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  1. Transthoracic needle biopsy: factors effecting risk of pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topal, Ugur; Ediz, Buelent

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the factors that could effect the risk of pneumothorax in patients undergoing transthoracic biopsy. Material and methods: variables that could increase the risk of pneumothorax were evaluated in 453 CT-guided transthoracic biopsies. Factors were evaluated in two groups: (1) lesion related (presence of emphysema around the lesion, lesion depth, cavitation, presence of fissure/atelectasis and pleural tag in the needle trajectory); and (2) procedure related (biopsy type, needle size, number of passages, level of experience of the operator). All variables were analysed by χ 2 test and multivariate logistic regression statistics. Results: pneumothorax was developed in 85 (18.8%) out of 453 procedures. A chest tube was inserted in ten (11.7%) of them. Variables that were significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumothorax were depth of the lesion (P<0.001) and severity of the emphysema (P<0.01). Conclusion: the length of the lung parenchyma traversed during the biopsy is the predominant risk factor for pneumothorax in patients undergoing CT-guided transthoracic biopsy. The risk of pneumothorax was also increased with the severity of the emphysema around the lesion

  2. Internal risks of factoring business: identification, cause-effect relationships, accounting and management aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the risks of the economic activity of a factoring company. The identified risks are divided into internal (fraud risk, credit risk, liquidity, nonpayment, staff, supplier's failure to meet the terms of the supply / factoring contract and external (legal, inflation, currency, interest, industry risks, country risk. The cause-effect relationships of the identified risks have been established. The content of information requests of the leading part of the factoring company, as well as the management subsystems (accounting, economic analysis, control and planning, and the direction of information flows between them (to manage the company's internal risks is determined. These proposals contribute to the improvement of accounting and analytical support for risk management of the factoring business, the choice of alternative risk management methods, the impact on their possible consequences, minimizing the negative impact of risks on the financial condition of the company, and establishing the effectiveness of factoring operations under risk.

  3. Cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia : The effect of communicating risk factors on intended healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.

    Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  5. Effective doses and standardised risk factors from paediatric diagnostic medical radiation exposures: Information for radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (II) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. Paediatric patient dose data from general radiographic, computed tomography, fluoroscopic and nuclear medicine databases have been analysed in age groups 0 to <5 years, 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and 15 to <18 years to determine standardised risk factors. Mean, minimum and maximum effective doses and the corresponding mean lifetime risks for general radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examinations for different age groups have been calculated. For all examinations, the mean lifetime cancer induction risk is provided in three formats: statistical, fraction and category. Standardised risk factors for different radiological and nuclear medicine examinations and an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation and the difficulties encountered in communicating the risks should facilitate risk communication to the patient/carer.

  6. Multiplicative Effects of Social and Psychological Risk Factors on College Students’ Suicidal Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016–2017, is a national online survey of college students in the United States. Social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, violence victimization, financial difficulty, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, and drug use risk/protective factors were assessed among 27,961 individuals. Three aspects of suicidality, including ideation, plan, and attempt, were also assessed. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Financial difficulty, violence victimization, identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, anxiety, depression, and drug use increased, while religiosity reduced the odds of suicidal behaviors. Multiplicative effects were found between the following social and psychological risk factors: (1 financial difficulty and anxiety; (2 financial difficulty and depression; (3 depression and drug use; (4 problem alcohol use and drug use; and (5 depression and problem alcohol use. There is a considerable overlap in the social and psychological processes, such as financial stress, mood disorders, and substance use problems, on risk of suicide in college students. As social and psychological risk factors do not operate independently, comprehensive suicidal risk evaluations that simultaneously address multiple social and psychological risk factors may be superior to programs that only address a single risk factor.

  7. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Batacan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk.

  8. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  9. A study on effective factors influencing on equity risk in banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the effects of various factors influencing on risk of return in banking system plays essential role on making managerial decisions. This paper investigates the effects of seven factors including equities, leverage, dividend, size, growth domestic products, bank concentration and market return on risk of return in selected banks listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The study selects the necessary data through financial statements announced on exchange as well as macro-economic figures reported by central bank of Iran to examine the hypotheses of the survey. Using some regression technique, the study has determined that only bank size and growth domestic product influence significantly on risk of return on Tehran Stock Exchange.

  10. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  11. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  12. Pleiotropic effects of type 2 diabetes management strategies on renal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tonneijck, Lennart; Smits, Mark M; Kramer, Mark H H; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with the type 2 diabetes pandemic, diabetic kidney disease has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As established in landmark randomised trials and recommended in clinical guidelines, prevention and treatment of diabetic kidney disease focuses on control of the two main renal risk factors, hyperglycaemia and systemic hypertension. Treatment of systemic hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers is advocated because these drugs seem to exert specific renoprotective effects beyond blood pressure lowering. Emerging evidence shows that obesity, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and dyslipidaemia might also adversely affect the kidney in diabetes. Control of these risk factors could have additional benefits on renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, despite multifactorial treatment approaches, residual risk for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes remains, and novel strategies or therapies to treat the disease are urgently needed. Several drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with pleiotropic effects that could favourably or unfavourably change patients' renal risk profile. We review the risk factors and treatment of diabetic kidney disease, and describe the pleiotropic effects of widely used drugs in type 2 diabetes management on renal outcomes, with special emphasis on antihyperglycaemic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Synthesizing Risk from Summary Evidence Across Multiple Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Colditz, Graham A; Steele, Russell J

    2018-07-01

    Although meta-analyses provide summary effect estimates that help advise patient care, patients often want to compare their overall health to the general population. The Harvard Cancer Risk Index was published in 2004 and uses risk ratio estimates and prevalence estimates from original studies across many risk factors to provide an answer to this question. However, the published version of the formula only uses dichotomous risk factors and its derivation was not provided. The objective of this brief report was to provide the derivation of a more general form of the equation that allows the incorporation of risk factors with three or more levels.

  15. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  16. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  17. Effects of Tea and Coffee Consumption on Cardiovascular Diseases and Relative Risk Factors: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Curti, Valeria; Tenore, Gian C; Nabavi, Seyed M; Daglia, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Tea and coffee are the second and third most consumed beverages after water, respectively. The high consumption of these beverages is due to the sensorial properties and effects on psychological and physiological functions, induced by caffeine and many other bioactive components responsible for the protective effects on human health generally ascribed to these beverages. The goal of this review article is to collect the scientific data obtained from clinical trials published in the last five years on the role of tea and coffee consumption against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglicemia, and hyperlipidaemia. In normal weight subjects, clinical trials showed that the consumption of tea is inversely associated to CVD risk factors or no association was found. Differently, in overweight subjects, the clinical trials and the metaanalyses showed an inverse correlation between tea consumption and CVDs. As regards coffee, it has long been suspected to be associated to high risk of CVDs. Nevertheless, some recent investigations reported that moderate coffee consumption have no effect or even protective effects against CVDs risk factors. The results of the metaanalyses confirm this trend suggesting that moderate coffee drinkers could be associated to a lower risk of CVDs than non- or occasional coffee drinkers or no association can be demonstrated between coffee consumption and CVDs. Literature data on tea consumption and CVD risk factors support that tea consumption reduces some risk factors especially in overweight people and obese subjects. Therefore, these results seem to suggest that tea could exert a protective effects against CVD development. As regards coffee, the results are controversial and did not allow to draw conclusions. Therefore, further research is needed before definitive recommendations for coffee consumption against CVD development can be made. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  18. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  19. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  20. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  1. The Effects of Occupational Health and Safety Risk Factors on Job Satisfaction in Hotel Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Kilic; Murat Selim Selvi

    2009-01-01

    Occupational health and safety risk factors can have direct or indirect effects on levels of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and the job productivity of workers in service companies as well as other types of industries. In this paper, the effects of physical, biological, chemical and socio-psychological risk factors, related to occupational safety and health, encountered in hotel enterprises on job satisfaction were investigated. Questionnaire survey was conducted as a data colle...

  2. Media Violence and Other Aggression Risk Factors in Seven Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis

    2017-07-01

    Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.

  3. Effect of elevated levels of coagulation factors on the risk of venous thrombosis in long-distance travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2009-01-01

    Risk of venous thrombosis is increased after long-distance travel. Identifying high-risk groups may provide a basis for targeted prevention. We assessed the effect of increased levels of coagulation factors and combinations of risk factors in travelers in a large case-control study. We calculated

  4. Examining the effect of the injury definition on risk factor analysis in circus artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G M; Meeuwisse, W H; Emery, C A; Shrier, I

    2012-06-01

    A secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study was conducted to explore how different definitions of injury affect the results of risk factor analyses. Modern circus artists (n=1281) were followed for 828,547 performances over a period of 49 months (2004-2008). A univariate risk factor analysis (age, sex, nationality, artist role) estimating incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was conducted using three injury definitions: (1) medical attention injuries, (2) time-loss injuries resulting in ≥1 missed performances (TL-1) and (3) time-loss injuries resulting in >15 missed performances (TL-15). Results of the risk factor analysis were dependent on the injury definition. Sex (females to male; IRR=1.13, 95% CI; 1.02-1.25) and age over 30 (30 years; IRR=1.37, 95% CI; 1.07-1.79) were risk factors for medical attention injuries only. Risk of injury for Europeans compared with North Americans was higher for TL-1 and TL-15 injuries compared with medical attention injuries. Finally, non-sudden load artists (low-impact acts) were less likely than sudden load artists (high-impact acts) to have TL-1 injuries, but the risk of medical attention injuries was similar. The choice of injury definition can have effects on the magnitude and direction of risk factor analyses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematy Mohsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, however there are controversies. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors has been investigated. Method This is a prospective observational study that was carried out in a group of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (including history of documented previous history of either coronary artery disease (CAD, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease in past 10 y. Eighty two volunteers including 38 male and 44 female, aged 29–70 y, mean 54.0 ± 10 y, with a previous history of either coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease were recruited. Subjects attended the metabolic unit after at least 10 h fasting, before and after Ramadan who were been fasting for at least 10 days. A fasting blood sample was obtained, blood pressure was measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Lipids profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS and insulin, homocysteine (hcy, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and complete blood count (CBC were analyzed on all blood samples. Results A significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk (based on Framingham risk score was found (13.0 ± 8 before Ramadan and 10.8 ±7 after Ramadan, P 0.001, t test.There was a significant higher HDL-c, WBC, RBC and platelet count (PLT, and lower plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference after Ramadan (P 0.05, t test. The changes in FBS, insulin,Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, hcy, hs-CRP and diastolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan were not significant (P >0.05, t test. Conclusions This study shows a significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile

  6. Interactive effects between radiation and other factors on cancer risk among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews RERF cancer studies conducted to examine interactive effects between radiation and epidemiological risk factors, including smoking habits, occupation, dietary habits and OB/GYN history. Special emphasis is placed on a review of studies of interactive effects between cigarette smoking and radiation on lung cancer risk. Comments on these studies are made and proposals for future studies are presented. (author)

  7. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  8. Risk Factors and Dose-Effect Relationship for Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Jae; Koom, Woong Sub; Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Yong Bae; Yoo, Sei Whan; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Gwi Eon; Choi, Eun Chang; Cha, In Ho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze risk factors and the dose-effect relationship for osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible after radiotherapy of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Materials and Methods: One-hundred ninety-eight patients with oral (45%) and oropharyngeal cancer (55%) who had received external radiotherapy between 1990 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had a dental evaluation before radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy (range, 16-75 Gy), and the median biologically effective dose for late effects (BED late ) in bone was 114 Gy 2 (range, 30-167 Gy 2 ). Results: The frequency of ORN was 13 patients (6.6%). Among patients with mandibular surgery, eight had ORN at the surgical site. Among patients without mandibular surgery, five patients had ORN on the molar area of the mandible. The median time to ORN was 22 months (range, 1-69 months). Univariate analysis revealed that mandibular surgery and Co-60 were significant risk factors for ORN (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). In multivariate analysis, mandibular surgery was the most important factor (p = 0.001). High radiation doses over BED 102.6 Gy 2 (conventional dose of 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction) were also a significant factor for ORN (p = 0.008) and showed a positive dose-effect relationship in logistic regression (p = 0.04) for patients who had undergone mandibular surgery. Conclusions: Mandibular surgery was the most significant risk factor for ORN of mandible in oral and oropharyngeal cancers patients. A BED of 102.6 Gy 2 or higher to the mandible also significantly increases the risk of ORN.

  9. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  10. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  11. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-07-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  12. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  13. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  14. National and subnational mortality effects of metabolic risk factors and smoking in Iran: a comparative risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzadfar Farshad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from cardiovascular and other chronic diseases has increased in Iran. Our aim was to estimate the effects of smoking and high systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, total cholesterol (TC, and high body mass index (BMI on mortality and life expectancy, nationally and subnationally, using representative data and comparable methods. Methods We used data from the Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance Survey to estimate means and standard deviations for the metabolic risk factors, nationally and by region. Lung cancer mortality was used to measure cumulative exposure to smoking. We used data from the death registration system to estimate age-, sex-, and disease-specific numbers of deaths in 2005, adjusted for incompleteness using demographic methods. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain the effect of risk factors on disease-specific mortality. We estimated deaths and life expectancy loss attributable to risk factors using the comparative risk assessment framework. Results In 2005, high SBP was responsible for 41,000 (95% uncertainty interval: 38,000, 44,000 deaths in men and 39,000 (36,000, 42,000 deaths in women in Iran. High FPG, BMI, and TC were responsible for about one-third to one-half of deaths attributable to SBP in men and/or women. Smoking was responsible for 9,000 deaths among men and 2,000 among women. If SBP were reduced to optimal levels, life expectancy at birth would increase by 3.2 years (2.6, 3.9 and 4.1 years (3.2, 4.9 in men and women, respectively; the life expectancy gains ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 years for TC, BMI, and FPG. SBP was also responsible for the largest number of deaths in every region, with age-standardized attributable mortality ranging from 257 to 333 deaths per 100,000 adults in different regions. Discussion Management of blood pressure through diet, lifestyle, and pharmacological interventions should be a priority in Iran

  15. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  16. Quantifying cardiometabolic risk using modifiable non-self-reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non-self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut-off points for risk categories. We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14-year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender-specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non-self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10-year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012-2013. HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit chi-square=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk on the basis of modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual's commitment to prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential effect of opium consumption on controlling diabetes and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevalence of high SBP were significantly higher in opium user group (P opium user group (P opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent.

  18. Spatial scale effects in environmental risk-factor modelling for diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K. Raghavan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies attempting to identify environmental risk factors for diseases can be seen to extract candidate variables from remotely sensed datasets, using a single buffer-zone surrounding locations from where disease status are recorded. A retrospective case-control study using canine leptospirosis data was conducted to verify the effects of changing buffer-zones (spatial extents on the risk factors derived. The case-control study included 94 case dogs predominantly selected based on positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR test for leptospires in urine, and 185 control dogs based on negative PCR. Land cover features from National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD and Kansas Gap Analysis Program (KS GAP around geocoded addresses of cases/controls were extracted using multiple buffers at every 500 m up to 5,000 m, and multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of different land cover variables to dogs. The types and statistical significance of risk factors identified changed with an increase in spatial extent in both datasets. Leptospirosis status in dogs was significantly associated with developed high-intensity areas in models that used variables extracted from spatial extents of 500-2000 m, developed medium-intensity areas beyond 2,000 m and up to 3,000 m, and evergreen forests beyond 3,500 m and up to 5,000 m in individual models in the NLCD. Significant associations were seen in urban areas in models that used variables extracted from spatial extents of 500-2,500 m and forest/woodland areas beyond 2,500 m and up to 5,000 m in individual models in Kansas gap analysis programme datasets. The use of ad hoc spatial extents can be misleading or wrong, and the determination of an appropriate spatial extent is critical when extracting environmental variables for studies. Potential work-arounds for this problem are discussed.

  19. The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberboym, M; Mena, I; Wainstein, J; Boaz, M; Lampl, Y

    2010-06-01

    Sildenafil citrate is widely used for erectile dysfunction. The present study examined the short-term effects of sildenafil administration in individuals with cerebrovascular risk factors, including patients with a history of stroke. Twenty-five consecutive male patients with erectile dysfunction and vascular risk factors were included in the study. A perfusion brain SPECT study was performed at baseline and 1 h after the oral administration of sildenafil. Associations between any of the risk factors and the perfusion scores were not detected, with the exception of stroke. Stroke patients showed significantly more areas with diminished perfusion after sildenafil administration compared to baseline. In patients with diabetes or hypertension, a dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not appear to produce detrimental effects on cerebral blood flow. However, patients with a history of stroke may be at increased risk of hemodynamic impairment after the use of sildenafil.

  20. Deconstructing racial differences: the effects of quality of education and cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Tommet, Doug; Crane, Paul K; Thomas, Michael L; Claxton, Amy; Habeck, Christian; Manly, Jennifer J; Romero, Heather R

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of vascular conditions and education quality on cognition over time in White and African American (AA) older adults. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal racial differences in executive functioning (EF) and memory composites among Whites (n = 461) and AAs (n = 118) enrolled in a cohort study. We examined whether cerebrovascular risk factors and Shipley Vocabulary scores (a proxy for education quality) accounted for racial differences. On average, AAs had lower quality of education and more cerebrovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. AAs had lower mean EF and memory at baseline, but there were no group differences in rates of decline. Cross-sectional racial differences in EF and memory persisted after controlling for vascular disease, but disappeared when controlling for Shipley Vocabulary. Quality of education appears to be more important than cerebrovascular risk factors in explaining cross-sectional differences in memory and EF performance between White and AA older adults. Further investigation is needed regarding the relative contribution of education quality and cerebrovascular risk factors to cognitive decline among ethnically/racially diverse older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Potential Effect of Opium Consumption on Controlling Diabetes and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnair...

  2. Risk factor scenario in an industrial set-up: Need for an effective screening tool to assess the high-risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Uma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial and technological revolution has resulted in nutrition transition. This calls for analyzing the risk factor scenario in the industrial population. Objective: The objective was to map the prevalence and assess the risk factors of industrial employees. Materials and Methods: The employees of a large petrochemical industry were enrolled (N=269 for the study. Risk factors were elicited through a structured questionnaire. Parameters monitored were fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Relative risk was calculated to find out significant predictor variables. Results: The employees had high prevalence of overweight (27%, obesity (22%, central obesity (48.7%, prehypertension (43.2%, hypertension (36.6%, and dyslipidemia (41.4%. They had erroneous dietary habits such as low intake of fruits and vegetables and high fat intake. Most of the employees had low physical activity levels. The prevalence of smoking (13.5%, tobacco (28.2%, and alcohol use (22.2% were also high with 15.1% having multiple habits. One-fifth of the employees had metabolic syndrome (MS. Seven predictor variables, namely, family history, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, physical inactivity, TG, and TG/H were identified and used to develop the risk score card to identify people at high risk of CVD and DM. Conclusion: Multiple risk factor scenario among the industrial population studied calls for effective intervention strategies and policy changes to combat the burden of non-communicable diseases. The risk score card can be used to screen the high-risk group in the industrial population.

  3. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  4. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  5. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  6. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  7. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  8. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  9. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Magalhães Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. Method: an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. Results: altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. Conclusions: risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation.

  10. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  11. The effect of aerobic exercise on some diabetic risk factors in obese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exercise has been shown to prevent and delay onset of diabetes. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of walking exercise in reducing some diabetic risk factors in sedentary obese women. Methods: Eighteen untrained obese (BMI>30) women aged 19-25 years volunteer took part in the ...

  12. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriche...

  14. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolrasoul Safaeiyan; Bahram Pourghassem-Gargari; Rasoul Zarrin; Javid Fereidooni; Mohammad Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enric...

  15. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  16. The effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiometabolic risk factors and anthropometrics parameters: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Chaudhri, Owais; Karimi, Ehsan; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious rituals of all healthy adult Muslims. However, there is no clear agreement on the effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular disease. Comorbidities and factors such as age, gender, health status, daily duration of fasting, food intake before and after fasting may impact on a fasting individual's cardiometabolic risk. This review was undertaken to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on: the incidence of cardiovascular disease during the month of Ramadan; the clinical status of patients with stable cardiac disease; and any alterations in cardiometabolic risk profile. A systematic search was undertaken for studies that investigated the impact of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1982 up to 2014. The incidence of acute cardiac illness during Ramadan fasting was similar when compared to non-fasting days. Ramadan fasting is associated with elevations in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and total cholesterol (T-chol). However, the lipid profile of diabetic patients deteriorated significantly during Ramadan fasting. In addition, Ramadan fasting lowers body weight, body fat percentage and BMI (body mass index). However, the relationship between weight reduction and loss of body fat is not studied. The majority of patients with stable cardiac illness can opt for Ramadan fasting safely. However, the long term effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors remains uncertain, and the apparent discordant effects in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus merits further study.

  17. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  18. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  19. Population-Attributable Risk Proportion of Clinical Risk Factors for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Natalie J; Golmakani, Marzieh K; Miglioretti, Diana L; Sprague, Brian L; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-09-01

    Many established breast cancer risk factors are used in clinical risk prediction models, although the proportion of breast cancers explained by these factors is unknown. To determine the population-attributable risk proportion (PARP) for breast cancer associated with clinical breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Case-control study with 1:10 matching on age, year of risk factor assessment, and Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registry. Risk factor data were collected prospectively from January 1, 1996, through October 31, 2012, from BCSC community-based breast imaging facilities. A total of 18 437 women with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ were enrolled as cases and matched to 184 309 women without breast cancer, with a total of 58 146 premenopausal and 144 600 postmenopausal women enrolled in the study. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density (heterogeneously or extremely dense vs scattered fibroglandular densities), first-degree family history of breast cancer, body mass index (>25 vs 18.5-25), history of benign breast biopsy, and nulliparity or age at first birth (≥30 years vs breast cancer. Of the 18 437 women with breast cancer, the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (3.7) years among premenopausal women and 61.7 (7.2) years among the postmenopausal women. Overall, 4747 (89.8%) premenopausal and 12 502 (95.1%) postmenopausal women with breast cancer had at least 1 breast cancer risk factor. The combined PARP of all risk factors was 52.7% (95% CI, 49.1%-56.3%) among premenopausal women and 54.7% (95% CI, 46.5%-54.7%) among postmenopausal women. Breast density was the most prevalent risk factor for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and had the largest effect on the PARP; 39.3% (95% CI, 36.6%-42.0%) of premenopausal and 26.2% (95% CI, 24.4%-28.0%) of postmenopausal breast cancers could potentially be averted if all women with heterogeneously or extremely dense

  20. Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Domínguez, Ángela; Martín, Vicente; Delgado‐Rodríguez, Miguel; Martínez‐Baz, Iván; Baricot, Maretva; Soldevila, Nuria; Mayoral, José M.; Astray, Jenaro; Quintana, José M.; Cantón, Rafael; Castro, Ady; González‐Candelas, Fernando; Alonso, Jordi; Saez, Marc; Tamames, Sonia; Pumarola, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Castilla et al. (2013) Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 177–183. Background  The role of different risk exposures and preventive measures against influenza has not been well established. Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors and measures to prevent influenza infection in the community. Methods  We conducted a multicenter case–control study. Cases were 481 outpatients aged 18 years or older with laboratory‐confirmed influenza A(H1N1)09 in the 2009–2010 season in Spain. A control was selected for each case from outpatients from the same area matched by age and date of consultation. Information on risk situations, preventive measures and other variables was obtained by interview and review of the medical record. Results  In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the risk of a diagnosis of influenza increased with the number of cohabitants (compared with <3 cohabitants, three cohabitants had an OR = 1·80, 95% CI 1·12–2·89, and ≥5 cohabitants had an OR = 2·66, 95% CI 1·31–5·41) and for health care workers (OR = 2·94, 95% CI 1·53–5·66). The use of metropolitan public transport was associated with a lower frequency of a diagnosis of influenza (OR = 0·45, 95% CI 0·30–0·68) but not the use of taxis or long‐distance transport. The influenza A(H1N1)09 vaccine had a protective effect (OR = 0·13, 95% CI 0·04–0·48), unlike hand washing after touching contaminated surfaces or the use of alcohol‐based hand sanitizers. Conclusion  The home environment appears to play an important role in the spread of influenza in adults, but not the use of public transport. Health care workers have a higher risk of contracting influenza. Vaccination was the most effective preventive measure. PMID:22458533

  1. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  2. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Jacqueline K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%. Eighteen identified articles were included, corresponding to six unique studies involving 527 participants. Both EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride concentration, with DHA having a greater triglyceride-lowering effect. Whilst total cholesterol levels were largely unchanged by EPA and DHA, DHA increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, particularly HDL2, and increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and LDL particle size. Both EPA and DHA inhibited platelet activity, whilst DHA improved vascular function and lowered heart rate and blood pressure to a greater extent than EPA. The effects of EPA and DHA on inflammatory markers and glycaemic control were inconclusive; however both lowered oxidative stress. Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies. PMID:29425187

  3. Risk factors affecting survival in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, L; Cardo, M L; Martínez-Dolz, L; García-Palomar, C; Rueda, J; Zorio, E; Arnau, M A; Osa, A; Palencia, M

    2005-11-01

    Certain cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) patients. The sum of various risk factors may have a large cumulative negative effect, leading to a substantially worse prognosis and the need to consider whether HT is contraindicated. The objective of this study was to determine whether the risk factors usually available prior to HT result in an excess mortality in our setting that contraindicates transplantation. Consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from November 1987 to January 2004 were included. Heart-lung transplants, retransplants, and pediatric transplants were excluded. Of the 384 patients, 89% were men. Mean age was 52 years (range, 12 to 67). Underlying disease included ischemic heart disease (52%), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (36%), valvular disease (8%), and other (4%). Variables considered risk factors were obesity (BMI >25), dyslipidemia, hypertension, prior thoracic surgery, diabetes, and history of ischemic heart disease. Survival curves by number of risk factors using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank for comparison of curves. Overall patient survival at 1, 5, 10, and 13 years was 76%, 68%, 54%, and 47%, respectively. Survival at 10 years, if fewer than two risk factors were present, was 69%; 59% if two or three factors were present; and 37% if more than three associated risk factors were present (P = .04). The presence of certain risk factors in patients undergoing HT resulted in lower survival rates. The combination of various risk factors clearly worsened outcomes. However, we do not believe this should be an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  4. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  5. Frequently observed risk factors for fall-related injuries and effective preventive interventions: a multihospital survey of nurses' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Huey-Ming; Yin, Chang-Yi

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to prioritize the risk factors for injurious falls and effective interventions in nursing practice. Registered nurses perceived that the most frequently observed risk factors were confusion, gait problems, Alzheimer disease, disorientation, and inability to follow safety instructions. The most effective interventions were keeping hospital bed brakes locked, keeping floor surfaces clean/dry, using appropriate footwear for patients, maintaining a call light within reach, and reducing tripping hazards.

  6. Marriage is a dependent risk factor for mortality of colon adenocarcinoma without a time-varying effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minling; Li, Lixian; Yu, Wei; Chen, Jie; Xiong, Weibin; Chen, Shuang; Yu, Li

    2017-03-21

    It has been well recognized that the effects of many prognostic factors could change during long-term follow-up. Although marriage has been proven to be a significant prognostic factor for the survival of colon cancer, whether the effect of marriage is constant with time remain unknown. This study analyzed the impact of marital status on the mortality of colon cancer patients with an extended Cox model that allowed for time-varying effects. We identified 71,955 patients who underwent colectomy between 2004 and 2009 to treat colon adenocarcinoma from the Surveilance, Epidemiology and End Results Database. The multivariate extended Cox model was used to evaluate the effect of marital status on all-cause mortality, while the Fine-Gray competing risks model was used for colon cancer-specific mortality, with death from other causes as the competing risk. The unmarried patients carried a 1.37-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with the married patients (95%CI: 1.33-1.40; pMarriage is a dependent prognosis factor for survival of surgically treated colon adenocarcinoma patients. Psychological interventions are suggested to improve receipt of treatment among unmarried patients, as their poor survival may be due to the inefficient treatment.

  7. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  8. Risk factor management: antiatherogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Sandri, Marcus; Schuler, Gerhard; Teupser, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Despite the advances in interventional techniques, the management of stable atherosclerosis remains the domain of optimal guideline-oriented therapy. Recent studies on the effects of aggressive lipid lowering on atheroma volume changes using intravascular ultrasound indicate that it is possible to achieve atherosclerosis regression by reaching low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels less than 75 mg/dl. The pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular (CV) event observed with aggressive lipid lowering. As a second important strategy to prevent disease progression, lifestyle changes with regular physical exercise are capable of halting the atherosclerotic process and reducing angina symptoms and CV events. Optimal medical therapy, a healthy lifestyle with regular physical exercise, and coronary interventions are not mutually exclusive treatment strategies. Over the last few decades, both have proved to be effective in significantly reducing the CV mortality in the Western world. However, risk factor modification contributed to at least half the effect in the reduction of CV mortality. This figure provides an estimate of what could be achieved if we were to take risk factor modification more seriously - especially in the acute care setting. The knowledge is there: today we have a better understanding on how to stop progression and even induce regression of atherosclerosis. Much research still needs to be done and will be done. In the meantime, however, our primary focus should lie in implementing what is already known. In addition, it is essential not just to treat CV risk factors, but also to treat them to achieve the target values as set by the guidelines of European Society of Cardiology.

  9. Adverse effects of fructose on cardiometabolic risk factors and hepatic lipid metabolism in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, M-R; Söderlund, S; Bogl, L H; Hakkarainen, A; Matikainen, N; Pietiläinen, K H; Räsänen, S; Lundbom, N; Björnson, E; Eliasson, B; Mancina, R M; Romeo, S; Alméras, N; Pepa, G D; Vetrani, C; Prinster, A; Annuzzi, G; Rivellese, A; Després, J-P; Borén, J

    2017-08-01

    Overconsumption of dietary sugars, fructose in particular, is linked to cardiovascular risk factors such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, clinical studies have to date not clarified whether these adverse cardiometabolic effects are induced directly by dietary sugars, or whether they are secondary to weight gain. To assess the effects of fructose (75 g day -1 ), served with their habitual diet over 12 weeks, on liver fat content and other cardiometabolic risk factors in a large cohort (n = 71) of abdominally obese men. We analysed changes in body composition, dietary intake, an extensive panel of cardiometabolic risk markers, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), liver fat content and postprandial lipid responses after a standardized oral fat tolerance test (OFTT). Fructose consumption had modest adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. However, fructose consumption significantly increased liver fat content and hepatic DNL and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate (a measure of β-oxidation). The individual changes in liver fat were highly variable in subjects matched for the same level of weight change. The increase in liver fat content was significantly more pronounced than the weight gain. The increase in DNL correlated positively with triglyceride area under the curve responses after an OFTT. Our data demonstrated adverse effects of moderate fructose consumption for 12 weeks on multiple cardiometabolic risk factors in particular on liver fat content despite only relative low increases in weight and waist circumference. Our study also indicates that there are remarkable individual differences in susceptibility to visceral adiposity/liver fat after real-world daily consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages over 12 weeks. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Income inequality and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a highly unequal country: a fixed-effects analysis from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Kafui; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Avendano, Mauricio

    2018-03-06

    Chronic stress associated with high income inequality has been hypothesized to increase CVD risk and other adverse health outcomes. However, most evidence comes from high-income countries, and there is limited evidence on the link between income inequality and biomarkers of chronic stress and risk for CVD. This study examines how changes in income inequality over recent years relate to changes in CVD risk factors in South Africa, home to some of the highest levels of income inequality globally. We linked longitudinal data from 9356 individuals interviewed in the 2008 and 2012 National Income Dynamics Study to district-level Gini coefficients estimated from census and survey data. We investigated whether subnational district income inequality was associated with several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Africa, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, physical inactivity, smoking, and high alcohol consumption. We ran individual fixed-effects models to examine the association between changes in income inequality and changes in CVD risk factors over time. Linear models were used for continuous metabolic outcomes while conditional Poisson models were used to estimate risk ratios for dichotomous behavioral outcomes. Both income inequality and prevalence of most CVD risk factors increased over the period of study. In longitudinal fixed-effects models, changes in district Gini coefficients were not significantly associated with changes in CVD risk factors. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that subnational district income inequality is associated with CVD risk factors within the high-inequality setting of South Africa.

  11. Risk management with regard to the effect of human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components in today's market is a party decision-making under risk and uncertainty. The first step in making such decisions - to adequately process the information for estimating the future value of assets and the interests of investors probabilities of each particular scenario. The next step is to choose the alternative that has the greatest utility for the investor. Each of these steps is associated with numerous difficulties, the roots of which stem from the specificity of human psychology. The article notes that an integral part of professional risk management is to identify the nature of the object of management in the sphere of economy. Since the domestic theory of risk management is being formed-tion, the problem of a clear comprehensive definition of “risk” becomes now particularly relevant-ness. The article deals with along with economic forecasts of the risks and the human factor in decision-tions solutions. Along with economic forecasts, the report focuses on psychological problems and attempts to take into account the human factor in decision-making at the forecast of risks arising in the company. The important parameters are the status and position of the person in the society, as well as its social well-being. Analysis Meto-ing risk assessment concluded that the need to develop new models and methods of risk management, taking into account the four-lovecheskogo factor. Economic psychology and its applications have developed into a special branch of economic knowledge - the so-called behavioral economics, which surely develops a wide range of economic issues - from the actual theory of individual behavior to the problems of public choice and the financial economy. The most interesting item is the fact that the concept of “risk” is considered from different points of view - as the economist-mathematician with the position, and a psychologist.

  12. Effect of peer support interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sonal J; Ruppar, Todd; Koopman, Richelle J; Lindbloom, Erik J; Elliott, Susan G; Mehr, David R; Conn, Vicki S

    2018-03-23

    Peer support by persons affected with diabetes improves peer supporter's diabetes self-management skills. Peer support interventions by individuals who have diabetes or are affected by diabetes have been shown to improve glycemic control; however, its effects on other cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to estimate the effect of peer support interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control in adults with diabetes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing peer support interventions to a control condition in adults affected by diabetes that measured any cardiovascular disease risk factors [Body Mass Index, smoking, diet, physical activity, cholesterol level, glucose control and blood pressure]. Quality was assessed by Cochrane's risk of bias tool. We calculated standardized mean difference effect sizes using random effects models. We retrieved 438 citations from multiple databases including OVID MEDLINE, Cochrane database and Scopus, and author searches. Of 233 abstracts reviewed, 16 articles met inclusion criteria. A random effects model in a total of 3243 participants showed a positive effect of peer support interventions on systolic BP with a pooled effect size of 2.07 mmHg (CI 0.35 mmHg to 3.79 mmHg, p = 0.02); baseline pooled systolic blood pressure was 137 mmHg. There was a non-significant effect of peer support interventions on diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, diet and physical activity. Cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control outcomes were secondary outcomes in most studies and baseline values were normal or mildly elevated. Only one study reported smoking outcomes. We found a small (2 mmHg) positive effect of peer support interventions on systolic blood pressure in adults with diabetes whose baseline blood pressure was on average minimally elevated. Additional studies need to

  13. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…

  14. The effects of intimate partner violence duration on individual and partner-related sexual risk factors among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Lee-St John, Terrence J; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among women, but less is known about mechanisms of this association and if length of relationship violence is a factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the duration of IPV and both individual and partner-related sexual risk factors that may increase women's risk for STIs and HIV. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the medical records of 2000 women. Four distinct categories defined the duration of partner violence: violence in the past year only, past year and during the past 5 years, past year plus extending for greater than 5 years, and no past year violence but a history of partner violence. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between the duration of partner violence and individual sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of sexual partners, drug and/or alcohol use, anal sex) and partner-related sexual risk factors (eg, nonmonogamy, STI risk, condom nonuse). Nearly 30% of the women in the study reported a history of partner violence during their lifetime. All of the individual risk factors, as well as partner-related risk factors, were significantly associated (P violence and duration of violence. The study findings extend the knowledge related to partner violence as a risk factor for STIs/HIV, highlighting the effects of partner violence duration on the health of women. Assessing for lifetime experiences of partner violence may improve outcomes for women and their families. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. The MABIC project: An effectiveness trial for reducing risk factors for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Leiva, David; Puntí, Joaquim; Trepat, Esther; Pàmias, Montserrat; Palao, Diego

    2016-02-01

    Challenges in the prevention of disordered eating field include moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. This effectiveness trial tested whether this program has effects when previously trained community providers in an integrated approach to prevention implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post-test and 1-year follow-up measures. The sample included girls in the 8th grade from six schools (n = 152 girls) in a city near Barcelona (intervention group), and from eleven schools (n = 413 girls) in four neighboring towns (control group). The MABIC risk factors of disordered eating were assessed as main outcomes. Girls in the intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in beauty ideal internalization, disordered eating attitudes and weight-related teasing from pretest to 1-year follow-up compared to girls in the control group, suggesting that this program is effective under real-world conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  17. Effect of anti-obesity drug on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-obesity drugs are widely used to prevent the complications of obesity, however, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors are unclear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensively systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literatures. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors compared to placebo. Overall, orlistat produced a reduction of 2.39 kg (95%CI-3.34 to -1.45 for weight, a reduction of 0.27 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.36 to -0.17 for total cholesterol, a reduction of 0.21 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.12 for LDL, a reduction of 0.12 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.20 to -0.04 for fasting glucose, 1.85 mmHg reduction (95%CI: -3.30 to -0.40 for SBP, and a reduction of 1.49 mmHg (95%CI: -2.39 to -0.58 for DBP. Sibutramine only showed effects on weight loss and triglycerides reduction with statistical significances. Rimonabant was associated with statistically significant effects on weight loss, SBP reduction and DBP reduction. No other significantly different effects were identified between anti-obesity therapy and placebo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified that anti-obesity therapy was associated with a decrease of weight regardless of the type of the drug. Orlistat and rimonabant could lead to an improvement on cardiovascular risk factors. However, Sibutramine may have a direct effect on cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Cushman, Mary; Næss, Inger Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much controversy surrounds the association of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline cardiovascular disease risk...... factors and validated VTE events. Definitions were harmonized across studies. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were modeled categorically and continuously using restricted cubic splines. Estimates were obtained for overall VTE, provoked VTE (ie, VTE occurring in the presence of 1 or more...

  19. [Modifiable risk factors for primary headache. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, L; Ziebarth, S; von Kries, R

    2014-08-01

    Strategies to prevent primary headaches could be very beneficial, especially given that primary headaches can lead to the development of chronic headache. In order to establish headache prevention strategies, the modifiable risk factors for primary headaches need to be identified. A systematic literature search on the risk factors for primary headaches was conducted independently by two persons using the databases MEDLINE and Embase. Further inclusion criteria were observational studies in adult general populations or case-control studies, where the effect sizes were reported as odds ratios or where the odds ratios could be calculated from the given data. In all, 24 studies were included in the analysis. There was a large amount of heterogeneity among the studies concerning headache acquisition, headache classification, and risk factors for headache development. Independent of headache trigger and definition of headache, the association between headache and the risk factor "stress" was very high: The meta-analysis shows an overall effect of 2.26 (odds ratio; 95 %-CI = [1.79; 2.85]). Studies evaluating neck and shoulder pain also report a strong association with headache; however, these results could not be summarized in a meta-analysis. Equally, the overall effects of smoking and coffee consumption on headaches could not be verified because the effect sizes were rather small and predominantly noticeable only at higher doses. A strong association between headache and the risk factors stress and neck and shoulder pain was confirmed. The effect sizes of smoking and coffee consumption on headaches were rather small.

  20. Effectiveness of a peer-delivered dissonance-based program in reducing eating disorder risk factors in high school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Latner, Janet D; Brown, Krista E; Ebneter, Daria S; Becker, Carolyn B

    2015-09-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a peer-led dissonance-based eating disorders (ED) prevention/risk factor reduction program with high school girls. Ninth grade girls (n = 50) received the peer-led program within the school curriculum. A quasi-experimental design was used to assess changes in ED risk factors preintervention and postintervention compared with waitlist control. Participants were followed through 3-month follow-up. Peer-leader adherence to an intervention manual tailored for this age group was high. The intervention was rated as highly acceptable, with a large proportion of participants reporting that they enjoyed the program and learned and applied new information. Intervention participants exhibited significantly greater pre-post reductions in a majority of risk-factor outcomes compared to waitlist controls. When groups were combined to assess program effects over time there were significant pre-post reductions in a majority of outcomes that were sustained through 3-month follow-up. This pilot study provides tentative support for the effectiveness of using peer leaders to implement an empirically supported ED risk factor reduction program in a high school setting. Additional research is needed to replicate results in larger, better-controlled trials with longer follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  2. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  3. Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios G. Athyros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors, either when called metabolic syndrome (MetS or not, substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and causes mortality. One of the possible mechanisms for this clustering's adverse effect is an increase in arterial stiffness (AS, and in high central aortic blood pressure (CABP, which are significant and independent CVD risk factors. Arterial hypertension was connected to AS long ago; however, other MetS components (obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia or MetS associated abnormalities not included in MetS diagnostic criteria (renal dysfunction, hyperuricaemia, hypercoaglutability, menopause, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnea have been implicated too. We discuss the evidence connecting these cardio-metabolic risk factors, which negatively affect AS and finally increase CVD risk. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of possible lifestyle and pharmacological interventions on all these cardio-metabolic risk factors, in an effort to reduce CVD risk and identify features that should be taken into consideration when treating MetS patients with or without arterial hypertension.

  4. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  6. Metformin modifies the exercise training effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in impaired glucose tolerant adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Nightingale, Joy; Choi, Sung-Eun; Chipkin, Stuart R.; Braun, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) adults are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise or metformin reduce CVD risk, but the efficacy of combining treatments is unclear. To determine the effects of exercise training plus metformin, compared to each treatment alone, on CVD risk factors in IGT adults. Subjects were assigned to: placebo (P), metformin (M), exercise plus placebo (EP), or exercise plus metformin (EM) (8/group). In a double-blind design, P or 2000mg/d of M were administered for 12 weeks and half performed aerobic and resistance training 3 days/week for approximately 60 minutes/day at 70% pre-training heart rate peak. Outcomes included: adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Z-scores were calculated to determine metabolic syndrome severity. M and EM, but not EP, decreased body weight compared to P (p metabolic syndrome Z-score compared to baseline (EP; trend p = 0.07 and EM or M; p exercise and/or metformin improve some CVD risk factors, only training or metformin alone lowered hs-CRP and BP. Thus, metformin may attenuate the effects of training on some CVD risk factors and metabolic syndrome severity in IGT adults. PMID:23505172

  7. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  8. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  9. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This studydetermined the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among school-aged children. ... Using logistic regression, the following factors showed significant effect (p<0.05) as predisposing factors to intestinal helminth infections: water treatment, sanitary habits, refuse disposal, parental ...

  10. Effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Thomas F; Johansen, Nanna B; Frandsen, Christian S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the short-term effect of adding liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily to insulin treatment on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. In total, 100 overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) ) adult patients (age ≥18 years) with type 1 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 8% (64 mmol/mol) were....... In conclusion, in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, liraglutide as add-on to insulin increased heart rate and did not improve other cardiovascular risk factors after 24 weeks of treatment....... randomized to liraglutide 1.8 mg or placebo added to insulin treatment in a 24-week double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. At baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment, 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness were evaluated. Compared...

  11. Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

  12. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  14. Genetic variation in the base excision repair pathway, environmental risk factors, and colorectal adenoma risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Corral

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking, high alcohol intake, and low dietary folate levels are risk factors for colorectal adenomas. Oxidative damage caused by these three factors can be repaired through the base excision repair pathway (BER. We hypothesized that genetic variation in BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. In a sigmoidoscopy-based study, we examined associations between 182 haplotype tagging SNPs in 14 BER genes, and colorectal adenoma risk, and examined their potential role as modifiers of the effect cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and dietary folate levels. Among all individuals, no statistically significant associations between BER SNPs and adenoma risk persisted after correction for multiple comparisons. However, among Asian-Pacific Islanders we observed two SNPs in FEN1 and one in NTHL1, and among African-Americans one SNP in APEX1 that were associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Significant associations were also observed between SNPs in the NEIL2 gene and rectal adenoma risk. Three SNPS modified the effect of smoking (MUTYH interaction p = 0.002; OGG1 interaction p = 0.013; FEN1 interaction p = 0.013, one SNP in LIG3 modified the effect of alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.024 and two SNPs in LIG3 modified the effect of dietary folate (interaction p = 0.001 and p = 0.08 on colorectal adenoma risk. These findings support a role for genetic variants in the BER pathway as potential modifiers of colorectal adenoma risk. Our findings strengthen the role of oxidative damage induced by key lifestyle and dietary risk factors in colorectal adenoma formation.

  15. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasanarong, Adis

    2014-01-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

  16. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Andreucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiocontrast media (RCM are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN. We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given.

  17. Effect of Ramadan fasting on urinary risk factors for calculus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladipour, Amir Hossein; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Parvin, Mahmoud; Azadvari, Mohaddeseh

    2012-01-01

    Even though dehydration could aggravate formation of urinary calculi, the effects of fluid and food restriction on calculus formation is not thoroughly defined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of fluid and food restriction in Ramadan fasting on urinary factors in kidney and urinary calculus formation. Fifty-seven men aged 30 to 55 years old, including 37 recurrent calcium calculus formers and 20 with no history of kidney calculi were evaluated for blood tests, ultrasonography investigations, urinalysis, urine culture, and also 24-hour urine collection test. Metabolites including calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, and creatinine were measured before and during Ramadan fasting. The values of calculus-precipitating solutes as well as inhibitory factors were documented thoroughly. Total excretion of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium in 24-hour urine and also urine volume during fasting were significantly lower than those in the nonfasting period. Urine concentration of calcium during fasting was significantly lower than nonfasting (P calculus formation. We did not find enough evidence in favor of increased risks of calculus formation during Ramadan fasting.

  18. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  19. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  20. Risk Factors Influencing Construction Procurement Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Dahiru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significance index score for the most important risk factors limiting the procurement performance of the projects. A self administered questionnaire was employed to the construction industry professionals for responses. A total of 78 questionnaires were distributed to these professionals (architects, quantity surveyors, engineers, and contractors but 62 were returned and analyzed using influential index and later ranked in order of importance. Results of the analysis indicate a disparity in terms of ranking of the factors influencing construction procurement performance. Corruption related risk, conflict of interest, ineffective project technical feasibility, and lack of commitment to transparency were found to be the most significant factors limiting construction procurement performance. Communication barriers and unconfidential tender evaluation process were found to be the low weighted risk factors. The findings can serve as a supportive mechanism for risks management in public construction procurement management. Therefore, construction procurement personnel at all levels of government may find this study relevant, while improving construction procurement performance in the country. It is recommended that construction procurement system should be focused on risks related to corruption, conflict of interest, and effective technical feasibility for improving the overall project performance.

  1. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  2. Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...

  3. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  4. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases : incidence, time course, and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Penny K.; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna; Seymour, Zachary A.; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Nakamura, Jean L.; McDermott, Michael W.

    OBJECT The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. METHODS All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at

  5. Effect of high-intensity interval and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in MS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Severijns, Tobias; Wijckmans, Ferdy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of high-intensity interval plus resistance training (HIITR) on cardiovascular risk factors was studied through a quasi-experimental study. Outcome measures are: endurance capacity, body composition, physical activity level, isometric muscle strength, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipids and lipoprotein - cholesterol.

  6. Adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions: gender-specific effects of child, maternal and family risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865

  7. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  8. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Rules and regulations as potential moderator on the relationship between organizational internal and external factors with effective construction risk management in Nigerian construction companies: A proposed framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, A. Q.; Bahaudin, A. Y.; Kamaruddeen, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Certain organizational internal and external factors have been found to influence effective construction risk management within the construction company which has contributed to massive risk occurrence on the projects. Yet, the influence of the organizational factors such as effective communication, team competency with skills, active leadership, political factor, organizational culture, technology factor and economic factor on effective construction risk management among the construction companies operating in Abuja and Lagos state Nigeria have not received considerable attention. More so, a moderating variable is proposed. This paper proposes rules and regulations as the potential moderator on the relationship between organisational internal factors, external factors and effective construction risk management.

  10. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  11. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    . Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, very-low-density lipoprotein ( VLDL)- triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), blood pressure, and body weight were determined......-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, FVIIc, or blood pressure. Drinking wine was associated with relative body weight increments closely corresponding to the energy contributed by the alcohol component. Conclusion: Moderate red wine consumption for 4 weeks is associated with desirable changes in HDL-C and fibrinogen......Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...

  12. Introduction of risk size in the determination of uncertainty factor UFL in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jinling; Lu Yun; Velasquez, Natalia; Hu Hongying; Yu Ruozhen; Liu Zhengtao; Meng Wei

    2012-01-01

    The methodology for using uncertainty factors in health risk assessment has been developed for several decades. A default value is usually applied for the uncertainty factor UF L , which is used to extrapolate from LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level) to NAEL (no adverse effect level). Here, we have developed a new method that establishes a linear relationship between UF L and the additional risk level at LOAEL based on the dose–response information, which represents a very important factor that should be carefully considered. This linear formula makes it possible to select UF L properly in the additional risk range from 5.3% to 16.2%. Also the results remind us that the default value 10 may not be conservative enough when the additional risk level at LOAEL exceeds 16.2%. Furthermore, this novel method not only provides a flexible UF L instead of the traditional default value, but also can ensure a conservative estimation of the UF L with fewer errors, and avoid the benchmark response selection involved in the benchmark dose method. These advantages can improve the estimation of the extrapolation starting point in the risk assessment. (letter)

  13. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Masoomi, Mohammad; Shahesmaeili, Armita; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Afshari, Mahdi; Nasri, Hamid Reza; Kahnooji, Masoomeh; Samadi, Sadra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Opium abuse as a relatively common behavior among Iranian population may have an association with the other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Here, we reported the prevalence of opium abuse and its co-exposures with oral health and other CAD risk factors. We recruited 5900 inhabitant aged 15-75 years using a randomized cluster household survey. All were interviewed for level of physical activity (PA), depression, anxiety and opium use and assessed for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and oral health status. Regarding to opium abuse, participants were grouped into: "Non-," "occasional," and "dependent" users. Using logistic regression model for every CAD risk factor, we assessed whether the co-exposure of opium and CAD risk factor is significant. Overall, 10.6% reported ever opium use including 5.6% dependent and 5% occasional users. The prevalence of opium abuse was increased from 2.1% in 15-25 years to 24.5% in 55-64 years group. Opium abuse, in occasional and dependent forms, was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81 and 2.49) and low PS (AOR 1.43 and 1.71 respectively). Dependents were less obese than nonusers (P Opium abuse had no significant association with hypertension, diabetes, oral health status and lipid profile. Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  14. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En XU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, obesity, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, alcoholism, metabolic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc. Meanwhile, hypertension is the most important one in the above-mentioned risk factors. It would effectively reduce or postpone the onset of cerebrovascular diseases through proper intervention and management on those risk factors. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.006

  15. The contribution of human factors to risks from radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkin, J.J.; Ridsdale, E.; Wilkinson, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The use of probabilistic risk assessment to assess the safety of radioactive material transport operations is well accepted. However, quantitative risk assessment of radioactive material transport operations have generally not explicitly considered human factors in estimating risks. Given the high profile of human factors as the root cause of many serious transport incidents omission of an explicit consideration of human factors in a risk assessment could lead to assessments losing credibility. In addition, scrutiny of radioactive material transport incident databases reveals a large number of operational incidents and minor accidents that would have been avoided if more attention had been paid to human factors aspects, and provides examples of instances where improvements have been achieved. This paper examines the areas of radioactive material transport risk assessments (both qualitative and quantitative) which could be strengthened by further examination of the impact of human errors. It is concluded that a more complete and detailed understanding of the effects of human factors on the risks from radioactive material transport operations has been obtained. Quality assurance has a key part to play in ensuring that packages are correctly manufactured and prepared for transport. Risk assessments of radioactive material transport operations can be strengthened by concentrating on the key human factors effects. (authors)

  16. Risk factors which cause senile cataract evolvement: outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Bragin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Examination of natural ageing processes including those caused by multiple external factors has been attracting re-searchers' attention over the last years. Senile cataract is a multi-factor disease. Expenditure on cataract surgery remain one of the greatest expenses items in public health care. Age is a basic factor which causes senile cataract. Morbidity with cataract doubles each 10 years of life. This outline considers some literature sources which describe research results on influence exerted on cataract evolvement by such risk factors as age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol intake, pancreatic diabetes, intake of certain medications, a number of environmental factors including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. mane of these factors are shown to increase or reduce senile cataract risk; there are conflicting data on certain factors. The outline also contains quantitative characteristics of cataract risks which are given via odds relation and evolve due to age parameters impacts, alcohol intake, ionizing radiation, etc. The authors also state that still there is no answer to the question whether dose-effect relationship for cataract evolvement is a threshold or non-threshold.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cardiovascular risk factor screening in women who experienced hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baaren, Gert-Jan; Hermes, Wietske; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; van der Post, Joris A.; Porath, Martina; Ponjee, Gabrielle A. E.; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the cost-effectiveness of post-partum screening on cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent treatment in women with a history of gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia at term. Study design: Two separate Markov models evaluated the cost-effectiveness analysis of

  18. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  19. Cardiovascular risk-factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioe, Patricia A; Crawford, Sybil L; Stein, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in noninfected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk [F(1, 117) = 0.13, p > .05]. Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly but significantly correlated; r (126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk-factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Worksite Opportunities for Wellness (WOW): effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors after 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Deusinger, Susan S; Inman, Cindi L; Burlis, Tamara L; Highstein, Gabrielle R; Buskirk, Trent D; Steger-May, Karen; Peterson, Linda R

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite health promotion program on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors. In St Louis, Missouri from 2005 to 2006, 151 employees (134 F, 17 M, 81% overweight/obese) participated in a cohort-randomized trial comparing assessments + intervention (worksite A) with assessments only (worksite B) for 1 year. All participants received personal health reports containing their assessment results. The intervention was designed to promote physical activity and favorable dietary patterns using pedometers, healthy snack cart, WeightWatchers(R) meetings, group exercise classes, seminars, team competitions, and participation rewards. Outcomes included BMI, body composition, blood pressure, fitness, lipids, and Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk. 123 participants, aged 45+/-9 yr, with BMI 32.9+/-8.8 kg/m(2) completed 1 year. Improvements (P< or =0.05) were observed at both worksites for fitness, blood pressure, and total-, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol. Additional improvements occurred at worksite A in BMI, fat mass, Framingham risk score, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; only the changes in BMI and fat mass were different between worksites. A multi-faceted worksite intervention promoted favorable changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors, but many of the improvements were achieved with worksite health assessments and personalized health reports in the absence of an intervention.

  1. Effect of aerobic exercise training followed by a low-calorie diet on metabolic syndrome risk factors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T; So, R; Shimojo, N; Tanaka, K

    2015-09-01

    Whether low-volume, high-intensity, interval training (HIIT) is an adequate exercise method for improving metabolic risk factors is controversial. Moreover, it is not known if performing a short-term, low-calorie diet intervention (LCDi) after a HIIT program affects risk factors. This study investigated how an 8-week, 3 times/week exercise intervention (EXi) incorporating either HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) followed by a 4-week LCDi affects risk factors. Twenty-six male workers with metabolic risk factors (47.4 ± 7.1 years; cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2peak) of 28.5 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min) were randomly assigned to either the HIIT (3 sets of 3-min cycling with a 2-min active rest between sets, 180 kcal) or MICT (45 min, 360 kcal) group. After the EXi, all subjects participated in a 4-week LCDi (4 counseling sessions). During the EXi, VO2peak improved more (P exercise volume than MICT, but this advantage of HIIT promptly disappeared through detraining. An intervention strategy consisting of 8 weeks of either HIIT or MICT followed by a 4-week LCDi has a positive effect on metabolic risk factors. UMIN11352. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of improved metabolic risk factors on bone turnover markers after 12 weeks of simvastatin treatment with or without exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Boyle, Leryn J; Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Fletcher, Justin A; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence supports an association between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. Statins and exercise independently improve metabolic risk factors; however whether improvements in metabolic risk factor affects bone turnover is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover; and 2) determine if improvements in metabolic risk factors after 12 weeks of statin treatment, exercise or the combination affect bone turnover. Fifty participants with ≥2 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics were randomly assigned to one of three groups: statin (STAT: simvastatin, 40 mg/day), exercise (EX: brisk walking and/or slow jogging, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week), or the combination (STAT+EX). Body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum markers of bone formation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP; osteocalcin, OC), resorption (C-terminal peptide of type I collagen, CTX) and metabolic risk factors were determined. Two-factor (time, group) repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine changes of metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. General linear models were used to determine the effect of pre-treatment metabolic risk factors on post-treatment bone turnover marker outcomes. Participants with ≥4 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics had lower pre-treatment OC than those with 3 or fewer. OC was negatively correlated with glucose, and CTX was positively correlated with cholesterol. STAT or STAT+EX lowered total and LDL cholesterol. The OC to CTX ratio decreased in all groups with no other significant changes in bone turnover. Higher pre-treatment insulin or body fat predicted a greater CTX reduction and a greater BAP/CTX increase. Metabolic risk factors were negatively associated with bone turnover markers. Short-term statin treatment with or without exercise lowered cholesterol and all treatments had a small

  3. Risk Factors for Post-stroke Depression: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke not only impacts patients physically but also economically. Post-stroke depression (PSD, as a common complication of stroke, always obstructs the process of stroke rehabilitation. Accordingly, defining the risk factors associated with PSD has extraordinary importance. Although there have been many studies investigating the risk factors for PSD, the results are inconsistent.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the risk factors for PSD by evidence-based medicine.Data sources: A systematic and comprehensive database search was performed of PubMed, Medline, CENTRAL, EMBASE.com, the Cochrane library and Web of Science for Literature, covering publications from January 1, 1998 to November 19, 2016.Study Selection: Studies on risk factors for PSD were identified, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The risk of bias tool, described in the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0, was used to assess the quality of each study. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software.Results: Thirty-six studies were included for review. A history of mental illness was the highest ranking modifiable risk factor; other risk factors for PSD were female gender, age (<70 years, neuroticism, family history, severity of stroke, and level of handicap. Social support was a protective factor for PSD.Conclusion: There are many factors that have effects on PSD. The severity of stroke is an important factor in the occurrence of PSD. Mental history is a possible predictor of PSD. Prevention of PSD requires social and family participation.

  4. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing

  5. Vascular Risk Factors and Clinical Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Y. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contributions of vascular risk factors to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA are not known.Methods: We studied 319 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3, and 6 and repeatedly measured clinical severity using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA for 2 years. Vascular risk factors were summarized by CHA2DS2-VASc scores as the vascular risk factor index. We employed regression models to study the effects of vascular risk factors on ataxia onset and progression after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. Our secondary analyses took hyperlipidemia into account.Results: Nearly 60% of SCA participants were at low vascular risks with CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, and 31% scored 2 or greater. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores were not associated with either earlier onset or faster progression of ataxia. These findings were not altered after accounting for hyperlipidemia. Discussion: Vascular risks are not common in SCAs and are not associated with earlier onset or faster ataxia progression.

  6. The effect of modifiable risk factors on geographic mortality differentials: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian mortality rates are higher in regional and remote areas than in major cities. The degree to which this is driven by variation in modifiable risk factors is unknown. Methods We applied a risk prediction equation incorporating smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure to a national, population based survey to project all-causes mortality risk by geographic region. We then modelled life expectancies at different levels of mortality risk by geographic region using a risk percentiles model. Finally we set high values of each risk factor to a target level and modelled the subsequent shift in the population to lower levels of mortality risk and longer life expectancy. Results Survival is poorer in both Inner Regional and Outer Regional/Remote areas compared to Major Cities for men and women at both high and low levels of predicted mortality risk. For men smoking, high cholesterol and high systolic blood pressure were each associated with the mortality difference between Major Cities and Outer Regional/Remote areas--accounting for 21.4%, 20.3% and 7.7% of the difference respectively. For women smoking and high cholesterol accounted for 29.4% and 24.0% of the difference respectively but high blood pressure did not contribute to the observed mortality differences. The three risk factors taken together accounted for 45.4% (men and 35.6% (women of the mortality difference. The contribution of risk factors to the corresponding differences for inner regional areas was smaller, with only high cholesterol and smoking contributing to the difference in men-- accounting for 8.8% and 6.3% respectively-- and only smoking contributing to the difference in women--accounting for 12.3%. Conclusions These results suggest that health intervention programs aimed at smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol could have a substantial impact on mortality inequities for Outer Regional/Remote areas.

  7. Low bone density risk is higher in exercising women with multiple triad risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jenna C; Nattiv, Aurelia; Barrack, Michelle T; Williams, Nancy I; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The cumulative effect of the female athlete triad (Triad) risk factors on the likelihood of low bone mineral density (BMD) in exercising women is unclear. This study aimed to determine the risk of low BMD in exercising women with multiple Triad risk factors. We retrospectively examined cross-sectional data from 437 exercising women (mean ± SD age of 18.0 ± 3.5 yr, weighed 57.5 ± 7.1 kg with 24.5% ± 6.1% body fat) obtained at baseline from 4 prospective cohort studies examining Triad risk factors. Questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographic characteristics, self-reported eating attitudes/behaviors, menstrual function, sport/activity participation, and medication use. Height and body weight were measured. BMD was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as z-scores of exercising women. Further research should be conducted to develop a user-friendly algorithm integrating these indicators of risk for low BMD in exercising women (particularly factors associated with low BMI/body weight, menstrual dysfunction, lean sport/activity participation, and elevated dietary restraint).

  8. Language Delay in Severely Neglected Children: A Cumulative or Specific Effect of Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Merette, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This research sought to determine if the language delay (LD) of severely neglected children under 3 years old was better explained by a cumulative risk model or by the specificity of risk factors. The objective was also to identify the risk factors with the strongest impact on LD among various biological, psychological, and…

  9. The effect of macroeconomic factors on credit risk in the banking system of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, there are increasing changes on environmental and economic networks and different risks of various institutions affect the financial structure. Different institutions including financial and credit institutions are facing with the risk of lack of their timely obligations to make sure the repayment of the funds is granted. In this study, the effects of economic factors not affected by intentional behavior of customers are investigated. Statistical study of the banking system includes all public and private banks. Statistical research community from 2005 to 2010 is considered. The cross-sectional data of the study and a combination of regression analysis is used. The regression analysis of combined data, fixed effects model based on the data is a cross-sectional fit. According to results of regression analysis, Pearson and Spearman's Correlation Coefficient, there is no significant relationship between the inflation rate, employment rate, unemployment rate, the dollar, the euro, with import growth of credit risk in the banking system in Iran. Therefore, based on probability theory, it can be stated that the credit risk in the banking system in Iran under the influence of variables is not mentioned. In addition, positive and significant relationship between stock index and credit risk in the banking system in Iran has increased by Weber in this index increases and reducing credit risk is reduced.

  10. Relating Education, Brain Structure, and Cognition: The Role of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra E. Mortby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of education on cognitive and brain health is well established. While the direct effects of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and obesity on cerebral structure have been investigated, little is understood about the possible interaction between the protective effect of education and the deleterious effects of CVD risk factors in predicting brain ageing and cognition. Using data from the PATH Through Life study (N=266, we investigated the protective effect of education on cerebral structure and function and tested a possible mediating role of CVD risk factors. Higher education was associated with larger regional grey/white matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex in men only. The association between education and cognition was mediated by brain volumes but only for grey matter and only in relation to information processing speed. CVD risk factors did not mediate the association between regional volumes and cognition. This study provides additional evidence in support for a protective effect of education on cerebral structures and cognition. However, it does not provide support for a mediating role of CVD risk factors in these associations.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    termine the risk factors of prevalent LTBI. We used a mixed effects binomial model with a logarithmic link function to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for risk fac- tors of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Ethical consideration. The study was approved by the Makerere University. School of Public Health–Higher Degrees and ...

  12. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  13. Risk Factors for Peri-Implantitis: Effect of History of Periodontal Disease and Smoking Habits. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Stacchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether history of periodontitis and smoking habits could represent a risk factor for peri-implantitis and implant loss. Material and Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and was registered at the PROSPERO database [registration numbers CRD42016034160 (effect of history of periodontitis and CRD42016033676 (effect of smoking]. Broad electronic (MEDLINE and manual searches were conducted among articles published from January 1st 1990 up to December 31st 2015, resulting in 49332 records for history of periodontitis and 3199 for smoking habits. Selection criteria included prospective studies comparing two cohorts of patients, with and without the investigated risk factor, with a minimum follow-up period of three years, and reporting data on peri-implantitis and implant loss occurrence. Considering that only prospective studies were included, dichotomous data were expressed as risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Three studies evaluating history of periodontitis (on which quantitative analysis was performed and one study on smoking effect were included. Both implant and patient-based meta-analyses revealed a significantly higher risk of developing peri-implantitis in patients with a history of periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy subjects, but not a statistically significant increased risk for implant loss. Conclusions: The outcomes of this systematic review indicate history of periodontitis as a possible risk factor for peri-implantitis, while insufficient data are present in literature to evaluate the role of smoking. However, available evidence is still weak and immature, and sound epidemiological studies are needed to analyse the specific contribution of these potential risk factors.

  14. Effect of obesity on cardiovascular disease risk factors in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Okafor, Queen; Cowan, Patricia A; Wicks, Mona N; Rice, Muriel; Husch, Donna S; Khoo, Michelle S C

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18-45. with no known history of CVD. The women completed demographic and 7-day physical activity recall questionnaires. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI). Hypertension risk was assessed using the average of two resting blood pressure (BP) measurements. Lipid profile, blood glucose, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and E-selectin (eSel) levels were assessed using fasting blood samples. Laboratory findings were interpreted using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III reference guidelines as well as manufacturers' reference ranges for the novel CVD risk factors. The most common traditional risk factors were physical inactivity (72.9%), positive family history of CVD (58.3%), and obesity (56.3%). Obese individuals had elevated systolic BP (p = .0002), diastolic BP (p = .0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01), triglyceride (p = .02), hs-CRP (p = .002), and fibrinogen (p = .01), when compared with normal-weight women. The findings suggest an association between obesity and higher prevalence of both traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in young African American women.

  15. Social and psychological factors under realization of radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, S.N.; Malenchenko, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the experiments with mice of Af line, irradiated by gamma-radiation with doses of up to 1.0 Gy and subjected to psycho-emotional effect (the model of 'the provoked aggression') have been investigated the processes of tumour formation. The index of cariogenic efficiency of effects is the number of the induced adenomas in lungs. It has been shown that under separate effect of these factors the frequency of adenomas increases. Under the combined effect the additional number of adenomas per mouse is registered, which exceeds theoretically the expected value assuming additivity of effects, the synergism coefficient was 1.57 (for females). It has been marked that the character of tumour reaction on separate and the combined effect of radiation, as well as the stress-factor has sex distinctions. It has been shown that that real assessment of the radiation risk and the development of the measures system on minimization of medical and biological consequences of the accident should take into account not only the radiation factor, but also a psychological one, especially in those cases when realization of the risk of combined effect of radiation and non-radiation factors can manifest synergism

  16. Milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia--an evaluation of parameters on incidence risk, diagnosis, risk factors and biological effects as input for a decision support system for disease control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, H; Østergaard, S; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2001-01-01

    The present review analyses the documentation on incidence, diagnosis, risk factors and effects of milk fever and subclinical hypocalcaemia. It is hereby evaluated whether the existing documentation seems sufficient for further modelling in a decision support system for selection of a control...... concerning incidence, diagnosis, risk factors and effects seems sufficient for a systematic inclusion in a decision support system. A model on milk fever should take into consideration the variation in biological data and individual herd characteristics. The inclusion of subclinical hypocalcaemia would...... of risk factors is outlined. The clinical symptoms of milk fever are highly specific and the disease level may thus be determined from recording of treatments. Diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcaemia needs to include laboratory examinations or it may be determined by multiplying the incidence of milk fever...

  17. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alba

    Full Text Available Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas.We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449; controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor.Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often. These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5. Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score.Major gains could

  18. Potential impact of single-risk-factor versus total risk management for the prevention of cardiovascular events in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindjock, Roger; Gedeon, Jude; Mendis, Shanthi; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in Seychelles, a middle-income African country, and compare the cost-effectiveness of single-risk-factor management (treating individuals with arterial blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or total serum cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l) with that of management based on total CV risk (treating individuals with a total CV risk ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). CV risk factor prevalence and a CV risk prediction chart for Africa were used to estimate the 10-year risk of suffering a fatal or non-fatal CV event among individuals aged 40-64 years. These figures were used to compare single-risk-factor management with total risk management in terms of the number of people requiring treatment to avert one CV event and the number of events potentially averted over 10 years. Treatment for patients with high total CV risk (≥ 20%) was assumed to consist of a fixed-dose combination of several drugs (polypill). Cost analyses were limited to medication. A total CV risk of ≥ 10% and ≥ 20% was found among 10.8% and 5.1% of individuals, respectively. With single-risk-factor management, 60% of adults would need to be treated and 157 cardiovascular events per 100000 population would be averted per year, as opposed to 5% of adults and 92 events with total CV risk management. Management based on high total CV risk optimizes the balance between the number requiring treatment and the number of CV events averted. Total CV risk management is much more cost-effective than single-risk-factor management. These findings are relevant for all countries, but especially for those economically and demographically similar to Seychelles.

  19. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  20. Analysis of related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Song Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. Methods: A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis. Results: Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100. The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05. The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034, P<0.05. Conclusions: The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’ own conditions.

  1. Cardiac implantable electronic device hematomas: Risk factors and effect of prophylactic pressure bandaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Youlin; Bingham, Nicholas E; Law, Natalie; Le, Dustin; Mariani, Justin A

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) hematomas are associated with many adverse outcomes. We examined the incidence and risk factors associated with hematoma formation post-CIED implantation, and explored the preventative effect of prophylactic pressure bandaging (PPB) in a large tertiary center. 1,091 devices were implanted during October 2011-December 2014. Clinically significant hematomas (CSH) were those that necessitated prolonged admission, including those due to reoperation, and clinically suspicious hematomas were swellings noted by medical/nursing staff. We screened for variables affecting hematoma incidence prior to conducting multivariate logistic regression analyses, one for all hematomas and one for CSH. 61 hematomas were identified (5.6% of patients), with 12 of those clinically significant (1.1% of patients). Factors significantly increasing the odds of developing any hematoma were stage 2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.08-7.94], P = 0.034) and 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 3.39 [1.20-9.56], P = 0.021), unfractionated heparin/therapeutic enoxaparin (OR = 3.15 [1.22-8.14], P = 0.018), and dual antiplatelets-aspirin + clopidogrel (OR = 2.95 [1.14-7.65], P = 0.026) + other combinations. Body Mass index (BMI) 25.0-29.9 (OR 0.52 [0.28-0.98], P = 0.044) and >30 were associated with decreased hematoma risk (OR 0.43 [0.20-0.91], P = 0.028). Factors significant for CSH formation were unfractionated heparin/therapeutic enoxaparin (OR = 9.55 [1.83-49.84], P = 0.007) and aspirin + clopidogrel (OR = 7.19 [1.01-50.91], P = 0.048). PPB nonsignificantly increased the odds of total hematoma development (OR = 1.53 [0.87-2.69], P = 0.135), and reduced CSH (OR = 0.67 [0.18-2.47], P = 0.547). Heparin and dual antiplatelet use remain strong predictors of overall hematoma formation. CKD is a comparatively moderate predictor. BMI > 25 may decrease the risk of hematoma formation. PPB had nonsignificant effects on hematoma development

  2. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on

  3. Cancer risk factors in Korean news media: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Shim, Minsun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

  4. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  5. Gender differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether established risk factors for initiating cigarette smoking during adolescence (parents, siblings, friends smoke; home smoking rules, smokers at home, exposure to smoking in cars, academic performance, susceptibility to smoking, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, school connectedness, use of other tobacco products) are associated with initiation in preadolescents, and whether the effects of these factors differ by gender. In spring 2005, baseline data were collected in self-report questionnaires from 1801 5th grade students including 1553 never-smokers (mean age=10.7years), in the longitudinal AdoQuest I Study in Montréal, Canada. Follow-up data were collected in the fall and spring of 6th grade (2005-2006). Poisson regression analyses with robust variance estimated the effects of each risk factor on initiation and additive interactions with gender were computed to assess the excess risk of each risk factor in girls compared to boys. 101 of 1399 participants in the analytic sample (6.7% of boys; 7.7% of girls) initiated smoking during follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender and maternal education, all risk factors except academic performance and school connectedness were statistically significantly associated with initiation. Paternal and sibling smoking were associated with initiation in girls only, and girls with lower self-esteem had a significant excess risk of initiating smoking in 6th grade. Risk factors for smoking initiation in preadolescents mirror those in adolescents; their effects do not differ markedly by gender. Preventive programs targeting children should focus on reducing smoking in the social environment and the dangers of poly-tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New risk factors for atherosclerosis and patient risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Nierman, Melchior C.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Duriez, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the ways in which the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including standard lipid (eg, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and nonlipid (eg, hypertension) risk factors, interact to initiate

  7. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  8. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  9. Cancer-related fatigue--mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E

    2014-10-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common adverse effects of cancer that might persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and might be a risk factor of reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in patients with cancer have been well characterized and there is growing understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation seems to have a key role in fatigue before, during, and after cancer-treatment. However, there is a considerable variability in the presentation of cancer-related fatigue, much of which is not explained by disease-related or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors might be important in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have identified genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioural risk factors associated with cancer-related fatigue. Although no current gold-standard treatment for fatigue is available, a variety of intervention approaches have shown beneficial effects in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. This Review describes the mechanisms, risk factors, and possible interventions for cancer-related fatigue, focusing on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients.

  10. Risk factors for glucose intolerance in active acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreze A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present retrospective study we determined the frequency of glucose intolerance in active untreated acromegaly, and searched for risk factors possibly supporting the emergence of the diabetic condition. Among 43 patients, 8 (19%; 95% CI: 8-33% had diabetes mellitus and 2 (5%; 1-16% impaired glucose tolerance. No impaired fasting glycemia was demonstrable. The frequency of diabetes was on average 4.5 times higher than in the general Slovak population. Ten factors suspected to support progression to glucose intolerance were studied by comparing the frequency of glucose intolerance between patients with present and absent risk factors. A family history of diabetes and arterial hypertension proved to have a significant promoting effect (P<0.05, chi-square test. A significant association with female gender was demonstrated only after pooling our data with literature data. Concomitant prolactin hypersecretion had a nonsignificant promoting effect. In conclusion, the association of active untreated acromegaly with each of the three categories of glucose intolerance (including impaired fasting glycemia, not yet studied in this connection was defined as a confidence interval, thus permitting a sound comparison with the findings of future studies. Besides a family history of diabetes, female gender and arterial hypertension were defined as additional, not yet described risk factors.

  11. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...

  12. Do parental coronary heart disease risk factors (non-modifiable effect their young ones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: Advancing age may result in changes that could be atherogenic in the future. Such atherogenic changes have already initiated when the subjects are about 21 years old. The incidence of atherogenic changes is far greater when mothers who are having any of the risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, HTN and myocardial infarction than that fathers who are having similar risk factors.

  13. Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Christophe; Jornayvaz, François R.

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence. PMID:28534852

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  15. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  16. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (pdystocia than male calves (pdystocia than singletons (pdystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  17. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Albers, Lucia; Straube, Andreas; Gerstl, Lucia; Blum, Bernhard; Langhagen, Thyra; Jahn, Klaus; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Landgraf, Mirjam N

    2017-01-01

    To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies. The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking. Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively. Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  18. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  19. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  20. Gender differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Y; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2010-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), traditionally considered a male disease, is also a major threat to women. This review article addresses independent risk factors for CHD that are specific for women as well as non-gender-specific risk factors and how their effects differ between men and women. Although polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women is associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile, current evidence regarding future risk of CHD is conflicting. Preeclampsia is consistently associated with higher risk of CHD later in life. Menopause is associated with an increased risk of CHD, and the earlier the onset of menopause, the larger the risk. Existing data on postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) was inconclusive with regard to possible protection when HT is initiated close to menopause in young peri- or postmenopausal women. Evidence on use of low-dose oral contraceptives strongly suggests no increased risk of CHD. Although levels of physical inactivity are similar for men and women, the higher prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in older women portends a greater risk in women than in men. Additionally, risk factors like smoking, hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels have greater impact in women than in men. This review indicates that acknowledgement of non-gender-specific risk factors in addition to those that are unique to women would help optimize diagnosis, treatment and earlier prevention of CHD in women. Further research is needed to ascertain if incorporating these gender-specific risks into a clinically used risk stratification model would change outcome in women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on urban adolescent alcohol and other drug use: a longitudinal study of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszewski, Krzysztof; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2006-12-01

    Resiliency theory provides a conceptual framework for studying why some youth exposed to risk factors do not develop the negative behaviors they predict. The purpose of this study was to test compensatory and protective models of resiliency in a longitudinal sample of urban adolescents (80% African American). The data were from Years 1 (9th grade) and 4 (12th grade). The study examined effects of cumulative risk and promotive factors on adolescent polydrug use including alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Cumulative measures of risk/promotive factors represented individual characteristics, peer influence, and parental/familial influences. After controlling for demographics, results of multiple regression of polydrug use support the compensatory model of resiliency both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Promotive factors were also found to have compensatory effects on change in adolescent polydrug use. The protective model of resiliency evidenced cross-sectionally was not supported in longitudinal analysis. The findings support resiliency theory and the use of cumulative risk/promotive measures in resiliency research. Implications focused on utilizing multiple assets and resources in prevention programming are discussed.

  2. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Frestada, Daria; Michelsen, Marie Mide

    2016-01-01

    physically active than women while women have healthier dietary habits. Genetic factors also affect cardiovascular risk but no sex differences have been seen. Increased cardiovascular risk attributed to psychosocial distress is similar in men and women, but since women are more prone to psychosocial distress......Background: Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in both sexes in developed countries for decades. In general, men and women share the same cardiovascular risk factors. However, in recent trials including both men and women sexspecific analyses have raised awareness of sex...... differences in cardiovascular risk factors due to both biological and cultural differences. Results: Women experience their first myocardial infarction (MI) 6-10 years later than men and a protective effect of their natural estrogen status prior to menopause has been suggested. Female sex hormones have been...

  3. ABC Classification of Risk Factors in Production Supply Chains with Uncertain Data

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    Aleksandar Vujović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification of risk factors in an uncertain environment is part of the risk management problem, which has a critical effect on the competitive advantage of production supply chain. The severities of consequences, their relative importance, and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are defined by risk management team, depending on their experience and the results of good practice. Fuzzy rating of the severities of consequences and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are described by linguistic expressions, which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The risk values, obtained by the materialization of the identified risk factors, are given precisely with the usage of fuzzy algebra rules. The classification criterion is defined as the distance between current risk value and extreme risk values. The proposed model enables determination of the priorities of risk factors. It is illustrated by an example with real-life data from a production supply chain in auto industry.

  4. Risk Factors for Dystocia in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Diane E; Torrence, Anne E; Hukkanen, Renee R; Vogel, Keith W; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Ha, James C

    2011-01-01

    Dystocia (difficult labor) is an important component of the management of nonhuman primates and results in significant fetal and maternal morbidity and increased use of veterinary resources. Dystocias can arise from abnormalities of the maternal pelvis or fetus or uncoordinated uterine activity. Although risk factors for stillbirths have been established in nonhuman primates, risk factors for dystocias have not. The objective of this study was to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for dystocia in macaques. Retrospective data were collected from 83 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) diagnosed with dystocia. The diagnosis of dystocia was made based on clinical or pathologic evidence. Maternal records of age, reproductive history, experimental history, clinical records, and fetal birth weight and any applicable fetal necropsy reports were reviewed. The gestational age of the fetus, the infant's birth weight, total previous births by the dam, and the proportions of both viable delivery (inverse effect) and surgical pregnancy interventions (direct effect) in the dam's history generated a model that maximized the experimental variance for predicting dystocia in the current pregnancy and explained 24% of the dystocia deliveries. The number of total previous births and proportion of previous cesarean sections accounted for the greatest effect. This model can identify individual dams within a colony that are at risk for dystocias and allow for changes in breeding colony management, more intense monitoring of dams at risk, or allocation of additional resources. PMID:21535929

  5. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

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    Filipp M Filippopulos

    Full Text Available To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies.The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking.Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively.Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  6. Combined effect of educational status and cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Ferrario, Marco M

    2017-01-01

    Background The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. Methods We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35......-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk...... genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% (+0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% (-0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts. Conclusions Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from...

  7. Can a trial of motivational lifestyle counseling be effective for controlling childhood obesity and the associated cardiometabolic risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Malekahmadi, Mohammad; Hashemipour, Mahin; Soghrati, Mehrnaz; Soghrati, Mojgan; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Ghatrehsamani, Shohreh; Poursafa, Parinaz; Khavarian, Noushin

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a simple office-based program for encouraging healthy lifestyle on controlling childhood obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors. This non-randomized 24-week lifestyle modification trial was conducted among 457 obese children and adolescents, aged 2-18 years, who had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor in addition to obesity. This trial included three components of exercise, diet education and behavior modification, with all recommendations provided by a pediatrician, two general physicians and a nurse. Instead of strict inhibitory recommendations, healthier lifestyle was encouraged. Overall 448 (98.04%) of enrolled children completed the trial with a mean age of 9.6 ± 2.9 years. After the trial, the mean of anthropometric measures and cardiometabolic risk factors decreased significantly, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome decreased from 20.8% to 1.8%. Triglycerides, LDL-C, diastolic blood pressure and WC had the highest decrease in all age groups, with the most prominent changes in the 14-18-year age group. By each -1SD decline in BMI and WC, risk factors had significant improvement. Motivational office-based counseling can be effective in treatment of childhood obesity and its associated cardio-metabolic risk factors. Such approach can be implemented in the primary health care system; and can be of special concern in low- and middle-income countries with limited human and financial resources. We suggest that expanding the roles of non-physician clinicians such as nurse practitioners can help to increase the amount of time available for such services. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on cardiovascular risk factors among a Dutch overweight working population: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, J.C.; Wier, M.F. van; Arins, G.A.M.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Pronk, N.P.; Smid, T.; Mechelen, W. van

    2011-01-01

    Background: Overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, posing a considerable burden to public health. The main aim of this study was to investigate lifestyle intervention effects on cardiovascular risk factors in

  9. Adult mortality attributable to preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan: a comparative risk assessment.

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    Nayu Ikeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000-154,000 and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000-119,000, respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000-58,000, high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000-43,000, high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000-39,000, and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000-35,000. In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7 if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution. CONCLUSIONS

  10. The burden of disease preventable by risk factor reduction in Serbia

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    Šipetić Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Reliable and comparable analysis of health risks is an important component of evidence-based and preventive programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the most relevant avoidable risk factors on the burden of the selected conditions in Serbia. Methods. Attributable fractions were calculated from the survey information on the prevalence of a risk factor and the relative risk of dying if exposed to a risk factor. The population-attributable risks were applied to deaths, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL, years of life with disability (YLD and disability adjusted life years (DALY. Results. More than 40% of all deaths and of the total YLL are attributable to cigarette smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables, hypertension and high blood cholesterol. Alcohol consumption has in total a beneficial effect. According to the percent of DALY for the selected conditions attributable to the observed risk factors, their most harmful effects are as follows: alcohol consumption on road traffic accidents; cigarette smoking on lung cancer; physical inactivity on cerebrovascular disease (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and colorectal cancer; overweight on type 2 diabetes; hypertension on renal failure and CVD; inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables on IHD and CVD, and high blood cholesterol on IHD. Conclusions. This study shows that a high percentage of disease and injury burden in Serbia is attributable to avoidable risk factors, which emphasizes the need for improvement of relevant preventive strategies and programs at both individual and population levels. Social preferences should be determined for a comprehensive set of conditions and cost effectiveness analyses of potential interventions should be carried out. Furthermore, positive measures, derived from health, disability and quality of life surveys, should be included. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  11. Effect of resveratrol and aerobic exercise on some cardiovascular risk factors in rats with acute myocardial infarction

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    Bahram Jamali Qarakhanlou

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Regular exercise and resveratrol supplementation is likely to be effective on cardiovascular risk factors and the combination of the two variables in the prevention of inflammation and will have a significant role in heart damage caused by myocardial infarction

  12. Risk factors for postpartum endometritis and the effect of endometritis on reproductive performance in dairy cows in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Hwa; Kang, Hyun-Gu

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk factors for postpartum endometritis by evaluating several reproductive factors in individual cows, and to determine the effect of endometritis on the subsequent reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea. The data, including health status, parity and body condition score (BCS) of cows, and calving date, were collected from 320 cows in eight dairy herds calving from January 2001 to October 2002. We used logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these factors on endometritis. A stepwise procedure, used to obtain the appropriate model with alpha=0.05, revealed that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and parity are the important risk factors for endometritis. The mean intervals from calving to first service and conception were prolonged (Pconception rate was lower (Pconception was higher (P<0.05) in the endometritis group (1.9) than in the non-endometritis group (1.6). We conclude that retained placenta, metabolic disorders and cow parity are strongly correlated with the development of postpartum endometritis, which decreases reproductive performance in dairy herds in Korea.

  13. Effectiveness of a web-based personalized rheumatoid arthritis risk tool with or without a health educator for knowledge of RA risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria G; Iversen, Maura D; Yu, Zhi; Miller Kroouze, Rachel; Triedman, Nellie A; Kalia, Sarah S; Lu, Bing; Green, Robert C; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Sparks, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-05

    To assess knowledge of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk factors among unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) and to study whether a personalized RA education tool increases risk factor knowledge. We performed a randomized controlled trial assessing RA educational interventions among 238 FDRs. The web-based Personalized Risk Estimator for RA (PRE-RA) tool displayed personalized RA risk results (genetics, autoantibodies, demographics, and behaviors) and educated about risk factors. Subjects were randomly assigned to: Comparison arm (standard RA education, n=80), PRE-RA arm (PRE-RA alone, n=78), or PRE-RA Plus arm (PRE-RA and a one-on-one session with a trained health educator, n=80). The RA Knowledge Score (RAKS, the number of 8 established RA risk factors identified as related to RA) was calculated at baseline and post-education (immediate/6 weeks/6 months/12 months). We compared RAKS and its components at each post-education point by randomization arm. At baseline before education, few FDRs identified behavioral RA risk factors (15.9% for dental health, 31.9% for smoking, 47.5% for overweight/obesity, and 54.2% for diet). After education, RAKS increased in all arms, higher in PRE-RA and PRE-RA Plus than Comparison at all post-education points (peducation (proportion agreeing smoking is a risk factor at 6 weeks: 83.1% in PRE-RA Plus arm, 71.8% in PRE-RA, and 43.1% in Comparison arms, peducation tool successfully increased RA risk factor knowledge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment strategies of thrombophilic risk factors

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    Murat Albayrak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilia is defined as the general name for a group of genetic and acquired situations, arising from defects of hemostasis mechanism and generating tendency to thrombosis. Examples of the acquired risk factors that increase the tendency to thrombosis are venous catheters, sepsis, surgery, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart disease, increased lipoprotein a, old age, antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, hyperviscosity, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, immobility, obesity, major surgery, trauma, burns, malignancy, pregnancy and oral contraceptive usage. Genetic tendency to venous thromboembolism in early ages, even without any known cause, is named as thrombophilia. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations, factor VIII elevation, protein C, protein S and antithrombin deficiency parameters are suggested for evaluation, in patient groups suspected of inherited thrombophilia. Detection of inherited thrombophilic factors in selected patient groups is a guide in developing treatment strategies and in establishing prognosis. Due to the genetic heterogeneities, each society should determine their thrombophilic risk pool. Thus, with the determination of the risk factors, unnecessary assessments will be prevented and a cost-effective approach can be developed.

  16. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  17. Risk factors for fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Fourrier, A; Commenges, D; Dartigues, J F

    1998-07-01

    We report the results of a 5-year prospective cohort study of risk factors for fractures, including drinking fluoridated water, in a cohort of 3,216 men and women aged 65 years and older. We studied risk factors for hip fracture and fractures at other locations separately. We found a higher risk of hip fractures for subjects exposed to fluorine concentrations over 0.11 mg per liter but without a dose-effect relation (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25 for a concentration of 0.11-0.25 mg per liter; OR = 2.43 for > or = 0.25 mg per liter]. For higher thresholds (0.7 and 1 mg per liter), however, the OR was less than 1. We found no association between fluorine and non-hip fractures. Non-hip fractures were associated with polymedication rather than with specific drug use, whereas fracture was associated with polymedication and use of anxiolytic and antidepressive drugs. Subjects drinking spirits every day were more likely to have hip fractures. Tobacco consumption increased the risk for non-hip fractures.

  18. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (II

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as Currarino syndrome, sacral defect with anterior meningocele, Jarcho-Levin syndrome (spondylo-costal dysostosis, lateral meningocele syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, and hyperthermia. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  19. Oxidative stress mediates the pathogenic effect of different Alzheimer's disease risk factors

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    Michela Guglielmotto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population. Mechanistically, the major cause of the disease bases on the altered processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ precursor protein (APP, resulting in the accumulation and aggregation of neurotoxic forms of Aβ. Aβ derives from the sequential proteolytic cleavage of the β- and γ-secretases on APP. The causes of Aβ accumulation in the common sporadic form of Alzheimer’s disease are not completely known, but they are likely to include oxidative stress (OS. OS and Aβ are linked to each other since Aβ aggregation induces OS in vivo and in vitro, and oxidant agents increase the production of Aβ. Moreover, OS produces several effects that may contribute to synaptic function and cell death in AD. We and others have shown that the expression and activity of β-secretase (named BACE1; β-site APP cleaving enzyme is increased by oxidant agents and by lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal and that there is a significant correlation between BACE1 activity and oxidative markers in sporadic AD. OS results from several cellular insults such as aging, hyperglycaemia, hypoxic insults that are all well known risk factors for AD development. Thus, our data strengthen the hypothesis that OS is a basic common pathway of Aβ accumulation, common to different AD risk factors.

  20. Long-term effects of earthquake experience of young persons on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yumei; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Ji, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors of stress from direct experience of an earthquake as a young person. Material and methods We selected workers born between July 1, 1958 and July 1, 1976 who were examined at Kailuan General Hospital between May and October of 2013. Data on cardiovascular events were taken during the workers’ annual health examination conducted between 2006 and 2007. All subjects were divided into three groups according to their experience of the Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976, as follows: control group; exposed group 1 and exposed group 2. We compared cardiovascular disease risk factors between the three groups as well as by gender and age. Results One thousand one hundred and ninety-six workers were included in the final statistical analysis. Among all subjects, resting heart rate (p = 0.003), total cholesterol (p earthquake compared with unexposed controls, but were unrelated to loss of relatives. No significant difference in triglyceride levels was observed between the three groups (p = 0.900). Further refinement showed that the effects were restricted to males 40 years of age or older at the time of analysis, but were due primarily to age at the time of earthquake exposure (p = 0.002, p Earthquake experience in the early years of life has long-term effects on adult resting heart rate, total cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, especially among men. PMID:28144258

  1. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Mi Jung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-12-27

    Background : Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods : Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results : The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions : These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Risk factors for Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle and their possible cause-effect relation for disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávero, Juscivete F; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Campigotto, Gabriela; Machado, Gustavo; Daniel de Barros, Luiz; Garcia, João Luis; Vogel, Fernanda F; Mendes, Ricardo E; Stefani, Lenita M

    2017-09-01

    Neospora caninum causes reproductive problems in cattle such as abortion, premature birth, retention of fetal membranes, and metritis. Therefore, this study aimed to verify possible risk factors for N. caninum infection in dairy cattle and their cause-effect relation to neosporosis. Serum samples of 1518 dairy cows from the West of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for N. caninum, where 466 were found to be positives (30.69%-CI 95% ; 28.3-33.0). In addition, an epidemiological survey was conducted in order to verify possible risk factors for neosporosis and their relation to the disease. The presence of dogs in the farm was strongly associated with IFA positive results for N. caninum, and lack of history for neosporosis in the farm increased the chances of positivity in 66%. It was found a significant cause-effect relation between the occurrence of reproductive problems and the presence of antibodies against N. caninum (p = 0.05). It is possible to conclude that N. caninum is widely distributed in dairy farms of the Western part of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, and that the occurrence of reproductive problems is directly related to the disease with the presence of dogs as a risk factor for N. caninum infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  4. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among First Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Krishna Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of cardiovascular risk in young age is important to motivate them to modify life styles and seek health care early to lower the chances of acquiring cardiovascular disease in later age. This study was done to assess cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout September and October 2017 in which all first year medical students from a medical college were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants’ demography, family history of illness, anthropometric measurements, and blood reports of lipid profile and fasting glucose were acquired. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-21. Result: There were 99 participants; 55 males and 44 females. One or more risk factors were present in 87 (87.9% participants. Moreover, 67.7% (n = 67 participants had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common (n = 55, 55.6% risk factor followed by elevated triacylglycerol (n = 47, 47.5% and family history of hypertension (n = 45, 45.5%. There was no significant difference in presence of various risk factors between genders. Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Majority of them had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common risk factor. The risk factors were comparable in males and females.

  7. Lifestyle Risk Factors Increase the Risk of Hospitalization for Sciatica: Findings of Four Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Euro, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Karppinen, Jaro; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raitakari, Olli T; Solovieva, Svetlana; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of lifestyle risk factors on the risk of hospitalization for sciatica and to determine whether overweight or obesity modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on hospitalization for sciatica. We included 4 Finnish prospective cohort studies (Health 2000 Survey, Mobile Clinic Survey, Helsinki Health Study, and Young Finns Study) consisting of 34,589 participants and 1259 hospitalizations for sciatica during 12 to 30 years of follow-up. Sciatica was based on hospital discharge register data. We conducted a random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis. After adjustment for confounding factors, current smoking at baseline increased the risk of subsequent hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-56%), whereas past smokers were no longer at increased risk. Obesity defined by body mass index increased the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 36% (95% CI 7%-74%), and abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference increased the risk by 41% (95% CI 3%-93%). Walking or cycling to work reduced the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% CI 4%-53%), and the effect was independent of body weight and other leisure activities, while other types of leisure activities did not have a statistically significant effect. Smoking and obesity increase the risk of hospitalization for sciatica, whereas walking or cycling to work protects against hospitalization for sciatica. Walking and cycling can be recommended for the prevention of sciatica in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for addiction potential among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ranjbaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tendency toward addiction is provided before drug use begins. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for addiction potential in the students of Arak University of Medical Sciences. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study among 305 students from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2016. We selected the students by stratified random sampling and collected the data by family and sociodemographic factors questionnaires and Addiction Potential Scale. Results: Male students, students with low economic status and high family members were more prone to addiction. We identified variable; addiction in close friends, adverse family conditions (dispute with the family, poor economic condition of families, and family size by controlling the effect of other variables, as risk factors for addiction potential. Conclusions: Preventive and intervention actions appear necessary considering the mentioned factors.

  9. Can an Internet-based health risk assessment highlight problems of heart disease risk factor awareness? A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Justin B; McNeal, Catherine J; Tsai, Ginger; Rivera, Cathleen M; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-04-18

    Health risk assessments are becoming more popular as a tool to conveniently and effectively reach community-dwelling adults who may be at risk for serious chronic conditions such as coronary heart disease (CHD). The use of such instruments to improve adults' risk factor awareness and concordance with clinically measured risk factor values could be an opportunity to advance public health knowledge and build effective interventions. The objective of this study was to determine if an Internet-based health risk assessment can highlight important aspects of agreement between respondents' self-reported and clinically measured CHD risk factors for community-dwelling adults who may be at risk for CHD. Data from an Internet-based cardiovascular health risk assessment (Heart Aware) administered to community-dwelling adults at 127 clinical sites were analyzed. Respondents were recruited through individual hospital marketing campaigns, such as media advertising and print media, found throughout inpatient and outpatient facilities. CHD risk factors from the Framingham Heart Study were examined. Weighted kappa statistics were calculated to measure interrater agreement between respondents' self-reported and clinically measured CHD risk factors. Weighted kappa statistics were then calculated for each sample by strata of overall 10-year CHD risk. Three samples were drawn based on strategies for treating missing data: a listwise deleted sample, a pairwise deleted sample, and a multiple imputation (MI) sample. The MI sample (n=16,879) was most appropriate for addressing missing data. No CHD risk factor had better than marginal interrater agreement (κ>.60). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exhibited suboptimal interrater agreement that deteriorated (eg, κInternet-based health risk assessments such as Heart Aware may contribute to public health surveillance, but they must address selection bias of Internet-based recruitment methods.

  10. Factors increasing vulnerability to health effects before, during and after floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dianne; Ebi, Kristie L; Forsberg, Bertil

    2013-12-11

    Identifying the risk factors for morbidity and mortality effects pre-, during and post-flood may aid the appropriate targeting of flood-related adverse health prevention strategies. We conducted a systematic PubMed search to identify studies examining risk factors for health effects of precipitation-related floods, among Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) member countries. Research identifying flood-related morbidity and mortality risk factors is limited and primarily examines demographic characteristics such as age and gender. During floods, females, elderly and children appear to be at greater risk of psychological and physical health effects, while males between 10 to 29 years may be at greater risk of mortality. Post-flood, those over 65 years and males are at increased risk of physical health effects, while females appear at greater risk of psychological health effects. Other risk factors include previous flood experiences, greater flood depth or flood trauma, existing illnesses, medication interruption, and low education or socio-economic status. Tailoring messages to high-risk groups may increase their effectiveness. Target populations differ for morbidity and mortality effects, and differ pre-, during, and post-flood. Additional research is required to identify the risk factors associated with pre- and post-flood mortality and post-flood morbidity, preferably using prospective cohort studies.

  11. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  12. Risk factors for fishermen’s health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational environment, thus providing a current baseline for further research in the future and for documentation....... The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions......: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken into consideration in prevention programmes. The results are comparable withinternational fisheries experience...

  13. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets Versus Low-Fat Diets on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Mills, Katherine T.; Yao, Lu; Demanelis, Kathryn; Eloustaz, Mohamed; Yancy, William S.; Kelly, Tanika N.; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low-carbohydrate diets (≤45% of energy from carbohydrates) versus low-fat diets (≤30% of energy from fat) on metabolic risk factors were compared in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Twenty-three trials from multiple countries with a total of 2,788 participants met the predetermined eligibility criteria (from January 1, 1966 to June 20, 2011) and were included in the analyses. Data abstraction was conducted in duplicate by independent investigators. Both low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets lowered weight and improved metabolic risk factors. Compared with participants on low-fat diets, persons on low-carbohydrate diets experienced a slightly but statistically significantly lower reduction in total cholesterol (2.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 4.6), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.7 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.0, 6.4), but a greater increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.3 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 4.7) and a greater decrease in triglycerides (−14.0 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval: −19.4, −8.7). Reductions in body weight, waist circumference and other metabolic risk factors were not significantly different between the 2 diets. These findings suggest that low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective as low-fat diets at reducing weight and improving metabolic risk factors. Low-carbohydrate diets could be recommended to obese persons with abnormal metabolic risk factors for the purpose of weight loss. Studies demonstrating long-term effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular events were warranted. PMID:23035144

  14. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for examining healthcare professionals' assessments of risk factors. The relative importance of risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, L; Bath, P A; Pendleton, N; Bracale, M

    2011-01-01

    A gap exists between evidence-based medicine and clinical-practice. Every day, healthcare professionals (HCPs) combine empirical evidence and subjective experience in order to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. Consequently, it is important to understand how HCPs interpret the research evidence and apply it in everyday practice. We focused on the prevention of falls, a common cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life, for which there is a wide range of known risk factors. To use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to investigate the opinions of HCPs in prioritizing risk factors for preventing falls. We used the AHP to develop a hierarchy of risk factors for falls based on the knowledge and experience of experts. We submitted electronic questionnaires via the web, in order to reach a wider number of respondents. With a web service, we pooled the results and weighted the coherence and the experience of respondents. Overall, 232 respondents participated in the study: 32 in the technical pilot study, nine in the scientific pilot study and 191 respondents in the main study. We identified a hierarchy of 35 risk factors, organized in two categories and six sub-categories. The hierarchy of risk factors provides further insights into clinicians' perceptions of risk factors for falls. This hierarchy helps understand the relative importance that clinicians place on risk factors for falls in older people and why evidence-based guidelines are not always followed. This information may be helpful in improving intervention programs and in understanding how clinicians prioritize multiple risk factors in individual patients. The AHP method allows the opinions of HCPs to be investigated, giving appropriate weight to their coherence, background and experience.

  15. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases...... suggestive. Evidence for a direct association between total fat intake and risk of T2DM was inconclusive, whereas there was limited-suggestive evidence from biomarker studies that LA is inversely associated with the risk of T2DM. However, there was limited-suggestive evidence in biomarker studies that odd......-chain SFA found in milk fat and fish may be inversely related to T2DM, but these associations have not been supported by controlled studies. The evidence for an association between dietary n-3 PUFA and T2DM was inconclusive. Evidence for effects of fat on major types of cancer was inconclusive regarding...

  16. Delineating selection and mediation effects among childhood personality and environmental risk factors in the development of adolescent substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96 % European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample-socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)-and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse.

  17. Delineating Selection and Mediation Effects among Childhood Personality and Environmental Risk Factors in the Development of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C. Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the large, longitudinal Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2510; 96% European American ancestry), we examined the influence of several person-environment transactions on adolescent substance abuse. We focused on the two childhood personality traits found to be most predictive of substance abuse in this sample—socialization (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) and boldness (social engagement and assurance, stress resilience, thrill seeking)—and the environmental variables of antisocial and prosocial peers, academic engagement, parent-child relationship quality, and stressful life events. Path analysis revealed that low socialization had a selection effect for each environmental risk factor, that is, socialization at age 11 predicted environmental risk at age 14, after controlling for the stability of the environmental variables from ages 11 to 14. Antisocial peers and academic engagement at age 14 then mediated some of the risk of low socialization on substance abuse at age 17, but the majority of risk for substance abuse was accounted for by the stability of socialization from age 11 to 14. Boldness at age 11 also increased risk for substance abuse, but did so primarily via a direct effect. The findings help to parse the nature of person-environment transactions across multiple personality traits and contextual risk factors that contribute to adolescent substance abuse. PMID:24337735

  18. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  19. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  20. Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Assessment in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) by measuring such factors as blood pressure ... heart disease. Coexistence of these factors is known to have multiplier effect ... Bearing this changing trend in mind, continuous re-evaluation of these CVD risk ...

  1. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  2. A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; Van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-02-01

    There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk.

  3. Perceived health status : is obesity perceived as a risk factor and disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommy L.S. Visscher; Jeroen Lakerveld; Nanna Olsen; Leanne Küpers; Sofia Ramalho; Laura Keaver; Christina Brei; Jan-Inge Bjune; Silvia Ezquerro; Volkan Yumuk

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This

  4. Prostate cancer: The main risk and protective factors-Epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjakly, Mawussi; Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Judes, Gaëlle; Pajon, Amaury; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    With 13 million new cases worldwide every year, prostate cancer is as a very real public health concern. Prostate cancer is common in over-50s men and the sixth-leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Like all cancers, prostate cancer is multifactorial - there are non-modifiable risk factors like heredity, ethnicity and geographic location, but also modifiable risk factors such as diet. Diet-cancer linkages have risen to prominence in the last few years, with accruing epidemiological data pointing to between-population incidence differentials in numerous cancers. Indeed, there are correlations between fat-rich diet and risk of hormone-dependent cancers like prostate cancer and breast cancer. Diet is a risk factor for prostate cancer, but certain micronutrients in specific diets are considered protective factors against prostate cancer. Examples include tomato lycopene, green tea epigallocatechin gallate, and soy phytoestrogens. These micronutrients are thought to exert cancer-protective effects via anti-oxidant pathways and inhibition of cell proliferation. Here, we focus in on the effects of phytoestrogens, and chiefly genistein and daidzein, which are the best-researched to date. Soy phytoestrogens are nonsteroid molecules whose structural similarity lends them the ability to mimic the effects of 17ß-estradiol. On top of anti-oxidant effects, there is evidence that soy phytoestrogens can modulate the epigenetic modifications found in prostate cancer. We also studied the impact of phytoestrogens on epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer, with special focus on DNA methylation, miRNA-mediated regulation and histone modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jung Rho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138, belief self-control (1.034, anxiety (1.086, pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105, money spent on gaming (1.005, weekday game time (1.081, offline community meeting attendance (2.060, and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors; Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29280953

  7. Assessment of Risk Factors of Intrauterine Adhesions in Patients With Induced Abortion and the Curative Effect of Hysteroscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiaoliang; Qin, Guirong; Zhou, Zhoulin; Jiang, Xiaoli

    2017-10-03

    To explore the risk factors for intrauterine adhesions in patients with artificial abortion and clinical efficacy of hysteroscopic dissection. 1500 patients undergoing artificial abortion between January 2014 and June 2015 were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups with or without intrauterine adhesions. Univariate and Multiple logistic regression were conducted to assess the effects of multiple factors on the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. The incidence rate for intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion is 17.0%. Univariate showed that preoperative inflammation, multiple pregnancies and suction evacuation time are the influence risk factors of intrauterine adhesions. Multiple logistic regression demonstrates that multiple pregnancies, high intrauterine negative pressure, and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortion. Additionally, intrauterine adhesions were observed in 105 mild, 80 moderate, and 70 severe cases. The cure rates for these three categories of intrauterine adhesions by hysteroscopic surgery were 100.0%, 93.8%, and 85.7%, respectively. Multiple pregnancies, high negative pressure suction evacuation and long suction evacuation time are independent risk factors for the development of intrauterine adhesions following induced abortions. Hysteroscopic surgery substantially improves the clinical outcomes of intrauterine adhesions.

  8. Influence of sociodemographic factors on the risk of unintentional childhood home injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W

    2008-01-01

    . Risk differences were found for all injury mechanisms; however the risk for burns was 1.9 (1.6-2.3) times higher in the lowest-income group than in the highest-income group, the relative risk for poisoning was 1.7(1.4-2.1). For scalds from hot water, tea or coffee, the relative risk for the lowest......-income group was 2.4(1.8-3.2). Living in a one- or two-parent family and size of the dwelling had little or no effect on risk. CONCLUSION: Childhood injury incidence depended on sociodemographic factors. The effect of the sociodemographic factors varied between injury mechanisms and products involved......BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish...

  9. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  10. Explanatory risk factors in the relations between schizotypy and indicators of suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2016-04-30

    Schizotypy has been linked to suicide risk, but it is not known whether established suicide-related risk factors mediate this relation. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-esteem, and intimate disclosure in peer relationships in the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. This aim was tested in 590 young adults using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. After inclusion of the mediators, interpersonal schizotypy was no longer directly associated with either suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Depression and self-esteem mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation. No variables mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and lifetime suicide attempts, and there were no significant direct relations when mediators were included. Schizotypy appears to be a distal risk factor for suicidal behavior; assessing depressive symptoms and self-esteem may provide more proximal information about suicide risk, and may be targets for mitigating suicide risk in individuals with schizotypy. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on only one or a few factors (which increases the chances of reporting spurious results) and reliance on use of a single measure of bereavement outcome. We avoided these pitfalls by simultaneously exami...

  12. Quantifying links between stroke and risk factors: a study on individual health risk appraisal of stroke in a community of Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yazhou; Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yamin; Yi, Dong

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors of stroke in a community in Chongqing by setting quantitative criteria for determining the risk factors of stroke. Thus, high-risk individuals can be identified and laid a foundation for predicting individual risk of stroke. 1,034 cases with 1:2 matched controls (2,068) were chosen from five communities in Chongqing including Shapingba, Xiaolongkan, Tianxingqiao, Yubei Road and Ciqikou. Participants were interviewed with a uniform questionnaire. The risk factors of stroke and the odds ratios of risk factors were analyzed with a logistic regression model, and risk exposure factors of different levels were converted into risk scores using statistical models. For men, ten risk factors including hypertension (5.728), family history of stroke (4.599), and coronary heart disease (5.404), among others, were entered into the main effect model. For women, 11 risk factors included hypertension (5.270), family history of stroke (4.866), hyperlipidemia (4.346), among others. The related risk scores were added to obtain a combined risk score to predict the individual's risk of stoke in the future. An individual health risk appraisal model of stroke, which was applicable to individuals of different gender, age, health behavior, disease and family history, was established. In conclusion, personal diseases including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc., were very important to the prevalence of stoke. The prevalence of stroke can be effectively reduced by changing unhealthy lifestyles and curing the positive individual disease. The study lays a foundation for health education to persuade people to change their unhealthy lifestyles or behaviors, and could be used in community health services.

  13. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  14. The effects of insulin sensitizers on the cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, E; Diamanti-Kandarakis, E

    2008-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in pre-menopausal women characterized by menstrual cycle disturbances, chronic anovulation, and clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Although, the primary etiology of PCOS remains unknown, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. A growing body of recent data support that women with PCOS have displayed an increased prevelance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors putting potentially at a hight risk for heart disease. Most of these CVD risk factors are etiologically correlated with insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, highlighting the role of insulin sensitizers in the therapeutic quiver for the chronic treatment of PCOS. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the CVD risk factors in PCOS and the influence of insulin sensitizers upon these risk factors.

  15. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS FOR PREMATURITY IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto de Melo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the risk factors associated with preterm birth through a cross-sectional study in 4,440 newborns. Examined the factors associated between maternal sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, education and occupation, obstetric (pregnancy and delivery type and number of prenatal visits and neonatal (sex, race/color, birth weight and Apgar. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression technique. Among the 480 (10.8% preterm risk factors were prevalent type of pregnancy (OR=6.48, number of prenatal visits (OR=2.09, Apgar score at first (OR=2.00 and fifth minute (OR=2.14 and birth weight (OR=31.8 indicating that these variables are directly associated with the occurrence of prematurity. The identification of risk factors should be the object of attention of health professionals and services to support effective measures to promote health to the general population; especially for women in fertile included some criteria of gestational risk.

  16. Risk factors for burnout among caregivers working in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelman, Nadia; Mazars, Thierry; Levy, Antonin

    2018-01-01

    (i) To assess the level of burnout in nursing home caregivers within a unique healthcare network in France and (ii) to evaluate potential risk factors in this population. Burnout syndrome occurs frequently among nursing home caregivers and has strong detrimental effects on the quality of health care for residents. We used an observational survey to study burnout in nursing home caregivers. The survey was used to quantify burnout level (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and potential risk factors and was implemented from October 2013-April 2014. A logistic regression was used to explore the association between burnout and its risk factors. Three hundred and sixty questionnaires were delivered to caregivers in 14 nursing homes within a unique healthcare network. The response rate was 37% (132/360), and 124/132 (94%) surveys were analysed. Caregiver burnout rate was 40% (49/124). Median age was 41 years (range, 20-70) and most caregivers were female. The most common profession (n = 54; 44%) was nurse caregiver and 90% (n = 112) had an antecedent of bullying by a resident. Risk factors identified were as follows: the presence of institutional protocols (death announcement [OR: 3.7] and pain assessment [OR: 2.8]), working in a profit-making establishment (OR: 2.6) and the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 6.2). Factors most negatively associated with burnout included: practising pastimes (OR: 0.4) and working as a nurse (OR: 0.3). The only significant risk factor in the multivariate analysis was the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 5.3). Several specific risk factors for burnout in nursing home caregivers were identified. In high-risk populations of healthcare professionals, screening and management of risk factors is crucial for preventing burnout. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  19. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  20. A method to adjust radiation dose-response relationships for clinical risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical risk factors for radiation induced toxicity have been identified in the literature. Here, we present a method to quantify the effect of clinical risk factors on radiation dose-response curves and apply the method to adjust the dose-response for radiation pneumonitis for patients...

  1. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  2. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD...

  3. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  4. Assessment of risk factors for noncommunicable disease risk factors among men of working age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vasilyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.

  5. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization (Ds-like human malformations, isolated hemihyper-plasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  6. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  7. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  8. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  9. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  10. Risk Factors for Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand: A Systematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Kamsa-ard, Supot; Luvira, Vor; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2018-03-27

    Background and objective: Cholangiocarcinoma remains a serious public health concern in Thailand. While many of the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in western countries are well-recognized, it remains unclear whether they are the same in Thailand. We set out to investigate the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. Methods: Starting March 4, 2016, we reviewed studies found using pre-specified keywords on SCOPUS, Pro Quest Science Direct, PubMed, and online public access catalog of Khon Kaen University. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the studied Risk of Bias. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools were used to assess the quality of included studies. The risk effects of factors were estimated as a pooled adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. The heterogeneity of results was considered using the I-square, Tau-square and Chi-square statistics. Results: A strong association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel. There was only a mild association found between eating nitrite-containing foods, fresh vegetables, education, smoking behavior, and sex. No association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and eating fermented fish (Pla-ra), northeastern Thai or Chinese sausage, sticky rice, meat, chewing betel nut, or eating fruit. There were two protective factors including fresh vegetables consumption and education attainment. Conclusion: There are unique risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand, including age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. Quantifying lead-time bias in risk factor studies of cancer through simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rick J; Alexander, Bruce H; Anderson, Kristin E; Church, Timothy R

    2013-11-01

    Lead-time is inherent in early detection and creates bias in observational studies of screening efficacy, but its potential to bias effect estimates in risk factor studies is not always recognized. We describe a form of this bias that conventional analyses cannot address and develop a model to quantify it. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data form the basis for estimates of age-specific preclinical incidence, and log-normal distributions describe the preclinical duration distribution. Simulations assume a joint null hypothesis of no effect of either the risk factor or screening on the preclinical incidence of cancer, and then quantify the bias as the risk-factor odds ratio (OR) from this null study. This bias can be used as a factor to adjust observed OR in the actual study. For this particular study design, as average preclinical duration increased, the bias in the total-physical activity OR monotonically increased from 1% to 22% above the null, but the smoking OR monotonically decreased from 1% above the null to 5% below the null. The finding of nontrivial bias in fixed risk-factor effect estimates demonstrates the importance of quantitatively evaluating it in susceptible studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  13. Effects of dancing on the risk of falling related factors of healthy older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Argüelles, Esther López; Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; Antunez, Luis Espejo; Garrido-Ardila, Elisa María; Muñoz, Rafael Perez

    2015-01-01

    Deficits of balance or postural control in persons of advanced age are one of the factors that influence the risk of falling. The most appropriate treatment approaches and their benefits are still unknown. The aim of this article is to systematically review the scientific literature to identify the therapeutic effects of dancing as a physical exercise modality on balance, flexibility, gait, muscle strength and physical performance in older adults. A systematic search of Pubmed, Cochrane Library Plus, PEDro, Science Direct, Dialnet and Academic Search Complete using the search terms "dance", "older", "dance therapy", "elderly", "balance", "gait" and "motor skills". The eligibility criteria were: studies written in English and Spanish, published from January 2000 to January 2013, studies which analyzed the effects of dance (ballroom dance and/or dance based exercise) in older adults over 60 years of age with no disabling disease and included the following variables of study: balance, gait, risk of falls, strength, functionality, flexibility and quality of life. 123 articles were found in the literature. A final selection of seven articles was used for the present manuscript. Although the selected studies showed positive effects on the risk of falling related to factors (balance, gait and dynamic mobility, strength and physical performance), there were some aspects of the studies such as the methodological quality, the small sample size, the lack of homogeneity in relation to the variables and the measurement tools, and the existing diversity regarding the study design and the type of dance, that do not enable us to confirm that dance has significant benefits on these factors based on the scientific evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients in the Chinese Population

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    Wang Chunling

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE refers to the formation of a blood clot inside veins and has a high risk of inducing medical accidents. An effective risk assessment model will help screen high risk populations and prevent the occurrence of VTE. In this study, 287 VTE cases were collected and analyzed for risk factors in a Chinese population. The risks of VTE were evaluated using the Caprini and Padua models. Our results indicated that the Caprini model was more effective in evaluating VTE risk among hospitalized patients than the Padua model. As well, the Caprini model was more relevant in VTE risk assessment among surgery patients compared with internal medicine patients, while the Padua model showed no significant differences. In our studies, the most frequent risk factors included obesity, medical patients currently at bed rest, and severe lung disease. Our studies provide clinical support on selecting the suitable risk assessment model of VTE in the Chinese population.

  15. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    . Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men......Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  16. Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for stroke modifiable risk factors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbo; Lauche, Romy; Ferguson, Caleb; Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of stroke burden is attributable to its modifiable risk factors. This paper aimed to systematically summarise the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions on stroke modifiable risk factors for stroke prevention. A literature search was conducted via the MEDLINE, CINAHL/EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Database from 1996 to 2016. Randomised controlled trials or cross-over studies were included. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. A total of 46 trials (6895 participants) were identified regarding the use of CHM interventions in the management of stroke risk factors, including 12 trials for hypertension, 10 trials for diabetes, eight trials for hyperlipidemia, seven trials for impaired glucose tolerance, three trials for obesity, and six trials for combined risk factors. Amongst the included trials with diverse study design, an intervention of CHM as a supplement to biomedicine and/or a lifestyle intervention was found to be more effective in lowering blood pressure, decreasing blood glucose level, helping impaired glucose tolerance reverse to normal, and/or reducing body weight compared to CHM monotherapy. While no trial reported deaths amongst the CHM groups, some papers do report moderate adverse effects associated with CHM use. However, the findings of such beneficial effects of CHM should be interpreted with caution due to the heterogeneous set of complex CHM studied, the various control interventions employed, the use of different participants' inclusion criteria, and low methodological quality across the published studies. The risk of bias of trials identified was largely unclear in the domains of selection bias and detection bias across the included studies. This study showed substantial evidence of varied CHM interventions improving the stroke modifiable risk factors. More rigorous research examining the use of CHM products for sole or multiple major stroke risk factors are warranted.

  17. Recurrent Shoulder Dystocia: Risk Factors and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurewitsch Allen, Edith D

    2016-12-01

    A prior history of delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia confers a 6-fold to nearly 30-fold increased risk of shoulder dystocia recurrence in a subsequent vaginal delivery, with most reported rates between 12% and 17%. Whereas prevention of shoulder dystocia in the general population is neither feasible nor cost-effective, directing intervention efforts at the particular subgroup of women with a prior history of shoulder dystocia has merit. Potentially modifiable risk factors and individualized management strategies that may reduce shoulder dystocia recurrence and its associated significant morbidities are reviewed.

  18. Critical success factors for implementing risk management systems in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Reza Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of published studies on risk management in developing countries reveals that critical success factors for implementing risk management has remained an under-researched area of investigation. This paper is aimed at investigating the perceptions of construction professionals concerning the critical success factors (CSFs for implementation of risk management systems (IRMS. Survey data was collected from 87 construction professionals from the Iranian construction industry as a developing country. The results indicate that four factors are regarded as highly critical: ‘support from managers’, ‘inclusion of risk management in construction education and training courses for construction practitioners’, ‘attempting to deliver projects systematically’, and ‘awareness and knowledge of the process for implementing risk management’. Assessing the associations among CSFs also highlighted the crucial role of enhancing the effectiveness of knowledge management practices in construction organisations. Study also revealed that parties involved in projects do not agree on the level of importance of CSFs for implementing risk management in developing countries. This study contributes to practice and research in several ways. For practice, it increases understanding of how closely knowledge management is associated with the implementation of risk management systems in developing countries. For research, the findings would encourage construction practitioners to support effective knowledge management as a precursor to higher levels of risk management implementation on construction projects.

  19. Host-Country Related Risk Factors in International Construction: Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzin AYDOGAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization has been on the agenda of construction firms as a strategic option in global competition. Due to globalization every sector including the construction industry has faced with high levels of competitiveness, uncertainty, and risk. International construction involves common risks to domestic construction, as well as risks that are related to the host country. These risks have serious effects on the performance of international projects. Since the sustainable competitiveness of international contractors depends largely on the effective management of these risks, their assessment becomes vital for the success of international contractors. The main aim of this study is to analyse the risks for international construction projects that are related to the host country. Meta-analysis technique is used in order to determine these risks. This paper, therefore, reviews the literature that has been published in four most respected construction and management journals, these being; Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Journal of Management in Engineering, Construction Management and Economics, and International Journal of Project Management for the period of 2000-2010. International construction risk assessment models are also reviewed within the context of this study, since host country related risk factors were found to have serious effects on the profitability of international contractors due to literature review. As a result; political stability, law and regulations, exchange rate risk, cultural differences, inflation, expropriation, tax discrimination, language barrier, bribery and corruption, force majeure, and societal conflicts in the host country are found to be the most important risk factors in international construction. Findings of this study can be used in risk assessment models for international construction projects.

  20. Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Namale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is a significant burden of ischemic stroke (IS and hemorrhagic stroke (HS, although data on risk factors for each type are sparse. In this systematic review we attempt to characterize the risk factors. Methods. We systematically reviewed (PubMed, EMBASE, WHOLIS, Google Scholar, Wiley online, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL case-control studies and case series from 1980 to 2016 that reported risk factors for IS and/or HS in SSA. For each risk factor we calculated random-effects pooled odds ratios (ORs for case-control studies and pooled prevalence estimates for case series. Results. We identified 12 studies, including 4,387 stroke patients. Pooled analysis showed that patients who had diabetes (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.14–5.03 and HIV (OR = 2.46 (95% CI: 1.59–3.81 were at a significantly greater risk of suffering from all stroke types. There were insufficient data to examine these factors by stroke type. Among case series, the pooled prevalence of hypertension was higher for HS than for IS (73.5% versus 62.8%, while diabetes mellitus (DM and atrial fibrillation (AF were more prevalent among IS compared to HS (15.9% versus 10.6% and 9.6% versus 2.3%, respectively. Conclusions. There remain too few data from SSA to reliably estimate the effect of various factors on the risk of IS and HS. Furthermore, the vast majority of cases were identified in hospital and so are unlikely to be representative of the totality of stroke cases in the community.

  1. Factors influencing HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-positive urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.

  2. Effect of diet, life style, and other environmental/chemopreventive factors on colorectal cancer development, and assessment of the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2004-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive, evenhanded evaluation of the evidence from experimental, in vitro and human studies associating environmental and therapeutic factors with risk of colorectal cancer. Life styles correlated with the greatest increase in colorectal cancer risk are the ones that typify a diet rich in fat and calories, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking, and low intake of vegetable, fruits and fibers, referred to as a "western diet," as well as sedentary style (i.e., no- or low-exercise). This kind of life style has also been associated with other chronic diseases (other cancers, obesity, dyslipedemia, diabetes, hypertension cardiovascular, and hypertension). The evidence does not implicated red meat as a risk factor, and fiber has been shown to protect against colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Calcium, vitamin D, folate, and some antioxidant vitamins and minerals (gamma-tocopherol and selenium) have protective effects, and daily exercise for > or =30 min results in a significant decrease in risk. Estrogen use (hormone replacement therapy) substantially reduces colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin) in excessive doses is protective, especially in high risk populations, but the side effects of its use and cost incurred due to its continued intake over long periods must be carefully scrutinized before any recommendations are made for the general public.

  3. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  4. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lai, Hsiao-Jung; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2011-01-01

    : Suicide is the ninth leading cause of death in adolescents aged 15-19 years in Taiwan. Suicidal ideation is an important predictor of committing suicide among adolescents. : The aim of this study was to examine the important risk factors, the protective factors, and the role of protective factors on the relationship of risk factors to suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents aged 15-19 years. : By adopting a cross-sectional study, senior high school students (n = 577) aged 15-19 years in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. An anonymous self-reported questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, risk factors, protective factors, and suicidal ideation of the sample. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify the important risk and protective factors and the interaction between risk and protective factors on suicidal ideation. : Nearly 18% (n = 101) of the participants reported having suicidal ideation during the past 12 months. Gender (female; odds ratio [OR] = 4.23), life stress (OR = 1.03), depression (OR = 3.44), peer suicidal ideation (OR = 4.15), and bullying victimization (OR = 1.81) were important risk factors of suicidal ideation among the targeted sample. In addition, self-esteem (OR = 0.92) and emotional adaptation (OR = 0.88) were important protective factors of suicidal ideation. Self-esteem and emotional adaptation were not used to moderate the negative effects of life stress, depression, perceived peer suicidal ideation, and bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. The final model explained 40.6% of the total variance in suicidal ideation and correctly predicted 86.1% of participants with suicidal ideation. : Suicidal ideation prevention programs should be targeted to female adolescents. School-based efforts that provide adolescents with self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills training, positive peer norms for life, coping skills for managing stress and depression, and antibullying programs

  5. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......: Forty-three obese adolescents (age: 15.7±1.3y, BMI: 34.3±4.1kg/m2) participated this study either HIT (corresponding to ventilatory threshold-I, VT1; N=20) or LIT (20% below VT1; N=23) for 12 weeks (12W). All sessions were isocaloric (350 kcal). All participants received the same nutritional......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS...

  6. [Clinical features of suicide occurring in schizophrenia (I). Risk-factors identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnier, N; Gavaudan, G; Navez, A; Adida, M; Jollant, F; Courtet, P; Lançon, C

    2009-04-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of premature death in schizophrenia. Approximately 10 to 13% of deaths in schizophrenia are explained by suicide, despite widespread availability of generally effective antipsychotic treatments and suicide attempts have been reported among 20 to 50% of patients. This relatively low ratio of attempts/suicide is consistent with greater lethality of means - more violent - and intents - less ambivalence - in this population. Many studies have focused on risk factors and clinical characteristics for completed and/or attempted suicide. Commonly, sociodemographic risk factors for suicide are male sex, younger age and, among women, being unmarried, divorced or widowed. Previous suicidal behaviour is a strong risk factor for suicide and contrary to the common view, schizophrenic patients often communicate their suicidal intents shortly before death. Moreover, family history of suicide is associated with a heightened risk of suicide and is independent of the diagnosis, according to the growing literature that shows that vulnerability to suicidal behaviour is independent of psychiatric diagnosis. Suicide can occur throughout the entire course of schizophrenia. This is particularly true in those high-risk periods: early phase of the disease, active illness phase, period of relapse or during a depressive episode. The role of insight and positive symptoms remains unclear and probably needs further studies. Although not specifically for people with schizophrenia, hopelessness is a major risk factor and tragic loss is often presented as a trigger for suicide. It has been suggested that treatment side-effects, such as akathisia are associated with suicidal behaviour. A better knowledge of risk and protective factors is necessary to prevent suicide and suicidality.

  7. The quality of risk factor screening during antenatal consultations in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prual, A; Toure, A; Huguet, D; Laurent, Y

    2000-03-01

    A decade after the first International Conference on Safe Motherhood, maternal mortality remains very high in most West African countries, even in capital cities. The detection of high risk pregnancies, known as the risk approach, during antenatal consultations has been the basis of most maternal and child health programmes over the last decade. The effectiveness of antenatal care as a tool to prevent or predict obstetric complications is being questioned more and more. In addition to the scarcity of reliable data about the predictivity of most risk factors, the quality of the screening must be questioned. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency of risk factors among a sample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Niger and to assess the quality of the screening of those risk factors. Overall, 330 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Each woman was examined twice: the first time by a midwife, the second time by one of the authors but without knowledge of the results of the first consultation. Fifty-five percent of pregnant women had at least one risk factor, 31% had more than one. Ninety-one percent of the risk factors were detected at interview. The following risk factors were not systematically searched for by midwives: height (48.5%), blood pressure (43.6%), glycosuria (40.6%), vaginal bleeding (38.2%), oedema (37.3%), parity (17%), age (16%), previous caesarean section (15.2%), previous stillbirth (15.2%) and previous miscarriages (14.8%). This study has shown that, in Niger, the quality of screening for risk factors during antenatal consultation is poor. In the urban settings where this study took place, lack of personnel, lack of equipment, lack of time and poor compliance by women cannot be made responsible for this situation. While screening of these risk factors continues as policy, the quality of screening must be dramatically improved.

  8. Risk factors for epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Richard J M; Boden, Lisa A; Mellor, Dominic J; Love, Sandy; Newton, Richard J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with developing epistaxis in jump racing in Great Britain (GB). A retrospective analysis of records from horses running in all hurdle and steeplechase races in GB between 2001 and 2009 identified diagnoses of epistaxis whilst still at the racecourse. Data were used from 603 starts resulting in epistaxis (event) and 169,065 starts resulting in no epistaxis (non-event) in hurdle racing, and from 550 event starts and 102,344 non-event starts in steeplechase racing. Two multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate risk factors associated with epistaxis were produced. The potential effect of clustering of data (within horse, horse dam, horse sire, trainer, jockey, course, race and race meet) on the associations between risk factors and epistaxis was examined using mixed-effects models. Multiple factors associated with increased risk of epistaxis were identified. Those identified in both types of jump racing included running on firmer ground; horses with >75% of career starts in flat racing and a previous episode of epistaxis recorded during racing. Risk factors identified only in hurdle racing included racing in the spring and increased age at first race; and those identified only in steeplechase racing included running in a claiming race and more starts in the previous 3-6 months. The risk factors identified provide important information about the risk of developing epistaxis. Multiple avenues for further investigation are highlighted, including unmeasured variables at the level of the racecourse. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of interventions to minimise the risk of epistaxis in jump racing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Health in police officers: Role of risk factor clusters and police divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stephanie A; Geiger, Ashley M; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-10-01

    Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P; Lewis, Cora E; Wei, Gina S; Whitmer, Rachel A; Quesenberry, Charles P; Sidney, Steve

    2007-03-01

    To examine the relationship between duration of lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors. This 3-year prospective study examined changes in metabolic risk factors among lactating women from preconception to postweaning and among nonlactating women from preconception to postdelivery, in comparison with nongravid women. Of 1,051 (490 black, 561 white) women who attended two consecutive study visits in years 7 (1992-1993) and 10 (1995-1996), 942 were nongravid and 109 had one interim birth. Of parous women, 48 (45%) did not lactate, and 61 (55%) lactated and weaned before year 10. The lactated and weaned women were subdivided by duration of lactation into less than 3 months and 3 months or more. Multiple linear regression models estimated mean 3-year changes in metabolic risk factors adjusted for age, race, parity, education, and behavioral covariates. Both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned gained more weight (+5.6, +4.4 kg) and waist girth (+5.3, +4.9 cm) than nongravid women over the 3-year interval; Pdecrements for both parous women who did not lactate and parous women who lactated and weaned were 4.0 mg/dL greater than for nongravid women (Pdecrement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-1.3 mg/dL versus -7.3 mg/dL for less than 3 months; P<.01). Lactation may attenuate unfavorable metabolic risk factor changes that occur with pregnancy, with effects apparent after weaning. As a modifiable behavior, lactation may affect women's future risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. II.

  11. Plasma methionine and risk of acute myocardial infarction: Effect modification by established risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Indu; Lysne, Vegard; Seifert, Reinhard; Svingen, Gard F T; Ueland, Per M; Nygård, Ottar K

    2018-05-01

    Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid involved in methylation reactions and lipid metabolism. A Met-deficient diet may cause hepatic lipid accumulation, which is considered an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, the prospective relationship between circulating Met and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. We studied the associations of plasma Met and incident AMI in 4156 patients (77% men; median age 62 years) with stable angina pectoris, among whom the majority received lipid lowering therapy with statins. Risk associations were estimated using Cox-regression analyses. Plasma Met was negatively related to age, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B at baseline (all p≤0.05). During a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 534 (12.8%) patients experienced an AMI. There was no overall association between plasma Met and incident AMI; however, plasma Met was inversely associated with risk among patients with high as compared to low levels of serum LDL-C or apo B 100 (multivariate adjusted HRs per SD [95% CI] 0.84 [0.73-0.96] and 0.83[0.73-0.95], respectively; p-interaction ≤0.02). Trends towards an inverse risk relationship were also observed among those younger than 62 years and patients without diabetes or hypertension. Low plasma Met was associated with increased risk of AMI in patients with high circulating levels of atherogenic lipids, but also in subgroups with presumably lower cardiovascular risk. The determinants of Met status and their relation with residual cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary heart disease should be further investigated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  13. Restoration Survival: Revisiting Patients' Risk Factors Through a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, F H; Collares, K; Correa, M B; Cenci, M S; Demarco, F F; Opdam, Njm

    2016-09-01

    A literature review was conducted to investigate the influence of patient-related factors on restoration survival in posterior permanent teeth as well as to report the methods used to collect these factors. The selection of articles on longitudinal clinical studies investigating the survival of posterior restorations (except full crowns and temporary fillings) and including patient-related factors was performed by applying predefined criteria. The review was organized into two parts, the first describing how patient factors were assessed in the studies (n=45) and the second presenting the statistical significance (n=27) and size of the effect (n=11) of these factors on restoration survival. Patient-related factors mentioned in the studies included age; gender; caries risk; caries activity/severity; decayed, missing, filled teeth; number of restorations; oral hygiene; and bruxism, among others. Sixteen studies included the patient age or age range in the analysis, which was found to be significant in 47% of the studies. Regarding gender, four of 17 reports found a significant effect on survival, showing more failures for men in three studies. The caries risk profile or related variables were included in the analysis of 15 studies, and a significant effect on survival was reported for high-caries-risk individuals (or related variables) in 67% of these studies. Bruxism was also found to influence restoration survival in three of six studies where this variable was investigated. Some issues were found regarding the reporting of methods used to classify patients according to risk and were thoroughly discussed. In view of the information gathered in this review, the assessment of patient factors along with other variables should become part of clinical studies investigating restoration survival, since several of these factors were shown to influence the failure of restorations, regardless of the material type.

  14. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  15. A risk-factor analysis of medical litigation judgments related to fall injuries in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Insook; Won, Seonae; Lee, Mijin; Lee, Won

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors through analysis of seven medical malpractice judgments related to fall injuries. The risk factors were analysed by using the framework that approaches falls from a systems perspective and comprised people, organisational or environmental factors, with each factor being comprised of subfactors. The risk factors found in each of the seven judgments were aggregated into one framework. The risk factors related to patients (i.e. the people factor) were age, pain, related disease, activities and functional status, urination state, cognitive function impairment, past history of fall, blood transfusion, sleep endoscopy state and uncooperative attitude. The risk factors related to the medical staff and caregivers (i.e. people factor) were observation negligence, no fall prevention activities and negligence in managing high-risk group for fall. Organisational risk factors were a lack of workforce, a lack of training, neglecting the management of the high-risk group, neglecting the management of caregivers and the absence of a fall prevention procedure. Regarding the environment, the risk factors were found to be the emergency room, chairs without a backrest and the examination table. Identifying risk factors is essential for preventing fall accidents, since falls are preventable patient-safety incidents. Falls do not happen as a result of a single risk factor. Therefore, a systems approach is effective to identify risk factors, especially organisational and environmental factors.

  16. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, Geertje A M; Van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  17. Representing and Retrieving Patients' Falls Risk Factors and Risk for Falls among Adults in Acute Care through the Electronic Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Jann

    2013-01-01

    Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…

  18. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  19. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk for suic......BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... for suicide attempt.MethodWe designed a population-based two-generation nested case-control study and used Danish register data. A population of 403 431 individuals born between 1983 and 1989 was sampled. Among these, 3465 (0.8%) were registered as having had a suicide attempt. Twenty controls were matched...... to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between the number of exposures and the risk of suicide attempts, with the increased risk seeming to be a multiplicative effect. Parental suicide, suicide attempt, psychiatric...

  20. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...... of the increased risk. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of observational studies with continuous outcome using random-effects statistics. A systematic search of studies published before 25 October 2012 was conducted using the databases Medline, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PASCAL and BIOSIS......·65 mmol L(-1) )] and a higher HbA1c [1·09 mmol mol(-1) , 95% CI 0·87-1·31, P controls are significant, and therefore relevant to the clinical management of patients with psoriasis....

  1. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  2. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Periodontal treatment for cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linkai; Li, Chunjie; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yukui; Zhao, Hongwei

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of periodontal treatment for the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Eligible studies in Cochrane Controlled Trials Register/CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) were searched until October 13, 2011. References of the included studies were hand searched. Two reviewers assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data of the included studies in duplicate. Meta-analysis was conducted with Revman 5.1. Six randomized controlled trials involving 682 participants were included. One case had low risk of bias, another one had moderate risk of bias, and the remaining four had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that periodontal treatment has no significant effect on C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (P > 0.05). However, the treatment had a significant effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [MD = 0.05, 95% CI (0.00, 0.09), P = 0.04]. Periodontal treatment has good effects on controlling high-density lipoprotein cholesterol although more randomized controlled trials must be conducted to verify its effectiveness.

  4. Critical Success Factors for an Effective Security Risk Management Program in an Organization: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Humayun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in perception between layers of management (executive, middle, and lower) and staff with regard to the influence of critical success factors (CSFs) on security risk management (SRM) effectiveness. This is an in-depth case study conducted at a Fortune 500 company. Rockart's (1979) CSF method is modified through…

  5. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  6. Work stress and metabolic and hemostatic risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, T. G.; van Doornen, L. J.; de Geus, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    A high level of work stress has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. This study examined the effect of work stress on a cluster of metabolic and hemostatic risk factors. Blood was collected three times, on

  7. Perceptions of risk factors for road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.

  8. Nutrient-dense, Plant-rich Dietary Intervention Effective at Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Worksites: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliffe, Jay Thomas; Fuhrman, Joel Harvey; Carnot, Mary Jo; Beetham, Raena Marie; Peddy, Madison Sarah

    2016-09-01

    conduct interventions for health promotion and disease prevention to ameliorate chronic risk factors for disease, such as for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Likewise, nutrient-dense, plant-rich (NDPR) dietary patterns have been shown to be effective at preventing and improving chronic-disease conditions, including CVD. Objective • The study's aim was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an NDPR dietary intervention for worksites to lower CVD risk factors. Design • The study was a 6-wk pilot intervention using a pretest and posttest design. The intervention was conducted at the Northern Arizona University (Flagstaff, AZ, USA) and sponsored by its Employee Assistance and Wellness Department. Participants • Participants were 35 employees with body mass indexes (BMIs) >25 kg/m2 who were ready and willing to make a lifestyle change, who were not currently participating in a weight loss program, and who were not taking any medications that could increase medical risk or had weight loss as a primary side effect. The average age of participants was 42.57 y; 91.4% were female, and 80% were Caucasian. Intervention • The intervention used a dietary protocol consisting of the daily consumption of greens, beans, legumes, and a variety of other vegetables, as well as fresh or frozen whole fruits, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Participants were encouraged to minimize the consumption of refined grains, vegetable oils, processed foods, and animal products. Outcome Measures • The study measured serum lipids, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure. Results • Based on paired-sample t tests and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test with a maximum level of P = .05, the intervention resulted in significant changes in weight, BMI, waist and hip measurements, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and estimated average glucose. Conclusions • The findings favorably revealed that an NDPR dietary intervention that was

  9. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven O. E. Ebbesson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although saturated fatty acids (FAs have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods: In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin. Results: The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs.

  10. EFFECT OF CHIA SEED (SALVIA HISPANICA L.) CONSUMPTION ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN HUMANS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Cynthia; dd Sousa Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima; da Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, either milled or whole, has in the prevention/control of cardiovascular risk factors in humans. this is a systematic literature review (SLR) with no meta-analysis. The articles scrutinizedwere identified in the electronic databases Lilacs, Medline (Pub- Med version), Cochrane, Scielo, Scopus, and Web of Science under the keywords"dyslipidemia" or "dislipidemia", "hyperlipidemia" or "hiperlipidemia", "obesity" or "obesidade", "salvia"or"salviahispanica", "Lamiaceae" or "chia", "hypertension" or "hipertensão", "hypertrygliceridemia" or "hipertrigliceridemia", and "riscocardiovascular" or "cardiovascularrisk." We chose for our selection English-, Portuguese- or Spanish-language articles about clinical trials on humans and published within the last ten years. The biases of risk analysis were carried out considering 6 of the 8 criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1. seven studies (n = 200) fit our inclusion criteria. Of the chosen clinical trials, only one was not randomized. Five of the studies were blind experiments. Two of the studies were acute trials, both of them randomized. Of the chia seed interventions, one study showed a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inflammatory markers, yet there was no change in body mass, lipid profile or blood sugar. In four of the studies reviewed there was a significant spike in ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with no significant change to other parameters. In the acute trials, post

  11. Analysis of risk factors and risk assessment for ischemic stroke recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-ying LONG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen the risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke and to assess the risk of recurrence. Methods Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS was used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in 176 patients with ischemic stroke (96 cases of first onset and 80 cases of recurrence. Univariate and multivariate stepwise Logistic regression analysis was used to screen risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke.  Results There were significant differences between first onset group and recurrence group on age, the proportion of > 75 years old, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, peripheral angiopathy, transient ischemic attack (TIA or ischemic stroke, drinking and ESRS score (P < 0.05, for all. First onset group included one case of ESRS 0 (1.04%, 8 cases of 1 (8.33%, 39 cases of 2 (40.63%, 44 cases of 3 (45.83%, 4 cases of 4 (4.17%. Recurrence group included 2 cases of ESRS 3 (2.50%, 20 cases of 4 (25% , 37 cases of 5 (46.25% , 18 cases of 6 (22.50% , 3 cases of 7 (3.75% . There was significant difference between 2 groups (Z = -11.376, P = 0.000. Logistic regression analysis showed ESRS > 3 score was independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke (OR = 31.324, 95%CI: 3.934-249.430; P = 0.001.  Conclusions ESRS > 3 score is the independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke. It is important to strengthen risk assessment of recurrence of ischemic stroke. To screen and control risk factors is the key to secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.011

  12. Risk factors for interpersonal conflicts at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raeve, Lore; Jansen, Nicole Wh; van den Brandt, Piet A; Vasse, Rineke M; Kant, Ijmert

    2008-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Longitudinal data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on "fatigue at work" (N=9241) were used. After the respondents who reported an interpersonal conflict at baseline were excluded, logistic regression analyses were used to determine the role of several work-related risk factors at baseline in the onset of a conflict with coworkers or supervisors after 1 year of follow-up. Higher psychological job demands, higher levels of role ambiguity, the presence of physical demands, higher musculoskeletal demands, a poorer physical work environment, shift work, overtime, and higher levels of job insecurity significantly predicted the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of coworker and supervisor social support, more autonomy concerning the terms of employment, good overall job satisfaction, monetary gratification, and esteem reward significantly protected against the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of decision latitude and more career opportunities also significantly protected against the onset of a supervisor conflict. Several factors in the work environment were related to the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Given the rather serious consequences of interpersonal conflicts at work with respect to health and well-being, the observed risk factors can serve as a starting point for effective prevention and intervention strategies in the workplace.

  13. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment--sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Olwenn V; Martin, Scholze; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  14. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural......-born children, we observed 1193 cases of isolated CHC (0.062/1000) born children. First-borns had an increased risk of isolated CHC compared to later-borns (1.32 95% CI 1.17 to 1.49) (0.72/1000 born children). First trimester exposure to maternal use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly...

  15. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  16. Effects of endurance, circuit, and relaxing training on cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Schena, Federico; Caimi, Barbara; Carugo, Stefano; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors among older adults highlighted the importance of exercise-based interventions, including endurance training (ET). However, the evidence of efficacy of other interventions based on short-bouts of exercise (circuit training, CT), and the practice of breath-control and meditation (relaxing training, RT) is growing. The aim of this study was to elucidate if CT or RT are equally effective in CVD risk factors reduction compared to ET. To this purpose, in 40 elderly participants, with clinically diagnosed grade 1 hypertension, resting blood pressure, blood glucose, and cholesterol levels, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), mechanical efficiency and quality of life were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ET, CT, and RT treatments. Resting blood pressure reduced significantly in all groups by ∼11 %. In ET, blood cholesterol levels (-18 %), [Formula: see text] (+8 %), mechanical efficiency (+9 %), and quality of life scores (+36 %) ameliorated. In CT blood glucose levels (-11 %), [Formula: see text] (+7 %) and quality of life scores (+35 %) were bettered. Conversely, in RT, the lower blood pressure went along only with an improvement in the mental component of quality of life (+42 %). ET and CT were both appropriate interventions to reduce CVDs risk factors, because blood pressure reduction was accompanied by decreases in blood glucose and cholesterol levels, increases in [Formula: see text], mechanical efficiency, and quality of life. Although RT influenced only blood pressure and quality of life, this approach would be an attractive alternative for old individuals unable or reluctant to carry out ET or CT.

  17. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  18. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as omphalocele, OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects complex, pentalogy of Cantrell, amniotic band sequence, limb-body wall complex, Meckel syndrome, Joubert syndrome, skeletal dysplasia, diabetic embryopathy, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of glucose metabolism. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multi facto rial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:131-140

  19. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, including DK phocomelia syndrome (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome, Siegel-Bartlet syndrome, fetal warfarin syndrome, craniotelencephalic dysplasia, Czeizel-Losonci syndrome, maternal cocaine abuse, Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome, parietal foramina (cranium bifidum, Apert syndrome, craniomicromelic syndrome, XX-agonadism with multiple dysraphic lesions including omphalocele and NTDs, Fryns microphthalmia syndrome, Gershoni-Baruch syndrome, PHAVER syndrome, periconceptional vitamin B6 deficiency, and autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  20. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  1. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  2. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  3. [Homocystein serum levels and lipid parameters in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Pokoca, Lech; Smorag, Ireneusz; Wosik-Erenbek, Marzenna; Baj, Zbigniew

    2007-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of adult patients, however, it begins in childhood and progresses from fatty streaks to raised lesions in arteries in adolescence and young adults. Clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in adulthood depends on the risk factors such as: lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension, smoking habits and family history of CHD. High serum homocysteine concentration is increasingly recognised as a new risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to cytotoxin action on the endothelial cells and their function. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocysteine serum concentration and the lipid levels in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The study was carried out on 48 children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The control group consisted of 25 healthy childrens. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C were determined by enzymatic method. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). Obesity, lipid disorders, and hypertension were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. Statistically significant higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were observed in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in homocystein concentration were observed in the investigated groups, but homocystein concentration was significantly higher in group of children with atherosclerosis risk factors. We observed that increased number of the risk factors is followed by high homocystein concentration in the serum.

  4. Newborn hearing screening programme in Belgium: a consensus recommendation on risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Bénédicte; Senterre, Christelle; Lagasse, Raphaël; Levêque, Alain

    2015-10-16

    Understanding the risk factors for hearing loss is essential for designing the Belgian newborn hearing screening programme. Accordingly, they needed to be updated in accordance with current scientific knowledge. This study aimed to update the recommendations for the clinical management and follow-up of newborns with neonatal risk factors of hearing loss for the newborn screening programme in Belgium. A literature review was performed, and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system assessment method was used to determine the level of evidence quality and strength of the recommendation for each risk factor. The state of scientific knowledge, levels of evidence quality, and graded recommendations were subsequently assessed using a three-round Delphi consensus process (two online questionnaires and one face-to-face meeting). Congenital infections (i.e., cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis), a family history of hearing loss, consanguinity in (grand)parents, malformation syndromes, and foetal alcohol syndrome presented a 'high' level of evidence quality as neonatal risk factors for hearing loss. Because of the sensitivity of auditory function to bilirubin toxicity, hyperbilirubinaemia was assessed at a 'moderate' level of evidence quality. In contrast, a very low birth weight, low Apgar score, and hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit ranged from 'very low' to 'low' levels, and ototoxic drugs were evidenced as 'very low'. Possible explanations for these 'very low' and 'low' levels include the improved management of these health conditions or treatments, and methodological weaknesses such as confounding effects, which make it difficult to conclude on individual risk factors. In the recommendation statements, the experts emphasised avoiding unidentified neonatal hearing loss and opted to include risk factors for hearing loss even in cases with weak evidence. The panel also highlighted the cumulative effect

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen W. K. Chan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors.

  6. Social factors matter in cancer risk and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Gehlert, Sarah; Neuhouser, Marian L; Oh, April; Zanetti, Krista; Goodman, Melody; Thompson, Beti; Visvanathan, Kala; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2018-07-01

    Greater attention to social factors, such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and others, are needed across the cancer continuum, including breast cancer, given differences in tumor biology and genetic variants have not completely explained the persistent Black/White breast cancer mortality disparity. In this commentary, we use examples in breast cancer risk assessment and survivorship to demonstrate how the failure to appropriately incorporate social factors into the design, recruitment, and analysis of research studies has resulted in missed opportunities to reduce persistent cancer disparities. The conclusion offers recommendations for how to better document and use information on social factors in cancer research and care by (1) increasing education and awareness about the importance of inclusion of social factors in clinical research; (2) improving testing and documentation of social factors by incorporating them into journal guidelines and reporting stratified results; and (3) including social factors to refine extant tools that assess cancer risk and assign cancer care. Implementing the recommended changes would enable more effective design and implementation of interventions and work toward eliminating cancer disparities by accounting for the social and environmental contexts in which cancer patients live and are treated.

  7. Risk factor management in a contemporary Australian population at increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D J; Coller, J M; Gong, F F; McGrady, M; Prior, D L; Boffa, U; Shiel, L; Liew, D; Wolfe, R; Owen, A J; Krum, H; Reid, C M

    2017-11-14

    Effective management of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease risk factors offers longer, healthier lives and savings in health care. We examined risk factor management in participants of the SCReening Evaluation of the Evolution of New Heart Failure (SCREEN-HF) study, a self-selected population at increased cardiovascular disease risk recruited from members of a health insurance fund in Melbourne and Shepparton, Australia. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60 years with one or more of self-reported ischaemic or other heart disease, irregular or rapid heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease, renal impairment, or treatment for hypertension or diabetes for ≥2 years. Exclusion criteria were known heart failure or cardiac abnormality on echocardiography or other imaging. Medical history, clinical examination, full blood examination and biochemistry (without lipids and HbA1c) were performed for 3847 participants on enrolment, and blood pressure, lipids and HbA1c were measured 1-2 years after enrolment for 3202 participants. Despite 99% of 3294 participants with hypertension receiving antihypertensive medication, half had blood pressures >140/90 mmHg. Approximately 77% of participants were overweight or obese, with one third obese. Additionally, 74% of participants at high cardiovascular disease risk had low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≥2 mmol/l, one third of diabetic participants had HbA1c >7%, 22% had estimated glomerular filtration rate management of modifiable risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  9. Risk factors for congenital heart diseases in Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassili, A.; Mokhtar, S.A.; Dabous, N.I.; Zaher, S.R.; Mokhtar, M.M.; Zaki, A.

    2000-01-01

    A matched case control study has been conducted in the children's hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt, during 2 years-period, aiming at investigating the risk factors for the occurrence of congenital heart diseases. Our results showed that the significant risk factors for developing any type of congenital heart disease and ventricular septal defects were: older paternal age at birth, positive consanguinity, positive family history, female sex hormones, irradiation, hazardous maternal occupation, diabetes mellitus and suburban or rural residence. However, some environmental/teratogenic factors were not implicated in the etiology of atrial septal defects or pulmonary stenosis. These findings strongly suggest that environmental factors vary according to the specific type of congenital heart disease. This study emphasizes on the need to instruct the public about the importance of pre-marital counselling and the deleterious effects of various teratogens in the environment

  10. The effects of risk factors on the improvement of hypothermia neonatal using fuzzy transition

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Salmani; Alireza Abadi; S. Mahmoud Taheri; Hamid Alavi Majd; Fatemeh Nayeri

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Neonatal hypothermia is a major risk factor for mortality after delivery. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with transition in hypothermia state with new definition of hypothermia states.Methods:  Four hundred and seventy nine (479) neonates hospitalized in NICU of Valiasr in Tehran, Iran in 2005 participated in this study. The rectal temperature of neonatal was measured immediately after delivery and every 30 min afterwards, until neonates became nor...

  11. Gambling Risk Groups are Not All the Same: Risk Factors Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Li, En; Vitartas, Peter

    2018-03-20

    Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers. Thus it is essential to understand the risk factors for each level of gambling-related problems (low risk, moderate risk, problem) separately. The present study used a large sample (N = 1813) to compare each gambling risk group to non-problem gamblers, first using bivariate and then multivariate statistical techniques. A range of demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness variables were included as possible risk factors. The results indicated that some variables, such as gambling expenditure, number of accounts with different operators, number of different types of promotions used and impulsiveness were significantly higher for all risk groups, while others such as some normative factors, age, gender and particular sports betting variables only applied to those with the highest level of gambling-related problems. The results generally supported findings from previous literature for problem gamblers, and extended these findings to low risk and moderate risk groups. In the future, where statistical power allows, risk factors should be assessed separately for all levels of gambling problems.

  12. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  13. Risk factors of Internet addiction and the health effect of internet addiction on adolescents: a systematic review of longitudinal and prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T

    2014-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction was included in the latest version of the DSM-V as a possible disorder recently, while debate is still on-going as to whether the condition called "Internet Addiction" (IA) could be fully recognised as an established disorder. The major contention is how well IA could fulfil the validation criteria as a psychiatric disorder as in other well-established behavioural addictions. In addition to various proposed validation criteria, evidence of risk and protective factors as well as development of outcomes from longitudinal and prospective studies are suggested as important. A systematic review of available longitudinal and prospective studies was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence on risk and protective factors of IA and the health effect of IA on adolescents. Nine articles were identified after an extensive search of the literature in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, eight provided data on risk or protective factors of IA and one focused solely on the effects of IA on mental health. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each study and tabulated. Many exposure variables were studied and could be broadly classified into three main categories: psychopathologies of the participants, family and parenting factors, and others such as Internet usage, motivation, and academic performance. Some were found to be potential risk or protective factors of IA. It was also found that exposure to IA had a detrimental effect on the mental health of young people. These results were discussed in light of their implications to the fulfilment of the validation criteria.

  14. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  15. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as infertility, periconceptional clomiphene use and assisted reproductive technology, periconceptional folic acid deficiency and effects offolic acid supplementation and fortification on NTD rates, periconceptional vitamin B1 2 deficiency, single nucleotide polymorphisms and polymorphisms in genes of folate metabolism, and maternal autoantibodies to folate receptors. NTDs associated with maternal and fetal risk factors are an important cause of NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:141-1 50

  16. Gene-environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-02-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.

  17. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A.; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. Methods: We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD......Objectives: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...... met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD...

  18. Effect of Interventions on Potential, Modifiable Risk Factors for Knee Injury in Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is

  19. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Tetsuyo; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao

    2014-09-02

    To evaluate the effects of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius on caries risk factors. The study was performed in 64 healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of L. salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors. The participants were divided randomly into four groups, and took tablets containing L. salivarius WB21, L. salivarius TI 2711, Ovalgen® DC (antibody against glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans), or xylitol. Levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, amount of salivary flow, salivary pH, and salivary buffering capacity were assessed before and after taking the tablets. Subsequently, a short-term administration trial using L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets was performed in eight healthy volunteers. The participants took L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets (2.0 × 10(9) colony forming units/day) for 2 weeks, and the numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva were counted. The levels of mutans streptococci seemed to decrease in the L. salivarius WB21, TI 2711, and Ovalgen® DC groups compared to the xylitol group, with no significant differences between the groups. Lactobacilli levels significantly increased in the L. salivarius WB21 and TI 2711 groups compared to the other groups. Concerning salivary flow and salivary pH, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The salivary buffering capacity significantly increased in the L. salivarius TI 2711 group (P = 0.003) and Ovalgen® DC group (P = 0.002) compared to the xylitol group. The short-term administration trial showed that the L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets significantly decreased the number of mutans streptococci (P = 0.039). L. salivarius-containing tablets were suggested to increase resistance to caries risk factors. UMIN000013160 (registration date: February 14, 2014).

  20. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  1. Differential Effects for Sexual Risk Behavior: An Application of Finite Mixture Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Kugler, Kari C.; Mathur, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the multiple factors that place individuals at risk for sexual risk behavior is critical for developing effective intervention programs. Regression-based methods are commonly used to estimate the average effects of risk factors, however such results can be difficult to translate to prevention implications at the individual level. Although differential effects can be examined to some extent by including interaction terms, as risk factors and moderators are added to the model inte...

  2. Factors livestock and milking associated with risk of mastitis in cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data's descriptive analysis has highlighted some significant effect factors on cellular levels and the risk of developing mastitis. For individual cell count (ICC), the significant effect factors (P <0.05) are: free stall, milking machine cleaning with only water, the poor condition of the piping, not elimination of the first milk jets ...

  3. Effect of Previous Abdominal Surgery on Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Analysis of Feasibility and Risk Factors for Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Federica; Ratti, Francesca; Fiorentini, Guido; Catena, Marco; Paganelli, Michele; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2018-03-28

    Previous abdominal surgery has traditionally been considered an additional element of difficulty to later laparoscopic procedures. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of previous surgery on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), and its role as a risk factor for conversion. After matching, 349 LLR in patients known for previous abdominal surgery (PS group) were compared with 349 LLR on patients with a virgin abdomen (NPS group). Subgroup analysis included 161 patients with previous upper abdominal surgery (UPS subgroup). Feasibility and safety were evaluated in terms of conversion rate, reasons for conversion and outcomes, and risk factors for conversion assessed via uni/multivariable analysis. Conversion rate was 9.4%, and higher for PS patients compared with NPS patients (13.7% versus 5.1%, P = .021). Difficult adhesiolysis resulted the commonest reason for conversion in PS group (5.7%). However, operative time (P = .840), blood loss (P = .270), transfusion (P = .650), morbidity rate (P = .578), hospital stay (P = .780), and R1 rate (P = .130) were comparable between PS and NPS group. Subgroup analysis confirmed higher conversion rates for UPS patients (23%) compared with both NPS (P = .015) and PS patients (P = .041). Previous surgery emerged as independent risk factor for conversion (P = .033), alongside the postero-superior location and major hepatectomy. LLR are feasible in case of previous surgery and proved to be safe and maintain the benefits of LLR carried out in standard settings. However, a history of surgery should be considered a risk factor for conversion.

  4. Effect of a group-based rehabilitation programme on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: The Copenhagen Type 2 Diabetes Rehabilitation Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....

  5. The Influence of Organizational External Factors on Construction Risk Management among Nigerian Construction Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Adeleke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial empirical research has shown conflicting results regarding the influence of organizational external factors on construction risk management, suggesting the necessity to introduce a moderator into the study. The present research confirmed whether rules and regulations matter on the relationships between organizational external factors and construction risk management. Methods: Based on discouragement and organizational control theory, this research examined the effects of organizational external factors and rules and regulations on construction risk management among 238 employees operating in construction companies in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria. A personally administered questionnaire was used to acquire the data. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Results: A significant positive relationship between organizational external factors and construction risk management was asserted. This study also found a significant positive relationship between rules and regulations and construction risk management. As anticipated, rules and regulations were found to moderate the relationship between organizational external factors and construction risk management, with a significant positive result. Similarly, a significant interaction effect was also found between rules and regulations and organizational external factors. Implications of the research from a Nigerian point of view have also been discussed. Conclusion: Political, economy, and technology factors helped the construction companies to reduce the chance of risk occurrence during the construction activities. Rules and regulations also helped to lessen the rate of accidents involving construction workers as well as the duration of the projects. Similarly, the influence of the organizational external factors with rules and regulations on construction risk management has proven that most of the construction companies that implement the

  6. Risk factors for mortality before age 18 years in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColley, Susanna A; Schechter, Michael S; Morgan, Wayne J; Pasta, David J; Craib, Marcia L; Konstan, Michael W

    2017-07-01

    Understanding early-life risk factors for childhood death in cystic fibrosis (CF) is important for clinical care, including the identification of effective interventions. Data from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) collected 1994-2005 were linked with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) demographic and mortality data from 2013. Inclusion criteria were ≥1 visit annually at age 3-5 years and ≥1 FEV 1 measurement at age 6-8 years. Demographic data, nutritional parameters, pulmonary signs and symptoms, microbiology, and FEV 1 were evaluated as risk factors for death before age 18 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the simultaneous effects of risk factors associated with death before age 18 years. Among 5365 patients enrolled in ESCF who met inclusion criteria, 3880 (72%) were linked to the CFFPR. Among these, 191 (5.7%) died before age 18 years; median age at death was 13.4 ± 3.1 years. Multivariable regression showed clubbing, crackles, female sex, unknown CFTR genotype, minority race or ethnicity, Medicaid insurance (a proxy of low socioeconomic status), Pseudomonas aeruginosa on 2 or more cultures, and weight-for-age <50th percentile were significant risk factors for death regardless of inclusion of FEV 1 at age 6-8 years in the model. We identified multiple risk factors for childhood death of patients with CF, all of which remained important after incorporating FEV 1 at age 6-8 years. Among the factors identified were the presence of clubbing or crackles at age 3-5 years, signs which are not routinely collected in registries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Surveillance of hepatic late adverse effects in a large cohort of long-term survivors of childhood cancer: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Koot, Bart G. P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Wilde, James C. H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Dalen, Elvira C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are a growing group of young individuals with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of hepatic late adverse effects, defined as elevated liver enzymes, in a large cohort of CCS. The cohort consisted of all five-year CCS

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening for chronic hepatitis C infection in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu

    Full Text Available No consensus exists on screening to detect the estimated 2 million Americans unaware of their chronic hepatitis C infections. Advisory groups differ, recommending birth-cohort screening for baby boomers, screening only high-risk individuals, or no screening. We assessed one-time risk assessment and screening to identify previously undiagnosed 40-74 year-olds given newly available hepatitis C treatments.A Markov model evaluated alternative risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening and treatment strategies. Risk factors included drug use history, blood transfusion before 1992, and multiple sexual partners. Analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provided sex-, race-, age-, and risk-factor-specific hepatitis C prevalence and mortality rates. Nine strategies combined screening (no screening, risk-factor guided screening, or birth-cohort screening and treatment (standard therapy-peginterferon alfa and ribavirin, Interleukin-28B-guided (IL28B triple-therapy-standard therapy plus a protease inhibitor, or universal triple therapy. Response-guided treatment depended on HCV genotype. Outcomes include discounted lifetime costs (2010 dollars and quality adjusted life-years (QALYs. Compared to no screening, risk-factor guided and birth-cohort screening for 50 year-olds gained 0.7 to 3.5 quality adjusted life-days and cost $168 to $568 per person. Birth-cohort screening provided more benefit per dollar than risk-factor guided screening and cost $65,749 per QALY if followed by universal triple therapy compared to screening followed by IL28B-guided triple therapy. If only 10% of screen-detected, eligible patients initiate treatment at each opportunity, birth-cohort screening with universal triple therapy costs $241,100 per QALY. Assuming treatment with triple therapy, screening all individuals aged 40-64 years costs less than $100,000 per QALY.The cost-effectiveness of one-time birth-cohort hepatitis C screening for 40-64 year olds

  9. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  10. Risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.

  11. [Atmospheric air pollution: a risk factor for COPD?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Y-M; Roche, N; Huchon, G

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD worldwide but other risk factors have been recognized. Air pollution is one of them, but its exact role in the development of COPD is hard to demonstrate. Its physiological effects on lung function have only been studied since the nineties by long and tedious cohort studies. Difficulties arise from the heterogeneity of air pollution (gas and particles); thus, its respiratory effects have to be examined for every component separately, and in different populations. It is also necessary to analyse the effects of atmospheric pollution in the short and the long term, considering both its physiological, clinical and toxicological effects, from childhood to adulthood. These factors make it difficult to obtain statistically significant results. Nevertheless, most studies seem to point to a role of air pollution in the development of COPD via oxydative stress but further studies are needed to confirm the exact effect of each component of air pollution on the respiratory tract. These studies could lead to improved public health policies and results are awaited that would identify at-risk populations, decide appropriate preventive measures and propose documented thresholds in pollution exposure... thereby limiting the spread of COPD. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…

  13. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  14. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  15. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-01-01

    Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to sta...

  16. The effects of risk factors on the improvement of hypothermia neonatal using fuzzy transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Neonatal hypothermia is a major risk factor for mortality after delivery. This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with transition in hypothermia state with new definition of hypothermia states.Methods:  Four hundred and seventy nine (479 neonates hospitalized in NICU of Valiasr in Tehran, Iran in 2005 participated in this study. The rectal temperature of neonatal was measured immediately after delivery and every 30 min afterwards, until neonates became normal.Results: The mean weight of neonatal was 2580±882.9 g and mean of delivery room temperature was 29.2±1.45 °C. Most of the neonatal were mild hypothermia. There were significant associations between weight of neonatal, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and Apgar score with hypothermia state (P<0.05.  Death of neonatal was related to hypothermia state.Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that a major risk factor for hypothermia was low weight of neonatal.

  17. Risk factors in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Magon, Rakesh; Mishra, B P; Sidhu, G B S; Mahajan, Ranjiv

    2003-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially serious idiosyncratic response to neuroleptic antipsychotics. It usually affects young males, but the risk has been seen to increase with certain factors including the administration practices of antipsychotic neuroleptics in these individuals. Even though no predictors for NMS are yet known, this article highlights the findings on certain risk factors as seen from a series of fifteen patients who developed NMS. Cautious use of neuroleptics in those at risk, early recognition and institution of immediate management is important.

  18. Serious Suicide Attempts: Systematic Review of Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yari Gvion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOne of the main obstacles in studying suicide risk factors is the difference between cases in which the individual died by suicide and those in which the individual engaged in suicidal behavior. A promising strategy that overcomes this obstacle is the study of survivors of serious suicide attempt (SSA, i.e., an attempt that would have been lethal had it not been for the provision of rapid and effective emergency treatment. Serious suicide attempters are epidemiologically very much like those who died by suicide, and thus may serve as valid proxies for studying suicides. This paper aims to define the specific risk factors for SSAs by conducting a qualitative data synthesis of existing studies.MethodsFollowing Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we conducted a systematic search of the literature in PubMed, ProQuest, and Psychlit electronic research-literature databases. Search terms were “serious” “OR” “near lethal,” combined with the Boolean “AND” operator with “suicide*.” In addition, we performed a manual search on Google Scholar for further studies not yet identified.ResultsThe preliminary search identified 683 citations. A total of 39 research reports that met the predefined criteria were analyzed. Mental pain, communication difficulties, decision-making impulsivity, and aggression, as well as several demographic variables, were found to be major risk factors for SSAs.LimitationsWe found a variability of definitions for SSA that hamper the ability to draw a model for the risk factors and processes that facilitate it. Moreover, the role of suicide intent and planning in SSA is still unclear. Further studies should aim to clarify and refine the concepts and measures of SSA, thereby enabling more specific and concrete modeling of the psychological element in its formation.ConclusionSSA is a distinguishable phenomenon that needs to be addressed specifically within the scope

  19. Risk factors for vaginal fistula symptoms in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Filippi, Véronique; Maulet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaginal fistula (VF) is one of the most severe maternal morbidities with the immediate consequence of chronic urinary and/or fecal incontinence. The epidemiological evidence regarding risk factors for VF is dominated by facility-based studies. Our aim is to estimate the effect size...... of selected risk factors for VF using population-based survey data.  Methods We pooled all available Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicators Cluster Surveys carried out in sub-Saharan Africa that collected information on VF symptoms. Bayesian matched logistic regression models that accounted...

  20. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  1. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  2. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie B. Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based, followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  3. Independent risk factors of morbidity in penetrating colon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, Sadullah; Gedik, Ercan; Uysal, Ersin; Taçyildiz, Ibrahim Halil

    2009-05-01

    The present study explored the factors effective on colon-related morbidity in patients with penetrating injury of the colon. The medical records of 196 patients were reviewed for variables including age, gender, factor of trauma, time between injury and operation, shock, duration of operation, Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI), Injury Severity Score (ISS), site of colon injury, Colon Injury Score, fecal contamination, number of associated intra- and extraabdominal organ injuries, units of transfused blood within the first 24 hours, and type of surgery. In order to determine the independent risk factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Gunshot wounds, interval between injury and operation > or =6 hours, shock, duration of the operation > or =6 hours, PATI > or =25, ISS > or =20, Colon Injury Score > or = grade 3, major fecal contamination, number of associated intraabdominal organ injuries >2, number of associated extraabdominal organ injuries >2, multiple blood transfusions, and diversion were significantly associated with morbidity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed diversion and transfusion of > or =4 units in the first 24 hours as independent risk factors affecting colon-related morbidity. Diversion and transfusion of > or =4 units in the first 24 hours were determined to be independent risk factors for colon-related morbidity.

  4. Dynamic Multi-Factor Credit Risk Model with Fat-Tailed Factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gapko, Petr; Šmíd, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2012), s. 125-140 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : credit risk * probability of default * loss given default * credit loss * credit loss distribution * Basel II Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/smid-dynamic multi-factor credit risk model with fat-tailed factors.pdf

  5. Injury risk factors among telemark skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, M L; Ong, R

    2000-01-01

    We performed a population survey of telemark skiers over two ski seasons to determine specific risk factors for injury. The survey inquired about the skier's sex, experience, equipment used, injuries, and number of days skied in each season. The respondents completed the surveys whether or not they were injured while skiing. We received 677 responses from telemark skiing clubs, with 19,962 skier-days of data. The number of self-reported injuries was 178, for an overall self-reported injury rate of 8.9 per 1000 skier-days. Knee injuries (N = 48) were the most common injury (27%), followed by thumb (N = 32, 18%) and shoulder (N = 21, 12%) injuries. Specific risk factors for injury were identified with multivariate regression and survival analysis. The skill level of the skier had a significant injury-sparing effect, as did the use of plastic telemark boots. The protective effect of the plastic boots was likely due to the increased stability they provided compared with traditional leather boots. There were fewer knee injuries with the recently available releasable bindings for telemark skis. Sex and age had no significant impact on injury rates in this study population. As all reported deaths associated with telemark sking were due to environmental hazards, skiers must continue to pay close attention to these hazards in the backcountry.

  6. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL) (n = 17) (two servings per day) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) (n = 17) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxides (NOx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004). HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%)] and increased TC [P diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages. PMID:26405440

  7. Infectious and dietary risk factors of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the classic risk factors of oral cancer, namely alcohol and tobacco, other factors both infectious and environmental are thought to be associated with the development of oral malignancy. Infections in the oral cavity may be an important preventable cause of cancer. Poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, chronic candidiasis, human papilloma virus (HPV) and herpesvirus infections link statistically with cancer but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Infections may trigger cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, interfere with cellular signaling mechanisms and up-regulate tumor promoters. In addition, several oral micro-organisms metabolize alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde thus explaining the association between poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and carcinogenesis. With regards to dietary factors the Mediterranean-type fruit and vegetable rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of oral cancer but the evidence is weak, the effect of individual food components and trace elements on carcinogenesis remains unclear at present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for obesity in Chinese adults. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guasheng

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is now one of the public health concerns in China. Many factors are contributing to obesity. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. As it is hard to cure it once obesity occurs, the most effective and encouraging strategies is prevention. Risk factors should be identified in order to develop prevention strategies

  9. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  10. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  11. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  12. [Editorial] Environmental and occupational risk factors associated with different pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Salvatore Santo; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-05-01

    A wide body of evidence indicates that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with the development of pathological disorders. The pathogenic role of many environmental pollutants or occupational contaminants is already known and has been extensively investigated. However, the molecular mechanisms of action and the pathogenic effects of many substances remain unknown. Therefore, there is a need to better investigate the role of new environmental and occupational risk factors that may cause the development of several diseases.

  13. A Study on the cardio-metabolic risk factors in vietnamese females with long-term vegan diet

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hai Quy Tram

    2017-01-01

    A study of the cardio- metabolic risk factors in Vietnamese females with vegan diet. Background. Numerous studies have shown that vegan diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of vegan diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors and the association between duration of vegan diet and those risk factors, are still unclear. Objectives. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and influence of duration of vegan diet on cardio- me...

  14. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  15. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  16. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  17. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  18. Path analysis of risk factors leading to premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, S J; Livshits, G; Sirotta, L; Merlob, P

    1996-01-01

    The present study tested whether various sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and medical/physiological factors act in a direct or indirect manner on the risk of prematurity using path analysis on a sample of Israeli births. The path model shows that medical complications, primarily toxemia, chorioammionitis, and a previous low birth weight delivery directly and significantly act on the risk of prematurity as do low maternal pregnancy weight gain and ethnicity. Other medical complications, including chronic hypertension, preclampsia, and placental abruption, although significantly correlated with prematurity, act indirectly on prematurity through toxemia. The model further shows that the commonly accepted sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral risk factors act by modifying the development of medical complications that lead to prematurity as opposed to having a direct effect on premature delivery. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Prediction of Adulthood Obesity Using Genetic and Childhood Clinical Risk Factors in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pitkänen, Niina; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Kelly, Tanika; Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia; Elo, Laura L; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Early prediction of obesity is essential for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the use of childhood clinical factors and the genetic risk factors in predicting adulthood obesity using machine learning methods. A total of 2262 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in YFS (Young Finns Study) were followed up from childhood (age 3-18 years) to adulthood for 31 years. The data were divided into training (n=1625) and validation (n=637) set. The effect of known genetic risk factors (97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) was investigated as a weighted genetic risk score of all 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS97) or a subset of 19 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS19) using boosting machine learning technique. WGRS97 and WGRS19 were validated using external data (n=369) from BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study). WGRS19 improved the accuracy of predicting adulthood obesity in training (area under the curve [AUC=0.787 versus AUC=0.744, P obesity. Predictive accuracy is highest among young children (3-6 years), whereas among older children (9-18 years) the risk can be identified using childhood clinical factors. The model is helpful in screening children with high risk of developing obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Managing perceived operational risk factors for effective supply-chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Cheickna

    2014-12-01

    This research is part of a large scale comprehensive mathematical and empirical modeling investigation projects aimed at developing a better understanding of supply-chain risk management by offering a comprehensive framework including theoretical elements and empirical evidence based on managers' perception of improved organizational level of preparedness to safeguard against the threats of disruptions, delays and stoppage in the supply chain. More specifically, this paper reports the empirical investigation conducted using 92 companies in several eastern USA regions involved in international trades with global supply chains. Among the 56 general hypotheses investigated, the results support that managers strive to balance their control and decision impacts to mold their responses to risk factors with knowledge of the extent of cost consequences as stated in previous research. However, the results also propose new findings which significantly vary from previous research reports.

  1. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  2. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  3. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (IV)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as infertility, periconceptional clomiphene use and assisted reproductive technology, periconceptional folic acid deficiency and effects offolic acid supplementation and fortification on NTD rates, periconceptional vitamin B1 2 deficiency, single nucleotide polymorphisms and polymorphisms in g...

  4. Effect of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) consumption on cardiovascular risk factors in humans: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cynthia de Souza; Fomes, Lucilia de Fátima de Sousa; Silva, Gilze Espirito Santo da; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: chia is a seed rich in such nutrients as proteins, n-3 fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), minerals, fibers and antioxidants. Efforts have been made to assess whether human consumption of chia can reduce cardiovascular risk factors; however, it has not been established as effective and the findings of the few studies to have looked into the matter are inconsistent. Aim: to systematize the findings of studies assessing the effect the consumption of chia seed, e...

  5. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  6. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pdefinition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of unemployment on cardiovascular risk factors and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagożdżon, P; Parszuto, J; Wrotkowska, M; Dydjow-Bendek, D

    2014-09-01

    Following the economic changes in Poland, increasing health discrepancies were observed during a period of 20 years, which may be partly attributable to the consequences of unemployment. To assess the association between unemployment, major cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. A cross-sectional study in which data were collected between 2009 and 2010 during preventive health examinations by an occupational medicine service in Gdansk, Poland. Data on blood pressure, resting heart rate, information about smoking habits, body mass index and history of use of mental health services were collected during these assessments. Multiple logistic regression was used during data analysis to adjust for age, gender, education and length of employment. Study participants comprised 3052 unemployed and 2059 employed individuals. After adjustment for age, gender, education and number of previous employments, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in relation to unemployment was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.84-1.23]. There was a statistically significant negative association between being overweight and unemployment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). Smoking was positively associated with unemployment after adjustment for age and sex (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.67). There was a positive relationship between mental ill-health and unemployment among study participants (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.91-4.65), but this was not statistically significant. The patterns of major cardiovascular risk factors differed between unemployed and employed individuals in Poland. Our observations suggest employment status is a predictor of specific disease risk profiles; consequently, specific preventive measures are needed in unemployed individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  9. Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Han, Ziqiang

    2018-01-08

    This study differentiates the risk perception and influencing factors of climate change along the dimensions of global severity and personal threat. Using the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSGS) data (N = 2001) as a representative sample of adults from Taiwan, we investigated the influencing factors of the risk perceptions of climate change in these two dimensions (global severity and personal threat). Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlations of individual factors (gender, age, education, climate-related disaster experience and risk awareness, marital status, employment status, household income, and perceived social status) and societal factors (religion, organizational embeddedness, and political affiliations) with the above two dimensions. The results demonstrate that climate-related disaster experience has no significant impact on either the perception of global severity or the perception of personal impact. However, climate-related risk awareness (regarding typhoons, in particular) is positively associated with both dimensions of the perceived risks of climate change. With higher education, individuals are more concerned about global severity than personal threat. Regarding societal factors, the supporters of political parties have higher risk perceptions of climate change than people who have no party affiliation. Religious believers have higher risk perceptions of personal threat than non-religious people. This paper ends with a discussion about the effectiveness of efforts to enhance risk perception of climate change with regard to global severity and personal threat.

  10. Current outcomes and risk factors for the Norwood procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasik, Chad N; Gelehrter, S; Goldberg, Caren S; Bove, Edward L; Devaney, Eric J; Ohye, Richard G

    2006-02-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in the outcomes for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other functional single-ventricle malformations over the past 25 years. This progress relates primarily to improvements in survival for patients undergoing the Norwood procedure. Previous reports on risk factors have been on smaller groups of patients or collected over relatively long periods of time, during which management has evolved. We analyzed our current results for the Norwood procedure with attention to risk factors for poor outcome. A single-institution review of all patients undergoing a Norwood procedure for a single-ventricle malformation from May 1, 2001, through April 30, 2003, was performed. Patient demographics, anatomy, clinical condition, associated anomalies, operative details, and outcomes were recorded. Of the 111 patients, there were 23 (21%) hospital deaths. Univariate analysis revealed noncardiac abnormalities (genetic or significant extracardiac diagnosis, P = .0018), gestational age (P = .03), diagnosis of unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (P = .017), and weight of less than 2.5 kg (P = .0072) to be related to hospital death. On multivariate analysis, only weight of less than 2.5 kg and noncardiac abnormalities were found to be independent risk factors. Patients with either of these characteristics had a hospital survival of 52% (12/23), whereas those at standard risk had a survival of 86% (76/88). Although improvements in management might have lessened the effect of some of the traditionally reported risk factors related to variations in the cardiovascular anatomy, noncardiac abnormalities and low birth weight remain as a future challenge for the physician caring for the patient with single-ventricle physiology.

  11. Male Factors and socioeconomic indicators correlate with the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    and environmental factors by studying reproductive histories in population based cohorts. We based the study upon two cohorts. The 'abortion cohort' consisted of 55 259 women who had a hospitalised spontaneous abortion in Denmark between 1980 and 1992 and who had a subsequent non-terminated pregnancy. The 'birth...... the municipality of residence to a low risk area (based upon the geographical distribution of spontaneous abortions) reduced the risk of spontaneous abortion in both cohorts. A paternal effect on the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion cannot be ruled out but environmental factors also play a role.......No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal...

  12. Risk Factors for Depression : Differential Across Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of well-established risk factors for depression differs across the lifespan. Risk factors may be more strongly associated with depression at ages when occurrence, and therefore expectance, is relatively low ("on-time off-time" hypothesis). This large-scale study examined

  13. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  14. Vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, A; Naderpoor, N; Teede, H J; De Courten, M P J; Scragg, R; De Courten, B

    2015-09-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most common preventable causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Insulin resistance, which is a shared feature in these conditions, is also strongly linked to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is the most common endocrine disease in women of reproductive age and a major cause of infertility. Vitamin D deficiency has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, primarily due to the shift to sedentary, indoor lifestyles and sun avoidance behaviours to protect against skin cancer. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes, PCOS and CVD, and has been shown to be associated with their risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, as well as chronic low-grade inflammation. Treating vitamin D deficiency may offer a feasible and cost-effective means of reducing cardiometabolic risk factors at a population level in order to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD. However, not all intervention studies show that vitamin D supplementation alleviates these risk factors. Importantly, there is significant heterogeneity in existing studies with regards to doses and drug regimens used, populations studied (i.e. vitamin D deficient or sufficient), and the lengths of supplementation, and only few studies have directly examined the effect of vitamin D on insulin secretion and resistance with the use of clamp methods. Therefore, there is a need for well-designed large scale trials to clarify the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, PCOS, and CVD.

  15. A protocol improves GP recording of long-term sickness absence risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Paul; Hogervorst, Wouter; ter Riet, Gerben; van Dijk, Frank

    2008-06-01

    If general practitioners (GPs) were better informed about patients' risks of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), they could incorporate these risk assessments into their patient management plans and cooperate more with occupational physicians to prevent LTSA. To evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol helping GPs in recording risks of LTSA and in co-operating with occupational physicians (OPs). Twenty-six GPs (co-operating in four groups) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, participated in a controlled intervention study. Fourteen GPs were the protocol-supported intervention group and twelve GPs were the reference group. Outcome measures were consultations containing work-related information, information about two risk factors for LTSA, referrals to OPs and contacts of OPs with GPs and patients. Outcomes were identified through an electronic search in the GPs' information systems. Entries containing information were independently scored by two investigators. The proportions of patients with consultations documenting LTSA-pertinent items were compared between the groups, accounting for differences at baseline. There was no increase in consultations containing work-related information. Recording of risk factor information increased in the intervention group; the difference was 4.5% [95% CI 1.5-7.6] and 1.8% (95% CI -0.8 to 4.4) for the two risk factors. The referral rate to the OP increased by 2.9% (95% CI 1.2-4.5). There was no effect on contacts of OPs with GPs or with patients. Protocol-supported consultations may lead to a modest increase in information regarding two risk factors for LTSA in GPs' electronic records and to more referrals to OPs.

  16. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  17. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors among patients with schizophrenia, bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Piñar, M; Mathur, R; Foguet, Q; Ayis, S; Robson, J; Ayerbe, L

    2016-05-01

    The evidence informing the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with psychiatric disorders is weak. This cohort study used data from all patients, aged≥30, registered in 140 primary care practices (n=524,952) in London to estimate the risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco consumption, obesity, and physical inactivity, between 2005 and 2015, for patients with a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, bipolar or personality disorder. The role of antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation in these associations was also investigated. The age at detection of cardiovascular risk factor was compared between patients with and without psychiatric disorders. Variables, for exposures and outcomes, defined from general practitioners records, were analysed using multivariate regression. Patients with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk for cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes, with hazard ratios: 2.42 (2.20-2.67) to 1.31 (1.25-1.37), hyperlipidemia, with hazard ratios: 1.78 (1.60-1.97) to 1.25 (1.23-1.28), and obesity. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and social deprivation did not change these associations, except for smoking and physical inactivity. Antidepressants were associated with higher risk of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Antipsychotics were associated with a higher risk of diabetes. Antidepressants and antipsychotics were associated with lower risk of other risk factors. Patients with psychiatric conditions have later detection of cardiovascular risk factors. The interpretation of these results should acknowledge the lower rates of detection of risk factors in mentally ill patients. Cardiovascular risk factors require special clinical attention among patients with psychiatric disorders. Further research could study the effect of antidepressants and antipsychotics on cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of a Resistance Training Course on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Females with Metabolic Syndrome

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    M Salesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is considered as a risk factor for many chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The syndrome is caused by such factors as poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyle, and genetic predisposition, while higher muscle strength levels are associated with a lower metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the response of some cardiovascular risk factors in females with metabolic syndrome after 10 weeks of resistance training (RT. Methods: In this study, 26 postmenopausal sedentary women without any diseases participated, who were selected via voluntary purposive sampling and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The subjects participated in anthropometric tests, including height, waist and hip ratios, weight, subcutaneous fat and blood sampling. The experimental group performed the RT for 3sessions in 10weeks with 40 to 50 percent of maximum repetition. Results: The study results suggested that after 10 weeks of RT in the experimental group, weight (p<0.001, total cholesterol (p<0.03 and triglyceride (p<0.001 indices were significantly decreased in comparison with those of the control group. BMI, waist ratio, fat percentage, systolic blood pressure and HDL significantly changed between pre and post-test of the experimental group, though these changes were not reported to be significant between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that a regular resistance training program could improve the cardiovascular risk factor in females with metabolic syndrome. However, the effective mechanisms in improving metabolic syndrome symptoms subsequent to exercise are not clearly recognized yet.

  20. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these ... with age, gender or haematological test. ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies on ..... The marked difference may be because monthly .... and dyslipidemia among patients taking first-line,.

  1. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment – sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  2. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhtar Hussain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region. Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes. However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors. Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

  3. Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zarqa Ali, Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women. Acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have an unfavorable impact on pregnancy outcome. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy.Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the PubMed database.Results: During pregnancy, up to 6% of women with asthma are hospitalized for an acute exacerbation. The maternal immune system is characterized by a very high T-helper-2:T-helper-1 cytokine ratio during pregnancy and thereby provides an environment essential for fetal survival but one that may aggravate asthma. Cells of the innate immune system such as monocytes and neutrophils are also increased during pregnancy, and this too can exacerbate maternal asthma. Severe or difficult-to-control asthma appears to be the major risk factor for exacerbations during pregnancy, but studies also suggest that nonadherence with controller medication and viral infections are important triggers of exacerbations during pregnancy. So far, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the effect of fetal sex on exacerbations during pregnancy. Other risk factors for exacerbation during pregnancy include obesity, ethnicity, and reflux, whereas atopy does not appear to be a risk factor.Discussion: The incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is disturbingly high. Severe asthma – better described as difficult-to-control asthma – nonadherence with controller therapy, viral infections, obesity, and ethnicity are likely to be important risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy, whereas inconsistent findings have been reported with regard to the importance of sex of the fetus.Keywords: acute exacerbations

  4. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  5. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking.We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by 90,000 (88,000-94,000 deaths from

  6. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Vascular Risk Factors in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Uemura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of exercise intervention on vascular risk factors in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Community-dwelling older adults who met the definition of MCI using the Petersen criteria (n = 100; mean age = 75.3 years were randomly allocated to the exercise (n = 50 or education control group (n = 50. Participants in the exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/day, 2 days/week, 80 times for 12 months. Anthropometric profiles, blood markers, blood pressure, and physical fitness (the 6-min walking test were measured. Total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C risk ratio measurements were taken from blood samples. Results: The exercise group showed significantly reduced TC and TC/HDL-C risk ratio after training compared with baseline levels (p Conclusion: Exercise intervention was associated with positive changes in important vascular risk factors related to cognitive decline and vascular disease in older adults with MCI.

  7. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele Burger

    CV risk profile of the group according to the risk score system developed by the ... an individual has about CVD, and the possible risk factors contributing to the .... levels in the lowest tertile of CVD knowledge versus the highest tertile of CVD ..... CV risk factors and health behavior counseling, much can be done to prevent ...

  8. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  9. Risk Factors of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Logistic Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Noe, Douglas A.; Bailer, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A novel logistic regression tree-based method was applied to identify fall risk factors and possible interaction effects of those risk factors. Design and Methods: A nationally representative sample of American older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 9,592) in the Health and Retirement Study 2004 and 2006 modules was used.…

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  11. Psychosocial risks evaluation factors: study with higher education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes Borges

    2018-02-01

    Method: The study consisted of the administration of two instruments, one for the characterization of the sample and the other for assessing psychosocial risk factors — the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire — consisting of 76 items (5-point Likert scale, distributed in five dimensions, which measure indicators of exposure to psychosocial risks and their effects. Results: The study included 59 teachers, mostly men (50.8%, aged between 41 - 50 years (45.8%, with master's degree (59%, assistant professors (47.5%; with a stable employment relationship (68%, years of service between 14-17 years (18.7% and teaching between 11 - 17 hours a week (64.4%. The analysis of the various subscales revealed a psychosocial risk, showing that teachers are in a situation of vulnerability. There were significant differences between the risks experienced in public higher education and those experienced in private higher education. Gender, age, academic background, and professional category influenced the type of psychosocial risk. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors in the exercise of the teaching profession in higher education. It is recognized that it is necessary to assess and manage psychosocial risks in order to promote healthy working conditions, ensure respect and fair treatment, and encourage the promotion of work / family life balance, in order to minimize psychosocial risks and situations of vulnerability in higher education teachers.

  12. Effects of climatic factors, drought risk and irrigation requirement on maize yield in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Jabloun, Mohamed; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Drought risk is considered to be among the main limiting factors for maize (Zea mays L.) production in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR). Maize yield data from 44 stations over the period 1961–2010 were combined with data from weather stations to evaluate the effects of climatic factors...... drought and intense rainfall illustrate the importance of further development of irrigation and drainage systems for ensuring the stability of maize production in NFR....

  13. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy

  14. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  15. The common risk factor approach: a rational basis for promoting oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiham, A; Watt, R G

    2000-12-01

    Conventional oral health education is not effective nor efficient. Many oral health programmes are developed and implemented in isolation from other health programmes. This often leads, at best to a duplication of effort, or worse, conflicting messages being delivered to the public. In addition, oral health programmes tend to concentrate on individual behaviour change and largely ignore the influence of socio-political factors as the key determinants of health. Based upon the general principles of health promotion this paper presents a rationale for an alternative approach for oral health policy. The common risk factor approach addresses risk factors common to many chronic conditions within the context of the wider socio-environmental milieu. Oral health is determined by diet, hygiene, smoking, alcohol use, stress and trauma. As these causes are common to a number of other chronic diseases, adopting a collaborative approach is more rational than one that is disease specific. The common risk factor approach can be implemented in a variety of ways. Food policy development and the Health Promoting Schools initiative are used as examples of effective ways of promoting oral health.

  16. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Naderi, Gholam-Ali; Rozbehani, Reza

    2008-11-03

    There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case) against non opium-addicted men(control). Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang) and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years). Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  17. Review on risk factors related to lower back disorders at workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.

  18. Risk factors and between-hospital variation of caesarean section in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehberg, Sonja; Guldberg, Rikke; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of risk factors on elective and emergency caesarean section (CS) and to estimate the between-hospital variation of risk-adjusted CS proportions. DESIGN: Historical registry-based cohort study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: The study......, for example, body mass index, parity, age and size of maternity unit and (2) risk-adjusted proportions of elective and emergency CS to evaluate between-hospital variation. RESULTS: The CS proportion was stable at 20%-21%, but showed wide variation between units, even in adjusted models. Large units performed...... CSs and one unit fewer CSs than expected. CONCLUSION: The main risk factors for elective CS were breech presentation and previous CS; for emergency CS they were breech presentation and cephalopelvic disproportion. The proportions of CS were stable during the study period. We found variation in risk...

  19. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population.

  20. The promise of prevention: the effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the "Eight Americas" defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005.We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age-sex-disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP. SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South--5-7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y. Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18% in men and 0.45 y (21% in women if these risks

  1. Mumps vaccine effectiveness and risk factors for disease in households during an outbreak in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kara A; Rosen, Jennifer B; Zucker, Jane R; Zimmerman, Christopher M

    2014-01-09

    Mumps outbreaks have been reported among vaccinated populations, and declining mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE) has been suggested as one possible cause. During a large mumps outbreak in New York City, we assessed: (1) VE of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) against mumps and (2) risk factors for acquiring mumps in households. Cases of mumps were investigated using standard methods. Additional information on disease and vaccination status of household contacts was collected. Case households completed follow-up phone interviews 78-198 days after initial investigation to ascertain additional cases. Mumps cases meeting the study case definition were included in the analysis. Risk factors for mumps were assessed, and VE was calculated using secondary household attack rates. Three hundred and eleven households with 2176 residents were included in the analysis. The median age of residents was 13 years (range <1-85), and 462 (21.2%) residents met the study mumps case definition. Among 7-17 year olds, 89.7% received one or more doses of MMR vaccine, with 76.7% receiving two doses. Young adults aged 10-14 years (OR=2.4, CI=1.3-4.7) and 15-19 years (OR=2.5, CI=1.3-5.0) were at highest risk of mumps. The overall 2-dose VE for secondary contacts aged five and older was 86.3% (CI 63.3-94.9). The two-dose effectiveness of MMR vaccine against mumps was 86.3%, consistent with other published mumps VE estimates. Many factors likely contributed to this outbreak. Suboptimal MMR coverage in the affected population combined with VE may not have conferred adequate immunity to prevent transmission and may have contributed to this outbreak. Achieving high MMR coverage remains the best available strategy for prevention of mumps outbreaks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A multivariable assessment quantifying effects of cohort-level factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk in cohorts of U.S. commercial feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, A H; Cernicchiaro, N; White, B J; Dubnicka, S R; Thomson, D U; Ives, S E; Scott, H M; Milliken, G A; Renter, D G

    2013-01-01

    Economic losses due to cattle mortality and culling have a substantial impact on the feedlot industry. Since criteria for culling may vary and may affect measures of cumulative mortality within cattle cohorts, it is important to assess both mortality and culling when evaluating cattle losses over time and among feedlots. To date, there are no published multivariable assessments of factors associated with combined mortality and culling risk. Our objective was to evaluate combined mortality and culling losses in feedlot cattle cohorts and quantify effects of commonly measured cohort-level risk factors (weight at feedlot arrival, gender, and month of feedlot arrival) using data routinely collected by commercial feedlots. We used retrospective data representing 8,904,965 animals in 54,416 cohorts from 16 U.S. feedlots from 2000 to 2007. The sum of mortality and culling counts for each cohort (given the number of cattle at risk) was used to generate the outcome of interest, the cumulative incidence of combined mortality and culling. Associations between this outcome variable and cohort-level risk factors were evaluated using a mixed effects multivariable negative binomial regression model with random effects for feedlot, year, month and week of arrival. Mean arrival weight of the cohort, gender, and arrival month and a three-way interaction (and corresponding two-way interactions) among arrival weight, gender and month were significantly (Prisk decreased, but effects of arrival weight were modified both by the gender of the cohort and the month of feedlot arrival. There was a seasonal pattern in combined mortality and culling risk for light and middle-weight male and female cohorts, with a significantly (Prisk for cattle arriving at the feedlot in spring and summer (March-September) than in cattle arriving during fall, and winter months (November-February). Our results quantified effects of covariate patterns that have been heretofore difficult to fully evaluate in

  3. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi; Na, Seong H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  4. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  5. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  6. An office-based approach to emotional and behavioral risk factor reduction for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C

    2013-01-01

    There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process.

  7. Prevalence of cancer risk factors among women radiologists and radiology assistants in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samerdokiene, V.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Atkocius, V. and others

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study potential cancer risk factors among radiologists and non-radiologists in Lithuania. Cancer risk factors were investigated among female medical staff at the departments of ionizing (243, 33.33%) and non-ionizing environment (486, 66.67%). The questionnaire covered the diet, lifestyle, reproductive factors as well as the demographic and physical characteristics. Univariate analysis was done separately for physicians and nurses. Each of risk factors was evaluated in stratified analysis for unequal ORs using Mantel-Haenszel estimate control for age and occupation. Evaluation of features of risk factors among radiologists vs. non-radiologists has shown that smoking was most the prevalent risk factor among radiologists and radiology assistants. Despite the relatively low prevalence, the questionnaire data showed the higher frequency of smoking among radiologists (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.12-6.87) and radiology assistants (OR = 2.25, 95% 1.38-3.66) compared to non-radiologists. The prevalence of non-users and occasional users was 74% to 66%, respectively. Alcohol use by smoking among radiologists was influenced insignificantly. The cohort of radiologists in Lithuania offer an opportunity for obtaining direct observational evidence on health effects associated with chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The data on possible cancer risk factors can be helpful for validation of the risks in future. (author)

  8. The urban risk and migration risk factors for schizophrenia: are cats the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Being born in and/or raised in an urban area is a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. Migrating from countries such as Jamaica or Morocco to countries such as England or the Netherlands is also a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. The transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts to children is reviewed and proposed as a partial explanation for both of these risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of classic risk factors and prothrombotic factor gene mutations in ischemic stroke risk development in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanc, Visnja; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vukasovic, Ines; Solter, Vesna V; Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja B

    2014-03-01

    In young individuals, a genetically predisposing hypercoagulability and classic modifying risk factors can act synergistically on the ischemic stroke risk development. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of classic vascular risk factors and polymorphisms of the G20210A coagulation factor II (prothrombin), Arg506Glu coagulation factor V Leiden, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and the impact of these gene mutations and classic vascular risk factors on the overall stroke risk in individuals aged 55 years or younger. The study included 155 stroke patients aged 55 years or younger and 150 control subjects. Stroke prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were assessed for the following parameters: G20210A prothrombin, Arg506Glu factor V Leiden, C677T MTHFR, and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms; total number of study polymorphisms in a particular subject (genetic sum); and classic vascular risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension (P stroke patients. The following parameters were found to act as independent risk factors for ischemic stroke: decreased HDL cholesterol level (P ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge of Men and Women about Infertility Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With technological developments, creation of new industries and changing lifestyles, infertility risk factors (IRF increased. Therefore creation of suitable solutions in society is crucial for the prevention of infertility. Since prevention of infertility in a society is directly related to awareness about infertility, in the present study the awareness of people about infertility risk factors was assessed. In this study, a survey questionnaire containing 24 factors related to IRF was developed and 170 persons (62 men and 108 women from Fooladshahr, Najafabad and Mobarakeh participated and data were extracted from these questionnaires and were statistically analyzed. Our study showed that average infertility awareness for men and women is 38% and 49% respectively. Also overall awareness was 44%. Also results showed that women’s awareness about mobile radiation and fast foods is significantly higher than men. On the other hand men have significantly higher awareness about adverse effects of chlorine in swimming pool on fertility. Higher women awareness may be related to their higher sensitivity for fertility. Also, generally a higher level of awareness was observed relating to mobile, air pollution, stress, fast foods, smoking and alcohol. Women have a higher level of awareness about infertility risk factors. Higher awareness about some IRFs may be results from widespread media coverage.

  11. Early Life and Environmental Risk Factors Modify the Effect of Acculturation on Hispanic Children's Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Payan, Paola; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation tends to erode Hispanic immigrants' initial health advantage. Using a more nuanced conceptualization of acculturation than previous studies, we explore the associations between acculturation and Hispanic children's asthma. Data came from an observational mail survey of caretakers of Hispanic schoolchildren in El Paso, Texas (N = 1,513). Results from generalized linear models (GzLMs) demonstrate that acculturation was a significant positive predictor of asthma. The addition of interaction terms revealed that prenatal smoking, low birth weight, breastfeeding, and pest exposure significantly modified the effect of acculturation on asthma. Results suggest that although higher levels of acculturation were detrimental overall, the effects were not equally damaging for all Hispanic children. Findings foster an understanding of how the effect of acculturation on Hispanic children's asthma is intensified or attenuated by distinct individual-level risk factors.

  12. Patterns of justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: key risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Frisman, Linda K; Lin, Hsiuju; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-07-01

    Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored the interaction of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder to identify subgroups at higher risk of justice involvement. Administrative service records of 25,133 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who were clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system during 2005-2007 were merged with state records of criminal convictions, incarceration, and other measures of justice involvement. The main effects and the effects of interactions of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis on risk of justice involvement ("offending") were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression. Men with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorder had the highest absolute risk of offending in every category of justice involvement. For both men and women, bipolar disorder was associated with an increased risk of offending versus schizophrenia, but the increase was significantly greater for women. Substance use disorder also increased risk of offending more among women than men, especially among those with schizophrenia. Men and women with bipolar disorder and substance use disorders have much higher risk of justice involvement than those with schizophrenia, especially those without a substance use disorder. Research is needed to validate these effects in other populations and specify risk factors for justice involvement among adults with mental illness.

  13. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.

  14. Geographical Detector-Based Risk Factors Assessment of the Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) is a common infectious disease, causing thousands of deaths among children in China. This study focused on analyzing the impacts of different populations and different industry structures on HFMD incidence in China. Methods: We collected HFMD cases from 2307 counties during May 2008 in China. The potential risk factors included: monthly mean temperature, monthly mean relative humidity, monthly precipitation, different population density, different industry structures. Geographical detector technique was used to analyze the main and interactive effect of potential risk factors on HFMD incidence. Result: Using risk detector, we found the most serious HFMD incidence mainly located in the Yangtze River delta and the Pearl River delta. When the temperature was high, the incidence of HFMD was also high. This finding indicates that there is a correlation between monthly mean temperature and the incidence of HFMD. Similar analysis was undertaken to analyze the correlation between other variables and the incidence of HFMD using the risk detector. Using factor detector, we found the effect of risk factors on the incidence of HFMD, and this was ranked by PD value as follows: density of children aged 0-9 years (0.25) > tertiary industry (0.23) > GDP (0.20) >middle school student density (0.13) > relative humidity (0.12) >average temperature (0.11) >first industry (0.05). Using ecological detector, we found that child density, tertiary industry, and GDP had a strong effect on the incidence of HFMD. Using interactive detector, we found that the interactive PD value of tertiary industry and child population density was 0.42, which of GDP and tertiary industry was 0.34, that of child population density and GDP was 0.35, and that of average temperature and relative humidity was 0.28. All of these interactive PD values appeared to be higher than any PD value of sole risk factors. The combinations of the above-mentioned risk factors

  15. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  16. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benatti FB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Braga Benatti1, Fábio Santos Lira2, Lila Missae Oyama2, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento2, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior11School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Physiology, Division of Nutrition Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the

  17. Risk Factor Analysis for Oral Precancer among Slum Dwellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors for oral precancer, i.e., smoking/smokeless tobacco, chewing ... procedure was performed on a group of 10 subjects, which were ... clinical description of observed oral mucosal lesions was made ..... use and effects of cessation.

  18. Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Christopher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. Methods A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR and/or relative risk (RR outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusions Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD.

  19. [Advances on the research of the environmental risk factors of children autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D N; Jin, Y T

    2017-12-06

    Autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social interaction and communication impairments, accompanied by repetitive behaviors. Little is known about the causes and contributing factors for autism. It is difficult to prevent and cure, and has become a globe public health problem. With the development in the prevalence of autism, the idea how the environmental factors cause the autism, gains all attentions. Summarizing latest epidemiological studies and experimental evidence, this review is focused on the effect of environmental factors, including air pollutant, heavy metal and pesticides, and discussed the relation between environmental risk factors and autism. The results showed that risks of autism in children may increase following in prenatal exposure to air pollutants, heavy metal and pesticides. It is needed to do the research on the mechanism of environmental risk factor and autism for more prevention, treatment and control suggestions.

  20. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  1. Method of risk estimates for genetic, leukemogenic and carcinogenic effects from medical and occupational exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1980-12-01

    For the risk estimate of fatal malignancies, an effective dose was proposed on the basis of the assumption that the risk should be equal whether the whole body irradiated uniformly or whether there is non-uniform irradiation. The effective dose was defined by the product of organ or tissue doses and a weighting factor representing the proportion of risk factor for a fatal malignancy resulting from organ or tissue irradiation to the total malignant factor. The risk of malignancies can be derived by multiplying the malignant significant factor by the product of the risk factor and the effective dose. For the genetic risk, a significant factor was a relative child expectancy and organ or tissue doses were gonad doses. And, for the leukemogenic risk, a significant factor was the leukemia significant factor and organ or tissue dose was mean bone marrow dose. The present method makes it easy to estimate the risk for individuals and population from medical and occupational exposures. The variation with age and sex of risk rates for stochastic effects was discussed, and the present data on risk rates were compared with the variation of risk rates recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  2. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  3. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  4. Effectiveness of the GoCheck Kids Vision Screener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterseim, M Millicent W; Rhodes, Ryan S; Patel, Rupa N; Wilson, M Edward; Edmondson, Luke E; Logan, Sarah A; Cheeseman, Edward W; Shortridge, Emily; Trivedi, Rupal H

    2018-03-01

    The GoCheck Kids smartphone photoscreening app (Gobiquity Mobile Health, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA), introduced in 2014, is marketed to pediatricians with little published validation. We wished to evaluate the GoCheck Kids Screener for accuracy in detecting amblyopia risk factors (ARF) using 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus guidelines. Validity assessment. Children 6 months to 6 years of age presenting from October 2016 to August 2017 were included. Children were screened with the GoCheck preloaded Nokia Lumia 1020, software version 4.6 with image processing version R4d, prior to undergoing a comprehensive eye examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist masked to the screener results. Determination of the presence of age-specific ARF was made based upon the examination and compared with the GoCheck recommendation. A total of 206 children were included (average age 43 months). When compared to examination, GoCheck had a sensitivity of 76.0% and specificity of 67.2% in detecting ARF. Positive predictive value was 57.0% and negative predictive value 83.0%. The screener results of 13 children were changed from "no risk factors" to "risk factors identified" based on the GoCheck remote review process. Four images remained "not gradable" and screening was unsuccessful in 3 children. In our high-risk population, this version of the Gocheck Kids smartphone app was useful in identifying ARF in children who are often not able to cooperate with visual acuity testing. This study informs pediatricians about the efficacy of this new screener as they make decisions about how to best detect vision problems in young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne A Ligthart

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne A Ligthart1, Eric P Moll van Charante1, Willem A Van Gool2, Edo Richard21Department of General Practice, 2Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that vascular risk factors increase the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD. So far, few randomized controlled trials have focused on lowering the vascular risk profile to prevent or postpone cognitive decline or dementia.Objective: To systematically perform a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating drug treatment effects for cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of dementia or cognitive decline.Selection criteria: RCTs studying the effect of treating hypertension, dyslipidemia, ­hyperhomocysteinemia, obesity, or diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive decline or dementia, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year in elderly populations.Outcome measure: Cognitive decline or incident dementia.Main results: In the identified studies, dementia was never the primary outcome. Statins (2 studies and intensified control of type II DM (1 study appear to have no effect on prevention of cognitive decline. Studies on treatment of obesity are lacking, and the results of lowering homocysteine (6 studies are inconclusive. There is some evidence of a preventive effect of antihypertensive medication (6 studies, but results are inconsistent.Conclusion: The evidence of a preventive treatment effect aimed at vascular risk factors on cognitive decline and dementia in later life is scarce and mostly based on secondary outcome parameters. Several important sources of bias such as differential dropout may importantly affect interpretation of trial results.Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia, prevention

  6. Postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: beyond the traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh; Kimyaiee, Parichehr; Aghaie, Abbas; Mansournia, Mohammd Ali; Ashrafi-Vand, Sepideh; Sarfjoo, Fatemeh Sadat

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the slope of linear regression of postevacuation serum hCG as an independent risk factor for postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Academic referral health care centers. All subjects with confirmed hydatidiform mole and at least four measurements of β-hCG titer. None. Type and magnitude of the relationship between the slope of linear regression of β-hCG as a new risk factor and GTN using Bayesian logistic regression with penalized log-likelihood estimation. Among the high-risk and low-risk molar pregnancy cases, 11 (18.6%) and 19 cases (13.3%) had GTN, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the components of a high-risk pregnancy and GTN. The β-hCG return slope was higher in the spontaneous cure group. However, the initial level of this hormone in the first measurement was higher in the GTN group compared with in the spontaneous recovery group. The average time for diagnosing GTN in the high-risk molar pregnancy group was 2 weeks less than that of the low-risk molar pregnancy group. In addition to slope of linear regression of β-hCG (odds ratio [OR], 12.74, confidence interval [CI], 5.42-29.2), abortion history (OR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.27-5.04) and large uterine height for gestational age (OR, 1.26; CI, 1.04-1.54) had the maximum effects on GTN outcome, respectively. The slope of linear regression of β-hCG was introduced as an independent risk factor, which could be used for clinical decision making based on records of β-hCG titer and subsequent prevention program. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Job Stress Risk Factors Among Power Generation and Machine Production Employees: A Case Study-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Naghavi; M.R. Hajgholami; Y. Shokoohi; F. Zayeri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Job stress has been adverse effects on performance, quality of work, absents, unsafe behaviors and occupational accidents and also health problems. Risk factors of job stress can be different in various workplaces. Risk factors determination is the first step of job stress management. Identifying these risk factors among workers of Power production & Machine production industries was the aim of this study. Methods: First parts of Osipow questionnaire was used for ...

  8. Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durec Tamara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents (≤ 18 years who used MA to those who did not. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. For discrete risk factors, odds ratios (OR were calculated and when appropriate, a pooled OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated. For continuous risk factors, mean difference and 95% CI were calculated and when appropriate, a weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% CI was calculated. Results were presented separately by comparison group: low-risk (no previous drug abuse and high-risk children (reported previous drug abuse or were recruited from a juvenile detention center. Results Twelve studies were included. Among low-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: history of heroin/opiate use (OR = 29.3; 95% CI: 9.8–87.8, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, risky sexual behavior (OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.46 and some psychiatric disorders. History of alcohol use and smoking were also significantly associated with MA use. Among high-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: family history of crime (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.3, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, family history of alcohol abuse (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8–5.6, and psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 3.6–12.9. Female sex was also significantly associated with MA use. Conclusion Among low-risk youth, a history of engaging in a variety of risky behaviors was significantly associated

  9. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Safaeiyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1 hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL (n = 17 (two servings per day and (2 hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL (n = 17 for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, nitric oxides (NOx, and Malondialdehyde (MDA. RESULTS: Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004. HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%] and increased TC [P < 0.001 (6.3%]. Despite the significant effect of HDEL on increasing TAC in 3 weeks [P = 0.050 (4%], the level of TAC remained the same in 6 weeks. None of the diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION: The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages.   

  10. Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypertension in youth is increasing, but there is a dearth of data about the knowledge of risk factors in this age group. Aims: To assess the knowledge of risk factors of hypertension among university students and associate it with the blood pressure, physical activity, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and sociodemographic variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among students enrolled in the first year, in the four academic programs, with the use of a validated, self-administered questionnaire on physical activity in the past 30 days and knowledge of risk factors of hypertension. A score of 6 on 11 was considered as good knowledge for modifiable risk factors. Blood pressure was also measured. The data was analyzed using PASW-17, Chi square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Of the 110 participants, 69.2% were < 20 years of age, 76.4% were females, and 40% were Arabs. Stress, high cholesterol, obesity, and smoking were identified as risk factors by 75.5, 73.6, 77.6, and 71.8%, respectively; 69.1% considered high salt intake and 62.7% considered high calorie diet as risk factors. Energy drink was considered as a risk factor by 64.5%, coffee consumption 35.5%, physical inactivity 47%, and oral contraceptives 13.6%. Half the group did not consider a family history of CVD as a risk factor, 60% did not consider older age as a risk factor, and 88% did not think male gender was a risk factor. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors was better than that of non-modifiable risk factors. Although nationality, course of study, raised blood pressure, and history of diabetes showed significant association with good knowledge, their net effect was not significant by the Adjusted Odd′s Ratio. Conclusions: The study identified some gaps in knowledge regarding both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of hypertension among students. A larger study would enable health promotion activities

  11. Reduction of Risk Factors in Patients with Behavioral Dysphonia After Vocal Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wégina Jordâna Nascimento da; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Macedo, Anny Elizabety Ramalho de; Costa, Denise Batista da; Almeida, Anna Alice Figueiredo de

    2017-01-01

    The origin and development of dysphonia, particularly behavioral dysphonia, is associated with several risk factors. Here, we verified the effectiveness of group therapy in reducing the risk factors, and established the association between risk factors and sex, age, profession, and diagnosis of laryngeal disorders in patients with behavioral dysphonia. This is a descriptive, quantitative, field intervention study. Participants (n = 26, adult patients of both sexes), with a diagnosis of behavioral dysphonia, received group therapy intervention. Data for risk factors were collected pre- and posttherapy using the Vocal Screening Protocol. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Student t test, chi-squared test or Spearman correlation test). The majority (80.8%, n = 21) of patients were female, 65.4% (n = 17) were not in a vocal profession, and 42.3% (n = 11) presented with a lesion in the membranous portion of the vocal fold. The number of personal risk factors decreased after group therapy (P = 0.04). In addition, age was correlated with total (P = 0.001), environmental (P = 0.002), and personal (P = 0.003) vocal risk factors posttherapy. This study revealed an association between the reduction of personal risk factors and vocal group therapy, and a correlation between age and total, environmental, and personal vocal risk factors posttherapy. Thus, maintenance and origins of the behaviors that modify the behavioral aspects of the participants directly influence the production of individual vocal habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Analysis of risk factors associated with professional drivers’ work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, Maja; Hołowko, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    Professional driver is an occupation associated with high health risk. The factors which increase the risk of developing lifestyle diseases are closely related to working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk factors which are associated with professional drivers’ lifestyle. The material consisted of 23 articles from PubMed.gov. Risk factors related to drivers’ work have a signiicant impact on their health.

  13. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days for subsequent risk of childhood overweight in an Asian cohort: significance of parental overweight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, I M; Bernard, J Y; Chen, L-W; Tint, M T; Pang, W W; Soh, S E; Saw, S-M; Shek, L P-C; Godfrey, K M; Gluckman, P D; Chong, Y-S; Yap, F; Kramer, M S; Lee, Y S

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have identified early-life risk factors for subsequent childhood overweight/obesity, but few have evaluated how they combine to influence risk of childhood overweight/obesity. We examined associations, individually and in combination, of potentially modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days after conception with childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity in an Asian cohort. Six risk factors were examined: maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg m -2 ), paternal overweight/obesity at 24 months post delivery, maternal excessive gestational weight gain, raised maternal fasting glucose during pregnancy (⩾5.1 mmol l -1 ), breastfeeding duration childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity. Early-life and preconception intervention programmes may be more effective in preventing overweight/obesity if they concurrently address these multiple modifiable risk factors.

  14. [The effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; An, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-A; Woo, Hae-Young

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children. Thirty-two participants (BMI>or=85 percentile or relative obesity>or=10) were allocated to the PABM-intervention group and behavior modification only intervention group. The PABM-intervention was composed of exercise intervention consisting of 50 minutes of physical activity(Hip-hop dance & gym-based exercises) twice a week and the behavior modification intervention consisted of 50 minutes of instruction for modifying lifestyle habits(diet & exercise) once a week. Effectiveness of intervention was based on waist circumference, BP, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and fasting glucose before and after the intervention. The proportion of subjects with 1, 2, 3 or more metabolic risk factors were 28.1, 43.8, and 15.6%, respectively. After the 8-week intervention, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly(p<.01) in the PABM group. This provides evidence that a PABM-intervention is effective in changing metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese elementary school children.

  15. risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya. ... A community based cross-sectional study was done in Mombasa Old Town area, whereby males ... The study unveiled that physical exercise had protective effect there by ...

  16. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the

  18. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Kinoshita

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DCM and cardiac sarcoidosis were identified as risk factors for amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism included higher baseline TSH level and lower baseline free T4 level, suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a potential risk factor for the development of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism.

  19. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Non-Modifiable Risk Factors among Women in Southeast Asia: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindrea, Ricvan Dana; Aryandono, Teguh; Lazuardi, Lutfan

    2017-12-28

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine breast cancer risk from modifiable and non-modifiable factors among women in Southeast Asia. Methods: This meta-analysis was performed on research articles on breast cancer risk factors in PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO databases published between 1997 and October 2017. Pooled odds ratios (OR) are calculated using fixed and random-effect models. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3). Results: From a total of 1,211 articles, 15 studies (1 cohort and 14 case control studies) met the criteria for systematic review. Meta-analysis results showed that of the known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, parity (nulipara) had the highest odd ratio (OR = 1.85 [95% CI 1.47-2.32]) followed by body mass index (overweight) (OR = 1.61 [95% CI 1.43-1.80]) and use of oral contraceptives (OR = 1.27 [95% CI 1.07-1.51]). Of non-modifiable risk factors, family history of breast cancer had the highest odd ratio (OR = 2.53 [95% CI 1.25-5.09]), followed by age (≥ 40 years) (OR = 1.53 [95% CI 1.34-1.76]) and menopausal status (OR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.26-1.65]). Conclusion: This analysis confirmed associations between both modifiable risk factors (parity, body mass index and use of oral contraceptives) and non-modifiable risk factors (family history of breast cancer, age and menopausal status) with breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Drawbacks of the use of indirect estimates of renal function to evaluate the effect of risk factors on renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, JC; Gansevoort, RT; Hillege, HL; De Zeeuw, D; Curhan, GC; De Jong, PE

    Many epidemiologic studies presently aim to evaluate the effect of risk factors on renal function. As direct measurement of renal function is cumbersome to perform, epidentiologic studies generally use an indirect estimate of renal function. The consequences of using different methods of renal

  1. Analysis of risk factors for persistent infection of asymptomatic women with high-risk human papilloma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Nianmin; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Li; Zhang, Junnan; Zhang, Fanglei; Dong, Yanhong; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhang, Zheng; Gao, Wenhui

    2017-06-03

    classification tree. 3000 women participated in the study. The high-risk type HPV infection rate was 8.7%, the persistent infection rate was 7.5%. The persistent infection rates for the 2 age groups (ages 18-26 and 27-30) were 6.9% and 8.7%. The persistent infection rates of Xiangfen county were 7.4% and 7.4% respectively, and those of Quwo county were 7.8% and 11.6% respectively; there was no significant difference between each pair of groups. Single risk-factor analysis showed that first-time sex at age under 20, high school/technical secondary school education or above, multiple sexual partners, having more than 2 sexual partners in the past 6 months, oral sex, and colitis are the risk factors of high-risk type HPV infection. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of sexual partners, smoking and oral sex had an effect on HPV infection. The risk of HPV infection from smoking was 5.0-fold higher, and the risk of HPV infection from oral sex was 6.1-fold higher. Having more than 2 sexual partners increase the risk of HPV infection. By the predicated model analysis, the probability of HPV conveyed by oral sex was 14.8%; if the sexual companion number was zero or more than 2 without oral sex, the probability of HPV infection was 12.1%; if there was one sexual partner who smokes without oral sex, the probability of infection was 18.6%; if there was one sexual partner who does not smoke and without oral sex, the probability of infection was 3.6%. The persistent infection rate of asymptomatic women for high-risk type HPV is lower than those women in all ages. High-risk type HPV infection risk factors include the number of sexual partners, oral sex and smoking. Thus, young women may be able to reduce the risk of infection with high-risk type HPV by reducing the number of sexual partners, forming a correct sexual life habit, and avoiding smoking.

  2. [Prevention of shoulder dystocia risk factors before delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether it is possible to prevent the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia before or during pregnancy. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. Studied measures were exercise before or during pregnancy, dietary management, and gestational diabetes management in obese and non-obese patients. No study has proven that the correction of these risk factors (except gestational diabetes) would reduce the risk of shoulder dystocia. In the general population, physical exercise is recommended either before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (physical activity before pregnancy) (grade B), fetal macrosomia (grade C) or maternal weight gain during pregnancy (grade C). No dietary regimen is recommended to reduce these issues (grade B). In overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI]>25), physical activity coupled with dietary management is recommended (grade A) because it reduces fetal macrosomia (EL1). In addition, it allows a modest reduction in maternal weight gain during pregnancy (EL2), but did have an effect on the occurrence of gestational diabetes (EL1). In case of gestational diabetes, diabetes care is recommended (diabetic diet, glucose monitoring, insulin if needed) (grade A) as it reduces the risk of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia (EL1). The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 11.5 kg to 16 kg for normal BMI patients (grade B). Obese patients should be aware of the importance of controlling their weight gain during pregnancy (professional consensus). It is recommended that patients regain their pre-conception weight, and ideally a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2), 6 months postpartum (grade B) to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and macrosomia in a subsequent pregnancy (EL2). Physical activity is recommended before and during pregnancy to reduce the occurrence of risk factors for shoulder dystocia

  3. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julianne C; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Stuart, Gregory L; Moore, Todd M

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined potential risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women during pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 180 pregnant women was collected in order to investigate (1) whether associations between partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, partner suspicion of infidelity, and stress were associated with IPV victimization; (2) the indirect effects of alcohol misuse on these relationships; and (3) factors related to changes in IPV victimization over time. At baseline, partner alcohol misuse was associated with each type of IPV victimization and the combination of partner alcohol misuse, partner jealousy, and partner suspicion of infidelity was most strongly associated with severe physical victimization. Partner alcohol misuse mediated the relationship between partner jealousy and psychological and severe physical victimization. At follow-up, partner jealousy and stress were related to women's psychological victimization and partner alcohol misuse was related to women's severe physical victimization. Findings suggest that partner alcohol misuse is a risk factor for women's IPV victimization during pregnancy and jealousy and that stress may increase risk for some types of IPV. Findings also suggest that intervention should target parents early in pregnancy in order to reduce the risk for future IPV.

  4. Parastomal hernia: an exploration of the risk factors and the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Anthony; Porrett, Theresa; Heyman, Bob

    Risk may be defined as 'the chance that something may happen to cause loss or an adverse effect' (Concise Oxford Medical Dictionary, 2003). Patients undergoing stoma formation are at risk of developing a wide range of complications following surgery. A parastomal hernia is an adverse effect that can contribute to postoperative morbidity. The risk of developing a parastomal hernia is dependent upon a number of variables, and stoma care nurses need to be aware of these to plan the appropriate care for patients undergoing stoma formation. This article discusses the issues surrounding the development of parastomal hernias and also looks at ways in which the risk factors associated with the development of a parastomal hernia may be minimized.

  5. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the ... to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community ... causes of maternal mortality at the country level in ... Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar, .... cyclones, and crime can be associated with.

  6. Socio-economic status, risk factors and coronary heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.

  7. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andressa Magalhães; Tsukamoto, Rosangela; Lopes, Camila Takáo; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo E

    2017-06-05

    to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation. identificar evidências na literatura acerca de possíveis fatores de risco do diagnóstico risco de glicemia instável para pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e compará-los com os fatores de risco descritos pela NANDA International . revisão integrativa norteada pela pergunta: quais são os fatores de risco de glicemia instável em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2? Incluíram-se estudos primários cujos desfechos eram variações nos níveis glicêmicos, publicados em inglês, português ou espanhol no PubMed ou CINAHL entre 2010 e 2015. observou

  8. Coffee as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A literature study

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Prashamsa

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is the most widely drunk beverage around the world, especially within Scandinavia.However, there have been conflicting evidence on the consumption of coffee as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The importance to explore the full effects of coffee related health problems, including brewing methods, is mainly due to the high consumption rate of coffee around the world. In the context of public health, knowing how a popular beverage such as coffee effects the cardiovascular risks...

  9. Risk Factors of Cancer in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Hira Abdul; Harbi, Alya; Shelpai, Wael; Qawas, xAhmadxx

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is recognized to be a major healthcare problem globally. Cancer is a disease that mainly occurs when alterations in a normal cell group within the body leads to uncontrolled growth, mainly causing a lump referred to as a tumor. The aim of this study is to systematically review and extract studies reporting the risk factors of cancer in UAE between 2007 and 2016. A systematic literature search was performed by using "PubMed, Scopus databases, Science direct, and local journals" and appropriate key terms to retrieve studies carried out in United Arab Emirates with regards to risk factors of the cancer. 75 articles were extracted in the beginning. After screening for exclusion criteria and retrieval of full texts, overall 16 articles were used in this study. Search limits were restricted to studies in English language, between 2007 and 2016, and on UAE population (both citizens and expatriates). This review yielded 16 studies about the cancer risk factors in United Arab Emirates, including cross sectional studies (n = 9), population-based crosssectional retrospective survey (n = 1), retrospective cohort studies (n = 4) and qualitative studies (n = 2). Tobacco use, unhealthy diet, family history, infection with HPV, physical activity, and radiation exposure were among the factors investigated. There was insufficient evidence available on some potentially essential risk factors such as use of alcohol, aging, and being overweight. This systematic review signifies an increasing cancer prevalence in the United Arab Emirates and suggests that extra effort is needed with a multi-sectorial approach in future at both the national and international level to effectively tackle the burden of cancer.

  10. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁKOS NÉMETH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.

  11. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  12. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  13. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Abstract. Purpose: To explore the literature regarding prevalance, risk factors and the involvement of ..... Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence. Urology.

  14. Effect of one course exercise with consumption vitamin E on antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Naghizadeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of different physical activity with consumption supplements on the function of body vital systems and decrease free radicals effects is not well known during exercise. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of aerobics exercise (HRmax: 60-65% with vitamin E on antioxidant status and oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk factors in active male students. Materials and Methods: 45 normal active male students were randomly divided in to three groups: Exp 1(N=15, mean±SD age=23.8±1.6; Exp 2(N=15, mean±SD age=22.4±2.3 and control III (N=15, mean±SD age=22.9±1.8. The treatment for exercise-supplement included moderate aerobic exercise (HRmax 60-65% with consumption a 500 mg vitamin E tablet. The treatment for exercise-placebo included exercise above along with a placebo tablet consumed for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week and session lasted 45 minutes. The variables in the experiment were measured in two stages in the standardized environment of a laboratory. This research performed the Islamic Azad university branch of Tabriz. Results: The results showed that, there was a significant statistical difference between MAD (p<0.02, CP (p<0.04, TAC (p<0.03, LDL (p<0.03 and Vo2max (p<0.03 in the three groups. Discussion: In summery performing moderate aerobic exercise (HRmax 60-65% with consumption Vitamin E may decrease membrane damage and lipid peroxidation, and cardiovascular risk factors

  15. Fall risk factors in community-dwelling elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bergland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common and serious problem for older adults. Approximately one-third of older communitydwelling people fall at least once a year. The main purpose of this paper is to present risk factors for fall in older people living at home. The databases used for identifying documentation of risk factors are Cinahl, Eric, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Medline, Psycinfo and dissertation. Many psychosocial and medical conditions and impairment of sensorimotor function, balance and gait have been shown in large epidemiological studies to be strongly associated with falls. Several of the risk factors are interrelated. The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction seem to be an oversimplification. A better understanding of falls is usually obtained when examining the person in association with the environmental factors. Advanced age, history of falls, ADL limitations, impaired gait and mobility, visual impairment, reduced sensation, muscular weakness, poor reaction time, impaired cognition, diseases as stroke, use of psychoactive medication and use of many medications are risk factors shown to be strongly associated with falls. This means recommendation of multifactorial fall risk assessment must incorporate a range of physiological and mental tests in addition to assessing balance and gait as well as taking multiple chronic diseases and medications into account. These finding underscore the importance of multidimensional fall intervention with special focus on modifiable risk factors

  16. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions ( 180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  17. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages-the largest category within income-are risk factors. We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25-65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25-44 and 45-65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25-44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables-obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities-were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25-30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25-44 years. The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25-44 years.

  18. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Gholam-Ali

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case against non opium-addicted men(control. Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years. Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. Results The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. Conclusion This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  19. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus postpartum breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Golen, Toni H; Gold, Howard S; Yassa, David S; Baldini, Linda M; Wright, Sharon B

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) breast abscesses are a complication of the postpartum period. Risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscesses are poorly defined, and literature is conflicting. Whether risk factors for methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) infections differ is unknown. We describe novel risk factors associated with postpartum breast abscesses and the changing epidemiology of this infection. We conducted a cohort study with a nested case-control study (n = 216) involving all patients with culture-confirmed SA breast abscess among >30 000 deliveries at our academic tertiary care center from 2003 through 2010. Data were collected from hospital databases and through abstraction from medical records. All SA cases were compared with both nested controls and full cohort controls. A subanalysis was completed to determine whether risk factors for MSSA and MRSA breast abscess differ. Univariate analysis was completed using Student's t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and analysis of variance, as appropriate. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to determine final adjusted results for both the case-control and the cohort analyses. Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed abscess were identified: 30 MRSA and 24 MSSA. Risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscess in multivariable analysis include in-hospital identification of a mother having difficulty breastfeeding (odds ratio, 5.00) and being a mother employed outside the home (odds ratio, 2.74). Risk factors did not differ between patients who developed MRSA and MSSA infections. MRSA is an increasingly important pathogen in postpartum women; risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscess have not changed with the advent of community-associated MRSA.

  20. Is zinc deficiency a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, John H; Kwun, In-Sook

    2004-02-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is influenced by genetic, lifestyle and nutritional risk factors. Zn and metallothionein deficiency can enhance oxidative-stress-related signalling processes in endothelial cells, and since changes in available plasma Zn may affect the Zn status of the endothelium, Zn deficiency could be a risk factor for IHD. Although the association of Zn with many proteins is essential for their function, three key signalling processes are highlighted as being principal targets for the effect of Zn deficiency: the activation of NF-kappaB, the activation of caspase enzymes and the signalling of NO. The need to develop a reliable indicator of Zn status is critical to any epidemiological approach for studying the relationship between Zn status and disease incidence. Studies using appropriate animal models and investigating how the plasma Zn pool influences endothelial intracellular labile Zn would be helpful in appreciating the importance of Zn deficiency in atherogenesis.

  1. Risk factors for trachoma in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schémann, J-F; Sacko, D; Malvy, D; Momo, G; Traore, L; Bore, O; Coulibaly, S; Banou, A

    2002-02-01

    with a higher frequency of both face washing and bathing. Of all the risk factors examined, facial cleanliness had the strongest association with the prevalence of trachoma. This was followed by the presence of flies on the child's face. Both face washing and bathing showed beneficial effects. Socioeconomic factors such as wealth were significantly explanatory. It is likely that hygiene education and fly control by environmental improvement could have a very significant impact on the prevalence of trachoma in Mali.

  2. Adverse radiation effect after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases: incidence, time course, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Penny K; Mendez, Joe; Vemer-van den Hoek, Johanna G M; Seymour, Zachary A; Ma, Lijun; Molinaro, Annette M; Fogh, Shannon E; Nakamura, Jean L; McDermott, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    The authors sought to determine the incidence, time course, and risk factors for overall adverse radiation effect (ARE) and symptomatic ARE after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. All cases of brain metastases treated from 1998 through 2009 with Gamma Knife SRS at UCSF were considered. Cases with less than 3 months of follow-up imaging, a gap of more than 8 months in imaging during the 1st year, or inadequate imaging availability were excluded. Brain scans and pathology reports were reviewed to ensure consistent scoring of dates of ARE, treatment failure, or both; in case of uncertainty, the cause of lesion worsening was scored as indeterminate. Cumulative incidence of ARE and failure were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method with censoring at last imaging. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Among 435 patients and 2200 brain metastases evaluable, the median patient survival time was 17.4 months and the median lesion imaging follow-up was 9.9 months. Calculated on the basis of 2200 evaluable lesions, the rates of treatment failure, ARE, concurrent failure and ARE, and lesion worsening with indeterminate cause were 9.2%, 5.4%, 1.4%, and 4.1%, respectively. Among 118 cases of ARE, approximately 60% were symptomatic and 85% occurred 3-18 months after SRS (median 7.2 months). For 99 ARE cases managed without surgery or bevacizumab, the probabilities of improvement observed on imaging were 40%, 57%, and 76% at 6, 12, and 18 months after onset of ARE. The most important risk factors for ARE included prior SRS to the same lesion (with 20% 1-year risk of symptomatic ARE vs 3%, 4%, and 8% for no prior treatment, prior whole brain radiotherapy [WBRT], or concurrent WBRT) and any of these volume parameters: target, prescription isodose, 12-Gy, or 10-Gy volume. Excluding lesions treated with repeat SRS, the 1-year probabilities of ARE were 2.1 cm, target volume > 1.2 cm(3), prescription isodose volume > 1.8 cm(3

  3. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. METHODS: We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common...... causative bacteria beyond the neonatal period. RESULTS: We describe a number of risk factors; including socioeconomic factors, age, genetic variation of the host and underlying medical conditions associated with increased susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults....... CONCLUSIONS: As conjugated vaccines are available for these infections, it is of utmost importance to identify high risk patients to be able to prevent invasive disease....

  4. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries among male marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelkoop, M; Kolkman, J; Van Ochten, J; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for lower extremity injuries in male marathon runners. A random sample of 1500 recreational male marathon runners was drawn. Possible risk factors were obtained from a baseline questionnaire 1 month before the start of the marathon. Information on injuries sustained shortly before or during the marathon was obtained using a post-race questionnaire. Of the 694 male runners who responded to the baseline and post-race questionnaire, 28% suffered a self-reported running injury on the lower extremities in the month before or during the marathon run. More than six times race participation in the previous 12 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.66; confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.56], a history of running injuries (OR 2.62; CI 1.82-3.78), high education level (OR 0.73; CI 0.51-1.04) and daily smoking (OR 0.23; CI 0.05-1.01) were associated with the occurrence of lower extremity injuries. Among the modifiable risk factor studies, a training distance training is a strong protective factor for knee injuries. Other training characteristics appear to have little or no effect on future injuries.

  5. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  6. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  7. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  8. Therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation on children with supraventricular tachycardia and the risk factors for postoperative recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Libo; Wang, Zhenzhou; Niu, Ling; An, Xinjiang

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation on children with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and explored the risk factors for postoperative recurrence. A total of 312 patients with pediatric SVT were selected in the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from April, 2011 to March, 2017. All the patients were subjected to radiofrequency ablation, and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Tilt table test was performed before and after treatment, and heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after treatment were compared. Plasma levels of D-dimer (D-D), platelet α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before treatment, immediately after radiofrequency oblation, and at 1, 3 and 7 days after treatment. Treatment outcomes were compared between the atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) groups. Risk factors for postoperative recurrence were analyzed. Supine position heart rate after treatment was not significantly different from that before treatment (P>0.05), while the upright position heart rate was significantly increased after treatment (P0.05). No significant difference in radiofrequency ablation rate, recurrence rate and incidence of complications were found between the AVRT and AVNRT groups (P>0.05). After radiofrequency, the levels of D-D, GMP-140 and TAT ablation showed an upward trend, but decreased at day 7 to reach preoperative levels. Logistic regression analysis revealed that residual slow pathway (OR=6.718, P=0.005) and inaccurate targeting (OR=2.815, P=0.007) were independent risk factors for postoperative recurrence (Pradiofrequency ablation can damage the cardiac vagal nerve, resulting in an increase in the heart rate after ablation during the course of the tilt table test and changed hemagglutination state

  9. New-onset diabetes after transplant: Incidence, risk factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ascertain the incidence of and clinical and genetic risk factors that predispose to NODAT, and to examine its effect on the outcome of renal transplantation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort review of all renal transplants at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between 2004 and 2008. Patients ...

  10. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, A.W.; Khan, R.A.A.T.; Ayub, M.; Husnain, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

  11. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faisal, A W; Khan, R A.A.T. [General Physician Minir Hospital, Sargodha (Pakistan); Ayub, M [Munir Hospital, Sargodha (Pakistan); Husnain, S S [Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

  12. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  13. Risk factors for tornado injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, M; Lybarger, J A; Parsons, J E; MacCormack, J N; Freeman, J I

    1990-12-01

    Tornadoes in North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984 caused 252 people to be injured seriously enough to require hospitalization and 59 to be killed. To evaluate risk factors, we gathered information on 238 (94%) of those hospitalized and 46 (78%) of those killed. Those hospitalized or deceased had statistically significantly more deep cuts, concussions, unconsciousness and broken bones than those with them at the time of the tornado who were not hospitalized or killed. People living in mobile homes were more likely to be hospitalized or die than people occupying conventional houses. Other risk factors for hospitalization or death included advanced age (60+ years), no physical protection (not having been covered with a blanket or other object), having been struck by broken window glass or other falling objects, home lifted off its foundation, collapsed ceiling or floor, or walls blown away. More awareness of the tornado risk before it strikes and better adherence to tornado protection guidelines could reduce injuries and deaths in the future.

  14. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk