severe adhesions around the cystic duct and common bile duct. In multivariate analysis, high C-reactive protein (CRP) values (>7.0 mg/dl) during cholecystitis attacks were significantly correlated with the need for an additional port (P = 0.009), with a sensitivity of 55.6%, specificity of 98.5%, and accuracy of 93.3%. This study indicated that the severe inflammation indicated by high CRP values during cholecystitis attacks predicts the need for an additional port. J. Med. Invest. 64: 245-249, August, 2017.

  10. C-reactive protein and anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies as risk factors of cardiovascular death in incident patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Ramón; Frías, Yolanda; de Ventura, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Hurtado, María Elena; Alcántara, Guadalupe; Vázquez, Roberto; Ortiz, Ruth; Salcedo, Mario; Rios, Maria Elena; Kaji, Julio; Amato, Dante

    2003-01-01

    Recently it has been pointed out that inflammation and infections caused by germs such as Chlamydia pneumoniae are independent cardiovascular risk factors for the general population, but information about these relationships in dialysis patients is scarce. This work was done to analyze the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IgG anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies (anti-Chlp-IgG) as independent cardiovascular risk factors in incident patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Single-cohort, prospective observational study. Three CAPD centers from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and one from the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Mexico. A cohort of 75 adult incident patients on CAPD, without clinical signs of congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, or peripheral arterial insufficiency. No restrictions for age, gender, or cause of renal failure were applied. Mortality. Demographic variables, body composition by electrical bioimpedance, serum glucose, urea, creatinine, lipids, homocysteine, nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin), CRP, and anti-Chlp-IgG were measured and registered at the time of the first admission. When a patient died, the cause of death was determined by review of the clinical chart. Mean follow-up time was 10.25 patient-months. There were 14 cardiovascular deaths. CRP was positive (> 10 mg/L) in 64% of the patients, and anti-Chlp-IgG in 64%; 29% of the patients were positive for both markers. The relative risk for cardiovascular mortality was 6.23 for patients positive for either CRP or anti-Chlp-IgG, and increased to 9.52 when both markers were positive. Multivariate analysis revealed that CRP and anti-Chlp-IgG were stronger cardiovascular death predictors than age, diabetes, and nutritional status. These data suggest that inflammation and the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections are important predictors of cardiovascular death in

  11. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  12. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.

  13. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  14. Lipoxin A4 and platelet activating factor are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiya Wu

    Full Text Available CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is expressed by both neutrophils and platelets. Lack of functional CFTR could lead to severe lung infection and inflammation. Here, we found that mutation of CFTR (F508del or inhibition of CFTR in mice led to more severe thrombocytopenia, alveolar neutrocytosis and bacteriosis, and lower lipoxin A4/MIP-2 (macrophage inhibitory protein-2 or lipoxin A4/neutrophil ratios in the BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage during acute E. coli pneumonia. In vitro, inhibition of CFTR promotes MIP-2 production in LPS-stimulated neutrophils; however, lipoxin A4 could dose-dependently suppress this effect. In LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, blockade of PSGL-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 or P-selectin, antagonism of PAF by WEB2086, or correction of mutated CFTR trafficking by KM11060 could significantly increase plasma lipoxin A4 levels in F508del relevant to wildtype mice. Concurrently, F508del mice had higher plasma platelet activating factor (PAF levels and PAF-AH activity compared to wildtype under LPS challenge. Inhibiting hydrolysis of PAF by a specific PAF-AH (PAF-acetylhydrolase inhibitor, MAFP, could worsen LPS-induced lung inflammation in F508del mice compared to vehicle treated F508del group. Particularly, depletion of platelets in F508del mice could significantly decrease plasma lipoxin A4 and PAF-AH activity and deteriorate LPS-induced lung inflammation compared to control F508del mice. Taken together, lipoxin A4 and PAF are involved in E. coli or LPS-induced lung inflammation in CFTR-deficient mice, suggesting that lipoxin A4 and PAF might be therapeutic targets for ameliorating CFTR-deficiency deteriorated lung inflammation.

  15. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor triggers chemotaxis of CD74+CXCR2+ NKT cells in chemically induced IFN-γ-mediated skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2014-10-01

    IFN-γ mediates chemically induced skin inflammation; however, the mechanism by which IFN-γ-producing cells are recruited to the sites of inflammation remains undefined. Secretion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, from damaged cells may promote immune cell recruitment. We hypothesized that MIF triggers an initial step in the chemotaxis of IFN-γ-producing cells in chemically induced skin inflammation. Using acute and chronic models of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation in mouse ears, MIF expression was examined, and its role in this process was investigated pharmacologically. The cell populations targeted by MIF, their receptor expression patterns, and the effects of MIF on cell migration were examined. TPA directly caused cytotoxicity accompanied by MIF release in mouse ear epidermal keratinocytes, as well as in human keratinocytic HaCaT cells. Treatment with the MIF antagonist (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester considerably attenuated TPA-induced ear swelling, leukocyte infiltration, epidermal cell proliferation, and dermal angiogenesis. Inhibition of MIF greatly diminished the dermal infiltration of IFN-γ(+) NKT cells, whereas the addition of exogenous TPA and MIF to NKT cells promoted their IFN-γ production and migration, respectively. MIF specifically triggered the chemotaxis of NKT cells via CD74 and CXCR2, and the resulting depletion of NKT cells abolished TPA-induced skin inflammation. In TPA-induced skin inflammation, MIF is released from damaged keratinocytes and then triggers the chemotaxis of CD74(+)CXCR2(+) NKT cells for IFN-γ production. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  17. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-01-01

    Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to sta...

  18. Risk factors in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Magon, Rakesh; Mishra, B P; Sidhu, G B S; Mahajan, Ranjiv

    2003-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially serious idiosyncratic response to neuroleptic antipsychotics. It usually affects young males, but the risk has been seen to increase with certain factors including the administration practices of antipsychotic neuroleptics in these individuals. Even though no predictors for NMS are yet known, this article highlights the findings on certain risk factors as seen from a series of fifteen patients who developed NMS. Cautious use of neuroleptics in those at risk, early recognition and institution of immediate management is important.

  19. HIV infection and arterial inflammation assessed by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Loft, Annika

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of myocardial infarction and arterial inflammation has been suggested as a pathophysiological explanation. We compared the uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by PET in four arterial regions, and factors associated with FDG uptake in well......-treated HIV-infected patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) and healthy controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively scanned 26 HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy and 25 healthy volunteers with FDG PET/CT, measuring standardized uptake values (SUV) in the carotid arteries......, the ascending, descending, and abdominal aorta. We performed correlation analyses between FDG uptake and intima-media thickness (IMT), and soluble biomarkers of inflammation. We found no difference in arterial FDG uptake between the HIV-infected patients and healthy controls quantified either as mean SUVmax...

  20. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  1. Prescribing Optimal Nutrition and Physical Activity as “First-Line” Interventions for Best Practice Management of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Associated with Osteoarthritis: Evidence Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlie chronic osteoarthritis. Although best-practice guidelines for osteoarthritis emphasize self-management including weight control and exercise, the role of lifestyle behavior change to address chronic low-grade inflammation has not been a focus of first-line management. This paper synthesizes the literature that supports the idea in which the Western diet and inactivity are proinflammatory, whereas a plant-based diet and activity are anti-inflammatory, and that low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress underlying osteoarthritis often coexist with lifestyle-related risk factors and conditions. We provide evidence-informed recommendations on how lifestyle behavior change can be integrated into “first-line” osteoarthritis management through teamwork and targeted evidence-based interventions. Healthy living can be exploited to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress, and related pain and disability and improve patients’ overall health. This approach aligns with evidence-based best practice and holds the promise of eliminating or reducing chronic low-grade inflammation, attenuating disease progression, reducing weight, maximizing health by minimizing a patient’s risk or manifestations of other lifestyle-related conditions hallmarked by chronic low-grade inflammation, and reducing the need for medications and surgery. This approach provides an informed cost effective basis for prevention, potential reversal, and management of signs and symptoms of chronic osteoarthritis and has implications for research paradigms in osteoarthritis.

  2. Dynamic Multi-Factor Credit Risk Model with Fat-Tailed Factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gapko, Petr; Šmíd, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2012), s. 125-140 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : credit risk * probability of default * loss given default * credit loss * credit loss distribution * Basel II Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/smid-dynamic multi-factor credit risk model with fat-tailed factors.pdf

  3. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Neighborhood Safety and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Americans: Biosocial Associations in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cheryl R.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Grooms, Kya N.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Albert, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) among African Americans. Methods Study participants were non-diabetic African Americans (n = 3,909) in the baseline examination (2000–2004) of the Jackson Heart Study. We measured eight risk factors: the metabolic syndrome, its five components, insulin resistance and cardiovascular inflammation. We assessed neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with US Census 2000 data. We assessed perceived neighborhood safety, health behaviors and SES via survey. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations with a random intercept model for neighborhood effects. Results After adjustment for health behaviors and SES, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with the metabolic syndrome in women (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Lack of perceived safety was associated with elevated glucose (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03, 1.80) and waist circumference (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) among women, and with elevated glucose (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66) and insulin resistance (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.46) among men. Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived safety should be considered as targets for intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risks among African Americans. PMID:23691005

  4. Causes of CNS inflammation and potential targets for anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falip, Mercé; Salas-Puig, Xavier; Cara, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important endogenous defence mechanisms in an organism. It has been suggested that inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of human epilepsies and convulsive disorders, and there is clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that inflammatory processes within the CNS may either contribute to or be a consequence of epileptogenesis. This review discusses evidence from human studies on the role of inflammation in epilepsy and highlights potential new targets in the inflammatory cascade for antiepileptic drugs. A number of mechanisms have been shown to be involved in CNS inflammatory reactions. These include an inflammatory response at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), immune-mediated damage to the CNS, stress-induced release of inflammatory mediators and direct neuronal dysfunction or damage as a result of inflammatory reactions. Mediators of inflammation in the CNS include interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). IL-1β, BBB and high-mobility group box-1-TLR4 signalling appear to be the most promising targets for anticonvulsant agents directed at inflammation. Such agents may provide effective therapy for drug-resistant epilepsies in the future.

  5. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  6. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  7. Risk Factors for Heart Failure in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: The CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Shlipak, Michael; Anderson, Amanda; Roy, Jason A; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna Reddy; Kanthety, Radhika; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Wolf, Myles; Zhang, Xiaoming; Raj, Dominic; Hamm, Lee

    2017-05-17

    Heart failure is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. We studied risk factors for incident heart failure among 3557 participants in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both, and 24-hour urine albumin excretion. During an average of 6.3 years of follow-up, 452 participants developed incident heart failure. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and clinical site, hazard ratio (95% CI) for heart failure associated with 1 SD lower creatinine-based eGFR was 1.67 (1.49, 1.89), 1 SD lower cystatin C-based-eGFR was 2.43 (2.10, 2.80), and 1 SD higher log-albuminuria was 1.65 (1.53, 1.78), all P failure. After adjusting for eGFR, albuminuria, and other traditional cardiovascular risk factors, anemia (1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.72, P =0.006), insulin resistance (1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.28, P =0.006), hemoglobin A1c (1.27, 95% CI 1.14, 1.41, P failure. Our study indicates that cystatin C-based eGFR and albuminuria are better predictors for risk of heart failure compared to creatinine-based eGFR. Furthermore, anemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, and poor glycemic control are independent risk factors for the development of heart failure among patients with chronic kidney disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  9. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2017-06-01

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  11. Association and management of eosinophilic inflammation in upper and lower airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review discussed the contribution of eosinophilic upper airway inflammation includes allergic rhinitis (AR and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS to the pathophysiology and course of asthma, the representative counterpart in the lower airway. The presence of concomitant AR can affect the severity of asthma in patients who have both diseases; however, it is still debatable whether the presence of asthma affects the severity of AR. Hypersensitivity, obstruction and/or inflammation in the lower airway can be detected in patients with AR without awareness or diagnosis of asthma, and AR is known as a risk factor for the new onset of wheeze and asthma both in children and adults. Allergen immunotherapy, pharmacotherapy and surgery for AR can contribute to asthma control; however, a clear preventive effect on the new onset of asthma has been demonstrated only for immunotherapy. Pathological similarities such as epithelial shedding are also seen between asthma and CRS, especially eosinophilic CRS. Abnormal sinus findings on computed tomography are seen in the majority of asthmatic patients, and asthmatic patients with CRS show a significant impairment in Quality of Life (QOL and pulmonary function as compared to those without CRS. Conversely, lower airway inflammation and dysfunction are seen in non-asthmatic patients with CRS. Treatments for CRS that include pharmacotherapy such as anti-leukotrienes, surgery, and aspirin desensitization show a beneficial effect on concomitant asthma. Acting as a gatekeeper of the united airways, the control of inflammation in the nose is crucial for improvement of the QOL of patients with co-existing AR/CRS and asthma.

  12. Magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome: stress and inflammation may reflect calcium activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayssiguier, Yves; Libako, Patrycja; Nowacki, Wojciech; Rock, Edmond

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) intake is inadequate in the western diet and metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in populations around the world. Epidemiological studies suggest that high Mg intake may reduce the risk but the possibility of confounding factors exists, given the strong association between Mg and other beneficial nutriments (vegetables, fibers, cereals). The concept that metabolic syndrome is an inflammatory condition may explain the role of Mg.Mg deficiency results in a stress effect and increased susceptibility to physiological damage produced by stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a factor in the development of insulin resistance by increasing oxidative stress. In both humans and rats, aldosteronism results in an immunostimulatory state and leads to an inflammatory phenotype. Stress response induces the release of large quantities of excitatory amino acids and activates the nuclear factor NFkappaB, promoting translation of molecules involved in cell regulation, metabolism and apoptosis. The rise in neuropeptides is also well documented. Stress-induced HPA activation has been identified to play an important role in the preferential body fat accumulation but evidence that Mg is involved in body weight regulation is lacking. One of the earliest events in the acute response to stress is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells actively contribute to inflammation by elaborating cytokines, synthesizing chemical mediators and expressing adhesion molecules. Experimental Mg deficiency in rats induces a clinical inflammatory syndrome characterized by leukocyte and macrophage activation, synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, extensive production of free radicals. An increase in extracellular Mg concentration decreases inflammatory effects, while reduction in extracellular Mg results in cell activation. The

  13. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  14. Sleep deprivation and divergent toll-like receptor-4 activation of cellular inflammation in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E; Carrillo, Carmen; Olmstead, Richard; Witarama, Tuff; Breen, Elizabeth C; Yokomizo, Megumi; Seeman, Teresa; Irwin, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance and aging are associated with increases in inflammation, as well as increased risk of infectious disease. However, there is limited understanding of the role of sleep loss on age-related differences in immune responses. This study examines the effects of sleep deprivation on toll-like receptor activation of monocytic inflammation in younger compared to older adults. Community-dwelling adults (n = 70) who were categorized as younger (25-39 y old, n = 21) and older (60-84 y old, n = 49) participants, underwent a sleep laboratory-based experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, sleep deprivation (sleep restricted to 03:00-07:00), and recovery. Blood samples were obtained each morning to measure toll-like receptor-4 activation of monocyte intracellular production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Partial sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in the production of IL-6 and/or TNF-α that persisted after a night of recovery sleep (F(2,121.2) = 3.8, P sleep loss, such that younger adults had an increase in inflammatory cytokine production that was not present in older adults (F(2,121.2) = 4.0, P sleep loss. Whereas sleep loss increases cellular inflammation in younger adults and may contribute to inflammatory disorders, blunted toll-like receptor activation in older adults may increase the risk of infectious disease seen with aging. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane K Tilley

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age.Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined. Exact logistic regression was used to test whether expression levels in umbilical cord tissue predicted neurocognitive function at 10 years of age.Placental indicators of inflammation were associated with changes in the mRNA expression of 445 genes in umbilical cord tissue. Transcripts with decreased expression showed significant enrichment for biological signaling processes related to neuronal development and growth. The altered expression of six genes was found to predict neurocognitive impairment when children were 10 years old These genes include two that encode for proteins involved in neuronal development.Prenatal intrauterine inflammation is associated with altered gene expression in umbilical cord tissue. A set of six of the differentially expressed genes predict cognitive impairment later in life, suggesting that the fetal environment is associated with significant adverse effects on neurodevelopment that persist into later childhood.

  16. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  17. Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurk, Diana; Wilson, Caroline; Passos, Joao F.; Oakley, Fiona; Correia-Melo, Clara; Greaves, Laura; Saretzki, Gabriele; Fox, Chris; Lawless, Conor; Anderson, Rhys; Hewitt, Graeme; Pender, Sylvia L. F.; Fullard, Nicola; Nelson, Glyn; Mann, Jelena; van de Sluis, Bart; Mann, Derek A.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    Chronic inflammation is associated with normal and pathological ageing. Here we show that chronic, progressive low-grade inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappa B induces premature ageing in mice. We also show that these mice have reduced

  18. Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Engle-Stone, Reina; Namaste, Sorrel Ml; Temple, Victor J; Petry, Nicolai; Macdonald, Barbara; Suchdev, Parminder S; Rohner, Fabian; Aaron, Grant J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly. Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g., iron and vitamin A deficiencies, inflammation, malaria, and body mass index) and distal risk factors (e.g., education status, household sanitation and hygiene, and urban or rural residence) in nonpregnant WRA. Design: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 10 surveys ( n = 27,018) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and pooled by the infection burden and risk in the country. We examined the severity of anemia and measured the bivariate associations between anemia and factors at the country level and by infection burden, which we classified with the use of the national prevalences of malaria, HIV, schistosomiasis, sanitation, and water-quality indicators. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for each infection-burden category to identify independent determinants of anemia (hemoglobin concertation <120 g/L). Results: Anemia prevalence was ∼40% in countries with a high infection burden and 12% and 7% in countries with moderate and low infection burdens, respectively. Iron deficiency was consistently associated with anemia in multivariate models, but the proportion of anemic women who were iron deficient was considerably lower in the high-infection group (35%) than in the moderate- and low-infection groups (65% and 71%, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, inflammation, vitamin A insufficiency, socioeconomic status, and age were also significantly associated with anemia, but malaria and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiencies were not. Conclusions: The contribution of iron deficiency to anemia varies according to a country's infection

  19. Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Petry, Nicolai; Macdonald, Barbara; Aaron, Grant J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15–49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly. Objective: We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g., iron and vitamin A deficiencies, inflammation, malaria, and body mass index) and distal risk factors (e.g., education status, household sanitation and hygiene, and urban or rural residence) in nonpregnant WRA. Design: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 10 surveys (n = 27,018) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and pooled by the infection burden and risk in the country. We examined the severity of anemia and measured the bivariate associations between anemia and factors at the country level and by infection burden, which we classified with the use of the national prevalences of malaria, HIV, schistosomiasis, sanitation, and water-quality indicators. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for each infection-burden category to identify independent determinants of anemia (hemoglobin concertation Anemia prevalence was ∼40% in countries with a high infection burden and 12% and 7% in countries with moderate and low infection burdens, respectively. Iron deficiency was consistently associated with anemia in multivariate models, but the proportion of anemic women who were iron deficient was considerably lower in the high-infection group (35%) than in the moderate- and low-infection groups (65% and 71%, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, inflammation, vitamin A insufficiency, socioeconomic status, and age were also significantly associated with anemia, but malaria and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiencies were not. Conclusions: The contribution of iron deficiency to anemia varies according to a country’s infection burden. Anemia

  20. Inflammation, Self-Regulation, and Health: An Immunologic Model of Self-Regulatory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-07-01

    Self-regulation is a fundamental human process that refers to multiple complex methods by which individuals pursue goals in the face of distractions. Whereas superior self-regulation predicts better academic achievement, relationship quality, financial and career success, and lifespan health, poor self-regulation increases a person's risk for negative outcomes in each of these domains and can ultimately presage early mortality. Given its centrality to understanding the human condition, a large body of research has examined cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of self-regulation. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to specific biologic processes that may underlie self-regulation. We address this latter issue in the present review by examining the growing body of research showing that components of the immune system involved in inflammation can alter neural, cognitive, and motivational processes that lead to impaired self-regulation and poor health. Based on these findings, we propose an integrated, multilevel model that describes how inflammation may cause widespread biobehavioral alterations that promote self-regulatory failure. This immunologic model of self-regulatory failure has implications for understanding how biological and behavioral factors interact to influence self-regulation. The model also suggests new ways of reducing disease risk and enhancing human potential by targeting inflammatory processes that affect self-regulation.

  1. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pdefinition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk Factors for Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Sameiro-Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. End-stage renal disease (ESRD patients under hemodialysis (HD have high mortality rate. Inflammation, dyslipidemia, disturbances in erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, endothelial function, and nutritional status have been reported in these patients. Our aim was to identify any significant association of death with these disturbances, by performing a two-year follow-up study. Methods and Results. A large set of data was obtained from 189 HD patients (55.0% male; 66.4 ± 13.9 years old, including hematological data, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory, and endothelial (dysfunction markers, and dialysis adequacy. Results. 35 patients (18.5% died along the follow-up period. Our data showed that the type of vascular access, C-reactive protein (CRP, and triglycerides (TG are significant predictors of death. The risk of death was higher in patients using central venous catheter (CVC (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% CI = 1.49–6.13, with higher CRP levels (fourth quartile, compared with those with lower levels (first quartile (HR = 17.3, 95% CI = 2.40–124.9. Patients with higher TG levels (fourth quartile presented a lower risk of death, compared with those with the lower TG levels (first quartile (HR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.05–0.58. Conclusions. The use of CVC, high CRP, and low TG values seem to be independent risk factors for mortality in HD patients.

  3. Maternal Income during Pregnancy is Associated with Chronic Placental Inflammation at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan-Devlin, Lauren S; Ernst, Linda M; Ross, Kharah M; Qadir, Sameen; Grobman, William A; Holl, Jane L; Crockett, Amy; Miller, Gregory E; Borders, Ann E B

    2017-08-01

    Objective  This study aims to examine whether maternal household income is associated with histological evidence of chronic placental inflammation. Study Design  A total of 152 participants completed surveys of household income and consented to placenta collection at delivery and postpartum chart review for birth outcomes. Placental inflammatory lesions were evaluated via histological examination of the membranes, basal plate, and villous parenchyma by a single, experienced pathologist. Associations between household income and the presence of inflammatory lesions were adjusted for known perinatal risk factors. Results  Overall, 45% of participants reporting household income below $30,000/y had chronic placental inflammation, compared with 25% of participants reporting income above $100,000 annually (odds ratio [OR] = 4.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25, 14.28; p  = 0.02). Middle-income groups showed intermediate rates of chronic inflammatory lesions, at 40% for those reporting $30,000 and 50,000 (OR = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.05, 12.53; p  = 0.04) and 38% for those reporting $50,000 to 100,000 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 0.60, 4.14; p  = 0.36). Results remained significant after adjustment for maternal age, race, and marital status. Conclusion  Chronic placental inflammation is associated with maternal household income. Greater occurrence of placental lesions in low-income mothers may arise from a systemic inflammatory response to social and physical environmental factors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  5. Obesity and rates of clinical remission and low MRI inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Michael D.; Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives O besity has been proposed as a risk factor for refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of obesity on achieving clinical and imaging definitions of low disease activity. Methods T his study evaluated 470 patients with RA from GO-BEFORE and GO-FORWARD randomised...... clinical trials. Included patients had blinded clinical disease activity measures and MRI at baseline, 24 and 52 weeks. Synovitis, osteitis and total inflammation scores were determined using the RA MRI scoring system. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared odds of achieving Disease Activity...

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  7. Metabolic Effects of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Humans and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lewis P; Ross, A Catharine; Stephensen, Charles B; Bohn, Torsten; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    The association between inflammation and vitamin A (VA) metabolism and status assessment has been documented in multiple studies with animals and humans. The relation between inflammation and carotenoid status is less clear. Nonetheless, it is well known that carotenoids are associated with certain health benefits. Understanding these relations is key to improving health outcomes and mortality risk in infants and young children. Hyporetinolemia, i.e., low serum retinol concentrations, occurs during inflammation, and this can lead to the misdiagnosis of VA deficiency. On the other hand, inflammation causes impaired VA absorption and urinary losses that can precipitate VA deficiency in at-risk groups of children. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that high dietary carotenoid intake and elevated plasma concentrations are correlated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases; however, large-scale carotenoid supplementation trials have been unable to confirm the health benefits and in some cases resulted in controversial results. However, it has been documented that dietary carotenoids and retinoids play important roles in innate and acquired immunity and in the body's response to inflammation. Although animal models have been useful in investigating retinoid effects on developmental immunity, it is more challenging to tease out the effects of carotenoids because of differences in the absorption, kinetics, and metabolism between humans and animal models. The current understanding of the relations between inflammation and retinoid and carotenoid metabolism and status are the topics of this review. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Risk Factors for Depression : Differential Across Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of well-established risk factors for depression differs across the lifespan. Risk factors may be more strongly associated with depression at ages when occurrence, and therefore expectance, is relatively low ("on-time off-time" hypothesis). This large-scale study examined

  9. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  10. The 2009 stock conference report: inflammation, obesity and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevener, A L; Febbraio, M A

    2010-09-01

    Obesity is linked with many deleterious health consequences and is associated with increased risk of chronic disease including type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and certain forms of cancer. Recent work has highlighted the impact of obesity to activate inflammatory gene networks and suggests a causal function of inflammation in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Since 2005, when Dr Gokhan Hotamisligil chaired the fourth Stock Conference in Istanbul, Turkey, entitled 'Obesity and Inflammation', there has been an explosion of studies investigating the relationship between obesity, inflammation and substrate metabolism. The exuberance surrounding this field of research is exemplified by the body of work that has been published in these past 4 years, including over 1400 publications. During this time, several novel mechanisms relating to cellular inflammation have been uncovered including the role of the hematopoietic system, toll-like receptor activation, endoplasmic reticulum stress and very recently T-cell activation in obesity-induced insulin resistance. These discoveries have led us to rethink cellular nutrient sensing and its role in inflammation and metabolic disease. Despite burgeoning investigation in this field, there still remain a number of unanswered questions. This review that evolved from the 2009 Stock Conference summarizes current research and identifies the deficiencies in our understanding of this topic. The overall goal of this Stock Conference was to bring together leading investigators in the field of inflammation and obesity research in the hope of fostering new ideas, thus advancing the pursuit of novel therapeutic strategies to reduce disease risk and or better treat chronic disease including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. © 2009 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  12. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  13. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these ... with age, gender or haematological test. ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies on ..... The marked difference may be because monthly .... and dyslipidemia among patients taking first-line,.

  14. Eccentric-exercise induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Ring, C.; Aldred, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Wadley, A.J.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mental stress has been identified as a trigger of myocardial infarction (MI), with inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress independently implicated as contributing factors. This study examined whether inflammation moderates the vascular responses to mental stress. Eighteen healthy male

  15. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele Burger

    CV risk profile of the group according to the risk score system developed by the ... an individual has about CVD, and the possible risk factors contributing to the .... levels in the lowest tertile of CVD knowledge versus the highest tertile of CVD ..... CV risk factors and health behavior counseling, much can be done to prevent ...

  16. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  17. The effect of cardioprotective diet rich with natural antioxidants on chronic inflammation and oxidized LDL during cardiac rehabilitation in patients after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mlakar

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The addition of cardioprotective diet, rich with natural antioxidants, to physical activity as a part of a CR program, positively modifies not just classic risk factors and exercise capacity, but also diminishes chronic inflammation markers. These effects, and oxLDL decline were most prominent in nonsmoking patients.

  18. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy

  19. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  20. The effect of aging on atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and molecular calcification: A PET CT imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Simonsen, Jane Angel

    Aim: Aging is an important independent risk factor for the inception and maturation of atherosclerotic plaques. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aging on atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and molecular calcification. Methods: Thirteen healthy volunteers without traditional......SUV) [Mean SUVAORTA - Mean SUVBLOOD POOL]. Furthermore, the average maximum 18F-NaF cSUV was determined in the coronary arteries. Calculating regression and correlation coefficients summarized the data. Results: A quadratic relationship was observed between aging and aortic 18F-FDG avidity. A second order...... polynomial regression established that aging is a strong predictor of the degree of aortic plaque inflammation (R2 = 0.71, F statistic = 11.98, P = 0.002). A linear relationship was observed between aging and molecular calcification. Linear regression established that aging is a predictor of both the degree...

  1. Inflammation as target in cancer therapy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marelli, G.; Sica, A.; Vannucci, Luca; Allavena, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, August 2017 (2017), s. 57-65 ISSN 1471-4892 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cancer therapy * cancer-promoting inflammation * Tumour-Associated Macrophages Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 5.363, year: 2016

  2. Review on risk factors related to lower back disorders at workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.

  3. Aggravating Impact of Nanoparticles on Immune-Mediated Pulmonary Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichiro Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the adverse health effects of nanoparticles have been proposed and are being clarified, their aggravating effects on pre-existing pathological conditions have not been fully investigated. In this review, we provide insights into the immunotoxicity of both airborne and engineered nanoparticles as an exacerbating factor on hypersusceptible subjects, especially those with immune-mediated pulmonary inflammation, using our in vivo experimental model. First, we exhibit the effects of nanoparticles on pulmonary inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS as a disease model in innate immunity, and demonstrate that nanoparticles instilled through both an intratracheal tube and an inhalation system can exacerbate the lung inflammation. Second, we introduce the effects of nanoparticles on allergic pulmonary inflammation as a disease model in adaptive immunity, and show that repetitive pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles has aggravating effects on allergic inflammation, including adjuvant effects on Th2-milieu. Third, we show that very small nanoparticle exposure exacerbates emphysematous pulmonary inflammation, which is concomitant with enhanced lung expression of proinflammatory molecules (including those that are innate immunity related. Taken together, nanoparticle exposure may synergistically facilitate pathological pulmonary inflammation via both innate and adaptive immunological impairment.

  4. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population.

  5. Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. ... African Health Sciences ... Currently, physical activity is an important lifestyle factor that has the potential to modify inflammatory ...

  6. The urban risk and migration risk factors for schizophrenia: are cats the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Being born in and/or raised in an urban area is a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. Migrating from countries such as Jamaica or Morocco to countries such as England or the Netherlands is also a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. The transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts to children is reviewed and proposed as a partial explanation for both of these risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of classic risk factors and prothrombotic factor gene mutations in ischemic stroke risk development in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanc, Visnja; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vukasovic, Ines; Solter, Vesna V; Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja B

    2014-03-01

    In young individuals, a genetically predisposing hypercoagulability and classic modifying risk factors can act synergistically on the ischemic stroke risk development. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of classic vascular risk factors and polymorphisms of the G20210A coagulation factor II (prothrombin), Arg506Glu coagulation factor V Leiden, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and the impact of these gene mutations and classic vascular risk factors on the overall stroke risk in individuals aged 55 years or younger. The study included 155 stroke patients aged 55 years or younger and 150 control subjects. Stroke prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were assessed for the following parameters: G20210A prothrombin, Arg506Glu factor V Leiden, C677T MTHFR, and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms; total number of study polymorphisms in a particular subject (genetic sum); and classic vascular risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension (P stroke patients. The following parameters were found to act as independent risk factors for ischemic stroke: decreased HDL cholesterol level (P ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors Associated with the Risk of Persistent Gastrostomy Site Infection Following Laparoscopic or Open Nissen Fundoplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayuki Miyagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastrostomy for feeding disorders or swallowing dysfunctions can be complicated by persistent gastrostomy site infection (PGSI. PGSI causes nutrient leakage, with dilated PGSI requiring gastrostomy reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the causes, patient characteristics, and perioperative management of PGSI after Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy for patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux. Patients and Methods: The records of all patients who underwent Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy for gastro-oesophageal reflux over the past 12 years were retrieved. Risk factors were analysed, including age at surgery, gender, operative procedure, use of postoperative ventilator management, gastrostomy tube migration towards the pylorus, bacterial culture results, and length of hospital stay. PGSI as a cause of inflammation was analysed statistically. Results: Forty patients were identified, ranging in age from 1 to 49 years (median, 11 years surgically. Twenty each underwent laparoscopic and open surgery, with all undergoing gastrostomy using the Stamm technique. Four patients developed PGSI. Gastrostomy tubes had migrated postoperatively to the pyloric side in three of these four patients (P < 0.005, increasing intragastric pressure. Three of these four patients also required positive pressure ventilation during the perioperative period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: PGSI correlates with the perioperative management of positive pressure and with increased intragastric pressure resulting from pyloric obstruction, which is caused by aberrant distribution of the gastrostomy tube to the pyloric side. Statistical Analysis Used: Factors in the two groups were compared statistically by Mann–Whitney U-test to determine whether PGSI caused inflammation. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.

  9. Protein expression analysis of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC development. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in protein expression between CRC and the surrounding nontumorous colonic tissues in the mice that received azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS using a proteomic analysis. Materials and Methods: Male ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, followed by 2% (w/v DSS in their drinking water for seven days, starting one week after the AOM injection. Colonic adenocarcinoma developed after 20 weeks and a proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraflex TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was conducted in the cancerous and nontumorous tissue specimens. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues in comparison to the nontumorous tissues. There were five markedly increased proteins (beta-tropomyosin, tropomyosin 1 alpha isoform b, S100 calcium binding protein A9, and an unknown protein and 16 markedly decreased proteins (Car1 proteins, selenium-binding protein 1, HMG-CoA synthase, thioredoxin 1, 1 Cys peroxiredoxin protein 2, Fcgbp protein, Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Va, ETHE1 protein, and 7 unknown proteins. Conclusions: There were 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues of the mice that received AOM and DSS. Their functions include metabolism, the antioxidant system, oxidative stress, mucin production, and inflammation. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies to treat carcinogenesis in the inflamed colon.

  10. Risk Factors Influencing Construction Procurement Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Dahiru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significance index score for the most important risk factors limiting the procurement performance of the projects. A self administered questionnaire was employed to the construction industry professionals for responses. A total of 78 questionnaires were distributed to these professionals (architects, quantity surveyors, engineers, and contractors but 62 were returned and analyzed using influential index and later ranked in order of importance. Results of the analysis indicate a disparity in terms of ranking of the factors influencing construction procurement performance. Corruption related risk, conflict of interest, ineffective project technical feasibility, and lack of commitment to transparency were found to be the most significant factors limiting construction procurement performance. Communication barriers and unconfidential tender evaluation process were found to be the low weighted risk factors. The findings can serve as a supportive mechanism for risks management in public construction procurement management. Therefore, construction procurement personnel at all levels of government may find this study relevant, while improving construction procurement performance in the country. It is recommended that construction procurement system should be focused on risks related to corruption, conflict of interest, and effective technical feasibility for improving the overall project performance.

  11. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruoma, Okezie I.; Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cancer incidence and mortality is linked to hyperglycemia and some anti-diabetes drugs. • FPP is a safe nutraceutical adjunct for augmenting therapeutic regimens in diabetes and cancer management. • FPP through its hypoglycemic and antioxidant sensing may impact and mitigate the side effects of anticancer drugs. • FPP can diminish the intensity of side effects associated with acute radiation therapy. • FPP can maintain the integrity of erythrocyte during cancer chemotherapy augmenting compliance of treatment. - Abstract: Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of

  12. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruoma, Okezie I., E-mail: oaruoma@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA (United States); Somanah, Jhoti [ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit (Mauritius); Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe [Groupe d’Etude sur l’Inflammation Chronique et l’Obésité (GEICO), Université de La Réunion, Plateforme CYROI, Saint Denis (France); Bahorun, Theeshan, E-mail: tbahorun@uom.ac.mu [ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cancer incidence and mortality is linked to hyperglycemia and some anti-diabetes drugs. • FPP is a safe nutraceutical adjunct for augmenting therapeutic regimens in diabetes and cancer management. • FPP through its hypoglycemic and antioxidant sensing may impact and mitigate the side effects of anticancer drugs. • FPP can diminish the intensity of side effects associated with acute radiation therapy. • FPP can maintain the integrity of erythrocyte during cancer chemotherapy augmenting compliance of treatment. - Abstract: Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of

  13. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrom, Maj-Briit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection ...... diabetes and dementia. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may be mediated via a long-term effect of exercise leading to a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines with each bout of exercise....

  14. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  15. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  16. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Lingjun, E-mail: menglingjun@nibs.ac.cn [College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China); Jin, Wei [Institute for Immunology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yuhui [Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai [National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come. - Highlights: • RIP3 regulate the Nr4a3 to control cytokine production. • Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1a production. • Injection anti-IL-1a antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis. • RIP3 controls macrophage necrotic dead caused inflammation.

  17. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Lingjun; Jin, Wei; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come. - Highlights: • RIP3 regulate the Nr4a3 to control cytokine production. • Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1a production. • Injection anti-IL-1a antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis. • RIP3 controls macrophage necrotic dead caused inflammation.

  18. Respiratory inflammation and infections in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B

    2016-02-01

    Upper respiratory illness is the most common reason for non-injury-related presentation to a sports medicine clinic, accounting for 35-65% of illness presentations. Recurrent or persistent respiratory illness can have a negative impact on health and performance of athletes undertaking high levels of strenuous exercise. The cause of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) in athletes can be uncertain but the majority of cases are related to common respiratory viruses, viral reactivation, allergic responses to aeroallergens and exercise-related trauma to the integrity of respiratory epithelial membranes. Bacterial respiratory infections are uncommon in athletes. Undiagnosed or inappropriately treated asthma and/or allergy are common findings in clinical assessments of elite athletes experiencing recurrent URS. High-performance athletes with recurrent episodes of URS should undergo a thorough clinical assessment to exclude underlying treatable conditions of respiratory inflammation. Identifying athletes at risk of recurrent URS is important in order to prescribe preventative clinical, training and lifestyle strategies. Monitoring secretion rates and falling concentrations of salivary IgA can identify athletes at risk of URS. Therapeutic interventions are limited by the uncertainty of the underlying cause of inflammation. Topical anti-inflammatory sprays can be beneficial for some athletes. Dietary supplementation with bovine colostrum, probiotics and selected antioxidants can reduce the incidence or severity of URS in some athletes. Preliminary studies on athletes prone to URS indicate a genetic predisposition to a pro-inflammatory response and a dysregulated anti-inflammatory cytokine response to intense exercise as a possible mechanism of respiratory inflammation. This review focuses on respiratory infections and inflammation in elite/professional athletes.

  19. High density lipoproteins improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by suppressing hepatic inflammation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kristine C.; Li, Xiao Hong; Whitworth, Phillippa T.; Kasz, Robert; Tan, Joanne T.; McLennan, Susan V.; Celermajer, David S.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Heather, Alison K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced liver inflammation can drive insulin resistance. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, so we hypothesized that low levels of HDL would perpetuate inflammatory responses in the liver and that HDL treatment would suppress liver inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lipid-free apoAI on hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. We also investigated apoAI as a component of reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) in hepatocytes to confirm results we observed in vivo. To test our hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and administered either saline or lipid-free apoAI. Injections of lipid-free apoAI twice a week for 2 or 4 weeks with lipid-free apoAI resulted in: i) improved insulin sensitivity associated with decreased systemic and hepatic inflammation; ii) suppression of hepatic mRNA expression for key transcriptional regulators of lipogenic gene expression; and iii) suppression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells exposed to rHDLs showed suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, correlating with decreased NF-κB target gene expression. We conclude that apoAI suppresses liver inflammation in HFD mice and improves insulin resistance via a mechanism that involves a downregulation of NF-κB activation. PMID:24347528

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  1. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  2. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are positively associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eun-Sil; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-07-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may induce chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the relation between inflammatory biomarkers and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, which has not yet been reported in Asian populations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 543 patients recruited from diabetic clinics for an ongoing, prospective study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate Disease equation using plasma creatinine). The risk of chronic kidney disease increased in the highest quartiles of C-reactive protein (CRP) [multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.19-1.70] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (multivariate OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 1.63-12.11) compared to the lowest quartiles after adjustments for age, sex, zinc intake, and other putative risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Our results suggest that CRP and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A causal mechanism of this association should be evaluated in a followup study of Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  4. Effects of acute ingestion of different fats on oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peairs Abigail D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that obese individuals have prolonged elevations in postprandial lipemia and an exacerbated inflammatory response to high fat meals, which can increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. As epidemiological studies indicate an association between type of fat and circulating inflammatory markers, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different fat sources on inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Methods Eleven overweight and obese subjects consumed three high fat milkshakes rich in monounsaturated fat (MFA, saturated fat (SFA, or long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fat (O3FA in random order. Blood samples collected at baseline, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandial were analyzed for markers of inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α (8-epi and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, and metabolic factors (glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TG. Results O3FA enhanced NF-kB activation compared to SFA, but did not increase any inflammatory factors measured. Conversely, SFA led to higher ICAM-1 levels than MFA (p = 0.051, while MFA increased TG more than SFA (p Conclusions While most of the inflammatory factors measured had modest or no change following the meal, ICAM-1 and NF-κB responded differently by meal type. These results are provocative and suggest that type of fat in meals may differentially influence postprandial inflammation and endothelial activation.

  5. Interaction Between Dietary Factors and Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and ducts. PIN represents the most likely precursor to many prostate cancers. Benign prostatic hyperplasia Non-cancerous enlargement consisting of...transition zone, which might enlarge considerably beyond what is shown. The inflammation found in the transition zone is associated with BPH nodules and...NH2 CH3 N H NH H N N H O O O Uric acid Charred meat PhIP Bladder Prostate Penis Heterocyclic amines Molecules that are produced as a result of cooking

  6. [Analysis of risk factors associated with professional drivers’ work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, Maja; Hołowko, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    Professional driver is an occupation associated with high health risk. The factors which increase the risk of developing lifestyle diseases are closely related to working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk factors which are associated with professional drivers’ lifestyle. The material consisted of 23 articles from PubMed.gov. Risk factors related to drivers’ work have a signiicant impact on their health.

  7. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  8. Persistent low-grade inflammation and regular exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Maj-brit; Feigh, Michael; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    against all of these diseases and recent evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise. Visceral adiposity contributes to systemic inflammation and is independently associated with the occurrence of CVD, type 2...... diabetes and dementia. We suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise may be mediated via a long-term effect of exercise leading to a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines with each bout of exercise.......Persistent low-grade systemic inflammation is a feature of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and dementia and evidence exists that inflammation is a causal factor in the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Regular exercise offers protection...

  9. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  10. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the

  11. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Kinoshita

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DCM and cardiac sarcoidosis were identified as risk factors for amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism included higher baseline TSH level and lower baseline free T4 level, suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a potential risk factor for the development of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism.

  12. Metabolic Effects of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Carotenoids in Humans and Animal Models123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lewis P; Ross, A Catharine; Stephensen, Charles B; Bohn, Torsten; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-01-01

    The association between inflammation and vitamin A (VA) metabolism and status assessment has been documented in multiple studies with animals and humans. The relation between inflammation and carotenoid status is less clear. Nonetheless, it is well known that carotenoids are associated with certain health benefits. Understanding these relations is key to improving health outcomes and mortality risk in infants and young children. Hyporetinolemia, i.e., low serum retinol concentrations, occurs during inflammation, and this can lead to the misdiagnosis of VA deficiency. On the other hand, inflammation causes impaired VA absorption and urinary losses that can precipitate VA deficiency in at-risk groups of children. Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that high dietary carotenoid intake and elevated plasma concentrations are correlated with a decreased risk of several chronic diseases; however, large-scale carotenoid supplementation trials have been unable to confirm the health benefits and in some cases resulted in controversial results. However, it has been documented that dietary carotenoids and retinoids play important roles in innate and acquired immunity and in the body’s response to inflammation. Although animal models have been useful in investigating retinoid effects on developmental immunity, it is more challenging to tease out the effects of carotenoids because of differences in the absorption, kinetics, and metabolism between humans and animal models. The current understanding of the relations between inflammation and retinoid and carotenoid metabolism and status are the topics of this review. PMID:28298266

  13. Occupational and environmental risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis in China: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Xiang; Ou, Chun-Quan; Fang, Shu-Bin; Sun, Yue-Qi; Zhang, Hua; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Dong-Dong; Lv, Wei; Liu, Shi-Xi; Li, P Z; Xu, Geng; Shi, Jianbo; Fu, Qing-Ling

    2016-05-17

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is defined as a condition of inflammation in the paranasal sinus mucosa persisting for more than 12 weeks. We previously reported that the prevalence of CRS was about 8 % in China. Here, we aim to investigate the occupational and environmental risk factors associated with CRS. Data were collected from seven Chinese cities: Urumqi, Changchun, Beijing, Wuhan, Chengdu, Huaian and Guangzhou. CRS was diagnosed according to the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EP(3)OS) document. Participants were asked to complete a standardized questionnaire, which was developed by the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project and covered sociodemographic characteristics, CRS-related symptoms and occupational and environmental exposures. We evaluated the association between CRS and various occupational and environmental factors using odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). The total study population consisted of 10,633 subjects, 850 (7.99 %) of whom were defined as having CRS according to the EP(3)OS criteria. We found that there were significant associations between occupational and environmental factors and CRS. Specifically, having a clearance-related job, occupational exposure to dust, occupational exposure to poisonous gas, a pet at home or carpet at home or at the workplace were risk factors for CRS. Additionally, the method used to keep warm in winter, the duration of time spent using air conditioning in summer and the frequency of exposure to mouldy or damp environments were significantly different in subjects with and without CRS. Our data showed that some occupational and environmental exposures are strongly associated with CRS, which aids in understanding the epidemiology of CRS.

  14. Macrophages in synovial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling eKennedy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSynovial macrophages are one of the resident cell types in synovial tissue and while they remain relatively quiescent in the healthy joint, they become activated in the inflamed joint and, along with infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, regulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes involved in driving the inflammatory response and joint destruction. Synovial macrophages are positioned throughout the sub-lining layer and lining layer at the cartilage-pannus junction and mediate articular destruction. Sub-lining macrophages are now also considered as the most reliable biomarker for disease severity and response to therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is a growing understanding of the molecular drivers of inflammation and an appreciation that the resolution of inflammation is an active process rather than a passive return to homeostasis, and this has implications for our understanding of the role of macrophages in inflammation. Macrophage phenotype determines the cytokine secretion profile and tissue destruction capabilities of these cells. Whereas inflammatory synovial macrophages have not yet been classified into one phenotype or another it is widely known that TNFα and IL-l, characteristically released by M1 macrophages, are abundant in RA while IL-10 activity, characteristic of M2 macrophages, is somewhat diminished.Here we will briefly review our current understanding of macrophages and macrophage polarisation in RA as well as the elements implicated in controlling polarisation, such as cytokines and transcription factors like NFκB, IRFs and NR4A, and pro-resolving factors, such as LXA4 and other lipid mediators which may promote a non-inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype and may represent a novel therapeutic paradigm.

  15. Inflammation and peripheral venous disease. The San Diego Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, M; Callas, P W; Allison, M A; Criqui, M H

    2014-09-02

    The inflammatory response to healing in venous thrombosis might cause vein damage and post-thrombotic syndrome. Inflammation may also be involved in venous insufficiency apart from deep-vein thrombosis. We studied the association of inflammation markers with venous insufficiency in a general population sample. We characterised 2,404 men and women in a general population cohort for peripheral venous disease and its severity using physical exam, symptom assessment, and venous ultrasound. Inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-beta), IL-8, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) were compared in 352 case participants with peripheral venous disease and 352 controls with no venous abnormalities frequency matched to cases by age, sex and race. Associations were also evaluated including a subset of 108 cases of severe venous disease, as previously defined. Odds ratios (95% CI), for peripheral venous disease for biomarkers in the top quartile (adjusting for age, race, sex, body mass index and history of venous thrombosis) were 1.8 (1.1-3.0), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 1.5 (0.9-2.3) for CRP, fibrinogen and IL-10, respectively. Associations were larger considering cases of severe venous disease, with odds ratios for these three analytes of 2.6 (1.2-5.9), 3.1 (1.3-7.3) and 2.2 (1.1-4.4), and for IL-8: 2.4 (1.1-5.2). There was no association of IL-1-beta, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MCP-1 or VEGF with overall cases or severe venous disease. In conclusion, a subset of inflammation markers were associated with increased risk of peripheral venous disease, suggesting potential therapeutic targets for treatment.

  16. Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in five Portuguese neonatal intensive care units Factores de risco de displasia broncopulmonar em cinco unidades portuguesas de cuidados intensivos neonatais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is clearly multifactorial. Specific pathogenic risk factors are prematurity, respiratory distress, oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation (MV, inflammation, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, etc. Aim: To evaluate BPD prevalence and to identify risk factors for BPD in five Portuguese Neonatal Intensive Care Units in order to develop better practices the management of these newborns. Material and methods: 256 very low birth weight infants with gestational age (GA 0.30 (85 vs 5 days, respectively in BPD and no BPD patients, pA displasia broncopulmonar (DBP é multifactorial. Prematuridade, doença da membrana hialina, oxigénio, ventilação mecânica, inflamação e canal arterial são alguns dos factores na sua patogénese. Objectivo: Avaliar a prevalência da DBP e seus factores de risco em cinco unidades portuguesas, para implementar boas práticas no tratamento deste doentes. Material e métodos: 256 recém-nascidos (RN com idade gestacional (IG 0,30 (85 vs 5 dias, respectivamente nos doentes com e sem DBP, p<0,001. Comentários: Os factores de risco de DBP mais relevantes foram o baixo peso, a doença da membrana hialina grave, a duração da ventilação mecânica e da oxigenoterapia e a sépsis. A implementação das boas práticas para reduzir a lesão pulmonar nos RN deve ser dirigida para melhorar as práticas que reduzem estes factores de risco.

  17. Body composition of obese adolescents: association between adiposity indicators and cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, A J S; Santos, A C O; Prado, W L

    2017-04-01

    The association between obesity during adolescence and the increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases indicates the need to identify reproducible and cost effective methods for identifying individuals who are at increased risk of developing diseases. The present cross-sectional study investigated the occurrence of metabolic consequences of obesity in adolescents and the use of adiposity indicators as predictors of cardiometabolic risk. A fasting blood sample was taken in 93 pubertal obese adolescents aged 13-18 years old (39 males, 54 females) for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk markers (glucose, lipid profiles, insulin resistence, and inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers). Together with anthropometry, total fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalence of dyslipidaemia and disorders in glucose metabolism are noticeably higher in the present study. There was no correlation between the percentage of body fat according to DXA and most indicators of adiposity. For boys, the arm circumference values predicted the increase in fasting insulin (r² = 0.200), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r² = 0.267) and cardiometabolic risk score (r² = 0.338). The percentage of body fat according to DXA predicted the inflammation score (r² = 0.172). For girls, body mass index was the parameter that best described the variability of fasting insulin (r² = 0.079) and inflammation score (r² = 0.263). The waist-to-stature ratio was able to predict the triglyceride values (r² = 0.090). Anthropometric measures of adiposity, such a body mass index, waist-to-stature ratio, arm circumference and waist circumference,should be considered in the clinical evaluation of obese adolescents. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  19. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Abstract. Purpose: To explore the literature regarding prevalance, risk factors and the involvement of ..... Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence. Urology.

  20. Fall risk factors in community-dwelling elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bergland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common and serious problem for older adults. Approximately one-third of older communitydwelling people fall at least once a year. The main purpose of this paper is to present risk factors for fall in older people living at home. The databases used for identifying documentation of risk factors are Cinahl, Eric, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Medline, Psycinfo and dissertation. Many psychosocial and medical conditions and impairment of sensorimotor function, balance and gait have been shown in large epidemiological studies to be strongly associated with falls. Several of the risk factors are interrelated. The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction seem to be an oversimplification. A better understanding of falls is usually obtained when examining the person in association with the environmental factors. Advanced age, history of falls, ADL limitations, impaired gait and mobility, visual impairment, reduced sensation, muscular weakness, poor reaction time, impaired cognition, diseases as stroke, use of psychoactive medication and use of many medications are risk factors shown to be strongly associated with falls. This means recommendation of multifactorial fall risk assessment must incorporate a range of physiological and mental tests in addition to assessing balance and gait as well as taking multiple chronic diseases and medications into account. These finding underscore the importance of multidimensional fall intervention with special focus on modifiable risk factors

  1. The Effect of Polyphenol-Rich Interventions on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Haemodialysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; Kelly, Jaimon; Marshall, Skye; Nakos, Stacey; Campbell, Katrina; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2017-12-11

    End-stage kidney disease is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular-specific mortality. Polyphenol-rich interventions may attenuate cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, this has not been systematically evaluated in the hemodialysis population. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the following databases were searched: Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com/), MEDLINE (https://health.ebsco.com/products/medline-with-full-text), Embase (https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/embase-biomedical-research), and CINAHL (https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/cinahl-databases/cinahl-complete). Meta-analyses were conducted for measures of lipid profile, inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood pressure. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool and quality of the body of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Twelve studies were included for review. Polyphenol-rich interventions included soy, cocoa, pomegranate, grape, and turmeric. Polyphenol-rich interventions significantly improved diastolic blood pressure (Mean Difference (MD) -5.62 mmHg (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -8.47, -2.78); I ² = 2%; p = 0.0001), triglyceride levels (MD -26.52 mg/dL (95% CI -47.22, -5.83); I ² = 57%; p = 0.01), and myeloperoxidase (MD -90.10 (95% CI -135.84, -44.36); I ² = 0%; p = 0.0001). Included studies generally had low or unclear risks of bias. The results of this review provide preliminary support for the use of polyphenol-rich interventions for improving cardiovascular risk markers in haemodialysis patients. Due to the limited number of studies for individual polyphenol interventions, further studies are required to provide recommendations regarding individual polyphenol intervention and dose.

  2. Early markers of airways inflammation and occupational asthma: rationale, study design and follow-up rates among bakery, pastry and hairdressing apprentices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossa, Paul; Bohadana, Abraham; Demange, Valérie; Wild, Pascal; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Hannhart, Bernard; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2009-04-23

    Occupational asthma is a common type of asthma caused by a specific agent in the workplace. The basic alteration of occupational asthma is airways inflammation. Although most patients with occupational asthma are mature adults, there is evidence that airways inflammation starts soon after inception of exposure, including during apprenticeship. Airways hyper responsiveness to methacholine is a valid surrogate marker of airways inflammation, which has proved useful in occupational epidemiology. But it is time-consuming, requires active subject's cooperation and is not readily feasible. Other non-invasive and potentially more useful tests include the forced oscillation technique, measurement of fraction exhaled nitric oxide, and eosinophils count in nasal lavage fluid. This study aims to investigate early development of airways inflammation and asthma-like symptoms in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers, three populations at risk of occupational asthma whose work-related exposures involve agents of different nature. The objectives are to (i) examine the performance of the non-invasive tests cited above in detecting early airways inflammation that might eventually develop into occupational asthma; and (ii) evaluate whether, and how, constitutional (e.g. atopy) and behavioural (e.g. smoking) risk factors for occupational asthma modulate the effects of allergenic and/or irritative substances involved in these occupations. This paper presents the study rationale and detailed protocol. Among 441 volunteers included at the first visit, 354 attended the fourth one. Drop outs were investigated and showed unrelated to the study outcome. Sample size and follow-up participation rates suggest that the data collected in this study will allow it to meet its objectives.

  3. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus postpartum breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Golen, Toni H; Gold, Howard S; Yassa, David S; Baldini, Linda M; Wright, Sharon B

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) breast abscesses are a complication of the postpartum period. Risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscesses are poorly defined, and literature is conflicting. Whether risk factors for methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) infections differ is unknown. We describe novel risk factors associated with postpartum breast abscesses and the changing epidemiology of this infection. We conducted a cohort study with a nested case-control study (n = 216) involving all patients with culture-confirmed SA breast abscess among >30 000 deliveries at our academic tertiary care center from 2003 through 2010. Data were collected from hospital databases and through abstraction from medical records. All SA cases were compared with both nested controls and full cohort controls. A subanalysis was completed to determine whether risk factors for MSSA and MRSA breast abscess differ. Univariate analysis was completed using Student's t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and analysis of variance, as appropriate. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to determine final adjusted results for both the case-control and the cohort analyses. Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed abscess were identified: 30 MRSA and 24 MSSA. Risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscess in multivariable analysis include in-hospital identification of a mother having difficulty breastfeeding (odds ratio, 5.00) and being a mother employed outside the home (odds ratio, 2.74). Risk factors did not differ between patients who developed MRSA and MSSA infections. MRSA is an increasingly important pathogen in postpartum women; risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscess have not changed with the advent of community-associated MRSA.

  4. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  8. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  9. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis