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Sample records for risk factors age

  1. Risk Factors for Depression : Differential Across Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of well-established risk factors for depression differs across the lifespan. Risk factors may be more strongly associated with depression at ages when occurrence, and therefore expectance, is relatively low ("on-time off-time" hypothesis). This large-scale study examined

  2. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  3. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  4. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  5. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  6. [Renal aging: risk factors and nephroprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroux, Maïté; Gaxatte, Cédric; Puisieux, François; Corman, Bruno; Boulanger, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Renal failure in the elderly is currently underestimated and presents a real challenge for the public health system. Kidney function must be routinely assessed by creatinine clearance, estimated with either the Cockcroft and Gault formula or the simplified MDRD formula, which appears especially appropriate for the elderly. Normal kidney aging is related to tissue and functional changes that make older patients very vulnerable to environmental modifications. Numerous factors can accelerate the impairment of rental function during aging. Some of them cannot be modified: sex, genome, and initial kidney disease. Most of them can be managed or treated: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, and the presence of oxidation and glycation products. Chronic renal failure in the elderly must be managed early with strict treatment targets to avoid the development of end-stage renal disease. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play an essential role in optimizing nephroprotection: control of hypertension, diabetes complications, and proteinuria. They should be prescribed very carefully in older patients. Age is not a prerequisite for consultations with nephrologists, which should take place early so that nephroprotection can still be useful.

  7. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  8. The Association Between Maternal Age and Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rilla E; Ng, Pamela; Zhang, Xun; Andersen, John; Buckley, David; Fehlings, Darcy; Kirton, Adam; Wood, Ellen; van Rensburg, Esias; Shevell, Michael I; Oskoui, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    Advanced maternal age is associated with higher frequencies of antenatal and perinatal conditions, as well as a higher risk of cerebral palsy in offspring. We explore the association between maternal age and specific cerebral palsy risk factors. Data were extracted from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry. Maternal age was categorized as ≥35 years of age and less than 20 years of age at the time of birth. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to calculate odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The final sample consisted of 1391 children with cerebral palsy, with 19% of children having mothers aged 35 or older and 4% of children having mothers below the age of 20. Univariate analyses showed that mothers aged 35 or older were more likely to have gestational diabetes (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8), to have a history of miscarriage (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.4), to have undergone fertility treatments (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 3.9), and to have delivered by Caesarean section (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.2). These findings were supported by multivariate analyses. Children with mothers below the age of 20 were more likely to have a congenital malformation (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.2), which is also supported by multivariate analysis. The risk factor profiles of children with cerebral palsy vary by maternal age. Future studies are warranted to further our understanding of the compound causal pathways leading to cerebral palsy and the observed greater prevalence of cerebral palsy with increasing maternal age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982

  10. Lens aging in relation to nutritional determinants and possible risk factors for age-related cataract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Poppel, G. van; Norren, D. van

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether nutritional factors and possible risk factors for cataract influence the lens optical density (LOD). Design: Three hundred seventy-six subjects, aged 18 to 75 years, were recruited. In a cross-sectional design, serum was analyzed for lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C,

  11. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy in a 14-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, Troels; la Cour, Morten

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM).......To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM)....

  12. Anorexia of aging: a modifiable risk factor for frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Anna Maria; Onder, Graziano; Vetrano, Davide Liborio; Ortolani, Elena; Tosato, Matteo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Landi, Francesco

    2013-10-14

    Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.

  13. Anorexia of Aging: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the most important goals in the management of older, frail people is to optimize their nutritional status. To achieve this objective it is important to identify subjects at risk of anorexia and to provide multi-stimulus interventions that ensure an adequate amount of food to limit and/or reverse weight loss and functional decline. Here, we provide a brief overview on the relevance of anorexia in the context of sarcopenia and frailty. Major pathways supposedly involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia are also illustrated. Finally, the importance of treating anorexia to achieve health benefits in frail elders is highlighted.

  14. Gestational Age and Manifest Cardiovascular Risk Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus manifestation of known CAD risk factors was evaluated in 75 human females, randomly assigned to 3 groups each of 25 subjects of different GA. Group1 served as Control (NO PREG), Groups 2 and 3 were PREG at GA of less than 20weeks (PREG<20wk) and of 20weeks or more (PREG ≥ 20wk) respectively.

  15. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons. PMID:26828516

  16. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; Ortolani, Elena; Savera, Giulia; Sisto, Alex; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2016-01-27

    Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an "ageist" approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  17. Anorexia of Aging: Risk Factors, Consequences, and Potential Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Older people frequently fail to ingest adequate amount of food to meet their essential energy and nutrient requirements. Anorexia of aging, defined by decrease in appetite and/or food intake in old age, is a major contributing factor to under-nutrition and adverse health outcomes in the geriatric population. This disorder is indeed highly prevalent and is recognized as an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. Even though anorexia is not an unavoidable consequence of aging, advancing age often promotes its development through various mechanisms. Age-related changes in life-style, disease conditions, as well as social and environmental factors have the potential to directly affect dietary behaviors and nutritional status. In spite of their importance, problems related to food intake and, more generally, nutritional status are seldom attended to in clinical practice. While this may be the result of an “ageist” approach, it should be acknowledged that simple interventions, such as oral nutritional supplementation or modified diets, could meaningfully improve the health status and quality of life of older persons.

  18. Anorexia of Aging: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Frailty

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Landi; Emanuele Marzetti; Matteo Tosato; Elena Ortolani; Graziano Onder; Davide Liborio Vetrano; Anna Maria Martone

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia of aging, defined as a loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, affects a significant number of elderly people and is far more prevalent among frail individuals. Anorexia recognizes a multifactorial origin characterized by various combinations of medical, environmental and social factors. Given the interconnection between weight loss, sarcopenia and frailty, anorexia is a powerful, independent predictor of poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality in older persons. One of the...

  19. Risk factors for urinary incontinence among women aged 60 or over with hypertension in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Ming Chang

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: UI can be a frequent and annoying problem for aged women. In women with H/T, UI is significantly related to risk factors such as age, DM, BMI, and urinary diseases. In addition, BMI is considered a key risk factor for H/T. Therefore, effective control of BMI would help in controlling H/T and UI in aged women.

  20. Assessment of risk factors for noncommunicable disease risk factors among men of working age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vasilyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.

  1. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  2. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  3. A Feature Analysis of Risk Factors for Stroke in the Middle-Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Haewon Byeon; Hyeung Woo Koh

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain health during middle age and achieve successful aging, it is important to elucidate and prevent risk factors of middle-age stroke. This study investigated high risk groups of stroke in middle age population of Korea and provides basic material for establishment of stroke prevention policy by analyzing sudden perception of speech/language problems and clusters of multiple risk factors. This study analyzed 2,751 persons (1,191 males and 1,560 females) aged 40–59 who partici...

  4. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  5. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  6. [Frequency of successful aging and frailty. Associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazco-Peña, Karla Berenice; Farías-Moreno, Katia; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín

    To determine the frequency of successful aging (SA) and its relationship with frailty in an elderly population. An analytical cross-sectional study of subjects ≥60 years of age seen as outpatients in a general hospital. Successful aging was defined as scores of ≥ 90 in the Barthel index and ≤ 2 in the Pfeiffer test. Frailty was determined using the Fried criteria. The study included 400 subjects (272 women and 128 men), with a mean age of 71.6±8.2 years. The SA frequency was 40.4%. frail status was statistically higher in non-successful aging subjects than in SA subjects (161.7 versus 7.9%; P<.001). Women were more frequently frail, while being a pensioner/retired and married were associated less frequently with frailty. Successful aging is associated with a lower level of frailty. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Age as Risk Factor for Death from Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabanch, Jeannette; Nájera, Manuel; González, Claudia; Guerrero, Andrea; Olea, Andrea; Fasce, Rodrigo; Morales, Cecilia; Vega, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 affected Chile during the winter of 2009. The hospitalization rate was 0.56% overall and 3.47% for persons >60 years of age at risk for severe disease and death independent of concurrent conditions. Age >60 years was the major risk factor for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009. PMID:21762580

  8. Environmental and genetic risk factors for aging macula disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boekhoorn (Sharmila)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhat’s in a name? Since the first description of age-related macular degeneration in 1874 as “Symmetrical central choroido-retinal disease occurring in senile persons”, 1 over 20 different names have been given to this disorder, often reflecting the pathophysiological thinking at a

  9. Age and other perioperative risk factors for postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J. M.; Peelen, L. M.; Coulson, T. G.; Tran, L.; Reid, C. M.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Myles, P. S.; Pilcher, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The inflammatory response to surgery varies considerably between individual patients. Age might be a substantial factor in this variability. Our objective was to examine the association of patient age and other potential risk factors with the occurrence of a postoperative systemic

  10. Risk factors of severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years. In Kenya, it is the second leading cause of mortality, accounting for greater than 30,000 deaths in this age group annually. This study sought to identify risk factors for severe pneumonia in children under the age of five years.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV among people aged 50 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    reproductive and sexual health characteristics of the participants, knowledge on HIV ... Keywords: HIV, older adults, prevalence, knowledge, risk factors, Tanzania ... With increased availability of ART, people are living longer and age with HIV ...

  12. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23) For children Administer PCV13 ...

  13. Modifiable Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in the Population Aged 20-49 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Valladares Mas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: evidence provided by the Framingham Heart Study established the critical role of risk factors in the development of coronary heart disease. Over half a century later, current detection and control are still inadequate. Objective: to identify modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease in individuals aged 20 to 49 years. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 276 individuals from the doctor’s office No. 1 of the Fabio di Celmo Community Teaching Polyclinic in Cienfuegos. Patients were examined in the clinic visit and/or whole family visit. The studied variables included age, sex, skin color, risk factors (excess weight/obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and psychosocial factors, which were obtained from the medical interview, physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol and triglycerides and review of individual medical records and family history. Results: risk factors most frequently identified were excess weight/obesity (42.4 %, physical inactivity (34.4 % and smoking (20.3 %. Presence of these risk factors increased with age, showing differences in the distribution by sex and was associated with psychosocial factors. Their coexistence and progress with age was significant. Conclusion: prevalence of modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease in a young population was high, with frequent association, predominating factors related to unhealthy lifestyles.

  14. [Socioeconomic inequalities and age and gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Shaon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. Methods Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major risk factors-smoking or tobacco use, obesity, truncal obesity, hypertension, dysglycemia and dyslipidemia using pre-specified definitions in 2051 subjects (male 1009, female 1042 aged 15–39 years of age. Age-stratified analyses were performed and significance of trends determined using regression analyses for numerical variables and Χ2 test for trend for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to identify univariate and multivariate odds ratios (OR for correlation of age and risk factors. Results In males and females respectively, smoking or tobacco use was observed in 200 (11.8% and 18 (1.4%, overweight or obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 12.4% and 14.3%, high waist-hip ratio, WHR (males > 0.9, females > 0.8 in 15% and 32.3%, hypertension in 5.6% and 3.1%, high LDL cholesterol (≥ 130 mg/dl in 9.4% and 8.9%, low HDL cholesterol ( Conclusion Low prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adolescents and rapid escalation of these risk factors by age of 30–39 years is noted in urban Asian Indians. Interventions should focus on these individuals.

  16. Age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility as risk factors for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioka, C; Fotopoulos, A; Georgiou, A; Xourgia, X; Papadopoulos, A; Kalef-Ezra, J A

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship of osteopenia and osteoporosis in apparently healthy postmenopausal patients with age at menarche, age at menopause and duration of fertility. One hundred and twenty-four apparently healthy Greek postmenopausal women underwent spinal and hip X-ray absorptiometry scans. Among them, 47 were classified as normal (control group), 52 as osteopenic, and 25 as having osteoporosis. These groups were compared according to their age at menarche (three subgroups of 10-12, 13 and 14-16 years old), at menopause (three subgroups of 40-45, 46-50 and > or = 51 years old) and duration of fertility (four subgroups of 40 and 41-45 years). The groups were not found to differ statistically according to age and age at menarche. However, decreased bone mineral density was found in patients with duration of fertility not exceeding 30 years (p = 0.034) and age at menopause less than 45 years (p = 0.034). No association was found between bone mineral density in Greek postmenopausal women and either number of live births or lactation. In postmenopausal females, the cumulative exposure to endogenous estrogens, measured as years of menstruation, seems to be a significant protective factor against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age at menopause between 40 and 45 years, but not age at menarche, correlated with low bone mineral density in postmenopausal females.

  17. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) or weight faltering according to age of onset. The study is part of a Danish longitudinal population study of early risk mechanisms in child psychiatric disorders, The Copenhagen Child Cohort, which consists of a birth...

  18. Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Christopher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. Methods A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR and/or relative risk (RR outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusions Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD.

  19. Risk factors for mortality before age 18 years in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColley, Susanna A; Schechter, Michael S; Morgan, Wayne J; Pasta, David J; Craib, Marcia L; Konstan, Michael W

    2017-07-01

    Understanding early-life risk factors for childhood death in cystic fibrosis (CF) is important for clinical care, including the identification of effective interventions. Data from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) collected 1994-2005 were linked with the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) demographic and mortality data from 2013. Inclusion criteria were ≥1 visit annually at age 3-5 years and ≥1 FEV 1 measurement at age 6-8 years. Demographic data, nutritional parameters, pulmonary signs and symptoms, microbiology, and FEV 1 were evaluated as risk factors for death before age 18 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the simultaneous effects of risk factors associated with death before age 18 years. Among 5365 patients enrolled in ESCF who met inclusion criteria, 3880 (72%) were linked to the CFFPR. Among these, 191 (5.7%) died before age 18 years; median age at death was 13.4 ± 3.1 years. Multivariable regression showed clubbing, crackles, female sex, unknown CFTR genotype, minority race or ethnicity, Medicaid insurance (a proxy of low socioeconomic status), Pseudomonas aeruginosa on 2 or more cultures, and weight-for-age <50th percentile were significant risk factors for death regardless of inclusion of FEV 1 at age 6-8 years in the model. We identified multiple risk factors for childhood death of patients with CF, all of which remained important after incorporating FEV 1 at age 6-8 years. Among the factors identified were the presence of clubbing or crackles at age 3-5 years, signs which are not routinely collected in registries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV among people aged 50 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is estimated that over ten percent of the 36.7 million people living with HIV (PLWHIV) globally, are those aged ≥50 years. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HIV among adult aged 50 years and above in Rombo district, northern Tanzania. Methods: This cross ...

  1. Risk factors for visually disabling age-related cataracts in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the risk factors for visually disabling age related cataracts. Methods: A hospital based case-control study carried out at the university College Hospital Ibadan between May 1996 and March 1997. Three hundred and eighty three cases were matched for age and sex with five hundred and ninety nine ...

  2. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in middle-aged men in Crete in 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Corcondilas, A.; Ioanidis, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Risk factors for coronary heart disease were studied in healthy middle- aged Cretan men in order to compare them with the middle-aged men of a previous generation studied in 1960 as the Cretan cohort of the Seven Countries Study (1960). In the present cohort mean values for total cholesterol were

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Tromso Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, M. G.; Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.

    2014-01-01

    PurposeTo examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MethodsA population-based, cross-sectional study of Caucasians aged 65-87years was conducted in Norway in 2007/2008. Retinal photographs were graded for AMD. Multivariable logistic...

  4. Smoking overrules many other risk factors for small for gestational age birth in less educated mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Gerrit; van Eijsden, Manon; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is convincing evidence for the association between small for gestational age (SGA) and socioeconomic status (SES), it is not known to what extent explanatory factors contribute to this association. To examine to what extent risk factors could explain educational inequalities in SGA.

  5. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering....

  6. Night shift work at specific age ranges and chronic disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, Cody; Devore, Elizabeth E; Wang, Weike; Pierre-Paul, Jeffrey; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association of night shift work history and age when night shift work was performed with cancer and cardiovascular disease risk factors among 54 724 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II. Methods We calculated age-adjusted and socioeconomic status-adjusted means and percentages for cancer and cardiovascular risk factors in 2009 across categories of night shift work history. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for key risk factors among 54 724 participants (72% ever shift workers). We further examined these associations by age (20–25, 26–35, 36– 45 and 46+ years) at which shift work was performed. Results Ever night shift workers had increased odds of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2; OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.43); higher caffeine intake (≥131 mg/day; OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.22) and total calorie intake (≥1715 kcal/day; OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.13); current smoking (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.42); and shorter sleep durations (≤7 h of sleep/day; OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.24) compared to never night shift workers. These estimates varied depending on age at which night work was performed, with a suggestion that night shift work before age 25 was associated with fewer risk factors compared to night shift work at older ages. Conclusions Our results indicate that night shift work may contribute to an adverse chronic disease risk profile, and that risk factors may vary depending on the age at which night shift work was performed. PMID:25261528

  7. Mass media and risk factors for cancer: the under-representation of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Sara; Cunningham, Yvonne; Patterson, Chris; Robb, Katie; Macleod, Una; Anker, Thomas; Hilton, Shona

    2018-04-26

    Increasing age is a risk factor for developing cancer. Yet, older people commonly underestimate this risk, are less likely to be aware of the early symptoms, and are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage cancer. Mass media are a key influence on the public's understanding health issues, including cancer risk. This study investigates how news media have represented age and other risk factors in the most common cancers over time. Eight hundred articles about the four most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colorectal) published within eight UK national newspapers in 2003, 2004, 2013 and 2014 were identified using the Nexis database. Relevant manifest content of articles was coded quantitatively and subjected to descriptive statistical analysis in SPSS to identify patterns across the data. Risk was presented in half of the articles but this was rarely discussed in any depth and around a quarter of all articles introduced more than one risk factor, irrespective of cancer site. Age was mentioned as a risk factor in approximately 12% of all articles and this varied by cancer site. Age was most frequently reported in relation to prostate cancer and least often in articles about lung cancer. Articles featuring personal narratives more frequently focused on younger people and this was more pronounced in non-celebrity stories; only 15% of non-celebrity narratives were about people over 60. Other common risks discussed were family history and genetics, smoking, diet, alcohol, and environmental factors. Family history and genetics together featured as the most common risk factors. Risk factor reporting varied by site and family history was most commonly associated with breast cancer, diet with bowel cancer and smoking with lung cancer. Age and older adults were largely obscured in media representation of cancer and cancer experience. Indeed common risk factors in general were rarely discussed in any depth. Our findings will usefully inform the development of

  8. [Risk factors of small for the gestational age neonates in a hospital of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Mariaca, J Eduardo; Pizango-Mallqui, Orion; Alburquerque-Duglio, Miguel; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Identify risk factors for at-term small for gestational age newborns. Retrospective cohort study using data from the Maternal Perinatal Information System of the Maria Auxiliadora Hospital of Lima, from the period 2000-2010. Maternal age, parity, education level, marital status, pregestational body mass index, number of prenatal care visits, presence of conditions such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, urinary tract infection and gestational diabetes as risk factors in small for gestational age newborns were evaluated. The weight for gestational age was calculated based on Peruvian percentiles. Crude relative risk (RR) and adjusted (ARR) were calculated with confidence intervals of 95% using log-binomial generalized linear models. 64,670 pregnant women were included. The incidence for small for gestational age was 7.2%. Preeclampsia (ARR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.15), eclampsia (ARR 3.22, 95% CI: 2.38 to 4.35), low maternal weight (ARR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.54), nulliparity (ARR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.42), age ≥35 years (ARR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04 -1.29), having prenatal care visits from 0 to 2 (ARR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.32 to 1.55) and 3 to 5 (ARR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.32) were risk factors for small for gestational age. It is necessary to identify pregnant women with risk factors such as those found to decrease the condition of small for gestational age. Actions should emphasize modifiable factors, such as the frequency of prenatal care visits.

  9. Chronic disease risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M

    2011-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.

  10. Modifiable risk factors in periodontitis: at the intersection of aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation is a prominent feature of aging and of common age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer and periodontitis. This volume examines modifiable risk factors for periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Oral bacterial communities and viral infections, particularly with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses, elicit distinct immune responses and are central in the initiation of periodontal diseases. Risk of disease is dynamic and changes in response to complex interactions of genetic, environmental and stochastic factors over the lifespan. Many modifiable risk factors, such as smoking and excess caloric intake, contribute to increases in systemic markers of inflammation and can modify gene regulation through a variety of biologic mechanisms (e.g. epigenetic modifications). Periodontitis and other common chronic inflammatory diseases share multiple modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, psychological stress and depression, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. Interventions that target modifiable risk factors have the potential to improve risk profiles for periodontitis as well as for other common chronic diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  12. [Importance of age and other risk factors in NSAID-induced gastropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hang Lak; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Jong Pyo; Jeon, Yong Chul; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Hahm, Joon Soo

    2004-11-01

    It is clinically important to analyze the risk factors of NSAID-induced gastropathy because there could be no symptoms. Age is the most important risk factor according to previous reports. The aim of this study was to find risk factors of NSAID-induced gastropathy and to confirm the association between NSAID-induced gastropathy and age. We retrospectively assessed 300 patients who conducted an upper gastroscopy during the course of chronic NSAID treatment. Median age of patients group is 51.4 +/- 12.2 years. In multivariate analysis, age and ulcer history are two significant risk factors. Median age is 46.7 +/- 10.7 years for the patients with nonspecific gastroscopic finding, 53.0 +/- 12.5 for those with erosion, 57.6 +/- 10.0 for those with ulcer, and 63.2 +/- 8.9 for those with hemorrhage. The proportion of ulcer patients is as follows: 6% in the patients of under 40 years old, 14.9% in patients of the 40s, 20% in patients of the 50s, 30.9% in patients of the 60s, 33.3% in patients over 70 years. The proportion of nonspecific findings is 62.2% in patients of the 40s, 37.8% in patients of the 50s, and 29% in patients over 60 years. Age is the most important risk factor of the NSAID-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury. A larger randomized prospective control study will be required in the future for more conclusive results.

  13. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G

    2013-01-01

    on S. aureus carriage in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins, which indicated no significant heritability that could account for the observed S. aureus carriage. In the present study, we performed a questionnaire-based study of S. aureus colonization on the same cohort of 2,196 Danish middle......-aged and elderly twins to identify specific risk factors for S. aureus nasal colonization, including analyzing the paired twins (n = 478) that were discordant for S. aureus colonization. We found associations between risk factors and S. aureus nasal colonization among middle-aged and elderly twins, including age......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  14. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged...... 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency......, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...

  15. Prevalence of and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in a multiethnic Asian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Tai, E Shyong; Kawasaki, Ryo; Tay, Wan Ting; Lee, Jeannette L; Hamzah, Haslina; Wong, Tien Y

    2012-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a multiethnic Asian cohort of Chinese, Malay, and Indian persons. In this population-based study, 3172 persons of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicities 40 years and older were included. Participants underwent comprehensive systemic and ocular examination, retinal photography, and laboratory investigations. Early and late AMD signs were graded from retinal photographs. Age-standardized prevalence estimates were calculated using the 2010 Singapore adult population as the standard population. Association with a range of systemic risk factors was analyzed. Of 3172 participants, AMD was present in 211 subjects. Age-standardized prevalence of AMD was 7.0% in persons 40 years and older. The age-standardized prevalence was similar in all 3 Asian ethnic groups: Chinese, 7.3%; Malay, 7.7%; and Indian, 5.7% (P value = .44). The prevalence increased with age and was higher in men. Of the range of risk factors evaluated, only myopic refractive error (Chinese men. The prevalence of AMD was similar in the 3 major ethnic groups in Asia and comparable with white populations. Myopic refractive error was associated with reduced risk of AMD in Chinese men.

  16. Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: Pooled findings from three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, W.; Assink, J.; Klein, R.; Mitchell, P.; Klaver, C. C.; Klein, B. E.; Hofman, A.; Jensen, S.; Wang, J. J.; de Jong, P. T.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors for late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in three racially similar populations from North America, Europe, and AUSTRALIA: Combined analysis of population-based eye disease prevalence data. There were 14,752 participants with gradable

  17. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (PConclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  19. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Horoz, Duygu; Borlu, Arda; Altunay, Canan; Balcı, Elcin; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Understanding risk factors that may vary culturally can help improve preventive strategies for obesity. This is the first cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors for overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years in a central Anatolian city in Turkey. A total of 1582 children (1351 healthy, 231 overweight/obese) aged 2-6 years were included from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years database. Age, gender, birth weight, birth order, mother's age, mother's body mass index (BMI), weight gain of mothers during pregnancy, presence of gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, history of formula feeding, mother's and father's education, mother's job, monthly income, smoking at home and physical activity, sleep duration and duration of television (TV) watching of the children were evaluated as independent risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors for overweight/obesity. Having a high family income compared to bad [odds ratio (OR)=1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-3.106], increased the time of watching TV during the weekend (OR=1.094; 95% CI: 1.032-1.159), and similar physical activity level according to their peers compared to less (OR=2.957; 95% CI: 1.056-8.282) were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years old. The early childhood period seems to be important in the establishment of healthy behavioral patterns, especially limitation of TV watching and encouragement of physical activity. Obesogenic environment in families with high incomes need to be revealed.

  20. Ageing towards 21 as a risk factor for young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, K M

    2012-11-13

    Aims. Youth and young adult suicide has increasingly appeared on international vital statistics as a rising trend of concern in age-specific mortality over the past 50 years. The reporting of suicide deaths in 5-year age bands, which has been the international convention to date, may mask a greater understanding of year-on-year factors that may accelerate or ameliorate the emergence of suicidal thoughts, acts and fatal consequences. The study objective was to identify any year-on-year period of increased risk for youth and young adult suicide in the UK and Ireland. Methods. Collation and examination of international epidemiological datasets on suicide (aged 18-35) for the UK and Ireland 2000-2006 (N = 11 964). Outcome measures included the age distribution of suicide mortality in international datasets from the UK and Ireland, 2000-2006. Results. An accelerated pattern of risk up to the age of 20 for the UK and Ireland which levels off moderately thereafter was uncovered, thus identifying a heretofore unreported age-related epidemiological transition for suicide. Conclusions. The current reporting of suicide in 5-year age bands may conceal age-related periods of risk for suicide. This may have implications for suicide prevention programmes for young adults under age 21.

  1. BMI, total and abdominal fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Durmus, Busra; Abrahamse, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; de Jonge, Layla L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-05-01

    More specific total body and abdominal fat mass measures might be stronger associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, than BMI. We examined the independent associations of total and abdominal fat measures with cardiovascular risk factors in school age children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 6,523 children. At the age of 6 y, we measured childhood BMI, and general and abdominal fat mass, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound and cardiovascular risk factors. Conditional on BMI, higher fat mass percentage and abdominal fat mass were associated with higher blood pressure, total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, insulin and c-peptide levels, but with lower left ventricular mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P values children. Higher childhood adiposity measures were associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, with the strongest effect for fat mass percentage (odds ratios: 3.01 (95% confidence interval: 2.67, 3.9). Our results suggest that general and abdominal fat measures are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, independent from BMI. These measures may provide additional information for identification of children with an adverse cardiovascular profile.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in adults 80 years of age or older

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    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Peru, the 80 years‘ population and older is increasing and cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. The aim of the study is to analyze the cardiovascular risk factors in octogenarians. Material and methods: It is a descriptive, observational cross prevalence research, conducted in March 2015 in Lima. A questionnaire on cardiovascular risk factors was used; blood pressure, weight, height and body mass index, in people 80 years of age or older was recorded. Results: Were evaluated 969 subjects, of whom 562 (58% were women and 407 (42% were male; with an average age of 84.2 years; predominant age group of 80-84 years 60.5%. 427 cases were hypertensive (44.1%, and was more common in women (62.2%. 9% of the study population (87 cases were smokers; being more common in men (64% (p = 0.000009. They were recorded at 220 subjects (22.7% with hypercholesterolemia, being more common in women (139 patients: 63.2%, without statistical significance. Diabetes was reported in 11.5% of the studied sample (111 patients, it was the most frequently in women (68.5% (p = 0.018. According to BMI values, 537 subjects (55.4% had a BMI <25, while 33.8% of the population (328 were overweight and 10.7% were enrolled with obesity, more prevalent in women (70, 2% (p = 0.028. In the hypertensive population was 87% in drug treatment, of which 65% were controlled. 26.5% (257 cases of the studied population had two risk factors and 13.1% (127 three or more risk factors. Conclusions: The most frequent factor of cardiovascular risk has been Hypertension, predominantly women. 40% of the evaluated subjects had two or more risk factors. 87% of hypertensive patients received drug treatment and 65% of them were controlled.

  3. Age as a factor in assessing risks to patients from the use of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Heron, J.

    1996-01-01

    Effective dose is currently widely used as a means of quantifying patient dose (and hence patient risk) in diagnostic radiology. Its appeal stems primarily from being able to normalise partial body irradiations into equivalent whole body irradiations, and additionally from being linked to a sound definition of radiation detriment. However there are several aspects of effective dose that should lead to its use being accompnied by a degree of caution. One such factor is age. Calculation of age specific tissue weighting factors for the tissues used in the formulation of effective dose show that the relative contributions of the tissues vary considerably as a function of age. When this is combined with age specific risk factors for cancers and hereditary effects, the implications of a given 'effective dose' for an x-ray procedure depend markedly on the age of the patient. Because of the elderly component of the patient population, the ensuing risks arising from diagnostic radiology are at a level considerably less than that assessed using the population-averaged approach. (author)

  4. Dyslipidemia and its risk factors among urban middle-aged Iranians: A population-based study.

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    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a leading cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in an urban group of Iranian adult population. In this study, based on the criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was evaluated in a population of 4737 people aged 45-69 years who participated in the second phase of an ophthalmology cohort study in Shahroud. Dyslipidemia prevalence was determined by age, sex, and risk factors of the disease; the findings were tested by using simple and multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.5% (CI 95%: 64.4-68.6) in males, 61.3% (CI 95%: 59.5-63.2) in females, and 63.4% (CI 95%: 62.0-64.9%) in both sexes. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C, respectively, was 28.8%, 13.4%, 42.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression model, increase of age (for females), abdominal obesity, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with an increased odd of dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in middle-aged urban population in Iran is high, and with increasing age there is an increased risk of dyslipidemia. Hence, considering the growing trend of aging in Iran, there is need for taking special measures to deal with dyslipidemia as a health priority. Furthermore, the need for planning in order to reduce the risk of dyslipidemia and prevent its complications is greater than ever. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors for weight faltering in infancy according to age at onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    of the age of onset, slow weight gain was found to be strongly associated with feeding problems, but the risk factors involved differed according to age of onset. Thus, onset within the first weeks of life clearly differed from faltering later on, the former being strongly associated with low birthweight...... cohort of 6090 children born during the year 2000 and followed prospectively from birth. Weight faltering/FTT was defined as slow conditional weight gain, and divided into subtypes according to age of onset in the first year of life: birth to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 4 months, and 4-8 months. Regardless...

  6. Risk factors and possibilities of preventing gastroesophageal reflux disease in school-age children

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    O.Yu. Belousova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The article presents the main problems of early diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in school-age children, which leads to late detection and initiation of treatment. The purpose of the study was to identify the main risk factors that may predispose the development of this disease, as well as triggers that provoke GERD in school-age children. Knowledge of risk factors can help prevent the formation of GERD in children, and, with timely diagnosis of therapy, reduce the severity of the disease and improve quality of life. Materials and methods. Open comparative study included 98 school-age children (31 girls, 67 boys aged 6 to 18 years (mean age 14.2 years. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease was conducted in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated January 29, 2013, No. 59 “On Approval of Unified Clinical Protocols for Medical Care of Children with Digestive Disorders”. During the comprehensive examination, the identification of possible risk factors was made, for which a detailed history collection was performed: the nature of the child’s nutrition and the regularity of the meal were evaluated, as well as the mode of the day, the presence and intensity of physical activity, the presence of chronic stress (psycho-traumatic situations, sleep duration, bad habits, false eating habits. Past medical history also revealed the duration of breastfeeding and the time of supplementary food introduction. Physical examination was also aimed at the detection of so-called symptoms of anxiety — “red flags” that may indicate the presence of complications or organic pathology. Results. In both age groups, boys were dominant; besides, there were significantly more children aged 13–17 years in the group with GERD. Early administration of supplements was revealed in both groups, as well as early artificial/mixed feeding. More than 85 % of children had signs of autonomic dysregulation and

  7. Differences in the risk factors of reflux esophagitis according to age in Korea.

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    Park, C H; Kim, K O; Baek, I H; Choi, M H; Jang, H J; Kae, S H; Kim, J B; Baik, G H; Shin, W G; Kim, K H; Kim, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korea has been believed to be low, but the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korea is expected to increase because of the longer life expectancy and more ingestion of westernized food. The aim of this study was to report differences in the risk factors of reflux esophagitis (RE) according to age in Korea. We prospectively recruited the subjects who had RE among those who visited a health promotion center for upper gastrointestinal cancer surveillance at Hallym Medical Center (five institutions) between January 2008 and February 2009. The enrolled study participants comprised 742 subjects with RE and 1484 healthy controls. The independent risk factors of RE in young and adult group were male sex, smoking, coffee, body mass index ≥ 25, hiatal hernia, and Helicobacter pylori negativity. The risk factors of RE in elderly group were smoking, coffee, and hiatal hernia. The risk factors for RE according to age group were found to differ. In elderly group, Helicobacter pylori infection was not a significant protective factor contrary to young and adult groups. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  8. Androgenetic alopecia in men aged 40-69 years: prevalence and risk factors.

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    Severi, G; Sinclair, R; Hopper, J L; English, D R; McCredie, M R E; Boyle, P; Giles, G G

    2003-12-01

    The epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is not fully understood. Although a strong genetic basis has long been identified, little is known of its non-genetic causes. To estimate the prevalence of and to determine risk factors for AGA in men aged 40-69 years in Australia. Men (n = 1390) were recruited at random from the electoral rolls to serve as controls in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. All were interviewed in person and direct observations of AGA were made. Men were grouped into the following categories; no AGA, frontal AGA, vertex AGA and full AGA (frontal and vertex AGA). Epidemiological data collected from these men were used for an analysis of risk factors for each AGA category using unconditional logistic regression with AGA category as the response variable adjusting for age, education and country of birth. The prevalence of vertex and full AGA increased with age from 31% (age 40-55 years) to 53% (age 65-69 years). Conversely, the proportion of men with only frontal AGA was very similar across all age groups (31-33%). No associations were found between pubertal growth spurt or acne, reports of adult body size at time of interview, urinary symptom score, marital status, or current smoking status or duration of smoking and the risk of any form of AGA. The consumption of alcohol was associated with a significant increase in risk of frontal and vertex AGA but not full AGA. Men with vertex AGA had fewer female sexual partners but average ejaculatory frequency did not differ between men in different AGA categories. Reported weight and lean body mass at reaching maturity at about 21 years of age were negatively associated with vertex balding (P for trend body mass at age 21 years would be worthy of further research if they were able to be replicated in other studies.

  9. The role of classic risk factors and prothrombotic factor gene mutations in ischemic stroke risk development in young and middle-aged individuals.

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    Supanc, Visnja; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vukasovic, Ines; Solter, Vesna V; Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja B

    2014-03-01

    In young individuals, a genetically predisposing hypercoagulability and classic modifying risk factors can act synergistically on the ischemic stroke risk development. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of classic vascular risk factors and polymorphisms of the G20210A coagulation factor II (prothrombin), Arg506Glu coagulation factor V Leiden, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and the impact of these gene mutations and classic vascular risk factors on the overall stroke risk in individuals aged 55 years or younger. The study included 155 stroke patients aged 55 years or younger and 150 control subjects. Stroke prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were assessed for the following parameters: G20210A prothrombin, Arg506Glu factor V Leiden, C677T MTHFR, and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms; total number of study polymorphisms in a particular subject (genetic sum); and classic vascular risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension (P stroke patients. The following parameters were found to act as independent risk factors for ischemic stroke: decreased HDL cholesterol level (P ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Night shift work at specific age ranges and chronic disease risk factors.

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    Ramin, Cody; Devore, Elizabeth E; Wang, Weike; Pierre-Paul, Jeffrey; Wegrzyn, Lani R; Schernhammer, Eva S

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of night shift work history and age when night shift work was performed with cancer and cardiovascular disease risk factors among 54 724 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II. We calculated age-adjusted and socioeconomic status-adjusted means and percentages for cancer and cardiovascular risk factors in 2009 across categories of night shift work history. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for key risk factors among 54 724 participants (72% ever shift workers). We further examined these associations by age (20-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46+ years) at which shift work was performed. Ever night shift workers had increased odds of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2); OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.43); higher caffeine intake (≥131 mg/day; OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.22) and total calorie intake (≥1715 kcal/day; OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.13); current smoking (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.42); and shorter sleep durations (≤7 h of sleep/day; OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.24) compared to never night shift workers. These estimates varied depending on age at which night work was performed, with a suggestion that night shift work before age 25 was associated with fewer risk factors compared to night shift work at older ages. Our results indicate that night shift work may contribute to an adverse chronic disease risk profile, and that risk factors may vary depending on the age at which night shift work was performed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. The role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in Rajasthali, Bangladesh

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    Haque Ubydul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322 households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF, and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ≥ 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467 of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467 of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions

  13. Cluster analysis of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan; Chang, Yu-chia; Wang, Chia-Woei; Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsu, Ming-I

    2014-05-01

    To study the association between endocrine disturbances and metabolic complications in women seeking gynecologic care. Retrospective study, cluster analysis. Outpatient clinic, university medical center. 573 women, including 384 at low risk and 189 at high risk of cardiometabolic disease. None. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters and clinical and biochemical characteristics. Risk factors for metabolic disease are associated with a low age of menarche, high levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and liver enzymes, and low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. Overweight/obese status, polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo/amenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism were found to increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. However, hyperprolactinemia and premature ovarian failure were not associated with the risk of cardiometabolic disease. In terms of androgens, the serum total testosterone level and free androgen index but not androstenedione or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were associated with cardiometabolic risk. Although polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with metabolic risk, obesity was the major determinant of cardiometabolic disturbances in reproductive-aged women. Hyperprolactinemia and premature ovarian failure were not associated with the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. NCT01826357. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Iranians

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    Mokri Bahareh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1958 many, but not all studies have demonstrated that paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia. There may be many different explanations for differences between studies, including study design, sample size, collection criteria, heterogeneity and the confounding effects of environmental factors that can for example perturb epigenetic programming and lead to an increase in disease risk. The small number of children in Western families makes risk comparisons between siblings born at different paternal ages difficult. In contrast, more Eastern families have children both at early and later periods of life. In the present study, a cross-sectional population study in an Iranian population was performed to compare frequency of schizophrenia in younger offspring (that is, older paternal age versus older offspring. Methods A total of 220 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (cases from both psychiatric hospitals and private clinics and 220 individuals from other hospital wards (controls, matched for sex and age were recruited for this study. Patients with neurological problem, substance abuse, mental retardation and mood disorder were excluded from both groups. Results Birth rank comparisons revealed that 35% vs 24% of the cases vs the controls were in the third or upper birth rank (P = 0.01. Also, the mean age of fathers at birth in case group (30 ± 6.26 years was significantly more than the control group (26.45 ± 5.64 years; P = 0.0001. The age of 76 fathers at birth in case group was over 32 versus 33 fathers in control group. Individuals whose fathers' age was more than 32 (at birth were at higher risk (2.77 times for schizophrenia versus others (P P = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis suggests that maternal age is less likely to be involved in the higher risk of schizophrenia than advanced parental age. Discussion This study demonstrates a relationship between paternal age and schizophrenia in large

  15. Age-dependent risk factors for malnutrition in traumatology and orthopedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Christine; Nüssler, Andreas; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Freude, Thomas; Bahrs, Christian; Ochs, Gunnar; Flesch, Ingo; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ihle, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of risk of malnutrition (RoM) in an orthopedic and traumatology patient cohort with a broad range of ages. In addition to the classical indicators for risk assessment (low body mass index, weight loss, and comorbidity), this study aimed to analyze the effects of lifestyle factors (eating pattern, smoking, physical activity) on RoM. The prospective cohort study included 1053 patients in a level 1 trauma center in Germany. RoM was assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 and for the elderly additionally by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Age-dependent risk factors identified in univariate statistical analysis were used for multivariate logistic regression models. The prevalence of patients at RoM (NRS ≥3) was 22%. In the three age categories (<50 y, 50-69 y, and ≥70 y), loss of appetite, weight loss, number of comorbidities, drugs and gastrointestinal symptoms significantly increased RoM in univariate statistical analysis. In patients ages ≥70 y, several disease- and lifestyle-related factors (not living at home, less frequent consumption of vegetables and whole meal bread, low physical activity, and smoking) were associated with RoM. Multivariate logistic regression model for the total study population identified weight loss (odds ratio [OR], 6.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.14-8.83), loss of appetite (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 2.52-5.78), age-specific low BMI (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.18-2.97), number of drugs taken (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.12-1.26), age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04), and days per week with vegetable consumption (OR, 0.938; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99) as risk factors. Malnutrition in trauma and orthopedic patients is not only a problem related to age. Lifestyle-related factors also contribute significantly to malnutrition in geriatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Is Mapuche ethnicity a risk factor for hip fracture in aged?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bravo, Paulina; Schneider, Hermann; Jiménez, Marcela

    2003-10-01

    Ethnic factors are involved in the risk for osteoporosis and hip fracture. To assess the effect of Mapuche ethnicity on the risk of hip fracture. A case control study. Cases were subjects over 55 years of age admitted, during one year, for hip fracture not associated to major trauma or tumors. Controls were randomly chosen from other hospital services and paired for age with cases. The magnitude of the association between ethnicity and hip fracture was expressed as odds ratio in a logistic regression model. In the study period, 156 cases with hip fracture were admitted. The proportion of subjects with Mapuche origin was significantly lower among cases than controls (11.8 and 26.5% respectively, p Mapuche ethnicity was associated with hip fracture with an odds radio of 0.14 (p = 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.8). In this sample, Mapuche ethnicity is a protective factor for hip fracture.

  17. Age, gender and hypertension as major risk factors in development of subclinical atherosclerosis

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    Ajla Rahimić Ćatić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intima-media thickness (IMT measurement of the common carotid artery (CCA is considered as useful indicator of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors is important to prevent stroke and heart diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate which risk factors are better determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by common carotidartery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT.Methods: A total of 74 subjects were randomly selected in this cross – sectional study. Information on the patient’s medical history and laboratory fi ndings were obtained from their clinical records. Risk factors relevant to this study were age, gender, cigarette smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ultrasound scanning of carotid arteries was performed with a 7,5 MHz linear array transducer (GE Voluson730 pro. The highest value of six common carotid artery measurements was taken as the fi nal IMT. Increased CCA-IMT was defi ned when it was > 1 mm.Results: Our data demonstrated higher CCA-IMT values in male patients compared with female patients. Increased CCA-IMT was the most closely related to age (P<0.001, followed by systolic blood pressure (P=0.001, diastolic blood pressure (P=0.003 and glucose blood level (P=0.048.Conclusion: Age, gender and hypertension are the most important risk factors in development of carotid atherosclerosis. Early detection of atherosclerosis among high-risk populations is important in order to prevent stroke and heart diseases, which are leading causes of death worldwide.

  18. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

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    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  19. Awareness of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in U.S. Young Adults Aged 18–39 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, Emily M.; Gooding, Holly C.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Young adults with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are at increased risk of developing heart disease later in life. Despite emphasis on early screening, little is known about awareness of these risk factors in young adulthood. Methods Data from the nationally representative cross-sectional survey National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014 were analyzed in 2017 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported awareness of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes in U.S. young adults aged 18–39 years (n=11,083). Prevalence estimates were weighted to population estimates using survey procedures, and predictors of awareness were identified using weighted logistic regression. Results Among U.S. young adults, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes was 8.8% (SE=0.4%), 7.3% (SE=0.3%), and 2.6% (SE=0.2%), respectively. The prevalence of borderline high cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose were substantially higher (21.6% [SE= 0.6%], 26.9% [SE=0.7%], and 18.9% [SE=0.6%], respectively). Awareness was low for hypercholesterolemia (56.9% [SE=2.4%]) and moderate for hypertension and diabetes (62.7% [SE=2.4%] and 70.0% [SE=2.7%]); young adults with borderline levels of these risk factors were aware of their risk. Correlates of risk factor awareness included older age, insurance status, family income above the poverty line, U.S. origin, having a usual source of health care, and the presence of comorbid conditions. Conclusions Despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in U.S. young adults, awareness remains less than ideal. Interventions that target access may increase awareness and facilitate achieving treatment goals in young adults. PMID:29433955

  20. Age as a Risk Factor for Burnout Syndrome in Nursing Professionals: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Urquiza, José L; Vargas, Cristina; De la Fuente, Emilia I; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A

    2017-04-01

    Although past research has highlighted the possibility of a direct relationship between the age of nursing professionals and burnout syndrome, results have been far from conclusive. The aim of this study was to conduct a wider analysis of the influence of age on the three dimensions of burnout syndrome (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in nurses. We performed a meta-analysis of 51 publications extracted from health sciences and psychology databases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were 47 reports of information on emotional exhaustion in 50 samples, 39 reports on depersonalization for 42 samples, and 31 reports on personal accomplishment in 34 samples. The mean effect sizes indicated that younger age was a significant factor in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of nurses, although it was somewhat less influential in the dimension of personal accomplishment. Because of heterogeneity in the effect sizes, moderating variables that might explain the association between age and burnout were also analyzed. Gender, marital status, and study characteristics moderated the relationship between age and burnout and may be crucial for the identification of high-risk groups. More research is needed on other variables for which there were only a small number of studies. Identification of burnout risk factors will facilitate establishment of burnout prevention programs for nurses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Smoking overrules many other risk factors for small for gestational age birth in less educated mothers.

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    van den Berg, Gerrit; van Eijsden, Manon; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2013-07-01

    Although there is convincing evidence for the association between small for gestational age (SGA) and socioeconomic status (SES), it is not known to what extent explanatory factors contribute to this association. To examine to what extent risk factors could explain educational inequalities in SGA. In this study fully completed data were available for 3793 pregnant women of Dutch origin from a population-based cohort (ABCD study). Path-analysis was conducted to examine the role of explanatory factors in the relation of maternal education to SGA. Low-educated pregnant women had a higher risk of SGA offspring compared to the high-educated women (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.35-2.89). In path-analysis, maternal cigarette smoking and maternal height explained this association. Maternal age, hypertension, chronic disease, late entry into antenatal care, neighborhood income, underweight, environmental cigarette smoking, drug abuse, alcohol use, caffeine intake, fish intake, folic acid intake, anxiety, and depressive symptoms did not play a role in the association between maternal education and SGA birth. Among a large array of potential factors, the elevated risk of SGA birth among low-educated women appeared largely attributable to maternal smoking and to a lesser extent to maternal height. To reduce educational inequalities more effort is required to include low-educated women especially in prenatal intervention programs such as smoking cessation programs instead of effort into reducing other SGA-risk factors, though these factors might still be relevant at the individual level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors among Population Aged 35 Years and Above From Rural Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is predicted that cardiovascular diseases will be the most important cause of mortality in India by the year 2015. Since the key to combating the increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is the control of known risk factors by a population based strategy aimed at comprehensive risk reduction, it is pertinent to study the magnitude of the risk. Aim: The present study was therefore conducted to assess the prevalence of certain coronary risk factors among rural population aged 35 years and above in Maharashtra. Methods: The present community based cross sectional survey was carried out in the rural area of Pune district on 272 subjects using a structured questionnaire, clinical examination followed by lab investigations. SPSS version 17.0 was used for analysis. Results: Tobacco consumption was found to be prevalent in 51.83% of the study subjects followed by physical inactivity which was prevalent among 31.61% whereas high diastolic blood pressure was found to be prevalent in 29.41% of the study subjects. Obesity and alcohol consumption were found to be prevalent among 13.97% of the study subjects. Among the biochemical parameters studied, hypertriglyceridemia was found to be prevalent in 22.05% followed by raised fasting blood sugar in 15.44% of the study subjects. Conclusion: Behaviour change communication strategies targeting these modifiable known high risk factors need to be emphasized to lower coronary heart disease (CHD related morbidity burden in the community.

  3. Maternal and placental risk factors for light-for-gestational-age births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Keiko; Endo, Toshiaki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Izumi, Hisako; Asakura, Sumiyo; Mori, Mitsuru

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate risk factors for births of light-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. A survey was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Sapporo Medical University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan from 2013 to 2014. LGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) are defined as having a birthweight below the 10th percentile and between the 10th percentile and 90th percentile for gestational age at birth in the population standard of gestational age, sex, and parity, respectively. An odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for LGA were calculated by analysis using the logistic regression model. In total, 307 inpatients (94.2%) participated in the study out of 326 consecutive post-partum inpatients. Among them, 37 infants and 237 infants were classified into the LGA and AGA groups, respectively. As a result of multivariable analysis, prevalence of gestational hypertension (OR = 8.96, 95%CI 1.81-44.35) and the presence of placental infarction (OR = 9.65, 95%CI 1.76-53.01) were significantly associated with an increased risk of LGA. Placentas weighing 510-603 g and ≥604 g were significantly associated with reduced risk of LGA (OR = 0.04, 95%CI 0.01-0.29 and OR = 0.03, 95%CI 0.01-0.32, respectively), and higher placental weights were significantly observed in the trend for reduced LGA risk (P for trend hypertension, lower placental weight, and the presence of placental infarctions were all independently associated with the risk of LGA. Placental abnormalities may be etiologically important for LGA risk, though further research is necessary. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Familial history, age and smoking are important risk factors for disc degeneration disease in Arabic pedigrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, Gregory; Cohen, Zvi; Higla, Orabi; Yakovenko, Konstantin

    2001-01-01

    The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance

  5. Risk and protective factors associated with cognitive decline in aging - a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Martins Foroni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a systematic literature review, in SciELO and PubMed databases, about the cognitive and linguistic changes associated with aging, focusing on risk and protective factors. Methods: Articles conducted with people aged 60 or more and published between 2002 and 2008 were searched in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: 72 studies were reviewed in 38 different journals, being 9.7% (7 from national journals and 90.3% (65 from international ones, and 26.3% (10 in the area of Neurology, 23.7% (9 Geriatrics and Aging, 13.2% (5 Epidemiology and Public Health, 10.5% (4 Psychiatry and the rest from magazines of different health issues. The longitudinal design was used in 51.3% (37 and the cross-sectional one, in 36.1% (26. About the data collection instruments, 48.6% (35 of the works used the Mini-Mental State Examination, 15.1% (11 used the Verbal Fluency Test, 12.5% (9 the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 9.7% (7 the Boston Naming Test and 13.8% (10 Geriatric Depression Scale. We identified relationships between cognition in aging and biological factors in 69.4% (50 of the researches. Some studies have indicated increased likelihood of cognitive impairment among elderly people with depressive symptoms and among smokers. Studies have shown a positive effect of education and participation in physical and social activities on cognition. Conclusions: Studies in the analyzed period specifically investigated the relationship between biological risk factors and cognitive decline. Little attention was given to linguistic changes and protective factors associated with aging.

  6. RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PRECHOROIDAL CLEFT IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Se Woong; Son, Dae Yong; Bae, Kunho

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P age-related macular degeneration (P age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors: Is the metabolic syndrome related to aging? Epidemiology in a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Armindo Sousa; Seixas, Rui; Gálvez, Juan Manuel; Climent, Vicente

    2018-05-16

    The primary objective of our study is to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the population. The secondary objective is to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric alterations and the prevalence of target organ damage and their relationship with aging. The sample for the study was obtained by means of a consecutive population-based demonstration in 803 adults over 18 years of age belonging to the labor force of the company Grupo Delta SA. The study was carried out according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. The individuals included in the study voluntarily participated, once informed of the purpose of the study, giving their prior verbal consent, to the company's human resources department, in the case of Delta Group workers. 23.8% of the population has metabolic syndrome more prevalent in males, no smoking, no significant alcohol consumption, sedentary, with a high Body mass index (BMI). Its prevalence increases with age. We found that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases with age and is present in people of working age, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, work-related absences, and socio-economic costs. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related macular degeneration: the importance of family history as a risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W

    2012-03-01

    Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.

  9. Selected atherosclerosis risk factors in youth aged 13–15 years 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Michalska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The high frequency of cases of circulatory system conditions in Europe and other countries around the world requires scientific research to define risk factors of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to define which students are at danger of developing atherosclerosis by means of measuring cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood as well as defining the correlation between atherosclerosis risk factors and arterial blood pressure, physical fitness and efficiency of the subjects.Material/Methods:The research covered 167 students of Public Junior High School ¹1 in Biala Podlaska aged 13–15 years. Accutrend GCT was employed to define the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in the screen test. Those students who were found to have increased values of biochemical parameters of capillary blood were subjected to additional blood tests aiming to define complete lipid profile of venous blood. The blood pressure in subjects was tested three times. The Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA test, suggested by American authors, was employed to define physical activity in subjects. EUROFIT was employed to define physical efficiency.Results:Among the 167 subjects there were found 42 students (25.1�20whose lipid level in capillary blood proved to be increased. Full lipid profile tests proved that 16 students (9.6�20had increased blood lipid levels; those subjects constituted the risk group. Subjects in the risk group were characterized by lower levels of physical activity and physical efficiency compared to subjects with normal blood lipid level. Moreover, the frequency of hypertension was greater in risk group subjects compared to subjects with normal blood lipid levels.Inferences:Students diagnosed with atherosclerosis risk factors require observation and early prophylactics by adopting habits of healthy physical activity.

  10. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  11. Individual risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, the occurrence and the relevance of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs has been examined in several studies. Whereas most of these studies were focused on sole prevalence estimation within different age groups, follow-up of infected piglets or assessment of pathological findings, none of the studies included a detailed analysis of individual and environmental risk factors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs of endemically infected herds and to identify individual risk factors potentially influencing the infection status of suckling pigs at the age of weaning. Results The animal level prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs examined in three conventional pig breeding herds was 3.6% (41/1127) at the time of weaning. A prevalence of 1.2% was found in the same pigs at the end of their nursery period. In a multivariable Poisson regression model it was found that incidence rate ratios (IRR) for suckling pigs are significantly lower than 1 when teeth grinding was conducted (IRR: 0.10). Moreover, high temperatures in the piglet nest during the first two weeks of life (occasionally >40°C) were associated with a decrease of the probability of an infection (IRR: 0.23-0.40). Contrary, the application of PCV2 vaccines to piglets was associated with an increased infection risk (IRR: 9.72). Conclusions Since single infected piglets are supposed to act as initiators for the transmission of this pathogen in nursery and fattening pigs, the elimination of the risk factors described in this study should help to reduce the incidence rate of M. hyopneumoniae infections and thereby might contribute to a reduced probability of high prevalences in older pigs. PMID:23731650

  12. [Risk factors of endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma in women aged 45 years and older].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Wang, S; Li, Z F; Zhu, L; Leng, J H; Lang, J H

    2017-05-25

    Obiective: To explore the risk factors of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) in women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older in China. Methods: The medical records of total 1 038 women aged 45 years and older with a surgicopathological diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1994 to December 2014 were reviewed. Histology evaluation determined ovarian endometriosis with ( n =30) or without ( n =1 008) ovarian cancer. Results: (1) There were 30 (2.9%, 30/1 018) cases confirmed as having EAOC. Clear cell carcinoma (63.3%, 17/30) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (23.3%, 7/30) were commonly observed subtypes and 70.0% of EAOC patients were at stage Ⅰ. (2) Compared women with ovarian endometriosis in the same age group, patients with EAOC were older (50.8 vs 48.5 years, P =0.002). There were more in postmenopausal status at diagnosis of EAOC ( P 0.05). Conclusions: For women with ovarian endometriosis aged 45 years and older, the subgroup of patients characterized by postmenopausal status and ovarian endometrioma (≥8 cm) have a higher risk of EAOC. Active intervention or intensive follow-up should be considered for this population group, especially for those concurrent with endometrial disorders.

  13. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  14. Protective versus risk factors for self-objectification in different age and gender cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollero Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of objectification and self-objectification have been widely investigated, but few studies have examined factors that may predict self-objectification. This research intends to assess the protective versus risk role of sociodemographic and physical characteristics (age, BMI, psychosocial variables (self-esteem; self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, and social factors (influence of family and friends; internalization of media standards on self-objectification in men and women. The selfobjectification was assessed with two subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Body Shame and Body Surveillance. Participants were 812 Italian adults of different age cohorts (age range 21–60 years; 50.7% females recruited via a quota sampling method. Two regression models separately for males and females were performed. Results showed that mass media influence was the strongest predictor for body surveillance and body shame in both men and women, whereas gender-related patterns emerged for physical, psychological, and relational variables with age as moderator.

  15. Inflammation and infection do not promote arterial aging and cardiovascular disease risk factors among lean horticulturalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations with little access to modern medicine. Here we characterize health and aging among the Tsimane, Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with short life expectancy, high infectious loads and inflammation, but low adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, atherogenesis and hypertension, and so we test whether greater inflammation associates with atherosclerosis and CVD risk. In contrast, moderate to vigorous daily activity, minimal obesity, and low fat intake predict minimal CVD risk among older Tsimane.Peripheral arterial disease (PAD, based on the Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI, and hypertension were measured in Tsimane adults, and compared with rates from industrialized populations. No cases of PAD were found among Tsimane and hypertension was comparatively low (prevalence: 3.5%, 40+; 23%, 70+. Markers of infection and inflammation were much higher among Tsimane than among U.S. adults, whereas HDL was substantially lower. Regression models examine associations of ABI and BP with biomarkers of energy balance and metabolism and of inflammation and infection. Among Tsimane, obesity, blood lipids, and disease history were not significantly associated with ABI. Unlike the Tsimane case, higher cholesterol, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, cigarette smoking and systolic pressure among North Americans are all significantly associated with lower ABI.Inflammation may not always be a risk factor for arterial degeneration and CVD, but instead may be offset by other factors: healthy metabolism, active lifestyle, favorable body mass, lean diet, low blood lipids and cardiorespiratory health. Other possibilities, including genetic susceptibility and the role of helminth infections, are discussed. The absence of PAD and CVD among Tsimane parallels anecdotal reports from other small-scale subsistence

  16. Low back pain in school-age children: risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boćkowski, L; Sobaniec, W; Kułak, W; Smigielska-Kuzia, J; Sendrowski, K; Roszkowska, M

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in adult population, and it is becoming a serious health concern in adolescents. On surveys, about every fifth child in the school-age reports LBP. The study objective was to analysis the natural history, risk factors, clinical symptoms, causes and diagnostic management in school-age children hospitalized with LBP. The study group consisted of 36 patients at the age between 10 and 18 years, 22 girls and 14 boys suffering from LBP hospitalized in our Department of Pediatric Neurology and Rehabilitation in years 2000-2004. The mean age of clinical onset of LBP in our group was 14.7 years, earlier in girls, later in boys. We find the family history of LBP in 50% children. Most frequent factors associated with LBP were: spina bifida (16.7%) and incorrect posture (13.9%). Half of patients pointed the factor initialising LBP: rapid, incoordinated move (39%) or heavy load rise (11%). 58% of patients present the symptoms of ischialgia. Diagnostic imaging showed disc protrusion in 11 children (31%) 6 in computed tomography, 4 in magnetic resonance imaging and 1 in X-Ray examination only. Other causes of LBP included: spondylolysis in 2 patients, Scheuermann disease in one case and juvenile reumatoid arthritis in one case. Some school-age children suffering on low back pain, particulary with sciatic neuralgia symptoms seek medical care in hospital. Althought the main causes are mechanical, associated with lack of physical activity or strenous exercise, serious diagnostic managment is strongly recommended.

  17. Sex and age differences in risk factors of marijuana involvement during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Martins, Silvia S; Strain, Eric C; Mojtabai, Ramin; Storr, Carla L

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to examine whether there are sex and age differences in psychosocial risk factors of marijuana use during adolescence. Data were drawn from 57,767 adolescents (8 th and 10 th graders) from the 2012-2013 Monitoring the Future study. We examined the association between socio-demographic and behavioral correlates with different frequencies of past-year marijuana use (non-use, occasional use: low self-esteem, low perceived harm, peer influence and perceived easy access. Besides, younger boys were more likely than younger girls to report an association between regular marijuana use with low self-esteem, peer influence, and perceived easy access but not with perceived low harm. Findings suggest the relationship between these psychosocial correlates and frequency of marijuana involvement varies across sex and age groups. These variations ask for a nuanced approach to prevention of marijuana involvement in different groups of youth.

  18. Vascular risk factor burden, atherosclerosis, and functional dependence in old age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Liang, Yajun; Angleman, Sara; Santoni, Giola; Yan, Zhongrui; Cai, Chuanzhu; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2014-08-01

    Vascular risk factors such as hypertension and obesity have been associated with physical limitations among older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine whether individual and aggregated vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with functional dependence and to what extent carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) may mediate the possible associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. This cross-sectional study included 1,451 community-living participants aged ≥60 years in the Confucius Hometown Aging Project of China. Data on demographic features, hypertension, high total cholesterol, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, CAS, PAD, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were collected through an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests. Functional dependence was defined as being dependent in at least one activity in the personal or instrumental activities of daily living. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic models controlling for potential confounders. We used the mediation model to explore the potential mediating effect of CAS and PAD on the associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. Of the 1,451 participants, 222 (15.3%) had functional dependence. The likelihood of functional dependence increased linearly with increasing number of VRFs (hypertension, high total cholesterol, abdominal obesity, and physical inactivity) (p for trend dependence with clustering VRFs was mediated by CAS and PAD. Aggregation of multiple VRFs is associated with an increased likelihood of functional dependence among Chinese older adults; the association is partially mediated by carotid and peripheral artery atherosclerosis independently of CVDs.

  19. Age and homocystein were risk factor for peripheral arterial disease in elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswardhani, R A Tuty; Suastika, Ketut

    2010-04-01

    to find out the magnitude of risk of some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for PAD event in the elderly with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. a case-control study involved 40 subjects of each arms (case and control group) at Geriatric Outpatient Clinic Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia was conducted. the study showed that compared to patients without PAD, patients with PAD had higher age (70.7 vs. 65.0 years; phomocystein levels (13.4 vs. 11.5 mmol/L, p=0.023); while other variables revealed no any significantly difference between two groups. Although no any significant difference, subjects with PAD tend to do exercise less prevalent, consumed anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-thrombotic more frequent compared to subjects without PAD. High age (70-80 years) has risk 7.4 time than those lower age (60-69 years), and high homocystein level (> or =11 mmol/L) has risk 2.5 time than those with lower level to develop PAD. By multivariate analysis (logistic regression), only age has a role in PAD event, while homocystein tend to be risk factor for PAD event. some traditional risk factors and non-traditional risk factors unproved as risk factors for PAD event in the elderly with type 2 diabetes. Older age and homocystein level were risk factors for PAD event in the elderly with type 2 diabetes subjects.

  20. Advanced age is a risk factor for proximal adenoma recurrence following colonoscopy and polypectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    a randomized clinical trial that showed no effect of aspirin-calcitriol-calcium treatment on colorectal adenoma recurrence. Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer who had one or more sporadic colorectal adenomas removed during colonoscopy were followed up for 3 years. Independent risk factors associated...... with recurrence and characteristics of recurrent adenomas were investigated in a generalized linear model. Results After 3 years, the recurrence rate was 25·8 per cent in 427 patients. For younger subjects (aged 50 years or less), the recurrence rate was 19 per cent; 18 of 20 recurrent adenomas were located...... in the distal part of the colon. For older subjects (aged over 70 years), the recurrence rate was 35 per cent, and 16 of 25 recurrent adenomas were in the proximal colon. Age (odds ratio (OR) 1·04, 95 per cent c.i. 1·01 to 1·07) and number of adenomas (OR 1·27, 1·11 to 1·46) at the time of inclusion...

  1. Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia and Mortality: The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicki, Darren M; Crawford, John; Kochan, Nicole A; Trollor, Julian N; Draper, Brian; Reppermund, Simone; Maston, Kate; Mather, Karen A; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-05-01

    The nature and commonality of late-life risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and mortality remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate potential risk factors, simultaneously in a single cohort including many individuals initially with normal cognition and followed for 6 years. We classified 873 community-dwelling individuals (70-90 years old and without dementia at baseline) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study as cognitively normal (CN), having MCI or dementia, or deceased 6 years after baseline. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical factors were investigated, including apolipoprotein (APOE) genotype, MCI at baseline, and reversion from MCI to CN within 2 years of baseline. Eighty-three (9.5%) participants developed dementia and 114 (13%) died within 6 years; nearly 33% had MCI at baseline, of whom 28% reverted to CN within 2 years. A core set of baseline factors was associated with MCI and dementia at 6 years, including older age (per year: odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals = 1.08, 1.01-1.14 for MCI; 1.19, 1.09-1.31 for dementia), MCI at baseline (5.75, 3.49-9.49; 8.23, 3.93-17.22), poorer smelling ability (per extra test point: 0.89, 0.79-1.02; 0.80, 0.68-0.94), slower walking speed (per second: 1.12, 1.00-1.25; 1.21, 1.05-1.39), and being an APOE ε4 carrier (1.84, 1.07-3.14; 3.63, 1.68-7.82). All except APOE genotype were also associated with mortality (age: 1.11, 1.03-1.20; MCI: 3.87, 1.97-7.59; smelling ability: 0.83, 0.70-0.97; walking speed: 1.18, 1.03-1.34). Compared with stable CN participants, individuals reverting from MCI to CN after 2 years were at greater risk of future MCI (3.06, 1.63-5.72). Those who reverted exhibited some different associations between baseline risk factors and 6-year outcomes than individuals with stable MCI. A core group of late-life risk factors indicative of physical and mental frailty are associated with each of dementia, MCI, and mortality after 6

  2. Nutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in four age groups of female individuals: The pep family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased con-tinuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Ca-loric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  3. Intra-farm risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization at weaning age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Maria; Cline, Greg S; Payne, Brian J; Prado, Cesar; Ertl, Jonathan R; Rendahl, Aaron K

    2014-08-27

    The objective of this study was to identify intra-farm risk factors that affected the colonization with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at weaning age. Three farrow-to-wean farms were visited at least 5 times each. An average of 54 piglets were sampled at each visit and assayed by means of real-time PCR in nasal swabs. The proportion of PCR positive piglets was evaluated as a response to several variables including dam's PCR status, piglet serological status, and local climatic conditions during the lactation period, as well as other factors. All piglets at weaning age were negative to M. hyopneumoniae in 2 of the 3 farms. M. hyopneumoniae positive piglets were demonstrated in 5 of 7 weaning groups in 1 farm. The proportion of M. hyopneumoniae positive piglets in each weaning group at the positive farm was correlated with the proportion of positive dams in the group. The prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae at weaning increased with the piglet's age in the groups where at least one dam was positive. These results highlight the influence of the sow in the sow-to-piglet colonization process, as previously reported, and contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for active trachoma among children aged 1-9 years in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Trachoma is a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for active trachoma are limited. There is a need for understanding the factors affecting trachoma in order to plan for targeted interventions. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between potential risk factors and ...

  5. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (Pperiodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (Pperiodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

  6. Postoperative delirium: age and low functional reserve as independent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Cristiana; Cruz, Sofia; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) and the presence of previous conditions related to its development. Prospective observational study. The study was performed in adult patients (n=221) scheduled for elective surgery and admitted to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The presence of POD was assessed by the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale at discharge from the PACU and 24hours after surgery. Descriptive analyses were carried out, and statistical comparisons were performed with Mann-Whitney U, χ(2), or Fisher exact test. Logistic regression analysis was used for evaluation of independent determinants of POD. POD was found in 25 patients (11%). Patients who developed POD were older (median age, 69 vs 57years; P<.001); had a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score (≥3) (60% vs 19%, respectively, had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III/IV; P<.001); and showed higher incidences of ischemic heart disease (24% vs 6%; P=.001), chronic kidney disease (20% vs 5%; P=.005), hypertension (80% vs 45%; P=.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20% vs 6%; P=.009), and low functional reserve (LFR) (24% vs 2%; P<.001). Age (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.10; P=.003) and LFR (odds ratio, 8.04; 95% confidence interval, 3.95-32.27; P=.003) were considered independent risk factors for POD. The incidence of POD in the study population (11%) is consistent with that described in the literature (5%-15%). The comorbidities associated with its development were ischemic heart disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, LFR, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Age ≥65years and LFR were independent risk factors for POD development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incomplete Kawasaki disease in patients younger than 1 year of age: a possible inherent risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Yunku; Kim, TaeYeon; Ha, KeeSoo; Jang, GiYoung; Lee, JungHwa; Lee, KwangChul; Son, ChangSung; Lee, JooWon

    2009-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) patients younger than 1 year of age are at especially high risk of developing coronary artery abnormalities (CAA). To define the clinical characteristics of this group, as well as the risk factors predisposing them to CAA, we reviewed the medical records of 136 KD patients younger than 1 year of age who were treated at the Korea University Medical Center from January 2001 to July 2006. Of these patients, 16 developed CAA (11.8%). The CAA(+) group had a longer duration of total fever than the CAA(-) group (9.1+/-3.7 days vs. 6.3+/-2.0 days, p=0.011), but did not differ in the duration of pre- and post-intravenous gamma-globulin (IVGG) fever. The CAA(+) group had fewer diagnostic symptoms than the CAA(-) group (2.7+/-1.1 vs. 4.3+/-1.2, p<0.001). Of the hematological findings, the CAA(+) group only differed from the CAA(-) group in having significantly higher total white blood cell (19.2+/-6.0 vs. 14.7+/-4.7 K/mm(3), p=0.007) and platelet (462.9+/-101.0 vs. 383.6+/-121.1 K/mm(3), p=0.014) levels. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the only factors which were significantly associated with the development of CAA were the total number of symptoms (OR=0.493, 95% CI=0.293-0.829, p=0.007) and the duration of total fever (OR=1.405, 95% CI=1.092-1.808, p=0.008). Conclusively, incomplete clinical manifestations and a longer duration of total fever are significantly associated with the development of CAA in KD patients younger than 1 year of age. Therefore, these patients should be monitored for incomplete KD, especially if unexplained fever continues, and treatment to shorten the duration of total fever should be initiated.

  8. Maternal perception of sickness as a risk factor of stunting in children aged 2-5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Dete Dellu

    2016-11-01

    Maternal perception of sickness was the most dominant risk factor of stunting in children 2-5 years of age. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to address the range of raised issues and so combat stunting in children.

  9. [Overweight in primary school-age children. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B

    2015-10-01

    Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.

  10. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, Heiko; Woeste, Henrike; Doehring, Stefanie; Fahrion, Anna S; Doherr, Marcus G; Beilage, Elisabeth grosse

    2013-04-12

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of enzootic pneumonia mainly occurring in fattening pigs. It is assumed that horizontal transmission of the pathogen during nursery and growing phase starts with few suckling pigs vertically infected by the sow. The aim of the present study was the exploration of the herd prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs followed by an investigation of various herd specific factors for their potential of influencing the occurrence of this pathogen at the age of weaning. In this cross-sectional study, 125 breeding herds were examined by taking nasal swabs from 20 suckling pigs in each herd. In total, 3.9% (98/2500) of all nasal swabs were tested positive for M. hyopneumoniae by real-time PCR. Piglets tested positive originated from 46 different herds resulting in an overall herd prevalence of 36.8% (46/125) for M. hyopneumoniae infection in pigs at the age of weaning. While the herds were epidemiologically characterized, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae was significantly increased, when the number of purchased gilts per year was more than 120 (OR: 5.8), and when the number of farrowing pens per compartment was higher than 16 (OR: 3.3). In herds with a planned and segregated production, where groups of sows entered previously emptied farrowing units, the risk for demonstration of M. hyopneumoniae in piglets was higher in herds with two or four weeks between batches than in herds with one or three weeks between batches (OR: 2.7). In this cross-sectional study, several risk factors could be identified enhancing the probability of breeding herds to raise suckling pigs already infected with M. hyopneumoniae at the time of weaning. Interestingly, some factors (farrowing rhythm, gilt acclimatisation issues) were overlapping with those also influencing the seroprevalences among sows or the transmission of the pathogen between older age groups. Taking the multifactorial character of enzootic pneumonia

  11. Predictive Risk Factors for Impaired Quality of Life in Middle-Aged Women with Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jung Son

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Urinary incontinence (UI has substantial and important impacts on quality of life (QoL. The purpose of this study was to identify the associated risk factors of QoL in middle-aged women with UI. Methods The participants were 127 women aged 40-64 years who experienced UI. Data were collected from October to November, 2008 using a self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed through t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, and multiple linear regression with SPSS ver. 16.0 program. Results The distribution of UI severity was mild 18.1%, moderate 40.2% and severe 41.7%. In univariate analysis, differences in the score for QoL according to participants' characteristics were statistically significant on the type of delivery, number of births and severity of UI. In multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment of other variables, the most powerful predictor of QoL is severity of UI. Number of births was also significant predictor. These two variables explained 25% of variance in QoL of women with UI. Conclusions UI is highly prevalent and causes suffering and impaired QoL among middle-aged women, but it stands beyond our attention. The results of this study suggest that women with moderate to severe UI should be screened for QoL by health care providers regularly. Further research is needed to determine comprehensive factors including psychosocial factors predicting the QoL for incontinent women.

  12. Risk factors for atopic dermatitis in New Zealand children at 3.5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, D J; Thompson, J M D; Clark, P M; Robinson, E; Black, P N; Wild, C J; Mitchell, E A

    2005-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing in Western societies. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced exposure to environmental allergens and infections during early life. To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of AD at 3.5 years of age, especially those factors implicated by the hygiene hypothesis. The Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study is a case-control study of risk factors for small for gestational age babies. Cases were born at term with birthweight 10th centile. The infants were assessed at birth, 1 year and 3.5 years of age. Data were collected by parental interview and examination of the child. AD was defined as the presence of an itchy rash in the past 12 months with three or more of the following: history of flexural involvement; history of generally dry skin; history of atopic disease in parents or siblings; and visible flexural dermatitis as per photographic protocol. Statistical analyses took into account the disproportionate sampling of the study population. Analysis was restricted to European subjects. Eight hundred and seventy-one children were enrolled at birth, 744 (85.4%) participated at 1 year, and 550 (63.2%) at 3.5 years. AD was diagnosed in 87 (15.8%) children seen at 3.5 years. The prevalence of AD did not differ by birthweight. AD at 3.5 years was associated with raised serum IgE > 200 kU L(-1), and wheezing, asthma, rash or eczema at 1 year. In multivariate analysis, adjusted for parental atopy and breastfeeding, AD at 3.5 years was associated with atopic disease in the parents: maternal atopy only, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-12.23; paternal atopy only, adjusted OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.09-11.75; both parents atopic, adjusted OR 6.12, 95% CI 2.02-18.50. There was a higher risk of AD with longer duration of breastfeeding: or = 6 months, adjusted OR 9.70, 95% CI 2.47-38.15 compared with never breastfed. These findings remained significant after adjusting for

  13. Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Someya

    Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.

  14. Living alone and fall risk factors in community-dwelling middle age and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sharon; Painter, Jane; Hudson, Suzanne

    2009-08-01

    As part of a larger study on fall-related risk factors, this study investigated the relationship between living alone status and fall-related variables among community-dwelling adults who lived in a rural county in eastern North Carolina. A convenience sample of 666 community-dwelling adults ages 50 and over participated in this 4-year study and completed a fall questionnaire. Significant findings were found in relation to living alone status and experiencing a fall, who they informed about their fall, injuries, safety equipment, ambulatory devices, and personal emergency response system usage. Three hundred thirty-eight participants stated they lived alone, compared to 300 who lived with others. The percentage reporting a fall was appreciably larger for those living alone (52%) than for those living with others (48%) in both genders in all age groups except for the 61-70 year old adults where the percentage was less. Findings from this research enhance knowledge about the prevalence and contributing fall-related factors in adults who live alone compared to those who live with others. Insights gained from this research will assist community and public health leaders and health care professionals in developing more efficacious intervention strategies to prevent or reduce falls, and associated psychological and physical consequences.

  15. Developmental risk factors in Vietnamese preschool-age children: Cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) strongly influences children's basic learning, school success, economic participation, social citizenry and health. Although some risk factors related to childhood development are documented, further exploration is necessary considering various sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychosocial factors. This study investigated factors affecting ECD in Vietnamese preschoolers. We used data from the representative, cross-sectional round of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey 2011. Early Childhood Development Index questionnaires were administered to mothers of all children aged 36-59 months in the household (n = 1459). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. In Vietnam, 17.2% of children did not reach their full developmental potential within the first 5 years. Children who had been breast-fed (AOR, 2.78; 95%CI: 1.28-6.02), attended preschool (AOR, 1.75; 95%CI: 1.28-2.39), were of major ethnicity (AOR, 2.41; 95%CI: 1.55-3.74), had a mother with secondary or higher education (AOR, 1.69; 95%CI: 1.19-2.38) and had relatives who engaged with them in four or more activities that promote learning (AOR, 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.14) were more likely to have a normal developmental trajectory. Furthermore, children who experienced physical punishment and stunting were 0.69-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and 0.71-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.98) less likely to be on track for ECD, respectively. The risk factors associated with delayed ECD were low level of maternal education; family ethnicity; lack of preschool attendance; relatives who did not engage with them in learning; physical punishment; not being breast-fed; and stunting. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Risk Factors of Underweight in Children Aged 6–59 Months in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneke Tosheno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undernutrition in early childhood has irreversible and long-lasting implications. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing risk factors of child undernutrition. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 households with mothers to children pairs aged 6–59 months selected by a multistage systematic random sampling method. Child anthropometric measurements on weight were recorded using standardized and calibrated weighing scales. Weight-for-age was compared to the 2007 WHO growth reference by WHO Anthro software. Data were entered using Epi-Info and analyzed using SPSS. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between underweight children and their predictors; both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were reported. Results. One-fourth (25% of the children were underweight. Child age (AOR: 2.36, gender (AOR: 1.82, illness (AOR: 0.09, maternal decision making power (AOR: 0.07, maternal education (AOR: 0.19, employment/occupation (AOR: 5.29, and household income (AOR: 4.16 were found to be independent and significant predictors of underweight children. Conclusion. Significant proportion of the children were underweight. Maternal decision-making power persists as a strong predictor of children’s weight. Therefore, intervention programs focusing on improving mothers’ decision-making power on child nutrition would contribute to the efforts towards alleviating the problem.

  17. Vocal fold nodules in school age children: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potential risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alatri, Lucia; Petrelli, Livia; Calò, Lea; Picciotti, Pasqualina Maria; Marchese, Maria Raffaella; Bussu, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the presence of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a population of school age children affected by vocal fold nodules. Parents and teachers of 18 children with vocal fold nodules (10 males, eight females; aged between 6 and 12 years) and 20 matched controls without dysphonia and/or vocal fold diseases (11 males, nine females; aged between 6 and 12 years) completed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scale for parents (SDAG [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Genitori]) and teachers (SDAI [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Insegnanti) rating scales containing in two subscales items that specifically evaluate the symptoms of ADHD according to the DSM-IV. All children were subjected to videolaryngoscopy. The group with vocal fold nodules scored significantly higher than the controls; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant for both the subscales of both questionnaires (SDAG and SDAI) (P ADHD was formulated. ADHD is a possible risk factor for the development of vocal fold nodules in childhood. SDAG and SDAI rating scales may supplement the diagnostic assessment of children with vocal fold nodules. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES IN INFANTS 6-12 MONTHS OF AGE ACCORDING TO IMPACT OF PERINATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskimanauri, N; Khachapuridze, N; Imnadze, P; Chanadiri, T; Bakhtadze, S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the developmental follow-up of infants (at age of 6 month and 12 month), exposed to separate and combination impact of perinatal risk factors, compared with not exposed cases, within the prospective cohort study. Between January 2015 and January 2017, in this research we prospectively enrolled 1018 live-born infants from the medical reports of the participating clinics in Tbilisi (capital of Republic of Georgia) and Mtskheta, Dusheti (districts of Georgia). Within postnatal follow-up, the children from whole population were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age by family doctors using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver II). The association between the risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes was analyzed by Chi-square test of independence. Statistical analysis of these data was performed using the SPSS version 12. (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Prevalence of abnormal development in whole population was revealed 9.0% or 92 cases at age of 6 month and 36 cases or 3.5% at age of 12 month. Point prevalence of farther neurodevelopmental adversities for healthy born children not influenced by studied risk factors was 0.1% and for infants with impact of the risk factors - 1.5%; on the other hand, prevalence of observed abnormal development in infant's population who had neonatal pathologies was 2.3% if risk factors were not exposed and 21.6% under influence of risk factors. Statistical analysis showed that an abnormal developmental outcomes were more frequent when researched risk factors were exposed (OR-23.18, CI 95% - 11.83 to 45.41 - at age of 6 month; OR - 26.12, CI 95% - 7.95 to 85.85 - at age of 12 month) as well, as correlation of these risk factors with neurodevelopmental adverse outcomes was significant (prisk factors, such as maternal age (35Y), pathologies of pregnancy and delivery as well as gestation age (risk factors increased probability of

  19. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Imtiaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD. The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD. This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA. Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO4 > 1.78 mmol/L. In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13, younger age (0.07, presence of DM (0.005, higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08, higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08, lower phosphate intake (0.03, lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15, higher phosphate excretion (0.11, and a higher body mass index (0.15. After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012, presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003, and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66 were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are

  20. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  1. Age is a critical risk factor for severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.

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    Shujun Ding

    Full Text Available Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTS is an emerging infectious disease in East Asia. SFTS is a tick borne hemorrhagic fever caused by SFTSV, a new bunyavirus named after the syndrome. We investigated the epidemiology of SFTS in Laizhou County, Shandong Province, China.We collected serum specimens of all patients who were clinically diagnosed as suspected SFTS cases in 2010 and 2011 in Laizhou County. The patients' serum specimens were tested for SFTSV by real time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. We collected 1,060 serum specimens from healthy human volunteers by random sampling in Laizhou County in 2011. Healthy persons' serum specimens were tested for specific SFTSV IgG antibody by ELISA.71 SFTS cases were diagnosed in Laizhou County in 2010 and 2011, which resulted in the incidence rate of 4.1/100,000 annually. The patients ranged from 15 years old to 87 years old and the median age of the patients were 59 years old. The incidence rate of SFTS was significantly higher in patients over 40 years old and fatal cases only occurred in patients over 50 years old. 3.3% (35/1,060 of healthy people were positive to SFTSV IgG antibody. The SFTSV antibody positive rate was not significantly different among people at different age groups.Our results revealed that seroprevalence of SFTSV in healthy people in Laizhou County was not significantly different among age groups, but SFTS patients were mainly elderly people, suggesting that age is the critical risk factor or determinant for SFTS morbidity and mortality.

  2. Risk factors that predicted problem drinking in Danish men at age thirty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Jensen, Per

    2003-01-01

    records and a series of structured interviews and psychometric tests at ages 19-20 and 30 years. The present analysis focuses on the degree to which premorbid differences between the high- and low-risk groups later predicted lifetime drinking problems at age 30 (n = 241). RESULTS: As expected lifetime...... alcohol abuse/dependence by age 30 was reported significantly more often in the high-risk group. Of the 394 premorbid variables tested, 68 were found to distinguish the high- from the low-risk group before any subjects had developed a drinking problem. Of these 68 variables, 28 (41%) were also associated...... with DSM-III-R alcohol abuse/dependence at age 30. These 28 putative markers were reduced to 12 that were entered into a multiple regression analysis to search for the most powerful unique predictors of alcoholism. Four of the 28 putative markers were independently associated with problem drinking at age...

  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events. PMID:26124830

  4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Pavicic Baldani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity. However, some of these metabolic perturbations occur even in lean women with PCOS and therefore are rightfully recognized as intrinsic to PCOS. The intrinsic factors that produce these metabolic disturbances are reviewed in this paper. The consequences of obesity and the other metabolic aberrations are also discussed. The metabolic perturbations in PCOS patients lead to chronic low-grade inflammation and to cardiovascular impairments that heighten the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Even though many studies have shown an elevation in surrogate biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in PCOS women, it is still not clear to what extent and magnitude the elevation precipitates more frequent and earlier events.

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Birkegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertak...... questionnaires. In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p ......The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established. This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans. A cross-sectional study was undertaken...

  7. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta; Sitnik-Warchulska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization) have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary school girls, 33 high school girls, 56 female students, and 50 employed women, all of whom were living in southern Poland. Participants were not diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders (including eating disorders). The variables were measured using the Polish version of Garner's Eating Disorder Inventory and the Polish Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Physical Appearance and Body Image Inventory [based on the SATAQ-3 (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire Scale-3)]. The findings revealed that the youngest Polish girls (aged 12-15) reported the highest level of risk factors for eating disorders. Among the entire study group, the internalization of appearance standards and the pressure associated with various media messages were determined to be predictors of the pursuit of thinness, regardless of age and body mass index values. The second most significant variable explained by the internalization of sociocultural standards was body dissatisfaction. The internalization of sociocultural norms provided a significant explanation of bulimic tendencies only in the youngest girls. Perfectionism proved not to be affected by the sociocultural impact of mass media. The adult women had the lowest average scores over the entire study population regarding exposure frequency to body images in mass media and regarding the experience of pressure exerted by sociocultural norms. The high level of internalization of sociocultural appearance standards seems to be significantly

  8. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary school girls, 33 high school girls, 56 female students, and 50 employed women, all of whom were living in southern Poland. Participants were not diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders (including eating disorders. The variables were measured using the Polish version of Garner’s Eating Disorder Inventory and the Polish Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Physical Appearance and Body Image Inventory [based on the SATAQ-3 (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire Scale-3]. The findings revealed that the youngest Polish girls (aged 12–15 reported the highest level of risk factors for eating disorders. Among the entire study group, the internalization of appearance standards and the pressure associated with various media messages were determined to be predictors of the pursuit of thinness, regardless of age and body mass index values. The second most significant variable explained by the internalization of sociocultural standards was body dissatisfaction. The internalization of sociocultural norms provided a significant explanation of bulimic tendencies only in the youngest girls. Perfectionism proved not to be affected by the sociocultural impact of mass media. The adult women had the lowest average scores over the entire study population regarding exposure frequency to body images in mass media and regarding the experience of pressure exerted by sociocultural norms. The high level of internalization of sociocultural appearance standards seems to be

  9. Risk factors for benign prostatic enlargement: The role of lifestyle habits at younger age. The #Controllati2017 initiative study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirone, Vincenzo; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Morgia, Giuseppe; Carmignani, Luca; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Parazzini, Fabio; Artibani, Walter

    2017-12-31

    The risk factors for benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) are not well understood and particularly few data are available from Italian population. This was an observational cross sectional study aimed to examine the association between several risk factors and BPE. During the "#Controllati2017" initiative, men aged 18 years or more were invited to attend participating urologic centers for a free of charge visit for counseling about urologic or andrologic conditions. Each participating man underwent a physical examination including digital rectal examination (DRE). Further he was asked about his medical history, urologic symptoms, sexual activity and related problems. Diagnosis of BPE was made by the urologist after DRE. Out of the 1902 [mean age 54 years (SD 12, range 18-92)] considered men, a total of 603 subjects (31.7%) had diagnosis of BPE. The diagnosis of BPE increased from 9.3% in men aged 60 years. A history of hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were all significantly associated with an increased risk of BPE in the total series and, although not always in a statistically significant way, in strata of age. Physical activity (PA) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of BPE. We have further analyzed the risk of BPE in men with one or more of the identified risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low PA): the risk of BPE increased with number of risk factors reported by the subjects. The estimated risk were higher among younger men. In our study a history of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia increased the risk and physical activity lowered the risk of BPE. This risk profile was observed also in men aged < 50 years.

  10. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  11. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at 7 weeks of age: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth and at 7 weeks of age. Data

  12. Associations between genetic polymorphisms of insulin-like growth factor axis genes and risk for age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Our objective was to investigate if insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis genes affect the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: 864 Caucasian non-diabetic participants from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Genetic Repository were used in this case control st...

  13. Cannabis exposure as an interactive cardiovascular risk factor and accelerant of organismal ageing: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Norman, Amanda; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2016-11-07

    Many reports exist of the cardiovascular toxicity of smoked cannabis but none of arterial stiffness measures or vascular age (VA). In view of its diverse toxicology, the possibility that cannabis-exposed patients may be ageing more quickly requires investigation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal, observational. Prospective. Single primary care addiction clinic in Brisbane, Australia. 11 cannabis-only smokers, 504 tobacco-only smokers, 114 tobacco and cannabis smokers and 534 non-smokers. known cardiovascular disease or therapy or acute exposure to alcohol, amphetamine, heroin or methadone. Radial arterial pulse wave tonometry (AtCor, SphygmoCor, Sydney) performed opportunistically and sequentially on patients between 2006 and 2011. Algorithmically calculated VA. other central haemodynamic variables. Differences between group chronological ages (CA, 30.47±0.48 to 40.36±2.44, mean±SEM) were controlled with linear regression. Between-group sex differences were controlled by single-sex analysis. Mean cannabis exposure among patients was 37.67±7.16 g-years. In regression models controlling for CA, Body Mass Index (BMI), time and inhalant group, the effect of cannabis use on VA was significant in males (p=0.0156) and females (p=0.0084). The effect size in males was 11.84%. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated with lifetime exposure (pcannabis was robust to adjustment and was unrelated to its acute effects. Significant power interactions between cannabis exposure and the square and cube of CA were demonstrated (from pCannabis is an interactive cardiovascular risk factor (additional to tobacco and opioids), shows a prominent dose-response effect and is robust to adjustment. Cannabis use is associated with an acceleration of the cardiovascular age, which is a powerful surrogate for the organismal-biological age. This likely underlies and bi-directionally interacts with its diverse toxicological profile and is of considerable public health and regulatory

  14. Environmental risk factors and their impact on the age of onset of schizophrenia: Comparing familial to non-familial schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Martin; Hamann, Melanie; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Froböse, Teresa; Vukovich, Ruth; Pitschel-Walz, Gabriele; Bäuml, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Several risk factors for schizophrenia have yet been identified. The aim of our study was to investigate how certain childhood and adolescent risk factors predict the age of onset of psychosis in patients with and without a familial component (i.e. a relative with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder). Aside from the age of onset of psychosis, we examined the risk factors for schizophrenia including obstetric complications, birth during winter or spring, behavioral deviances or delayed motor and speech development, exposure to adverse life events and exposure to substance use within a group of 100 patients (45 female, 55 male) with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 35.15 ± 13.21. Birth complications and cannabis abuse are predictors for an earlier onset of schizophrenia in patients with non-familial schizophrenia. No environmental risk factors for an earlier age of onset in familial schizophrenia have been identified. Certain environmental risk factors for schizophrenia seem to have an impact on the age of onset of psychosis in non-familial schizophrenia, they do not seem to have an impact on familial schizophrenia.

  15. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women

  16. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  17. Factores de riesgo de accidentes en la edad geriátrica Risk factors for accidents in geriatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Gómez Juanola

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo con elementos analíticos, para evaluar los factores de riesgo de accidentes en los ancianos, durante el período de julio 2000 a junio 2001. La muestra quedó conformada por un universo de 101 gerontes, de los consultorios médicos 13 y 32, del municipio Mantua. Se aplicó el cálculo porcentual y X2 con nivel de ajuste ed a = 0,01 y a = 0,05. Dentro de los factores ambientales, en el área urbana predominaron: piso del baño deslizante (pA prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted with analytical elements to evaluate the risk factors for accidents in the elderly from July 2000 to June 2001.The sample was composed of 101 aged individuals from the family physicians' offices 13 and 32, in Mantua municipality. The percentage calculation and X2 with a level of adjustment of a = 0.01 and a = 0.05 were applied. The following environmental factors predominated in the urban area: slipping bathroom floor (p 0.01, cooker of an inadequate height (p 0.05, polished floors, changing furniture, propping, filtrations and inadequate shoes (p 0.01. Lamp or switch away from the bed, bathroom away from the bedroom and absence of shower curtains, unlevel/irregular floor, furniture in bad state, deficient lighting, poorly protected electrical sources and circulation of pets (p 0.01 prevailed in the rural area. The most common physiological risks were: pluripathology/polypharmacy and degenerative arthropathy as a cause of balance alterations and walking, respectively. They prevailed in females (p 0.05. Congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease and cervical osteoarthritits predominated among the most frequent diseases in the females (p 0.05. 43.5 % of the males took only one drug. Sedatives (50-59 % were the most used drugs. 59.40 % of the elderly were evaluated as low risk for accidentality.

  18. Risk factors for delay in age-appropriate vaccinations among Gambian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutola, Aderonke; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Ogundare, Ezra O; Lowe-Jallow, Yamu Ndow; Worwui, Archibald; Okebe, Joseph; Ota, Martin O

    2015-08-28

    Vaccination has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity due to vaccine-preventable diseases. However, these diseases are still responsible for majority of childhood deaths worldwide especially in the developing countries. This may be due to low vaccine coverage or delay in receipt of age-appropriate vaccines. We studied the timeliness of routine vaccinations among children aged 12-59 months attending infant welfare clinics in semi-urban areas of The Gambia, a country with high vaccine coverage. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four health centres in the Western Region of the Gambia. Vaccination dates were obtained from health cards and timeliness assessed based on the recommended age ranges for BCG (birth-8 weeks), Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (6 weeks-4 months; 10 weeks-5 months; 14 weeks-6 months) and measles vaccines (38 weeks-12 months). Risk factors for delay in age-appropriate vaccinations were determined using logistic regression. Analysis was limited to BCG, third dose of Diphtheria-Pertussis -Tetanus (DPT3) and measles vaccines. Vaccination records of 1154 children were studied. Overall, 63.3% (95 % CI 60.6-66.1%) of the children had a delay in the recommended time to receiving at least one of the studied vaccines. The proportion of children with delayed vaccinations increased from BCG [5.8% (95 % CI 4.5-7.0%)] to DPT3 [60.4% (95 % CI 57.9%-63.0%)] but was comparatively low for the measles vaccine [10.8% (95 % CI 9.1%-12.5%)]. Mothers of affected children gave reasons for the delay, and their profile correlated with type of occupation, place of birth and mode of transportation to the health facilities. Despite high vaccination coverage reported in The Gambia, a significant proportion of the children's vaccines were delayed for reasons related to health services as well as profile of mothers. These findings are likely to obtain in several countries and should be addressed by programme managers in order to improve and optimize the impact of the

  19. Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixia; Chen, Zhimin; Liu, Enmei; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Deyu; Hong, Jianguo

    2017-11-18

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Factors associated with developing asthma in children ≤ 10 years of age (both pre-school and early school age) included male gender (pooled OR = 1.70, P asthma (pooled OR = 2.20, P asthma in early school age (pooled OR = 1.51, P = 0.030 and pooled OR = 2.59, P asthma predictive models (e.g., API, PIAMA, PAPS) had relatively low sensitivity (range, 21% to 71.4%) but high specificity (range, 69% to 98%). The study found that male gender, exposure to smoke, atopic dermatitis, family history of asthma, history of wheezing, and serum IgE level ≥ 60 kU/l or having specific IgE were significantly associated with developing asthma by either preschool or early school age. Asthma predictive models can be developed by those risk factors.

  20. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  1. Normal breast tissue DNA methylation differences at regulatory elements are associated with the cancer risk factor age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin C; Houseman, E Andres; King, Jessica E; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-07-10

    The underlying biological mechanisms through which epidemiologically defined breast cancer risk factors contribute to disease risk remain poorly understood. Identification of the molecular changes associated with cancer risk factors in normal tissues may aid in determining the earliest events of carcinogenesis and informing cancer prevention strategies. Here we investigated the impact cancer risk factors have on the normal breast epigenome by analyzing DNA methylation genome-wide (Infinium 450 K array) in cancer-free women from the Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank (n = 100). We tested the relation of established breast cancer risk factors, age, body mass index, parity, and family history of disease, with DNA methylation adjusting for potential variation in cell-type proportions. We identified 787 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites that demonstrated significant associations (Q value breast cancer risk factors. Age-related DNA methylation changes are primarily increases in methylation enriched at breast epithelial cell enhancer regions (P = 7.1E-20), and binding sites of chromatin remodelers (MYC and CTCF). We validated the age-related associations in two independent populations, using normal breast tissue samples (n = 18) and samples of normal tissue adjacent to tumor tissue (n = 97). The genomic regions classified as age-related were more likely to be regions altered in both pre-invasive (n = 40, P = 3.0E-03) and invasive breast tumors (n = 731, P = 1.1E-13). DNA methylation changes with age occur at regulatory regions, and are further exacerbated in cancer, suggesting that age influences breast cancer risk in part through its contribution to epigenetic dysregulation in normal breast tissue.

  2. Prevalence of pressure ulcer and associated risk factors in middle- and older-aged medical inpatients in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsting, Tove E; Tvedt, Christine R; Skogestad, Ingrid J; Granheim, Tove I; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners

    2018-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of pressure ulcers among middle- and older-aged patients in a general medical hospital in Norway and to describe the associations between pressure ulcers and potential risk factors additional to the Braden risk score. Degrees of mobility, activity, perfusion and skin status are risk factors for development of pressure ulcer. Nurses' clinical judgements combined with risk assessment tools are effective to detect pressure ulcer risk. Cross-sectional study. The study was performed as part of a research project conducted between September 2012-May 2014 in a general hospital in the capital of Norway. Registered nurses and nursing students collected data from all eligible patients on 10 days during the students' clinical practice studies. The Braden scale was used to measure pressure ulcer risk, and skin examinations were performed to classify the skin area as normal or as indicative of pressure ulcer according to the definitions by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Comorbidities were collected by patient's self-report. This analysis focused on the 255 inpatients at the medical wards ≥52 years of age, most of whom had more than one comorbidity. The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 14.9% in this sample. Higher age, underweight, diabetes and worse Braden scores were factors associated with pressure ulcer, and pressure ulcer was most frequently sited at the sacrum or heel. Adding age, weight and diabetes status to pressure ulcer risk assessment scales may improve identification of patients at risk for pressure ulcers. Knowledge about strengths and limitations of risk assessment tools is important for clinical practice. Age, weight and diabetes status should be considered for inclusion in risk assessment tools for pressure ulcers in medical wards. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex...

  4. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  5. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Risk Factors in Patients with First-Ever Ischemic Stroke in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ying Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidences are accumulating that age and gender have great impact on the distribution of stroke risk factors. Such data are lacking in Chinese population. Methods. 1027 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS were recruited and divided into young adult (80 years groups according to stroke onset ages. Vascular risk factors were collected and compared among groups. Results. Female patients were globally older than male patients at stroke onset and having higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF. However, females were less likely to drink heavily or smoke than males. Young patients had a much higher proportion of smoking and drinking than middle-aged and very old patients and the highest family history of hypertension, while very old patients had the highest prevalence of heart diseases and AF but lowest proportion of positive family history of vascular diseases. Hypertension and DM were equally frequent among three groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient’s age and gender.

  6. Socio-ecological risk factors for prime-age adult death in two coastal areas of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok Ryun Kim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years adult death.The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex.Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam.

  7. Socio-ecological risk factors for prime-age adult death in two coastal areas of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam.

  8. Risk Factors and Spatial Clusters of Cryptosporidium Infection among School-Age Children in a Rural Region of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Li; Zhang, Rong; Ding, Zhen; Hu, Wenbiao

    2018-05-06

    The epidemiological features of Cryptosporidium infection among school-age children in China still remain unclear. Hereby, a cross-sectional study of 1637 children aged 3⁻9 years was designed to investigate the risk factors and spatial clusters of Cryptosporidium infection in a rural region of Eastern China. Stool specimens collected from participants were examined using the auramine-phenol and modified acid-fast staining. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of Cryptospordium infection. The spatial clusters were analyzed by a discrete Poisson model using SaTScan software. Our results showed that the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 11‰ in the research region. At the age of 3⁻6 years (odds ratios (OR) = 3.072, 95% confidence intervals (CI) : 1.001⁻9.427), not washing hands before eating and after defecation (OR = 3.003, 95% CI: 1.060⁻8.511) were recognized as risk factors. Furthermore, a high-risk spatial cluster (relative risk = 4.220, p = 0.025) was identified. These findings call for effective sustainable interventions including family and school-based hygienic education to reduce the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection. Therefore, an early warning system based spatiotemporal models with risk factors is required to further improve the effectiveness and efficiency of cryptosporidiosis control in the future.

  9. Risk factors for severe acute malnutrition in children below 5 y of age in India: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kirtisudha; Kumar, Praveen; Basu, Srikanta; Rai, Kiran; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-08-01

    To determine the possible risk factors for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children below 5 y admitted in a hospital in north India. This case-control study was conducted in a medical college hospital in children below 5 y of age. All cases of SAM (diagnosed as per WHO definition) between 6 and 59 mo of age were compared with age-matched controls with weight for height above -2SD of WHO 2006 growth standards. Data regarding socio-demographic parameters, feeding practices and immunization were compared between the groups by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. A total of 76 cases and 115 controls were enrolled. Among the 14 factors compared, maternal illiteracy, daily family income less than Rs. 200, large family size, lack of exclusive breast feeding in first 6 mo, bottle feeding, administration of pre-lacteals, deprivation of colostrum and incomplete immunization were significant risk factors for SAM. Regarding complementary feeding, it was the consistency, rather than the age of initiation, frequency and variety which showed a significant influence on occurrence of SAM. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of SAM was independently associated with 6 factors, namely, illiteracy among mothers, incomplete immunization, practice of bottle feeding, consistency of complementary feeding, deprivation of colostrum and receipt of pre-lacteals at birth. The present study identifies certain risk factors which need to be focused on during health planning and policy making related to children with SAM in India.

  10. Risk Factors of Urinary Frequency Among Women Aged 60 and Older in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Hsieh

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed a relatively high risk of urinary frequency development in patients with urinary incontinence, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and smoking that are preventable, modifiable, or controllable. Better quality of health education for these women, drawing their attention to the associated factors, may have an impact on the prevalence of urinary frequency.

  11. Risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 85 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstrom, Anna C; Guse, Clare E; Layde, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. No previous studies on risk factors for falls have focused on adults 85 years and older, the most rapidly growing segment of adults. We examined demographic, health, and behavioral risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in adults 65 years and older, with a particular focus on adults 85 years and older. We analyzed self-reported information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2008. Data was available for 120,923 people aged 65 or older and 12,684 people aged 85 or older. Of those aged 85 or older, 21.3% reported at least one fall in the past 3 months and 7.2% reported at least one fall related injury requiring medical care or limiting activity for a day or longer. Below average general health, male sex, perceived insufficient sleep, health problems requiring assistive devices, alcohol consumption, increasing body mass index and history of stroke were all independently associated with a greater risk of falls or fall related injuries. The greater risk of falling in those 85 years and older appeared to be due to the deterioration of overall health status with age; among those with excellent overall health status, there was no greater risk of falling in adults 85 years and older compared to those 65-84 years of age. Our results suggest that those with risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries may be appropriate targets for evidence-based fall prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors at Age 16: Psychological Adjustment in Children With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-09-01

    Explore psychological functioning in adolescents with a cleft at age 16 from a broad perspective, including cognitive, emotional, behavioral, appearance-related, and psychosocial adjustment. High-risk groups were identified within each area of adjustment to investigate whether vulnerable adolescents were found across domains or whether risk was limited to specific areas of adjustment. Cross-sectional data based on psychological assessments at age 16 (N = 857). The effect of gender, cleft visibility, and the presence of an additional condition were investigated on all outcome variables. Results were compared with large national samples. Hopkins Symptom Checklist, Harter Self-Perception Scale for Adolescents, Child Experience Questionnaire, and Satisfaction With Appearance scale. The main factor influencing psychological adjustment across domains was gender, with girls in general reporting more psychological problems, as seen in reference groups. The presence of an additional condition also negatively affected some of the measures. No support was found for cleft visibility as a risk factor except for dissatisfaction with appearance. Correlation analyses of risk groups seem to point to an association between social and emotional risk and between social risk and dissatisfaction with appearance. Associations between other domains were found to be weak. The results point to areas of both risk and strength in adolescents born with a cleft lip and/or palate. Future research should investigate how protective factors could counteract potential risk in adolescents with a cleft.

  13. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  14. Social class, ethnicity and other risk factors for small for gestational age and preterm delivery in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.H.; Zaadstra, B.M.; Reerink, J.D.; Herngreen, W.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    Social class and ethnicity are important risk factors for small-for-gestational-age and preterm delivery in many countries. This study was performed to assess whether this is also the case in the Netherlands, a country with a high level of social security, relatively small income differences and

  15. Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To assess whether the media attention to breast cancer screening and the promotional efforts in 1987 were paralleled by increases in screening of women greater than or equal to 50 years of age, CDC analyzed data from 33 states that participated in the 1987 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

  16. Influence of behaviour and risk factors on motor performance in preterm infants at age 2 to 3 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the influence of test-taking behaviour and risk factors for delayed motor performance in 437 preterm infants (244 males, 193 females; < or = 32 weeks of gestation) at the corrected age of 2 to 3 years (mean 29mo [SD 3.3]). Other mean (SD) sample

  17. Nature Versus Nurture: Does Proteostasis Imbalance Underlie the Genetic, Environmental, and Age-Related Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikis, Elise A

    2017-08-22

    Aging is a risk factor for a number of "age-related diseases", including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD affects more than a third of all people over the age of 85, and is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Symptoms include forgetfulness, memory loss, and cognitive decline, ultimately resulting in the need for full-time care. While there is no cure for AD, pharmacological approaches to alleviate symptoms and target underlying causes of the disease have been developed, albeit with limited success. This review presents the age-related, genetic, and environmental risk factors for AD and proposes a hypothesis for the mechanistic link between genetics and the environment. In short, much is known about the genetics of early-onset familial AD (EO-FAD) and the central role played by the Aβ peptide and protein misfolding, but late-onset AD (LOAD) is not thought to have direct genetic causes. Nonetheless, genetic risk factors such as isoforms of the protein ApoE have been identified. Additional findings suggest that air pollution caused by the combustion of fossil fuels may be an important environmental risk factor for AD. A hypothesis suggesting that poor air quality might act by disrupting protein folding homeostasis (proteostasis) is presented.

  18. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at seven weeks of age - A prospective cohort study-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth

  19. Cardiovascular risk age: concepts and practicalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-06-01

    A young person with many risk factors may have the same level of risk as an older person with no risk factors. Thus a high-risk 40-year-old may have a risk age of 60 years or more. The aim of the study was to derive a generic equation for risk age, construct risk age charts, and explore the hypothesis that risk age is similar regardless of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point used.

  20. Upper extremity injuries in Danish children aged 6–12, mechanisms, and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, J.; Jespersen, Eva; Verhagen, Evert

    2017-01-01

    was found suggesting that girls are at increased acute upper extremity risk compared to boys (HR: 1.40 95% CI: 0.97–2.04). The findings that most injuries occur after a fall, that injury risk increases over age and that girls seem to be at increased injury risk provides essential information to guide future...... caused by a fall. When corrected for exposure to physical activity, this resulted in an acute upper extremity injury incidence density of 0.18 per 1000 h of physical activity. The odds of sustaining an upper extremity injury was higher in the older children (HR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10–3.09), a tendency...

  1. Hyperlipemia in a population of aged donkeys: description, prevalence, and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, F A; Du Toit, N; Hazell-Smith, E; Trawford, A F

    2011-01-01

    Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey, with mortality rates of up to 80% reported. Such a poor prognosis makes prevention of this disorder or amelioration in the early stages crucial. The objective of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of hyperlipemia in a population of donkeys and to determine risk factors for development of the disease. A total of 449 cases were investigated from a population of 3829 donkeys; donkeys were resident at The Donkey Sanctuary, a charity providing refuge for unwanted donkeys in the UK. Animals were selected on the basis of presence of clinical disease. A retrospective case-control study design was used, and all donkeys presenting with hyperlipemia over a 4-year period were included. Each case was matched with 2 controls that had not suffered from hyperlipemia in the previous month. Multivariable analysis was carried out to determine risk factors. A total of 449 clinical cases of hyperlipemia were reported with an associated mortality rate of 48.5%. Concurrent disease was present in 72% of donkeys and was the greatest risk factor (OR = 76.98); others included cardboard bedding (OR = 3.86), movement (OR = 3.94), weight loss (OR = 6.4), dental disease (OR = 1.73), and concentrate feeding (OR = 1.87). This study shows that this population of donkeys in the UK often develops hyperlipemia, particularly in response to stress or primary illness, and provides useful insights in to health and management risk factors that may be addressed to decrease the risk of hyperlipemia both in the study population and in other similar donkey populations. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. DEMOGRAPHIC AND LABOUR FORCE AGEINGRISK FACTORS FOR THE SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POENARU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is one of the main challenges to the economic and social development in the next decades. This article examines the main implications of demographic and labour force ageing on the future of social protection in Romania. The first part presents the mechanisms which define or govern the relationships between social protection and demographic ageing. The second highlights the main risks for the future of the Romanian social protection system and of the people’s social protection derived from increasing dependence rates, including that of older people; also, derived from labour force distribution changing, by gender. The final part focuses on the employment situation of older persons and on trends of paid jobs (employees, both of them having an important impact on social protection.

  3. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer for Women Age 40 to 49: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Heidi D.; Zakher, Bernadette; Cantor, Amy; Fu, Rongwei; Griffin, Jessica; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Kerlikowske, Karla; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Miglioretti, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying risk factors for breast cancer specific to women in their forties could inform screening decisions. Purpose To determine what factors increase risk for breast cancer in women age 40–49 years and the magnitudes of risk for each factor. Data Sources MEDLINE (January 1996 to November 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (fourth Quarter 2011), Scopus, and reference lists for published studies; and data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). Study Selection English-language studies and systematic reviews of risk factors for breast cancer in women age 40–49 years. Additional inclusion criteria were applied for each risk factor. Data Extraction Data on participants, study design, analysis, follow-up, and outcomes were abstracted. Study quality was rated using established criteria and only studies rated good or fair were included. Results were summarized using meta-analysis when sufficient studies were available, or from the best evidence based on study quality, size, and applicability when meta-analysis was not possible. BCSC data were analyzed with proportional hazards models using partly conditional Cox regression. Reference groups for comparisons were set at U.S. population means. Data Synthesis 65 studies provided data for estimates. Extremely dense breasts on mammography or first-degree relatives with breast cancer were associated with ≥2-fold increase in breast cancer. Prior breast biopsy, second degree relatives with breast cancer, or heterogeneously dense breasts were associated with 1.5–2.0 increased risk; current oral contraceptive use, nulliparity, and age ≥30 at first birth were associated with 1.0–1.5 increased risk. Limitations Studies varied by measures, reference groups, and adjustment for confounders; effects of multiple risk factors were not considered. Conclusions Extremely dense breasts and first degree relatives with breast cancer were each

  4. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS sexual risk among young women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinekwu A. Obidoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.

  5. Age, gender and risk factor disparities in first-stroke Jewish and Arab patients in Israel undergoing rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Elina; Treger, Iuly; Schwarz, Juliana

    2011-11-01

    Little is known of the risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation in Israel. To investigate the age, gender and risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation and to compare the prevalence and odds ratio of stroke risk factors in these patients. The database of the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation C at Loewenstein Rehabilitation Center was used to investigate first ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted for hospital rehabilitation over a 15 year period, January 1993 to December 2008. Particular attention was paid to age, gender and risk factor disparities. The 2000 patients with first stroke who were included in the study were grouped as Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) orArab; there were 237 Arabs, 370 non-immigrant Jews and 1393 immigrant Jews. A high percentage of Arab patients were found to have hypertension and diabetes mellitus, while a high percentage of Jewish immigrants had stenosis of the internal carotid artery. The study demonstrated some differences in the effect of risk factors between the groups. It may be important to address such differences when developing stroke preventative strategies in this population of Jewish and Arab stroke survivors in Israel.

  6. Age associated differences in prevalence of individual rotterdam criteria and metabolic risk factors during reproductive age in 446 caucasian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D; Mumm, H; Ravn, P

    2012-01-01

    , fasting lipids, insulin, glucose), transvaginal ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) (n=234), and ACTH tests (n=201). BMI, waist, Ferriman-Gallwey score, blood pressure, and lipid profile were higher in older vs. younger age groups whereas androgen levels were lower. Measures of insulin...... resistance were unchanged between age groups, but glucose levels were significantly higher in older age groups. Rotterdam criteria: The prevalence of PCO and biochemical hyperandrogenism decreased in the oldest age group whereas clinical hyperandrogenism increased. Young patients are characterized by PCO...... and biochemical hyperandrogenism, whereas older patients are more obese with more severe hirsutism and more cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors....

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for falls in older men and women: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan

    2016-11-01

    falls are a major cause of disability and death in older people. Women are more likely to fall than men, but little is known about whether risk factors for falls differ between the sexes. We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing to investigate the prevalence of falls by sex and to examine cross-sectionally sex-specific associations between a range of potential risk factors and likelihood of falling. participants were 4,301 men and women aged 60 and over who had taken part in the 2012-13 survey of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. They provided information about sociodemographic, lifestyle and behavioural and medical factors, had their physical and cognitive function assessed and responded to a question about whether they had fallen down in the last two years. in multivariable logistic regression models, severe pain and diagnosis of at least one chronic disease were independently associated with falls in both sexes. Sex-specific risk factors were incontinence (odds ratio (OR), 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19, 1.85) and frailty (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.06, 2.69) in women, and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.04, 1.07), high levels of depressive symptoms (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.05, 1.68), and being unable to perform a standing balance test (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.09, 5.29) in men. although we found some homogeneity between the sexes in the risk factors that were associated with falls, the existence of several sex-specific risk factors suggests that gender should be taken into account in designing fall-prevention strategies. The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  8. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence in Taiwanese Women Aged 20-59 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Hsieh

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of urinary incontinence among women who suffer from diabetes o hypertension, or who have undergone a gynecologic operation, in particular hysterectomy. From a public healt viewpoint, it is important to promote better health education in order to improve understanding of urinar incontinence and its risk factors and to increase the awareness of the availability of mainstream treatment; [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:1 97-202

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recrui...

  10. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2006-01-01

    groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf....../calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively...

  11. Gender and age effects on risk factor-based prediction of coronary artery calcium in symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The influence of gender and age on risk factor prediction of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic patients is unclear. METHODS: From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (EURO-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62......, diabetes and smoking were independently predictive of CAC presence in both genders. In addition to a progressive increase in CAC with age, the most important predictors of CAC presence were dyslipidaemia and diabetes (β = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively) in males and diabetes (β = 1.08) followed by smoking (β...... = 0.68) in females; these same risk factors were also important in predicting increasing CAC scores. There was no difference in the predictive ability of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in either gender for CAC presence in patients aged 70, only...

  12. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  13. Risk factors identified for owner-reported feline obesity at around one year of age: Dry diet and indoor lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12

  14. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years in NSW Australia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah; Wilson, Leigh

    2013-05-24

    Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1-3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0-4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years using appropriate methodologies. Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been 'injured', 'sick' or who were 'healthy'), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case-control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case-control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case-control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in influencing poisoning risk. Further research is warranted to explore the

  15. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Four Age Groups of Female Individuals: The PEP Family Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schwandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of nutritional habits and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in four age groups of women partici-pating in the Prevention Education Program, Family Heart Study.Methods: Anthropometric variables, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured in 141 children, 211 adolescents, 151 women 3 times more common in adolescents. Thirty six percent of junior women were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m² and 21% had central adiposity obese. Sixty eight year-old women had a far more adverse risk profile than 35 year-old women. In terms of energy consumption, 14 year-old women had the lowest fat intake and the highest consumption of carbohydrates whereas intake of protein was lowest in 10 year-old girls. Intake of unsaturated fat was lower in youths than in adults amounting to 37 g unsaturated fat respectively 53.4% of total fat consumption. The asso-ciation between energy consumption and overweight was significant and calorie intake was associated with clustering of ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors (OR :4.72; 95% CI 1.22-18.33.Conclusions: The prevalence of CVD risk factors increased continuously from girls and adolescents to junior and senior women. However, dietary intake was different in the four age groups. Caloric intake was associated with overweight and clustering of risk factors in adult women.

  16. Physical distance, genetic relationship, age, and leprosy classification are independent risk factors for leprosy in contacts of patients with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moet, F Johannes; Pahan, David; Schuring, Ron P; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan H

    2006-02-01

    Close contacts of patients with leprosy have a higher risk of developing leprosy. Several risk factors have been identified, including genetic relationship and physical distance. Their independent contributions to the risk of developing leprosy, however, have never been sufficiently quantified. Logistic-regression analysis was performed on intake data from a prospective cohort study of 1037 patients newly diagnosed as having leprosy and their 21,870 contacts. Higher age showed an increased risk, with a bimodal distribution. Contacts of patients with paucibacillary (PB) leprosy with 2-5 lesions (PB2-5) and those with multibacillary (MB) leprosy had a higher risk than did contacts of patients with single-lesion PB leprosy. The core household group had a higher risk than other contacts living under the same roof and next-door neighbors, who again had a higher risk than neighbors of neighbors. A close genetic relationship indicated an increased risk when blood-related children, parents, and siblings were pooled together. Age of the contact, the disease classification of the index patient, and physical and genetic distance were independently associated with the risk of a contact acquiring leprosy. Contact surveys in leprosy should be not only focused on household contacts but also extended to neighbors and consanguineous relatives, especially when the patient has PB2-5 or MB leprosy.

  17. Age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, H; Riedel-Heller, S; Braehler, E; Spangenberg, L; Luppa, M

    2011-10-01

    Information on the prevalence and risk factors for depressive disorders in old age is of considerable interest for the assessment of future needs of the health care system. The aim of the study is to determine age- and gender-specific prevalence of major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD), and depressive symptoms, and to analyze risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. A representative sample of the German population of 1,659 individuals aged 60 to 85 years were visited at home and answered self-rating questionnaires. Depressive symptoms and syndromes (MD, MiD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were determined with linear regression models for the total sample and for men and women separately. Depressive symptoms were found in 28.7% of the participants, while 6.6% were affected by MD or MiD. The highest prevalence of MD and depressive symptoms was found in the oldest age groups. MiD showed an unsteady course across age groups in both sexes. In the total sample as well as in the male subsample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increasing age, lower household income, an increasing number of medical conditions, and lower social support. In women only, the number of medical conditions and lacking social support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are common in old age and occur on a spectrum ranging from very mild forms to MD. The potential modifiability of a number of risk factors for depressive symptoms opens possibilities of secondary prevention such as treatment of chronic diseases as well as support in requirements of daily living.

  18. Neurological follow-up of small-for-gestational age newborn infants: a study of risk factors related to prognosis at one year of age

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    José Luiz D. Gherpelli

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the relative importance of some risk factors and neurological prognosis in the first year of life, 37 small-for-gestational age newborns were followed prospectively to 1 year of conceptional age. An abnormal neurological examination was found in 51.3% of the newborns and, at 12 months, 32.5% were still considered abnormal. Only 8.1% of the group had severe neurological sequelae at 1 year of corrected age. The developmental tests showed little changes during the first year, with abnormality rates varying from 16.1 to 25%. The following risk factors were analyzed concerning their relation to neurological and developmental abnormalities: high-risk pregnancy, maternal hypertension, social class, pre-term birth, neonatal asphyxia and weight and height less than 2.5 percentile at the age of 1 year. The statistical analysis showed a high correlation between subnormal weight gain and neurological (p=0.000l and developmental (p=0.001 abnormalities at 1 year. None of the other risk factors were statistically related to neurological prognosis at 1 year.

  19. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  20. Observed changes in cardiovascular risk factors among high-risk middle-aged men who received lifestyle counselling: a 5-year follow-up.

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    Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G; Vanhanen, Hannu

    2016-12-01

    To examine the long-term impact of health counselling among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. An observational study with a 5-year follow-up. All men aged 40 years in Helsinki have been invited to a visit to evaluate CVD risk from 2006 onwards. A modified version of the North Karelia project risk tool (CVD risk score) served to assess the risk. High-risk men received lifestyle counselling based on their individual risk profile in 2006 and were invited to a follow-up visit in 2011. Of the 389 originally high-risk men, 159 participated in the follow-up visits in 2011. Based on their follow-up in relation the further risk communication, we divided the participants into three groups: primary health care, occupational health care and no control visits. Lifestyle and CVD risk score change. All groups showed improvements in lifestyles. The CVD risk score decreased the most in the group that continued the risk communication visits in their primary health care centre (6.1 to 4.8 [95% CI -1.6 to -0.6]) compared to those who continued risk communication visits in their occupational health care (6.0 to 5.4 [95% CI -1.3 to 0.3]), and to those with no risk communication visits (6.0 to 5.9 [95% CI -0.5 to 0.4]). These findings indicate that individualized lifestyle counselling improves health behaviour and reduces total CVD risk among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Sustained improvement in risk factor status requires ongoing risk communication with health care providers. KEY POINTS Studies of short duration have shown that lifestyle changes reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among high-risk individuals. Sustaining these lifestyle changes and maintaining the lower disease risk attained can prove challenging. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and individualized health counselling for high-risk men, when implemented in primary health care, have the potential to initiate lifestyle changes that support risk reduction. Attaining a sustainable reduction in CVD

  1. Targeting modifiable risk factors in age-related macular degeneration in optometric practice in Sweden

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    Martin L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lene Martin1,2 1School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden; 2School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, London, UK Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which ophthalmologists and optometrists in Sweden recommend the use of nutritional supplements, changes in diet, or smoking cessation to patients who are at risk of or with signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. In addition, this study also examined how these practitioners rate the strength of evidence for nutritional supplements in AMD management and which sources of information they consult to determine supplement recommendations for the prevention or treatment of AMD. Methods: This study implemented a cross-sectional design using data from a questionnaire. All Swedish optometrists and ophthalmologists who were registered in the membership databases of their respective professional organizations were invited to participate. The questionnaire contained 18 forced choice questions and one free text question and was organized into the following four sections: use of nutritional supplements, dietary advice, smoking and eye diseases, and strength of evidence and the sources of information regarding nutritional supplement interventions. Results: The response rate was 40.3% for optometrists and 5% for ophthalmologists. Optometrists were more likely than ophthalmologists to recommend nutritional supplements in AMD and provided significantly more advice about diet than did the ophthalmologists for both patients at risk for AMD and those with established disease. The ophthalmologists were more likely than the optometrists to rely on the findings from the age-related eye disease studies of AMD regarding treatment with and selection of supplements and to recommend smoking cessation. Conclusion: Common evidence-based strategies for AMD management among eye care professionals would presumably be beneficial for AMD

  2. Suicidal behaviour and related risk factors among school-aged youth in the Republic of Benin.

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    Jason R Randall

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS: The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence.

  3. Risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility

  4. Adolescent oligomenorrhea (age 14-19) tracks into the third decade of life (age 20-28) and predicts increased cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Woo, Jessica G; Khoury, Philip R; Morrison, John A; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Assess whether adolescent oligomenorrhea (age 14-19) tracks into young adulthood (age 20-28) and predicts increased cardiometabolic risk factors, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and impaired fasting glucose-type II diabetes mellitus (IFG+T2DM). Prospective study of menstrual cyclicity and its metabolic effects in 865 black and white schoolgirls from age 9 to 19, and 605 of these 865 girls from age 20 to 28. Patterns of menstrual delays (oligomenorrhea) during ages 14-19 and ages 20-28 were closely related (ppolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, p=.049) predicted ages 20-28 menses delay. Menses delays during ages 14-19 and 20-28, and, their interaction product were correlated with IFG+T2DM and MetS at ages 20-28. Waist circumference (ages 20-28, prisk factor for future development of young adult IFG+T2DM, MetS, oligomenorrhea, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors of hypertension among adults aged 35-64 years living in an urban slum Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olack, Beatrice; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Smeeth, Liam; Montgomery, Joel M; Kiwanuka, Noah; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-12-17

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and urbanization is considered to favor its emergence. Given a paucity of information on hypertension and associated risk factors among urban slum dwellers in SSA, we aimed to characterize the distribution of risk factors for hypertension and investigate their association with hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya. We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey among adults 35 years and older living in Kibera slum Nairobi, Kenya. Trained interviewers collected data on socio demographic characteristics and self reported health behaviours using modified World Health Organization stepwise surveillance questionnaire for chronic disease risk factors. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. A total of 1528 adults were surveyed with a mean age of 46.7 years. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 29.4 % (95 % CI 27.0-31.7). Among the 418 participants classified as hypertensive, over one third (39.0 %) were unaware they had hypertension. Prevalence of current smoking and alcohol consumption was 8.5 and 13.1 % respectively. Over one quarter 26.2 % participants were classified as overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥25 to ≤29.9 kg/m(2)), and 17 % classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Overweight, obesity, current smoking, some level of education, highest wealth index, moderate physical activity, older age and being widowed were each independently associated with hypertension. When fit in a multivariable logistic regression model, being a widow [AOR = 1.7; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.6)], belonging to the highest wealth index [AOR = 1.6; (95 % CI, 1.1-2.5)], obesity [AOR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-3.1)] and moderate physical activity [AOR = 1.9; (95 % CI

  6. Associations between noncommunicable disease risk factors, race, education, and health insurance status among women of reproductive age in Brazil - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Jonetta Johnson; de Moura, Lenildo; Farr, Sherry L; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Moehlecke; Ivata Bernal, Regina Tomie; Robbins, Cheryl L; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors increase the risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes and are becoming increasingly common in Brazil. We analyzed VIGITEL 2011 telephone survey data for 13,745 Brazilian women aged 18-44 years in a probabilistic sample from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We examined associations between NCD risk factors (fruit and vegetable intake, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, BMI and hypertension status) and race, education, and insurance using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models, estimating the average marginal effects to produce adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRs). Analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 survey procedures and weighted to reflect population estimates. Women with less than a college education were more likely to report physical inactivity (adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence interval = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.7 (1.3-2.2)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension (aRR = 2.0 (1.6-2.5)) compared to women with a college education or greater. Similarly, women without health insurance were more likely to report physical inactivity (aRR = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.8)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.7)) compared to women with health insurance. Less variation was found by race and NCD risk factors. Targeted public health strategies and policies are needed to increase healthcare access and decrease educational and racial disparities in NCD risk factors among women of reproductive age in Brazil.

  7. Estimating past hepatitis C infection risk from reported risk factor histories: implications for imputing age of infection and modeling fibrosis progression

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    Busch Michael P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputing the time of infection, often as the reported age of first injection drug use. We sought to examine the accuracy of such imputation and implications for modeling factors that influence progression rates. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data on hepatitis C antibody status and reported risk factor histories from two large studies, the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Urban Health Study, using modern survival analysis methods for current status data to model past infection risk year by year. We compared fitted distributions of past infection risk to reported age of first injection drug use. Results Although injection drug use appeared to be a very strong risk factor, models for both studies showed that many subjects had considerable probability of having been infected substantially before or after their reported age of first injection drug use. Persons reporting younger age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected after, and persons reporting older age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected before. Conclusion In cross-sectional studies of fibrosis progression where date of HCV infection is estimated from risk factor histories, modern methods such as multiple imputation should be used to account for the substantial uncertainty about when infection occurred. The models presented here can provide the inputs needed by such methods. Using reported age of first injection drug use as the time of infection in studies of fibrosis progression is likely to produce a spuriously strong association of younger age of infection with slower rate of progression.

  8. Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan

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    Naomi Tamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART, and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059 enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g, term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA, and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan.

  9. Young age: an independent risk factor for disease-free survival in women with operable breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wonshik; Kim, Seok Won; Ae Park, In; Kang, Daehee; Kim, Sung-Won; Youn, Yeo-Kyu; Oh, Seung Keun; Choe, Kuk Jin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in young women (age < 35) is low. The biology of the disease in this age group is poorly understood, and there are conflicting data regarding the prognosis for these women compared to older patients. We retrospectively analyzed 2040 consecutive primary invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgical procedures at our institution between 1990 and 1999. The younger age group was defined as patients aged <35 years at the time of diagnosis. The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared between younger and older age groups. A total of 256 (12.5%) patients were aged <35. There was a significantly higher incidence of nuclear grade 3 and medullary histological-type tumors in younger patients compared to older patients. Axillary lymph node status, T stage, histological grade, c-erbB2 expression and estrogen receptor status did not differ significantly between the two age groups. Younger patients had a greater probability of recurrence and death at all time periods. Although there was no significant difference in disease-free survival between the two age groups in lymph node-negative patients, the younger group showed worse prognosis among lymph node-positive patients (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, young age remained a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.010). Young age (<35) is an independent risk factor for relapse in operable breast cancer patients

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, Girdhar G

    2013-04-01

    To study prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders--epilepsy, global developmental delay, and motor, vision, and hearing defects--in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India. A two-stage community survey for neurological disorders was conducted in rural and urban areas of Lucknow. After initial screening with a new instrument, the Lucknow Neurodevelopment Screen, screen positives and a random proportion of screen negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence was calculated by weighted estimates. Demographic, socio-economic, and medical risk factors were compared between validated children who were positive and negative for neurological disorders by univariate and logistic regression analysis. Of 4801 children screened (mean age [SD] 15.32mo [5.96]; 2542 males, 2259 females), 196 were positive; 190 screen positives and 269 screen negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 27.92 per 1000 (weighted 95% confidence interval 12.24-43.60). Significant risk factors (p≤0.01) for neurological disorders were higher age in months (p=0.010), lower mean number of appliances in the household (p=0.001), consanguineous marriage of parents (p=0.010), family history of neurological disorder (p=0.001), and infants born exceptionally small (parental description; p=0.009). On logistic regression, the final model included age (p=0.0193), number of appliances (p=0.0161), delayed cry at birth (p=0.0270), postneonatal meningoencephalitis (p=0.0549), and consanguinity (p=0.0801). Perinatal factors, lower socio-economic status, and consanguinity emerged as predictors of neurological disorders. These factors are largely modifiable. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Sexual dysfunction among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong: prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-03-01

    Although female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a serious public health issue endangering women's well-being, systematic research on FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese women in Hong Kong is quite scarce. This study aims to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and associated consequences of FSD among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong. This study was based on a community-based survey across Hong Kong conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong in 2012 with 1,518 married women aged 21-49 years. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition classification was adopted to assess FSD. It was found that 25.6% of the married women surveyed reported at least one form of sexual dysfunction and that the prevalence of six domains of sexual dysfunction was as follows: 10.6% for lack of interest in sex, 10.5% for not finding sex pleasurable, 9.3% for lubrication difficulties, 8.8% for inability to achieve orgasm, 8.8% for orgasm delay, and 8.4% for physical pain during sex. Multivariate analyses showed that low education and income, average or poor health, lower frequency of sex, abortion history, traditional attitudes toward sex, and marital dissatisfaction are all significant risk factors for different components of FSD. It was also been found that four domains of FSD (the exceptions being orgasm delay and physical pain during sex) have severe consequences for married women's life satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The prevalence of FSD is lower among reproductive-aged Chinese married women in Hong Kong than among women in the United States and some Asian countries. The risk factors associated with FSD include sociodemographic factors, physical health, sexual experience and attitudes, and relationship factors. FSD has significant consequences for married women's life quality. These findings have great implications for FSD prevention and relevant service delivery. © 2014 International Society for Sexual

  12. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

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    Ruiz-Beltran Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p p Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children.

  13. Identification of Neuroprotective Factors Associated with Successful Ageing and Risk of Cognitive Impairment among Malaysia Older Adults

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    Huijin Lau

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ageing population has raised public attention on the concept of successful ageing. Studies have shown that vitamin D, telomere length, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF have been associated with cognitive function. Therefore, this study aimed to identify neuroprotective factors for cognitive decline in different ageing groups. A total of 300 older adults aged 60 years and above were recruited in this population based cross-sectional study. Participants were categorized into three groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI (n=100, usual ageing (UA (n=100, and successful ageing (SA (n=100. Dietary vitamin D intake was assessed through Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ. Out of the 300 participants, only 150 were subjected to fasting blood sample collection. These samples were used for serum vitamin D and plasma BDNF measurements. Whole blood telomere length was measured using RT-PCR method. The results show that the reduction of the risk of MCI was achieved by higher serum vitamin D level (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92–0.99, p<0.05, higher plasma BDNF level (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.30–0.88,  p<0.05, and longer telomere (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95–0.99,  p<0.001. In conclusion, participants with higher vitamin D level, higher BDNF level, and longer telomere length were more likely to age successfully.

  14. Risk factor studies of age-at-onset in a sample ascertained for Parkinson disease affected sibling pairs: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Lash, Timothy L

    2007-04-04

    An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset arising from case-only studies, however, may also reflect secular trends in the prevalence of exposure to the risk factor. Comparisons of age-at-onset associated with risk factors are commonly performed in case series enrolled for genetic linkage analysis of late onset diseases. We describe how the results of age-at-onset studies of environmental risk factors reflect the underlying structure of the source population, rather than an association with age-at-onset, by contrasting the effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on Parkinson disease age-at-onset with the effects on age-at-enrollment in a population based study sample. Despite earlier evidence to suggest a protective association of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking with Parkinson disease risk, the age-at-onset results are comparable to the patterns observed in the population sample, and thus a causal inference from the age-at-onset effect may not be justified. Protective effects of multivitamin use on PD age-at-onset are also shown to be subject to a bias from the relationship between age and multivitamin initiation. Case-only studies of age-at-onset must be performed with an appreciation for the association between risk factors and age and ageing in the source population.

  15. Risk factors associated with deforming oral habits in children aged 5 to 11: a case-control study

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    Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. Objectives To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development. Methods A case-control study of children presenting with deforming oral habits in the municipality of Manzanillo in Granma province was conducted between January and August 2013. 540 children aged 5 to 11 were included of which 180 had deforming oral habits and were asked to fill out a survey to identify specific type of habits leading to malocclusion. The case group was composed of children with deforming habits, and the remaining 360 children without poor oral habits were the control group. Each case was randomly matched to two control cases. The children’s mothers were also surveyed to gather supplemental information. Results Children with deforming oral habits were mostly female. At age 10, onychophagia was the predominant oral deforming habit. Risk factors detected for these habits were sociobiological maternal and child variables such as low and high birth weight, maternal breastfeeding inexperience, and discord in the family. Conclusions The study identified likely risk factors associated with deforming oral habits. These are discord in the family, birth weight, and lack of breastfeeding experience.

  16. Lifestyle risk factors and residual life expectancy at age 40: a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanrong; Hüsing, Anika; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-04-07

    Cigarette smoking, adiposity, unhealthy diet, heavy alcohol drinking and physical inactivity together are associated with about half of premature deaths in Western populations. The aim of this study was to estimate their individual and combined impacts on residual life expectancy (RLE). Lifestyle and mortality data from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort, comprising 22,469 German adults ≥40 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at recruitment (1994-1998), were analyzed with multivariable Gompertz proportional hazards models to predict lifetime survival probabilities given specific baseline status of lifestyle risk factors. The life table method was then used to estimate the RLEs. For 40-year-old adults, the most significant loss of RLE was associated with smoking (9.4 [95% confidence interval: 8.3, 10.6] years for male and 7.3 [6.0, 8.9] years for female heavy smokers [>10 cigarettes/day]; 5.3 [3.6, 7.1] years for men and 5.0 [3.2, 6.6] years for women smoking ≤10 cigarettes/day). Other lifestyle risk factors associated with major losses of RLE were low body mass index (BMI 4 drinks/day, 3.1 [1.9, 4.0] years for men), and high processed/red meat consumption (≥120 g/day, 2.4 [1.0, 3.9] years for women). The obesity-associated loss of RLE was stronger in male never smokers, while the loss of RLE associated with low BMI was stronger in current smokers. The loss of RLE associated with low leisure time physical activity was moderate for women (1.1 [0.05, 2.1] years) and negligible for men (0.4 [-0.3, 1.2] years). The combined loss of RLE for heavy smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol drinking and high processed/red meat consumption, versus never smoking, optimal BMI (22.5 to 24.9), no/light alcohol drinking and low processed/red meat consumption, was 17.0 years for men and 13.9 years for women. Promoting healthy lifestyles, particularly no cigarette smoking and maintaining healthy body weight, should be the core component of public health approaches to

  17. Evaluation of age and peripheral vascular disease as risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Among the 120 diabetic participants, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was detected only in those aged 50 years and above and all the three diagnostic methods detected PVD increasingly with advancing age. Clinical criteria detected PVD in 4.7% of those aged 50-59 years and 26.3% of those aged .70years.

  18. Are urge incontinence and aging risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Earle, Carolyn; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that erectile dysfunction (ED) patients also suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We investigated a group of men with LUTS and assessed their sexual function with the aim of being able to predict ED risk factors and introduce ED treatments earlier for this patient group. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score (OABSS) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score were obtained from 236 men with LUTS at their first out-patients visit. Clinical parameters such as body mass index, prostate volume, residual urine volume and prostate specific antigen were also evaluated. The relationship between the SHIM score and other clinical data was analyzed. According to the SHIM score, ED in men with LUTS was severe 15%, moderate 19%, moderate to mild 28%, mild 17%, normal 7% and data was incomplete in 14%. Based on the results of a multivariate analysis, aging (p urinary incontinence was a risk factor for severe and moderate ED (p = 0.005). Aging and OAB (notably urinary urge incontinence) are risk factors for severe and moderate ED in men with LUTS.

  19. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men and women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Saga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random samples of 50-year-old men living in Gothenburg have been examined every 10th year since 1963 with a focus on cardiovascular risk factors. The aims of the study were to acquire up-to-date information about risk factors in the fifth cohort of 50-year-old men and women, to re-examine those who were 50 years of age in 1993, and to analyse the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn using different definitions. Methods A random sample of men and women born in 1953 were examined in 2003–2004 for cardiovascular risk factors. Men born in 1943 and that participated in the examination in 1993 were also invited. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The participation rate among men and women born in 1953 was 60 and 67% respectively. Among men born in 1943, the participation rate was 87%. The prevalence of obesity was from 15 to 17% (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30 in the three samples. The prevalence of known diabetes was 4% among the 50-year-old men and 6% among the 60-year-old men, and 2% among the women. Increased fasting plasma glucose varied substantially from 4 to 33% depending on cut-off level and gender. Mean cholesterol was 5.4 to 5.5 mmol/l. Smoking was more common among women aged 50 (26% than among men aged 50 (22% and 60 years (15%. The prevalence of the MetSyn varied with the definition used: from 10 to 15.8% among the women, from 16.1 to 26% among 50-year-old men, and from 19.9 to 35% among the 60-year-old men. Only 5% of the men and women had no risk factors. Conclusion This study provides up-to-date information about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the MetSyn in middle-aged Swedish men and women. Different definitions of the MetSyn create confusion regarding which definition to use.

  20. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9-15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Fan; Xiong, Fei; Huo, Tingzhu; Tong, Yu; Yang, Sufei; Mao, Meng

    2012-08-10

    Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9-15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). And then a frequency matched case-control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls) were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8%) had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity). The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P 0.05). Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746), maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713), paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583), preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564), full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454) and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418) were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  1. Risk Factors for Malnutrition in Seniors Aged 75+ Living in Home Environment in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Iva; Trešlová, Marie; Bártlová, Sylva; Vacková, Jitka; Tóthová, Valerie; Motlová, Lenka

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition is an important social determinant of health that influences the ageing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional condition of a group of seniors and identify the bio-psycho-social factors that increase the risk of malnutrition. The research was conducted using a quantitative method. The standardised scales Mini Nutritional Assessment - Short Form (MNA-SF) and the Geriatric depression scale (GDS-5) were used to evaluate the nutritional condition and tendency towards depression of the tested group. This group consisted of seniors aged 75 and above living in home environment in the České Budějovice region. The group was comprised of 320 seniors, 115 men (35.9%) and 205 women (64.1%), which corresponds to the composition of the population in the chosen region of the Czech Republic. Statistical data analysis was conducted using SASD 1.4.10 and SPSS 15.0 programs. Pearson's chi-squared test (Χ²) and Cramér's V were chosen for statistical testing. The significance level was set at 5%. The average BMI value of the seniors was 26.2 kg/m² (overweight). This value decreased with age. More than one third of the respondents were evaluated as being at risk of malnutrition (36.3%). Unintended weight loss was determined as the strongest risk factor of malnutrition. Seniors who had lowered their food intake stated unintended weight loss 10 times more often than respondents with no noticeable reduction in food intake. Seniors who showed signs of depression indicated weight loss three and a half times more often than respondents without depression. Meanwhile acute illness increased the risk by three times. Depression was found to be the cause and also the consequence of malnutrition. Despite the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, a large proportion of the respondents were running the risk of malnutrition. It was concluded that the strongest risk factors for malnutrition in the respondents were unintended weight loss, depression and

  2. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and related risk factors in school-age children in Egypt: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Yousf, Fouad; Hussein, Mohamed M

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and its risk factors among school-age children in our community. A cross-sectional study included school-age children from two governorates in south of Egypt. A questionnaire was presented to randomly selected students. It consisted of 3 domains: Domain 1 included questions about MNE, domain 2 was about risk factors for MNE, and domain 3 was about management of MNE. The study included 4652 students (9 ± 2 years) from 12 primary schools (51 % males and 49 % females). Of 4652 students, 834 (18 %) had NE, with no significant difference between rural and urban areas (17.5 vs. 18.4 %, p = 0.4). Younger age categories showed higher prevalence of MNE than in older children. MNE caused moderate-to-severe bother for 44.5 and 87.8 % of students and parents, respectively. Urinary tract infection, pinworm infestation, constipation, and caffeine over-consumption significantly associated with MNE. Family history of MNE was positive in 84.7 %. Daytime incontinence coexisted in 16 % of cases. Children with ≥4 siblings and birth order ≥3 had more prevalent MNE. Deep sleepers and exposure to problems/violence correlated positively with occurrence of MNE. Father's level of education and work status, mother education, number of children per room, and socioeconomic status significantly associated with occurrence of MNE. There was no significant correlation between gender and prevalence of MNE. No treatment was used in 53.2 % of cases. In the Egyptian community, pinworm infestation, UTI, constipation, and overconsumption of caffeine-containing beverages are potential reversible risk factors for MNE in school-age children.

  3. Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Kools, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that contribute to high relative weight in children in Taiwan. A total sample of 331 Chinese children (ages 7 and 8) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, family functioning, parenting styles, physical activity, and dietary intake. Children completed physical fitness tests and questionnaires regarding physical activity, dietary intake, coping strategies, and self-esteem. The weight-for-length index was used to measure children's relative weight. The findings revealed that four variables contributed to higher weight-for-length index in boys compared with girls and explained 37.7% of the variance: high maternal body mass index, poor aerobic capacity, healthy family role functioning, and poor family affective responsiveness. Two variables were found to contribute to higher weight-for-length index in girls and explained 12.8% of the variance: high household income and high maternal body mass index. Taken together, the results indicate the importance of assessment of children's weight status, maternal weight status, and family functioning as part of routine child health care and the need for developmentally appropriate and gender-specific approaches to prevent childhood obesity.

  4. Prothrombotic factors do not increase the risk of recurrent ischemic events after cryptogenic stroke at young age: the FUTURE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Mijntje M I; van Alebeek, Mayte E; Arntz, Renate M; Synhaeve, Nathalie E; Maaijwee, Noortje A M M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; van der Vlugt, Maureen J; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2018-05-01

    The role of hypercoagulable states and preceding infections in the etiology of young stroke and their role in developing recurrent ischemic events remains unclear. Our aim is to determine the prevalence of these conditions in patients with cryptogenic stroke at young age and to assess the long-term risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with and without a hypercoagulable state or a recent pre-stroke infection with Borrelia or Syphilis. We prospectively included patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke, aged 18-50, admitted to our hospital between 1995 and 2010. A retrospective analysis was conducted of prothrombotic factors and preceding infections. Outcome was recurrent ischemic events. Prevalence of prothrombotic factors did not significantly differ between patients with a cryptogenic stroke and with an identified cause (24/120 (20.0%) and 32/174 (18.4%) respectively). In patients with a cryptogenic stroke the long-term risk [mean follow-up of 8.9 years (SD 4.6)] of any recurrent ischemic event or recurrent cerebral ischemia did not significantly differ between patients with and without a hypercoagulable state or a recent infection. In patients with a cryptogenic stroke 15-years cumulative risk of any recurrent ischemic event was 24 and 23% in patients with and without any prothrombotic factor respectively. The prevalence of prothrombotic factors and preceding infections did not significantly differ between stroke patients with a cryptogenic versus an identified cause of stroke and neither is significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrent ischemic events after cryptogenic stroke.

  5. Risk factors for exudative age-related macular degeneration in a large French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbib, Jennyfer; Delcourt, Cécile; Puche, Nathalie; Querques, Giuseppe; Cohen, Salomon Yves; Sahel, José; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Le Goff, Mélanie; Souied, Eric H

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the CAP (Creteil AMD PHRC-funded) Study was to analyze risk factors of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large French case-control population. One thousand and twenty-four patients with exudative AMD and 275 controls were recruited. Information about lifestyle, medical history, and dietary intake were collected. Associations of risk factors were estimated using logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, CFH Y402H and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms were associated with very high risk for exudative AMD (OR = 6.21 and OR = 11.7, respectively, p cooking oils rich in omega 3 fatty acids was significantly associated with a reduced risk of exudative AMD (OR = 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.36-0.84, p = 0.006), as well as a high consumption of fruits (OR = 0.60, 95 % CI: 0.37-0.98, p = 0.04), but not the consumption of fish, vegetables or oils rich in omega 6. High waist circumference was associated with increased risk for exudative AMD (OR = 2.53, p cooking oils harboring a beneficial omega-3 fatty acid profile.

  6. Low self-esteem is a risk factor for depressive symptoms from young adulthood to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2009-08-01

    Data from two large longitudinal studies were used to analyze reciprocal relations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms across the adult life span. Study 1 included 1,685 participants aged 18 to 96 years assessed 4 times over a 9-year period. Study 2 included 2,479 participants aged 18 to 88 years assessed 3 times over a 4-year period. In both studies, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that low self-esteem predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, but depressive symptoms did not predict subsequent levels of self-esteem. This pattern of results replicated across all age groups, for both affective-cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression, and after controlling for content overlap between the self-esteem and depression scales. The results suggest that low self-esteem operates as a risk factor for depressive symptoms at all phases of the adult life span.

  7. Age and prostate volume are risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Yosuke; Kato, Yuji; Fujita, Kiichiro

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 584 patients who underwent transurethral enucleation with bipolar between December 2011 and September 2016 operated by a single surgeon. Urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar was defined as involuntary leakage of urine that required the use of pads. It was evaluated at 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. We defined transient urinary incontinence as urinary incontinence persisting up to 1 month after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. Based on independent risk factors identified by a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, a nomogram to predict transient urinary incontinence was developed. Of the 584 patients, 17.3%, 13.5%, 3.1%, 0.41%, and 0% patients had urinary incontinence at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after transurethral enucleation with bipolar, respectively. The mean (±standard error) age was 69.6 ± 0.26 years, estimated prostate volume was 54.7 ± 0.91 cm 3 , operative time was 58.0 ± 1.1 min and the prostate specimen weight was 30.6 ± 0.69 g. On univariate analysis, age, prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography, prostate-specific antigen, prostate specimen weight, operative time, prostate specimen weight/prostate volume and prostate specimen weight/operative time were significant predictive factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio 1.07, P-value = 0.0034) and prostate volume (hazard ratio 1.03, P-value bipolar. Age and prostate volume estimated by transrectal ultrasonography seem to represent significant independent risk factors for transient urinary incontinence after transurethral enucleation with bipolar. This should be well discussed with the patient before surgery. © 2017 The Japanese

  8. Socio-psychological stressors as risk factors for low back pain in Chinese middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Y B; Ho, S C; Chan, S G

    2001-11-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between socio-psychological stress and low back pain (LBP) prevalence among Chinese middle-aged women. Women in mid-life experience increasing socio-psychological stress because of midlife transitions, stressful life events and housework or work factors. Encountering socio-psychological stress itself may result in the manifestation of LBP. A case-control study of Hong Kong community-based middle-aged women was conducted. The study subjects were either from the University Family Medicine Clinic or from a previous population-based cross-sectional study of middle-aged women conducted by Department of Community and Family Medicine. Among the 928 potential eligible subjects from both sources, a total of 182 cases and 235 controls participated in this study. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews and included demographic factors, menopausal status, socio-psychological stress and occurrence of LBP. Socio-psychological stress covered social factors, self-reported nature of housework/work, housework/work stress and stressful life events. Among the 182 cases who entered this study, 83 women (45.6%) had experienced 1-work stress had an increased risk of suffering both types of LBP of nearly two- and half-fold (95% CI 1.61-3.85). The results indicate that an association exists between high socio-psychological stress and LBP prevalence. Alleviating the impact of housework or work related factors would, however, involve improving both the work and home environment.

  9. Insulinaemia and insulin resistance in Caucasian general paediatric population aged 2 to 10 years: Associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alías-Hernández, Irene; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; García-García, Emilio; Muñoz-Vico, Francisco Javier; Vázquez Lopez, María Ángeles; Olvera-Porcel, María Carmen; Bonillo Perales, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine values of insulinaemia, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) among a population of prepubertal Caucasian children, to analyse factors associated with insulin resistance (IR), and to study its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Population-based study conducted on a randomly selected sample of prepubescent Caucasian subjects aged 2.00 to 9.99 years old. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were obtained, including fasting glucose, triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and insulin. In addition, QUICKI and HOMA indices were calculated. Generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) was used to calculate centiles curves and multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with IR. A total of 654 subjects were included. Mean values obtained for insulinaemia, HOMA index, and QUICKI were 3.74 μIU/mL, 0.73, and 0.44, respectively, in the overall population and 3.32 μIU/mL, 0.64 and 0.46, respectively, in normal weight subjects. The main factor associated with IR was abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] 3.38 [95% CI 1.44-7.94] in the subgroup aged 2.00-5.99 years and OR 9.14 [3.42-24.41] for those aged 6.00-9.99 years). An increased risk of hyperglycaemia (P = 0.043), hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001), and HDL < p10 (P = 0.021) was described among children aged 2.00 to 5.99 years with IR, and among those aged 6.00 to 9.99 years, IR was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001). Abdominal obesity was the main factor associated with IR. Metabolic changes associated with IR seem to be present from early stages of life, which highlights the importance of the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the young and middle-aged rural population in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching Thon; Lee, Ping Yein; Cheah, Whye Lian

    2012-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) was the second leading cause of death in Malaysia in 2006. CHD has known risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among 260 participants aged 20 to 65 years in a rural community in Sarawak. The prevalences of overweight and obesity in this study were 39.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Approximately 13% of participants had hypertension, and 1.5% had a random blood sugar greater than 11.1 mmol/L. Chi-square tests showed significant associations between obesity and gender (P = 0.007), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and race (P = 0.05), high total cholesterol and age (P = 0.007), age and hypertension (P = 0.011), smoking and gender (P 45 years) were 0.395 times more likely to have high cholesterol and that those with a higher monthly household income (> RM830) were 2.471 times more likely to smoke. These findings indicate that we should be concerned about the high rates of overweight in this rural community to prevent obesity.

  11. Increasing age is a major risk factor for susceptibility to heat stress during physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Ryan; Poirier, Martin P; Louie, Jeffrey C; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the extent to which age, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat can independently determine whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in 87 otherwise healthy adults. We show that increasing age is a major predictor for decreasing WBHL in otherwise healthy adults (aged 20-70 years), accounting for 40% of the variation in the largest study to date. While greater body fat also had a minor detrimental impact on WBHL, there was no significant role for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  12. The effects of cardiac rehabilitation program on exercise capacity and coronary risk factors in CABG Patients aged 45-65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim Mirnasuri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the most common cause of mortalily and inability. In Iran, one third of mortality causes are coronary heart diseases. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a Cardiac Rehabilitation program (CR on exercise capacity (VO2max and coronary risk factors in CABG patients aged 45-65 . Materials and Methods: Of 36 CABG patients randomly selected from Hamadan Shahid Beheshti hospital, 18 subjects as experimental group (with mean age 54.57±6.26 years and weight 72.14±10.83 kg participated in CR program, and 18 subjects as control group (with mean age 57.64±4.75 years and weight 76.5±12 kg without participation in any exercise and CR program participated in this study based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. CR program was an eight-week involving warm-up, aerobic exercises and cool-down. Variables including: anthropometrics measurements and exercise capacity (VO2max, and also coronary risk factors such as body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, fasting blood sugar (FBS, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL-HDL ratio (LHR, body fat percent (BFP were determined at the first and the last week of CR program in both groups. Results: Statistical analysis by independent t-test indicated that after program, there was a significant difference between 2 groups in VO2max, BMI, WHR, SBP, DBP, TC, TG, LDL, LHR (P<0.05, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in FBS, HDL, BFP. Conclusion: The CR program of the present study indicated a significant effect on exercise capacity and some coronary risk factors profile in CABG patients of 45-65 and can it be considered as a suitable program for CABG patients.

  13. Investigating the CFH Gene Polymorphisms as a Risk Factor for Age-related Macular Degeneration in an Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanejad, Mojgan; Moein, Hamidreza; Akbari, Mohammad R; Badiei, Azadeh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Soheilian, Masoud; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder which results in irreversible vision loss and progressive impairment of central vision. Disease susceptibility is influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the complement factor H gene are the most important genetic risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association four SNPs (dbSNP ID: rs800292, rs1061170, rs2274700 and rs3753395) of CFH gene with AMD in the Iranian population. We recruited 100 AMD patients and 100 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Direct sequencing for three SNPs (rs800292, rs2274700 and rs3753395) and restriction fragment length polymorphism utilized for rs1061170. Allele and genotype frequencies of SNPs were calculated and tested for departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using the Chi-square test. An allelic and genotypic association was compared by logistic regression analysis using the SNPassoc. According to our results, the frequencies of risk allele for all SNPs (G, G, A, and C alleles of rs800292, rs2274700, rs3753395 and rs1061170, respectively) were significantly higher in AMD patients (p value prevention and treatment of AMD.

  14. Age-related loss of EGF-receptor related protein (ERRP) in the aging colon is a potential risk factor for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Eva M; Levi, Edi; Du, Jianhua; Xu, Hu; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2004-12-01

    Although in Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGF-receptor (EGFR) in mucosa of much of the gastrointestinal tract, including the colon, regulation of this process is poorly understood. We hypothesize that loss of suppressor of EGFR may partly be responsible for this process. To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of EGFR related protein (ERRP), a recently identified negative regulator of EGFR, in the colonic mucosa during aging and following administration of the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH) that resulted in the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which are considered to be precursor of adenoma and carcinoma. In Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGFR in the colonic mucosa, as evidenced by 30-35% increase in the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR in the proximal and distal colon of aged (20-22 months old) than in young (4-6 months old) rats. In contrast, the levels of ERRP in both regions of the colon of aged rats were decreased by 50-60%, compared to their younger counterparts. Administration of DMH, which induced a greater number of ACF in the colon of aged rats than in young animals, resulted in a corresponding reduction in ERRP in the colon. These results suggest that loss of ERRP expression is a common event during aging and early stages of chemically induced colon cancer. We also suggest that loss of ERRP could be a risk factor for developing colorectal cancer in the older population.

  15. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age: Impulsivity, cigarette smoking status, and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Laura L; Hand, Dennis J; Priest, Jeff S; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant. Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US. Half (n=400) reported current, daily smoking and half (n=400) reported smoking e-cigarette use were examined using logistic regression. Daily cigarette smoking was associated with greater impulsivity, lower education, past illegal drug use, and White race/ethnicity. E-cigarette use in the overall sample was associated with being a cigarette smoker and greater education. E-cigarette use among current smokers was associated with increased nicotine dependence and quitting smoking; among never smokers it was associated with greater impulsivity and illegal drug use. E-cigarette use was associated with hookah use, and for never smokers only with use of cigars and other nicotine products. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age varies by smoking status, with use among current smokers reflecting attempts to quit smoking whereas among non-smokers use may be a marker of a more impulsive repertoire that includes greater use of alternative tobacco products and illegal drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors for the progression of frailty: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Westbury, Leo; Cooper, Cyrus

    2018-05-01

    loneliness and social isolation have been associated with mortality and with functional decline in older people. We investigated whether loneliness or social isolation are associated with progression of frailty. participants were 2,817 people aged ≥60 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Loneliness was assessed at Wave 2 using the Revised UCLA scale (short version). A social isolation score at Wave 2 was derived from data on living alone, frequency of contact with friends, family and children, and participation in social organisations. Frailty was assessed by the Fried phenotype of physical frailty at Waves 2 and 4, and by a frailty index at Waves 2-5. high levels of loneliness were associated with an increased risk of becoming physically frail or pre-frail around 4 years later: relative risk ratios (95% CI), adjusted for age, sex, level of frailty and other potential confounding factors at baseline were 1.74 (1.29, 2.34) for pre-frailty, and 1.85 (1.14, 2.99) for frailty. High levels of loneliness were not associated with change in the frailty index-a broadly based measure of general condition-over a mean period of 6 years. In the sample as a whole, there was no association between social isolation and risk of becoming physically frail or pre-frail, but high social isolation was associated with increased risk of becoming physically frail in men. Social isolation was not associated with change in the frailty index. older people who experience high levels of loneliness are at increased risk of becoming physically frail.

  17. [Risk factors associated to growth retardation in children 12 to 120 months of age in Arandas, Jalisco, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Garibay, Edgar M; Ortiz Ortega, Miguel Angel; Romero Velarde, Enrique; Nápoles Rodríguez, Francisco

    2008-12-01

    The purpose was to identify risk factors associated to deficit on linear growth in children from a semi-rural population in Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico. In a cross sectional study 432 children, 12 to 120 months old were included. Social, demographic, economical, dietetic and pathological characteristics and deficit in the height/age index ( 3 children in the family [OR 1.71 (1.01, 2.87)], soft drinks consumption > 4 times a week [OR 2.36 (1.19-4.73)], family's monthly income salary (100 USA dollars a month) [OR 1.81 (1.06, 3.09)]; age < 24 months [OR 2.02 (1.09, 3.75)], adding sweeteners to the bottle [OR 8.56 (1.84, 54.9)], diet modification during diarrhea [OR 2.40 (1.02, 5.77)], milk intake < 4 times a week [OR 2.71 (1.55, 4.73)] and nearly significant, bean consumption [1.75 (0.98, 3.13). Protection factors: nuclear family [OR 0.28 (0.09, 0.85)] and an adequate infant formula dilution [OR 0.71 (0.60, 0.85)]. In multivariate models associated factors to deficit of height were higher consumption of soft drinks, beans and the addition of sweeteners to the bottle. In addition to socioeconomic variables, lower consumption of high quality food and proteins and higher intake of legumes were important risk factors for mild and moderate deficit height/age.

  18. The effects of Risk Factor-Targeted Lifestyle Counselling Intervention on working-age stroke patients' adherence to lifestyle change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikarinen, Anne; Engblom, Janne; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2017-09-01

    Since a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack is a major risk factor for a recurrent event, lifestyle counselling during the hospital phase is an essential component of treatment and may increase the probability of lifestyle change. To study the effect of risk factor-targeted lifestyle counselling intervention on working-age stroke patients' adherence to lifestyle changes. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group pretest-post-test design. Stroke patients in an acute neurological unit were divided into a control group (n = 75) receiving standard counselling and an experimental group (n = 75) receiving risk factor-targeted counselling. Lifestyle data and clinical outcomes were collected at hospital between January 2010 and October 2011, while data on adherence to lifestyle changes 3, 6, and 12 months after discharge. The baseline lifestyle habits did not differ significantly other than in alcohol behaviour. Both groups increased their intake, but the intervention group to a lesser degree. However, the experimental group significantly lost their weight for the first 3 and 6 months; at 3 months reduction in cigarette consumption and at 6 months significant increases in smoking cessation were also achieved. All improved some of their lifestyle habits. Intervention was associated with support from nurses as well as from family and friends. Adherence scores were higher in the experimental group. Some short-term advantages in lifestyle habits due to the intervention were noted. Participants in both groups improved some of their lifestyle habits. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  20. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  1. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Important Underrecognised Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Reproductive-Age Women

    OpenAIRE

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicic; Skrgatic, Lana; Ougouag, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Many of the metabolic abnormalities that manifest in PCOS are worsened by the concurrent incidence of obesity...

  3. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  4. Risk factor studies of age-at-onset in a sample ascertained for Parkinson disease affected sibling pairs: a cautionary tale

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Jemma B; Lash, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset arising from case-only studies, however, may also reflect secular trends in the prevalence of exposure to the risk factor. Comparisons of age-at-onset associated with risk factors are commonly performed in case series enrolled for genetic linkage analysis of late onset diseases. W...

  5. Prevelence of latent tuberculosis and associated risk factors in children under 5 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As infected children represent a large proportion of the pool from which tuberculosis (TB cases will arise and its associated risk factors that influence TB infection are basic cause for burden of TB. Aim: This study was to determine the prevalence of latent TB and associated risk factors in children less than 5 year of age in Karachi, Pakistan. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study and it was conducted in tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were living in contact with individuals who had proven smear-positive pulmonary TB cases were investigated. A tuberculin skin test (TST was performed on each child. TST sizes ≥5 and 10 mm, respectively, were considered positive. Statistical Analysis: A random effects logistic regression model, which takes into account the clustering of contacts within households, was used to assess the relationship between the tuberculin response of the contact and risk factors. Results are reported as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess the overall significance of risk factors, tests for trend, and tests for interaction. Results: The distribution of TST responses followed a bimodal pattern, with 135 (35% children presenting a palpable induration. The risk of positive TST response in the child increased with the geographic proximity of the child to the individual with TB within the household and with the degree of activities shared with the individual with TB. Nutritional status and presence of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG scar were not independent risk factors for TST positivity in this population. On multivariate analysis, the effect of geographic proximity to the individual with TB, household size, and duration of cough in the index case persisted for TST responses ≥5 mm. Conclusions: Positive TST in a child reflects most probably TB infection rather than previous BCG

  6. Type 2 diabetes and cognition: Neuropsychological sequelae of vascular risk factors in the ageing brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, E.

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with slowly progressive changes in the brain, a complication referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. Previous studies have shown that patients with T2DM show mild to moderate decrements in cognitive functioning and an increased risk of dementia. The

  7. dnAGEnetics: genomic copy number variants and parental age as risk factors for psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer - Voskamp, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a life-time risk of 0.46 – 1% in the general population. It is characterized by psychotic symptoms, including delusions and hallucinations. Its predisposition is influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental

  8. Significance of specificity of Tinetti B-POMA test and fall risk factor in third age of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdić, Dijana; Pecar, Dzemal

    2006-02-01

    As for the third age, psychophysical abilities of humans gradually decrease, while the ability of adaptation to endogenous and exogenous burdens is going down. In 1987, "Harada" et al. (1) have found out that 9.5 million persons in USA have difficulties running daily activities, while 59% of them (which is 5.6 million) are older than 65 years in age. The study has encompassed 77 questioned persons of both sexes with their average age 71.73 +/- 5.63 (scope of 65-90 years in age), chosen by random sampling. Each patient has been questioned in his/her own home and familiar to great extent with the methodology and aims of the questionnaire. Percentage of questioned women was 64.94% (50 patients) while the percentage for men was 35.06% (27 patients). As for the value of risk factor score achieved conducting the questionnaire and B-POMA test, there are statistically significant differences between men and women, as well as between patients who fell and those who never did. As for the way of life (alone or in the community), there are no significant statistical differences. Average results gained through B-POMA test in this study are statistically significantly higher in men and patients who did not provide data about falling, while there was no statistically significant difference in the way of life. In relation to the percentage of maximum number of positive answers to particular questions, regarding gender, way of life and the data about falling, there were no statistically significant differences between the value of B-POMA test and the risk factor score (the questionnaire).

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population: results from the HAPIEE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamosiunas Abdonas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive ability in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45–72 years was screened in 2006–2008. Results The scores of immediate recall and delayed verbal recall, cognitive speed and attention were significantly lower in men than in women; yet numerical ability scores were higher in men. Significant associations between lowered cognitive functions and previous stroke (in male OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.75-3.64; in female OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.75, 3.64 as well as ischemic heart disease history (among male OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60 have been determined. Higher level of physical activity in leisure time (among female OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.03-1.69, poor self-rated health (among male OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15-2.14 and poor quality of life (in male OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.07-2.61; in female OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.92-4.11 were related to lowered cognitive function. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that associations between cardiovascular risk factors and lowered cognitive function among healthy middle-aged and elderly adults strongly depend on gender.

  10. Risk Factors for Nocturia in Taiwanese Women Aged 20–59 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Hsieh

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the answers to the etiology of nocturia are still not all known, nocturia has been associated with various factors, suggesting that multiple approaches are necessary in the treatment of patients with nocturia.

  11. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-04-05

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (Prisk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD.

  12. Aging Parents with Adult Mentally Retarded Children: Family Risk Factors and Sources of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    1989-01-01

    Predictors of 4 indices of well-being (physical health, life satisfaction, burden, and parenting stress) were examined among 203 aging mothers of mentally retarded adults living at home. Predictive variables examined include maternal characteristics, retarded adult's characteristics, family social climate, mother's social support network, and…

  13. HISTORY OF SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE IS A RISK FACTOR FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schick, T.; Ersoy, L.; Lechanteur, Y.T.; Saksens, N.T.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Kirchhof, B.; Fauser, S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of current and past sunlight exposure and iris color on early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Of 3,701 individuals from the EUGENDA database, 752 (20.3%) showed early AMD, 1,179 (31.9%) late AMD, and 1,770 (47.8%) were controls. Information

  14. Age-related macular disease : studies on incidence, risk factors, and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAge-related macular disease (AMD) is a new name, recently coined by Bird,25 for a progressive and degenerative disease in elderly persons affecting the macula lutea. Dysfunction of this part of the retina, and especially its centre, the fovea, results in the inability to read,

  15. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoney, Sreevidya; Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Sociocultural Appearance Standards and Risk Factors for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Women of Various Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk; Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to verify the level of impact of sociocultural appearance standards (passive awareness and active internalization) have on body dissatisfaction, the desire to engage in a relentless pursuit of thinness, the adoption of a perfectionistic attitude toward the body, and the development of a tendency to engage in bulimic eating behavior, which can develop in adolescent girls and women of varying ages. The study group comprised 234 individuals: 95 secondary sch...

  17. Aging: Characteristics, Exposure Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available exposure factor data, activity pattern and the pot...

  18. Polypharmacy as a Risk Factor for Clinically Relevant Sarcopenia: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maximilian; Spira, Dominik; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina

    2017-12-12

    Sarcopenia affects more than 10% of older adults. Next to age-associated physiologic changes, diseases like diabetes or inflammatory, neurological, malignant and endocrine disorders may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Likewise, polypharmacy, i.e., multiple drug use, is common among older adults. Although the two conditions frequently co-occur, the association of polypharmacy with sarcopenia has not yet been examined. We investigated the association of polypharmacy and sarcopenia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults (60-84 years). Thousand five hundred and two participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 5 or more drugs (prescription and nonprescription). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was calculated as sum of the four limbs' lean mass. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM-to-body mass index (BMI)-ratio using validated sex-specific cutoffs. Mean age was 68.7 ± 3.7 years, 50.7% were female. The median (interquartile range) number of drugs was 2 (1-4); 21.1% of subjects reported regular use of ≥5 drugs. Subjects with polypharmacy were more often sarcopenic according to the applied ALM/BMI-cutoffs (16.3% vs 6.9%, p sarcopenia (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.75). Polypharmacy is associated with clinically relevant sarcopenia, as assessed by a low ALM/BMI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Age-related vessel calcification at distal extremities is a risk factor of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a cohort study to investigate if the vessel calcifications (VCs found in the distal extremities are an index of low bone mass at multiskeletal sites. A total of 332 healthy women aged 41–80 years were recruited for bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density measurement using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Seven percent of the women showed VC at both upper and lower distal extremities based on pQCT images. Women who had VC were then compared with their age-matched non-VC counterparts. Results showed that peripheral VC was mainly formed at distal lower extremities, and the prevalence of VC increased with advancing age, with 0%, 5.6%, 9.3%, and up to 34.5% in the age groups of 41–50 years, 51–60 years, 61–70 years, and 71–80 years, respectively. Compared with the control group, the VC group showed a significantly higher body mass index (25.2 vs. 23.2, p < 0.01, lower BMC at the spine (27.4 g vs. 31.3 g, p < 0.05, and lower BMC (1.8 g vs. 2.0 g, p < 0.05 and bone mineral density (0.57 g/cm2 vs. 0.66 g/cm2, p < 0.05 at the hip as measured by DXA. The diagnosis of VC in the distal extremities by pQCT increased the diagnosis sensitivity of osteoporosis by 50%. The significance of our findings imply that in clinical settings using pQCT for bone assessment and identification of patients with VC in the distal extremities, patients should also be referred for central DXA measurement at the femoral neck for diagnosis of osteoporosis as well as further assessment of vascular disorders.

  20. Oral health as a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence of an association between poor oral health and mortality. This association is usually attributed to inflammatory and nutrition pathways. However, the role of health behaviours and socioeconomic position has not been adequately examined. The aims of this study were...... to examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. METHODS: Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel...

  1. Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress in Adulthood: The Role of Age, Self-Concept Incoherence, and Personal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; M[subscript age] = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors.…

  2. Assessment of breast cancer risk factors in asymptomatic hospital staff women aged 32-59: a descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, K.; Yahyazadeh, S.H.; Bahoor, F.; Ziaee, F.; Arefi, S.H.; Jafarnia, N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Iranian breast cancer patients are relatively younger than their Western counterparts. The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors for breast cancer in Iranian women and compare it with other data driven from other studies. Methods: A study was conducted in April 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Demographical data and risk factor related information, including data from their mammograms were collected using a questionnaire. Results: In all, 109 participants were interviewed. The mean age of participants was 40.48 +- 0.56 years. 1.8% of women were unmarried, while 78% were married and 20.2% were divorced/widowed. The mean age for menarche was 13.34 +-1.47 years and 46.89+-4.98 for the menopause, respectively. The mean parity time was 2.36+-1.13 and breast feeding in women was 23.27+-14.16 months. About 5.5% of the participants used oral contraceptive as a method for contraception. 8.3% of women experienced menopause, at the mean age of 46.89+-4.98. 33.3% of Mendip's women, used Hormone Replace Therapy (HRT).Moreover, 8.3% of women had a positive history of breast cancer in their family. Of those women on whom mammography was done, 10.1% had breast mass in radiological findings, mostly in favour of fibrocystic change. In 20.2% of participants, further investigation was advised. Conclusion: The findings of the present study were in accordance with other studies done in Iran and in some aspects in tune with other studies about breast cancer in other countries. However, more multi centric larger scale studies should be conducted in Iran to determine a pattern for breast cancer in Iranian women. (author)

  3. [Immune dysfunction and cognitive deficit in stress and physiological aging (Part I): Pathogenesis and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhal'skiĭ, A L; Shmarina, G V; Aleshkin, V A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of stressful cognitive dysfunction, which is under consideration in this review, allows picking out several therapeutic targets. The brain, immune and endocrine systems being the principal adaptive systems in the body permanently share information both in the form of neural impulses and soluble mediators. The CNS differs from other organs due to several peculiarities that affect local immune surveillance. The brain cells secluded from the blood flow by a specialized blood-brain-barrier (BBB) can endogenously express pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines without the intervention of the immune system. In normal brain the cytokine signaling rather contributes to exclusive brain function (e.g. long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis) than serves as immune communicator. The stress of different origin increases the serum cytokine levels and disrupts BBB. As a result peripheral cytokines penetrate into the brain where they begin to perform new functions. Mass intrusion of biologically active peptides having a lot of specific targets alters the brain work that we can observe both in humans and in animal experiments. In addition owing to BBB disruption dendritic cells and T cells also penetrate into the brain where they take up a perivascular position. The changes observed in stressed subject may accumulate during repeated episodes of stress forming a picture typical of the aging brain. Moreover long-term stress as well as physiological aging result in hormonal and immunological disturbances including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis depletion, regulatory T-cell accumulation and dehydroepiandrosterone decrease.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in adults 30-59 years of age (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Valory N; Hyman, David J; Doody, Rachelle

    2005-01-01

    In the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), three measures of cognitive function [Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT), Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), and Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT)] were administered to a half-sample of 3,385 adult men and nonpregnant women 30-59 years of age with no history of stroke. We used multiple linear regression analysis to determine whether there was an independent association between performance on each cognitive function measure and defined hypertension (HTN) alone, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) alone, and coexistent HTN and DM after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic variables and selected health behaviors. After adjustment for the sociodemographic variables, the combination of HTN + DM, but not HTN alone or DM alone, was significantly associated with worse performance on the SRTT (p = 0.031) and the SDST (p = 0.011). A similar pattern was observed for SDLT performance, but the relationship did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.101). We conclude that HTN in combination with DM is associated with detectable cognitive decrements in persons under age 60.

  5. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 40 102 Patients With First-Ever Ischemic Stroke A Nationwide Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Andersen, Z. J.; Olsen, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—We describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors at stroke onset in men and women of all ages. Methods—A registry started in 2001, designed to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, now holds 40 102 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. Patients...... the independent effect of gender and age on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and calculated age and gender-specific prevalence rates for each risk factor. Results—The register contained 47.9% women and 52.1% men. Men had more often diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial infarction, intermittent arterial...... claudication, and over the limit alcohol consumption. Women had more often hypertension and obesity. Atrial fibrillation and smoking were equally frequent in both genders. Age stratification revealed that the lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors smoking, alcohol, and obesity were more common in the younger...

  6. Population attributable risk of modifiable risk factors associated with invasive breast cancer in women aged 45-69 years in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise F; Page, Andrew N; Dunn, Nathan A M; Pandeya, Nirmala; Protani, Melinda M; Taylor, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with breast cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity were calculated, using prevalence data from a representative survey of women attending mammographic screening at BreastScreen Queensland in 2008 and relative risk estimates sourced from published literature. Attributable cancers were calculated using 'underlying' breast cancer incidence data for 2008 based on Poisson regression models, adjusting for the inflation of incidence due to the effects of mammographic screening. Attributable burden of breast cancer due to high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity. In Queensland women aged 45-69 years, an estimated 12.1% (95% CI: 11.6-12.5%) of invasive breast cancers were attributable to high BMI in post-menopausal women who have never used HRT; 2.8% (95% CI: 2.7-2.9%) to alcohol consumption; 7.6% (95% CI: 7.4-7.9%) to inadequate physical activity in post-menopausal women and 6.2% (95% CI: 5.5-7.0%) to current use of HRT after stratification by BMI and type of HRT used. Combined, just over one quarter (26.0%; 95% CI: 25.4-26.6%) of all invasive breast cancers in Queensland women aged 45-69 years in 2008 were attributable to these modifiable risk factors. There is benefit in targeting prevention strategies to modify lifestyle behaviours around BMI, physical activity, HRT use and alcohol consumption, as a reduction in these risk factors could decrease invasive breast cancer incidence in the Queensland population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Small-for-gestational age prevalence risk factors in central Appalachian states with mountain-top mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdosi, Hamid; Lamm, Steve H; Afari-Dwamena, Nana Ama; Dissen, Elisabeth; Chen, Rusan; Li, Ji; Feinleib, Manning

    2018-01-01

    To identify risk factors for small-for-gestational age (SGA) for counties in central Appalachian states (Kentucky (KY), Tennessee (TN), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV)) with varied coal mining activities. Live birth certificate files (1990-2002) were used for obtaining SGA prevalence rates for mothers based on the coal mining activities of their counties of residence, mountain-top mining (MTM) activities, underground mining activities but no mountain-top mining activity (non-MTM), or having no mining activities (non-mining). Co-variable information, including maternal tobacco use, was also obtained from the live birth certificate. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained using multivariable logistic regression comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities to those without coal mining activities and comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities for those with and without mountain-top mining activities. Comparisons were also made among those who had reported tobacco use and those who had not. Both tobacco use prevalence and SGA prevalence were significantly greater for mining counties than for non-mining counties and for MTM counties than for non-MTM counties. Adjustment for tobacco use alone explained 50% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 75% of the risk for MTM counties, including demographic pre-natal care co-variables that explained 75% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 100% of the risk for MTM. The increased risk of SGA was limited to the third trimester births among tobacco users and independent of the mining activities of their counties of residence. This study demonstrates that the increased prevalence of SGA among residents of counties with mining activity was primarily explained by the differences in maternal tobacco use prevalence, an effect that itself was gestational-age dependent. Self-reported tobacco use marked the population at the increased risk for SGA in central

  8. Risk factor studies of age-at-onset in a sample ascertained for Parkinson disease affected sibling pairs: a cautionary tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset arising from case-only studies, however, may also reflect secular trends in the prevalence of exposure to the risk factor. Comparisons of age-at-onset associated with risk factors are commonly performed in case series enrolled for genetic linkage analysis of late onset diseases. We describe how the results of age-at-onset studies of environmental risk factors reflect the underlying structure of the source population, rather than an association with age-at-onset, by contrasting the effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on Parkinson disease age-at-onset with the effects on age-at-enrollment in a population based study sample. Despite earlier evidence to suggest a protective association of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking with Parkinson disease risk, the age-at-onset results are comparable to the patterns observed in the population sample, and thus a causal inference from the age-at-onset effect may not be justified. Protective effects of multivitamin use on PD age-at-onset are also shown to be subject to a bias from the relationship between age and multivitamin initiation. Case-only studies of age-at-onset must be performed with an appreciation for the association between risk factors and age and ageing in the source population.

  9. Age and Gender Differences in the Social Patterning of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Switzerland: The CoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Spencer, Brenda; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined the social distribution of a comprehensive range of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a Swiss population and assessed whether socioeconomic differences varied by age and gender. Methods Participants were 2960 men and 3343 women aged 35–75 years from a population-based survey conducted in Lausanne, Switzerland (CoLaus study). Educational level was the indicator of socioeconomic status used in this study. Analyses were stratified by gender and age group (35–54 years; 55–75 years). Results There were large educational differences in the prevalence of CVRF such as current smoking (Δ = absolute difference in prevalence between highest and lowest educational group:15.1%/12.6% in men/women aged 35–54 years), physical inactivity (Δ = 25.3%/22.7% in men/women aged 35–54 years), overweight and obesity (Δ = 14.6%/14.8% in men/women aged 55–75 years for obesity), hypertension (Δ = 16.7%/11.4% in men/women aged 55–75 years), dyslipidemia (Δ = 2.8%/6.2% in men/women aged 35–54 years for high LDL-cholesterol) and diabetes (Δ = 6.0%/2.6% in men/women aged 55–75 years). Educational inequalities in the distribution of CVRF were larger in women than in men for alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia (p<0.05). Relative educational inequalities in CVRF tended to be greater among the younger (35–54 years) than among the older age group (55–75 years), particularly for behavioral CVRF and abdominal obesity among men and for physiological CVRF among women (p<0.05). Conclusion Large absolute differences in the prevalence of CVRF according to education categories were observed in this Swiss population. The socioeconomic gradient in CVRF tended to be larger in women and in younger persons. PMID:23152909

  10. Age and gender differences in the social patterning of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland: the CoLaus study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stringhini

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the social distribution of a comprehensive range of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in a Swiss population and assessed whether socioeconomic differences varied by age and gender. METHODS: Participants were 2960 men and 3343 women aged 35-75 years from a population-based survey conducted in Lausanne, Switzerland (CoLaus study. Educational level was the indicator of socioeconomic status used in this study. Analyses were stratified by gender and age group (35-54 years; 55-75 years. RESULTS: There were large educational differences in the prevalence of CVRF such as current smoking (Δ = absolute difference in prevalence between highest and lowest educational group:15.1%/12.6% in men/women aged 35-54 years, physical inactivity (Δ = 25.3%/22.7% in men/women aged 35-54 years, overweight and obesity (Δ = 14.6%/14.8% in men/women aged 55-75 years for obesity, hypertension (Δ = 16.7%/11.4% in men/women aged 55-75 years, dyslipidemia (Δ = 2.8%/6.2% in men/women aged 35-54 years for high LDL-cholesterol and diabetes (Δ = 6.0%/2.6% in men/women aged 55-75 years. Educational inequalities in the distribution of CVRF were larger in women than in men for alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia (p<0.05. Relative educational inequalities in CVRF tended to be greater among the younger (35-54 years than among the older age group (55-75 years, particularly for behavioral CVRF and abdominal obesity among men and for physiological CVRF among women (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Large absolute differences in the prevalence of CVRF according to education categories were observed in this Swiss population. The socioeconomic gradient in CVRF tended to be larger in women and in younger persons.

  11. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  12. Attrition in a 30-year follow-up of a perinatal birth risk cohort: factors change with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Launes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attrition is a major cause of potential bias in longitudinal studies and clinical trials. Attrition rate above 20% raises concern of the reliability of the results. Few studies have looked at the factors behind attrition in follow-ups spanning decades.Methods. We analyzed attrition and associated factors of a 30-year follow-up cohort of subjects who were born with perinatal risks for neurodevelopmental disorders. Attrition rates were calculated at different stages of follow-up and differences between responders and non-responders were tested. To find combinations of variables influencing attrition and investigate their relative importance at birth, 5, 9, 16 and 30 years of follow-up we used the random forest classification.Results. Initial loss of potential participants was 13%. Attrition was 16% at five, 24% at nine, 35% at 16 and 46% at 30 years. The only group difference that emerged between responders and non-responders was in socioeconomic status (SES. The variables identified by random forest classification analysis were classified into Birth related, Development related and SES related. Variables from all these categories contributed to attrition, but SES related variables were less important than birth and development associated variables. Classification accuracy ranged between 0.74 and 0.96 depending on age.Discussion. Lower SES is linked to attrition in many studies. Our results point to the importance of the growth and development related factors in a longitudinal study. Parents’ decisions to participate depend on the characteristics of the child. The same association was also seen when the child, now grown up, decided to participate at 30 years. In addition, birth related medical variables are associated with the attrition still at the age of 30. Our results using a data mining approach suggest that attrition in longitudinal studies is influenced by complex interactions of a multitude of variables, which are not

  13. Postoperative subdural hygroma and chronic subdural hematoma after unruptured aneurysm surgery: age, sex, and aneurysm location as independent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaechan; Cho, Jae-Hoon; Goh, Duck-Ho; Kang, Dong-Hun; Shin, Im Hee; Hamm, In-Suk

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the incidence and risk factors for the postoperative occurrence of subdural complications, such as a subdural hygroma and resultant chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), following surgical clipping of an unruptured aneurysm. The critical age affecting such occurrences and follow-up results were also examined. The case series included 364 consecutive patients who underwent aneurysm clipping via a pterional or superciliary keyhole approach for an unruptured saccular aneurysm in the anterior cerebral circulation between 2007 and 2013. The subdural hygromas were identified based on CT scans 6-9 weeks after surgery, and the volumes were measured using volumetry studies. Until their complete resolution, all the subdural hygromas were followed using CT scans every 1-2 months. Meanwhile, the CSDHs were classified as nonoperative or operative lesions that were treated by bur-hole drainage. The age and sex of the patients, aneurysm location, history of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and surgical approach (pterional vs superciliary) were all analyzed regarding the postoperative occurrence of a subdural hygroma or CSDH. The follow-up results of the subdural complications were also investigated. Seventy patients (19.2%) developed a subdural hygroma or CSDH. The results of a multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (p = 0.003), male sex (p 60 years, which achieved a 70% sensitivity and 69% specificity with regard to predicting such subdural complications. The female patients ≤ 60 years of age showed a negligible incidence of subdural complications for all aneurysm groups, whereas the male patients > 60 years of age showed the highest incidence of subdural complications at 50%-100%, according to the aneurysm location. The subdural hygromas detected 6-9 weeks postoperatively showed different follow-up results, according to the severity. The subdural hygromas that converted to a CSDH were larger in volume than the subdural hygromas that resolved

  14. Early-life risk factors identified for owner-reported feline overweight and obesity at around two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, E C; Browne, W J; Casey, R A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age two years, assessed using images from the 9-point BCS system (Laflamme, 1997), were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 6-9) and not overweight (BCS 1-5) and used as the dependent variable. Of the 375 cats with owner-reported BCS, 25.3% were overweight or obese at two years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering due to multi-cat households two-level random intercept models were considered but clustering had no impact on the analysis. Models were compared using Wald tests. Six factors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity at two years of age: being overweight or obese at one year of age (OR=10.6, 95%CI 4.4-25.3); owner belief that BCS 7 was the ideal weight (OR=33.2, 95%CI 8.5-129.4), or that BCS represented overweight cats but they would not be concerned if their cat were classified in this category (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2), at questionnaire five completion; vets advising owners that the cat should lose weight, or making no comment on their weight, between one and two years of age (OR=12.1, 95%CI 3.2-44.9 and OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5-10.3 respectively); owners giving their cat treats when they "felt happy" with them at 18 months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.0 - 7.3); feeding ≥250g wet food daily between two and six months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-5.9), and feeding

  15. Age modifies the risk factor profiles for acute kidney injury among recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Wang, Jui; Wu, Hon-Yen; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) rises with age and is associated with multiple risk factors. Here, we compared the risk factors for AKI between younger and older incident diabetic patients to examine the trends in risk alteration for individual factors across different age groups. Between 2007 and 2013, we selected all incident type 2 diabetic adults from the Taiwan National Health Insurance registry, stratified based on age: young (< 65 years), old (≥ 65 but < 75 years), and older-old (≥ 75 years). All factors with potential renal influence (e.g., comorbidities, medications, and diagnostics/procedures) were recorded during the study period, with a nested case-controlled approach utilized to identify independent risk factors for AKI in each age group. Totally, 930,709 type 2 diabetic patients were categorized as young (68.7%), old (17.7%), or older-old (13.6%). Older-old patients showed a significantly higher incidence of AKI than the old and the young groups. Cardiovascular morbidities (hypertension, atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, and cerebrovascular disease) were shown to increase the risk of AKI, although the risk declined with increasing age. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and receiving cardiac catheterization elevated the risk of AKI preferentially in the older-old/old and older-old group, respectively, while the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme/α-blocker and angiotensin receptor blocker/calcium channel blocker reduced the risk of AKI preferentially in the older-old and older-old/old group, respectively. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of devising age-specific risk factor panels for AKI in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  16. Risk Factors for Macro- and Microvascular Complications among Older Adults with Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracey, Marsha L

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore risk factors for macro- and microvascular complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and over with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. Methods. Data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (2009-2011) was used in cross-sectional analysis. The presence of doctor diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors, and macro- and microvascular complications were determined by self-report. Gender-specific differences in risk factor prevalence were assessed with the chi-squared test. Binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore independent associations between established risk factors and diabetes-related complications. Results. Among 8175 respondents, 655 were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Older age, being male, a history of smoking, a lower level of physical activity, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol were independent predictors of macrovascular complications. Diabetes diagnosis of 10 or more years, a history of smoking, and a diagnosis of hypertension were associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications. Older age, third-level education, and a high level of physical activity were protective factors (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Early intervention to target modifiable risk factors is urgently needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity in the older population in Ireland.

  17. Risk factors for stroke and thromboembolism in relation to age among patients with atrial fibrillation: the loire valley atrial fibrillation project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Fauchier, Laurent; Lane, Deirdre A

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest European guidelines on the management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), all patients aged ≥ 65 years should be treated with oral anticoagulation (if not contraindicated). Therefore, stroke risk factors should be investigated exclusively in patients with NVAF aged...

  18. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2009-01-01

    (i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....

  19. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  20. THE EFFECT OF CARDIOVSCULAR REHABILITATION ON THE EXTENT OF OBESITY AND LIPID RISK FACTORS IN RELATION TO PATIENTS' AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Petrović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that multifactorial rehabilitation programs that include physical activity, nutritional education, consulting, psychological support and pharmacological treatment, have the most favourable influence on lipid level.The Objective was to establish the effect of cardiovascular rehabilitation on the extent of obesity and lipid risk factors depending on the age of patients after myocardial infarction.The investigated group included 65 years old and older (n=67 patients, average age 72.1±3.2, and the control group with patients younger than 65 years old (n=46 average age 50.7±4.1. Laboraory tests were performed on all the examined both in and out patients (glycemia, lipid status, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride, as well as waist circumference measurement, body mass (BM and body mass index (BMI.A group of older patients, in comparison to a control group of younger patients, did not significantly differ in the extent or type of obesity. The analyses of values, before and after the rehabilitation treatment showed that in both groups of the examined patients and in all patients on CV rehabilitation program, significant reduction in BMI and waist circumeference was found after the RH treatment. In both groups of patients values of lipid parameters (total, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride and morning glucemia were significantly lower after the RH program had been finished, while the values of HDL cholesterol showed significant increase after the RH program. Values of most atherogenic indexes were significantly higher in younger patients in comparison to the group of older patients.In both groups of patients on cardiovascular rehabilitation program there were significant reductions of BMI and OS, as well as improvement of lipid disorders and impaired glicoregulation. After the CV rehabilitation, values of all atherogenic indexes were significantly reduced. This is the indicator of the importance

  1. [The frequency of risk factors for atherosclerosis in youth aged 16 and 18 years--students of upper-secondary schools in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Tabak, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    1. To examine the prevalence of selected risk factors for atherosclerosis: overweight, tobacco smoking, low physical activity, psychological distress and type A personality (characterized by tenseness, impatience, competitiveness, and aggressiveness) in adolescents and to assess the frequency the coexistence of risk factors (≥3) in relation to gender, age and school type. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of youth aged 16 and 18 years (N=2983) in 8 voivodeships in Poland. The frequency of five atherosclerosis risk factors and their coexistence (≥3) was examined using self-reported questionnaires, in relation to gender, age and school type. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the influence of the variables (gender, age and school type) on odds ratios of risk factor coexistence. Low physical activity was the most common risk factor, statistically more frequent in students from Basic Vocational Schools than in other school types (pSchools there was also the highest percentage of cigarette smokers (pSchools. The highest risk factor accumulation (≥3) was observed among students from Basic Vocational Schools (40%), significantly more frequent in girls than boys (47.5% and 37.5% respectively). Multivariable analyses show that students from Basic Vocational Schools had twice the odds (OR=2.25, pcoexistence of risk factors for atherosclerosis as compared with students from General Upper Secondary Schools, girls had almost twice as many occurrences (OR=1.83, pschool types requires precise definition of priority health promotion activities depending on school type. 2. Students from Basic Vocational Schools should be the target group for intervention aimed at reducing atherosclerosis risk factors.

  2. Gender and age effects on risk factor-based prediction of coronary artery calcium in symptomatic patients: A Euro-CCAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, R; Wiklund, U; Zhao, Y; Diederichsen, A; Mickley, H; Ovrehus, K; Zamorano, J; Gueret, P; Schmermund, A; Maffei, E; Cademartiri, F; Budoff, M; Henein, M

    2016-09-01

    The influence of gender and age on risk factor prediction of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in symptomatic patients is unclear. From the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (EURO-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62% male, from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and USA. All of them underwent risk factor assessment and CT scanning for CAC scoring. The prevalence of CAC among females was lower than among males in all age groups. Using multivariate logistic regression, age, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes and smoking were independently predictive of CAC presence in both genders. In addition to a progressive increase in CAC with age, the most important predictors of CAC presence were dyslipidaemia and diabetes (β = 0.64 and 0.63, respectively) in males and diabetes (β = 1.08) followed by smoking (β = 0.68) in females; these same risk factors were also important in predicting increasing CAC scores. There was no difference in the predictive ability of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in either gender for CAC presence in patients aged 70, only dyslipidaemia predicted CAC presence in males and only smoking and diabetes were predictive in females. In symptomatic patients, there are significant differences in the ability of conventional risk factors to predict CAC presence between genders and between patients aged role of age in predicting CAC presence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors and Types of Urinary Incontinence among Middle-Aged and Older Male and Female Primary Care Patients in Kaunas Region of Lithuania: Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniuliene, Rosita; Aniulis, Povilas; Steibliene, Vesta

    2016-03-05

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the incidences, types of urinary incontinence (UI) and its risk factors among middle-aged and older (> 40 years) men and women visiting a general practitioner (GP). This is a descriptive and cross-sectional comparative study using a questionnaire-based survey included 172 male and female patients who consecutively visited a primary care center in Kaunas region of Lithuania. All 86 women (100%) and 65 men (75.58%) had symptoms of UI (P urinary incontinence (SUI) and 60% of men urge urinary incontinence (UUI) (P risk factors for women with SUI were: age below 60 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-4.43; P pregnancies. The UUI was associated with age over 60 years (OR in men = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.15-7.51; P = .022, in women OR = 8.76, 95% CI: 2.37-32.33; P 40 years visiting GP and affected more women of the same age range. SUI was more prevalent among women, while more men had UUI. Age below 60, being married, pregnancy and delivery history, concomitant illnesses were significant risk factors for women' SUI and older age and menopause for UUI. The only risk factor for men' UUI was age over 60 years.

  4. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    conditioned by the interaction of a person and a gambling activity, in a particular context. This conceptual model is based on the well-known theory of Olivenstein on toxicomania, which was proposed in the seventies. The structural factors that appeared to be highly related to pathological gambling development and maintenance are payment modality, entertaining dimension, temporality, reward level, educational messages, gambling ambiance, gambling medium and part of hazard. Among contextual factors, availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities are well known. However, social and economic factors (e.g. culture, ethnicity, religion, education) are also important. Lastly, among individual factors, psychosocial factors are gender, age, familial and personal antecedents and psychiatric comorbidities. Neurobiological factors are not discussed here. This paper briefly summarises risk factors for development and maintenance of pathological gambling. It highlights that these factors are very similar to those that are implicated in substance use disorders, except for the gambling activity and context. Prevention regarding behavioural addictions should, in the future, take advantage of the findings on substance use disorder, since behavioural addictions are less known. Conversely, it seems obvious that findings on pathological gambling, and more widely behavioural addictions, could highlight all types of addiction. It appears that this fact is especially valid with regards to the evolution and stability of addictive status, which must be taken into account for treatment proposals. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR IMPROVING THE RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE AT AGES 12 TO 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Laparidis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease begins in childhood and this can be correlated with the presence of risk factors in adults. It is reasonable to initiate healthful lifestyle training in childhood to promote improved cardiovascular health in adult life. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-basedprogram designed to reduce specific modifiable risk factors for preventing cardiovascular diseases.Methods. The sample was 343 students (160 boys, 183 girls aged 12–16 years from the prefecture of Larissa, Greece. The duration of intervention was 1 school year. The practical part of intervention took place during the class of physical education, while the theoretical part took place in the classroom. Measurements weretaken at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the intervention. The following parameters were measured: weight, height, blood pressure, heart rate, components of the Healthy Eating Index, VO2max,Fitnessgram test battery (1 mile run-walk, trunk lift, push up, curl up, back saver sit and reach.Results. There were significant differences between the school-groups in the 1 mile run walk (p<0,001,90o push up test (p<0,001, Healthy Eating Index (p<0,001, fruit component (p<0,001, saturated fat intake(p<0,05 and variety component (p<0,001. In the intervention group there was significant increase in VO2max(p<0,05, in the weight (p<0,001, in the Healthy Eating Index (p<0,05, in the trunk lift test (p<0,001, in the push up test (p<0,05, in the sit and reach test (p<0,001 and in the component of fruits (p<0,001, while there was significant reduction in the 1 mile run walk test (p<0,001, in the body mass index (p<0,05 and in the component of saturated fat (p<0,05.Conclusion. The intervention program was successfully implemented in schools and there were many significant and positive effects. These results highlight the importance of multicomponent programs for theprevention of CVD in schools. Additional

  6. Indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children. Can age younger than 2 years be a risk factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Seo, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    The indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children are often discussed, including risks of radiation-induced malignancy. Our aim is to identify whether children younger than 2 years have greater risk of traumatic brain injury compared to older children. We enrolled and analysed 1,830 patients younger than 7 years who underwent CT scans after head trauma in our institute. Patients without any symptoms (n=916) were defined as Group A (age<2: n=391, age 2-6: n=525). Patients with extracranial traumatic findings such as scalp hematoma or laceration, and without any neurological symptoms (n=600) were defined as Group B (age<2: n=163, age 2-6: n=437). In order to analyze whether children younger than 2 years have risks of abnormal CT findings due to head trauma, we used the chi-square test in both Group A and Group B. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In Group A, there was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal CT findings between the younger and older groups (p=0.526). In Group B, however, there was a significant difference between those groups (p=0.0186). We suggest that, based on our findings, children younger than 2 years without any symptoms don't have a greater risk of brain injury compared to older children after minor head trauma. This study might contribute to save those children from receiving unnecessary radiation. (author)

  7. The characteristics and mortality risk factors for acute kidney injury in different age groups in China-a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Hong; Tu, Yan-; Tang, Ri-Ning; Wang, Yan-Li; Pan, Ming-Ming; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Age is an independent risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). The causes and outcomes of AKI in children, middle-aged, and older patients are different. The objective of this country-based study was to identify the characteristics and mortality factors for AKI in different age groups in China. Using data from 374,286 adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to 44 study hospitals, we investigated the characteristics and mortality risk factors for AKI in four different age groups: 18-39 years of age, 40-59 years of age, 60-79 years of age, and ≥80 years of age. The identification criteria for AKI included the 2012 KDIGO AKI definition and an expanded criterion. The country-based survey included 7604 AKI patients (7604/374,286, 2.03%). The proportions of AKI in the four age groups were 11.52%, 30.79%, 41.03%, and 16.66%, respectively. In any age group, the patients with AKI stage 1 were the majority (43.4%, 42.4%, 46.4%, and 52.2%, respectively), and the most common classification of AKI was pre-renal AKI (44.3%, 51.3%, 52.3%, and 56.4%, respectively). The higher AKI peak stage occurred for the in-hospital mortality factors for AKI in all age groups; except for the AKI stage 2 patients in the 18-39 age group. The characteristics and mortality factors for AKI vary by age in China. Elderly patients were the primary population with AKI, and the most common type of AKI was pre-renal AKI. Special caution should be taken to the old population in hospitalized patients to prevent the pre-renal AKI.

  8. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  9. An IGF-I promoter polymorphism modifies the relationships between birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes at age 36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehouwer Coen DA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate whether IGF-I promoter polymorphism was associated with birth weight and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and whether the birth weight – risk factor relationship was the same for each genotype. Design and participants 264 subjects (mean age 36 years had data available on birth weight, IGF-I promoter polymorphism genotype, CVD and T2DM risk factors. Student's t-test and regression analyses were applied to analyse differences in birth weight and differences in the birth weight – risk factors relationship between the genotypes. Results Male variant carriers (VCs of the IGF-I promoter polymorphism had a 0.2 kg lower birth weight than men with the wild type allele (p = 0.009. Of the risk factors for CVD and T2DM, solely LDL concentration was associated with the genotype for the polymorphism. Most birth weight – risk factor relationships were stronger in the VC subjects; among others the birth weight – systolic blood pressure relationship: 1 kg lower birth weight was related to an 8.0 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure Conclusion The polymorphism in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene is related to birth weight in men only, and to LDL concentration only. Furthermore, the genotype for this polymorphism modified the relationships between birth weight and the risk factors, especially for systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension for the middle-aged population in China - results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Fu, Chang; Yang, Fan; Mao, Zongfu

    2018-03-19

    The prevalence of hypertension in middle-aged people is increasing. However, few studies have examined the risk factors of hypertension among the middle-aged population. The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors for the middle-aged population in China. The data were from the third-wave national survey (2015) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 7,178 respondents aged 45-59 years were included in this study. Hypertension was defined as SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or currently taking antihypertensive medicines. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.12% (95%CI = 28.07-30.17). Hypertension was more prevalent among men than women (31.63% vs. 27.03%). Older age, higher BMI, chronic diseases, and poor health status were independently associated with hypertension in both genders (p < 0.05). Among women, college education (OR = 0.302, 95%CI = 0.152-0.598), marriage or cohabitation (OR = 0.756, 95%CI = 0.584-0.98), and drinking more than once a month (OR = 0.645, 95% = 0.498-0.836) led to a decreased likelihood of hypertension. Individuals with larger waist circumference were more likely to have hypertension (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.294-1.906). Our results indicate that hypertension is highly prevalent in the middle-aged population in China. Men are more likely to have hypertension than women. Older age, higher BMI, chronic diseases and poor self-rated health are risk factors for hypertension in both genders. Large waist circumference, singleness, low educational level, and non-drinking are risk factors of hypertension among women but not among men.

  11. Gestational age and chronic 'body-mind' health problems in childhood: dose-response association and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the developmental course of all health issues associated with preterm birth is important from an individual, clinical and public health point-of-view. Both the number of preterm births and proportion of survivors have increased steadily in recent years. The UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 18,818) was used to examine the association of gestational age with maternal ratings of general health and behavior problems at ages 5 and 11 years using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses. The association between mothers' ratings of general health and behavior problems was relatively weak at each time point. Children rated as being in poor general health remained constant over time (4.0 % at age 5, 3.8 % at age 11), but children rated as having behavioral problems increased by almost 100 % (5.6 % at 5; 10.5 % at 11). A gradient of increasing risk with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (general health problems and/or behavior problems) at age 5, amplified at age 11 and was strongest for those with chronic problems (poor health at both age 5 and age 11). This association was found to be compounded by child sex, maternal characteristics at birth (education, employment, marital status) and duration of breast feeding. Integrated support to at-risk families initiated during, or soon after pregnancy, may prevent chronic problems and might potentially reduce long term health costs for both the individual and health services.

  12. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p dietary pattern (Q5) was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk factors. PMID:27366909

  13. A mouse model for Chikungunya: young age and inefficient type-I interferon signaling are risk factors for severe disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse Couderc

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a re-emerging arbovirus responsible for a massive outbreak currently afflicting the Indian Ocean region and India. Infection from CHIKV typically induces a mild disease in humans, characterized by fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and rash. Cases of severe CHIKV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS have recently been described in neonates as well as in adults with underlying conditions. The pathophysiology of CHIKV infection and the basis for disease severity are unknown. To address these critical issues, we have developed an animal model of CHIKV infection. We show here that whereas wild type (WT adult mice are resistant to CHIKV infection, WT mouse neonates are susceptible and neonatal disease severity is age-dependent. Adult mice with a partially (IFN-alpha/betaR(+/- or totally (IFN-alpha/betaR(-/- abrogated type-I IFN pathway develop a mild or severe infection, respectively. In mice with a mild infection, after a burst of viral replication in the liver, CHIKV primarily targets muscle, joint, and skin fibroblasts, a cell and tissue tropism similar to that observed in biopsy samples of CHIKV-infected humans. In case of severe infections, CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues including the CNS, where it specifically targets the choroid plexuses and the leptomeninges. Together, these data indicate that CHIKV-associated symptoms match viral tissue and cell tropisms, and demonstrate that the fibroblast is a predominant target cell of CHIKV. These data also identify the neonatal phase and inefficient type-I IFN signaling as risk factors for severe CHIKV-associated disease. The development of a permissive small animal model will expedite the testing of future vaccines and therapeutic candidates.

  14. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is an independent risk factor for frequent wheezing in infants by age 14 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefano; Sartini, Claudio; Mendez, Michelle; Morales, Eva; Guxens, Mònica; Basterrechea, Mikel; Arranz, Leonor; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity has been linked to the offspring's risk for subsequent asthma. We determined whether maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of wheezing phenotypes early in life. We used data on 1107 mother-child pairs from two birth cohorts from the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente project. Maternal height was measured and prepregnancy weight self-reported at enrolment (on average at 13.7 ± 2 weeks of gestation). Maternal prepregnancy body mass index was categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese according to WHO recommendations. Information on child's wheezing was obtained through questionnaires up to the age of 14 (± 1) months. Wheezing was classified as infrequent (<4 reported wheezing episodes) or frequent (≥ 4 episodes). Weight and length of infants were measured by trained study staff at 14.6 (± 1) months of age and weight-for-length z-scores computed. Although maternal obesity did not increase the risk of the child to have any or infrequent wheezing, children of obese mothers were more likely to have frequent wheezing than children of normal-weight mothers (11.8% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.002). In fully adjusted multinomial logistic regression models, including infants' weight-for-length z-scores and other covariates, maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with increased risk of frequent [adjusted relative risk (RR) 4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55, 11.3] but not infrequent (RR 1.05 [95% CI 0.55, 2.01]) wheezing in their children. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is independently associated with an increased risk of frequent wheezing in the infant by the age of 14 months. These findings add evidence on the potential effects of in utero exposures on asthma-related phenotypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-01-01

    The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60) and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60). The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20). It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional in...

  16. The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Delphine; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Sutter, Johan; Dallongeville, Jean; Gevaert, Sofie; De Backer, Guy; Bruthans, Jan; Kotseva, Kornelia; Reiner, Željko; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Clays, Els

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in the management and risk factor control of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), taking into account their age and educational level. Analyses are based on the EUROASPIRE IV (EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) survey. Males and females between 18 and 80years of age, hospitalized for a first or recurrent coronary event were included in the study. Data were available for 7998 patients of which 75.6% were males. Overall, females had a worse risk factor profile compared to males and were more likely to have 3 or more risk factors (29.5% vs. 34.9%; p<0.001) across all age groups. A significant gender by education interaction (p<0.05) and gender by age interaction effect (p<0.05) was found. Furthermore, males were more likely to have a LDL-cholesterol on target (OR=1.50[1.28-1.76]), a HbA1c on target (OR=1.33[1.07-1.64]), to be non-obese (OR=1.45[1.30-1.62]) and perform adequate physical activity (OR=1.71[1.46-2.00]). In contrast males were less likely to be non-smokers (OR=0.71[0.60-0.83]). Furthermore, males were less likely to have made a dietary change (OR=0.78[0.64-0.95]) or a smoking cessation attempt (OR=0.70[0.50-0.96]) and more likely to have received smoking cessation advice if they were smokers (OR=1.52[1.10-2.09]). Whereas gender differences in CHD treatment are limited, substantial differences were found regarding target achievement. The largest gender difference was seen in less educated and elderly patients. The gender gap declined with decreasing age and higher education. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these ... with age, gender or haematological test. ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies on ..... The marked difference may be because monthly .... and dyslipidemia among patients taking first-line,.

  18. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...

  19. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  20. Do other cardiovascular risk factors influence the impact of age on the association between blood pressure and mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    Hg increase in SBP/DBP by multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, including SBP and DBP simultaneously. Because of nonlinearity, SBP and DBP were analyzed separately for blood pressure (BP) values above and below a cut-point wherein mortality risk was the lowest. For the total population, significantly...... 82 mmHg [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. BP values below the cut-points were inversely related to mortality risk. Taking into account the age × BP interaction, there was a gradual shift from DBP (19-26 years) to both DBP and SBP (27-62 years) and to SBP (63-78 years) as risk factors for stroke mortality and all...

  1. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Masoomi, Mohammad; Shahesmaeili, Armita; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Afshari, Mahdi; Nasri, Hamid Reza; Kahnooji, Masoomeh; Samadi, Sadra; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Opium abuse as a relatively common behavior among Iranian population may have an association with the other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Here, we reported the prevalence of opium abuse and its co-exposures with oral health and other CAD risk factors. We recruited 5900 inhabitant aged 15-75 years using a randomized cluster household survey. All were interviewed for level of physical activity (PA), depression, anxiety and opium use and assessed for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and oral health status. Regarding to opium abuse, participants were grouped into: "Non-," "occasional," and "dependent" users. Using logistic regression model for every CAD risk factor, we assessed whether the co-exposure of opium and CAD risk factor is significant. Overall, 10.6% reported ever opium use including 5.6% dependent and 5% occasional users. The prevalence of opium abuse was increased from 2.1% in 15-25 years to 24.5% in 55-64 years group. Opium abuse, in occasional and dependent forms, was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81 and 2.49) and low PS (AOR 1.43 and 1.71 respectively). Dependents were less obese than nonusers (P Opium abuse had no significant association with hypertension, diabetes, oral health status and lipid profile. Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  2. Factors associated with bone mineral density and risk of fall in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Park, Moon Seok

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporotic fractures in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) carry higher mortality and morbidity. Because bone strength and minor trauma, such as a falls, are considered to be significant factors contributing to osteoporotic fractures, it is important to elucidate the associated factors with these. This study was performed to investigate the factors associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and falls in noninstitutionalized subjects with DM aged 50 years or older. We used the database from the 2010 Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects with DM aged 50 years or older were selected and included in the data analyses. Associated factors with BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine and those with falls were analyzed using multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses, respectively. Three hundred sixty-two subjects [209 males; 153 females; average age, 66.0 y (SD 8.2 y)] were included. Among the male subjects, the total body muscle mass (P factors with femoral neck BMD, whereas age (P risk of falls. Total body muscle mass was the most prominent factor predicting femoral neck BMD and risk of falls in community-dwelling elderly subjects with DM. Further investigation is required to determine their role in preventing osteoporotic fractures in diabetic subjects.

  3. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bunt, G; Liakopoulos, A; Mevius, D J; Geurts, Y; Fluit, A C; Bonten, M J M; Mughini-Gras, L; van Pelt, W

    2017-02-01

    ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in preschool children and their parents. From April 2013 to January 2015, each month 2000 preschool children were randomly selected from Dutch population registries. The parents were invited to complete an epidemiological questionnaire and to obtain and send a faecal sample from the selected child and from one parent. Samples were tested for ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for ESBL/AmpC carriage in children and parents, and findings were internally validated by bootstrapping. In total, 1016 families were included and ESBL/AmpC prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-5.0%); 3.5% (95% CI 2.5%-4.8%) in children and 4.5% (95% CI 3.4%-6.0%) in parents. Attending a daycare centre (DCC) was the only significant risk factor for children (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). For parents, the only significant risk factor was having one or more children attending DCCs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). For parents of ESBL/AmpC-positive children the OR for ESBL/AmpC carriage was 19.7 (95% CI 9.2-42.4). Co-carriage of specific ESBL/AmpC genotypes in child and parent occurred more often than expected by chance (14.6% versus 1.1%, P < 0.001). In this study, intestinal carriage with ESBL/AmpCs was detected in ∼4% of households with preschool children. DCC attendance was a risk factor in both children and parents and co-carriage of specific genotypes frequently occurred in child-parent pairs. These findings suggest household transmission or/and family-specific exposure to common sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus infection types 16/18/45 in a cohort of French females aged 15–23 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Baudu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the basis for developing prophylactic strategies against cervical cancer, especially for young women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of HPV infection among a cohort of sexually active young French women eligible for catch-up vaccination. Between 1997 and 2007, 2163 women aged 15–23 years attending consultations at the department of gynecology in the Hospital of Besançon (France were screened for high risk HPV (HR HPV infection. Risk factors were investigated through a questionnaire sent to all participants in 2010. HPV DNA was detected by HC2 and Probe Set assays. The overall prevalence for HR HPV and HPV16, 18 and/or HPV45 was 44.6% (95% CI, 42.5–46.7% and 19% (95% CI, 17.3–20.7%, respectively. The response rate to the questionnaire was 22.6%. The prevalence of independent risk factors (age older than 19, smoking, and oral contraception for HPV 16/18/45 infection in this population was less than 20%. Based on this study, HPV vaccination should be offered not only to teenage girls, but also to young women, regardless of their sexual activity.

  6. A web-based survey of erection hardness score and its relationship to aging, sexual behavior, confidence, and risk factors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaki; Shimura, Satoru; Tai, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Baba, Shiro; Kano, Munehide; Nagao, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Erection hardness is an elemental component of men's sexual quality of life that can be easily measured by the Erection Hardness Score (EHS). However, there are few published data regarding EHS, and there is little understanding of its relationships to aging, men's sexual behavior, sexual confidence, and risk factors in Japan. To assess EHS and how it correlates to aging, sexual behaviors, sexual self-confidence, and risk factors in a Japanese population database. A web-based cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between March and May 2009 in Japan. EHS, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, general health, sexual confidence, frequency of sexual behaviors, and attitudes toward treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 7,710 men with a mean age of 39.3 ± 13.0 years participated in this survey. In 6,528 participants who were not using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 3,540 (54.2%) had EHS ≤ 3 and 1,196 (18.3%) had EHS ≤ 2. We found a significant age-dependent decrease in EHS, sexual confidence, and frequency of sexual activities. Sexual confidence was strongly associated with higher EHS but was also associated with older age groups, presence of offspring, awareness of better general health, and greater frequency of sexual activity. In age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for a lower EHS (defined as EHS ≤ 2) were heavy smoking, which was defined as more than two packs per day (odds ratio [OR], 1.7) or a history of metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.4), hypertension (OR, 1.2), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.4). EHS correlates to various elements, such as aging, sexual behaviors, sexual confidence, and ED-related risk factors, and can be a valuable tool in clinical practice for monitoring and treating ED and thereby improving the quality of life for men and their sexual partners. Kimura M, Shimura S, Tai T, Kobayashi H, Baba S, Kano M, and Nagao K. A web-based survey of Erection Hardness Score and its relationship to aging, sexual

  7. Age-distribution, risk factors and mortality in smokers and non-smokers with acute myocardial infarction: a review. TRACE study group. Danish Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, M M; Jørgensen, S; Kjøller, E

    1999-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction; paradoxically, many studies have shown a lower post-infarct mortality among smokers. There are some important differences between smokers and non-smokers, which might explain the observed difference in mortality: smokers have less...... multivessel disease and atherosclerosis but are more thrombogenic; thrombolytic therapy seems to be more effective among smokers; smoking might result in an increased out-of-hospital mortality rate, by being more arrhythmogenic; and smokers are on average a decade younger than non-smokers at the time...... of infarction, and have less concomitant disease. Adjusting for these differences in regression analyses shows that smoking is not an independent risk factor for mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The difference in age and risk factors are responsible for the lower mortality among smokers....

  8. The spatial distribution of age-related white matter changes as a function of vascular risk factors--results from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, E; Gouw, A A; Vrenken, H

    2012-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a frequent finding on brain MRI of elderly subjects, and have been associated with various risk factors, as well as with development of cognitive and functional impairment. While an overall association between WMH load and risk factors is well described...... associations were found for age, gender and hypertension. Different distribution patterns were found for men and women. Further, increased probability was found in association with self-reported alcohol and tobacco consumption, as well as in those with a history of migraine. It is concluded that the location...... of WMH is dependent on the risk factors involved pointing towards a regionally different pathogenesis and/or vulnerability of the white matter....

  9. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  10. The Prevalence, Subtypes and Obstetric Risk Factors of Urinary Incontinence in Reproductive Age Women Referred to Community Health Care Centers of Dezful, Iran- 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaye Komeilifar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence (UI is a common health problem and has a profound effect on the quality of life and psychosocial aspects of the affected women. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of UI in reproductive age women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 reproductive age women from February to June 2015. The women were selected from all of the primary health care centers of Dezful, using easy access sampling method. Body mass index (BMI was measured and data were collected by demographic, detailed information regarding obstetric and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire- Urinary incontinence – Short Form(ICIQ-SF ICIQ-SF questionnaires. Results: The women’s mean age was 33.6±8, and 57.7% (1154 of them reported UI. The prevalence of UI subtypes was recorded in 38.2% (441 stress UI (SUI, 44.9% (518 mixed UI, and 16.9% (195 urge UI. There was a significant association between the mean of pregnancies, mean of deliveries, mode of delivery, abortion, neonate>4 kg, irregular menstruation and UI (P<0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, irregular menstruation and vaginal delivery increased the risk of UI in this age group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a significant proportion of reproductive age women were undiagnosed with UI and MUI was the most common type of UI in this age group. Regular menstruation was a protective factor but older age and vaginal delivery were risk factors for UI in this study.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  12. Metabolic syndrome but not obesity measures are risk factors for accelerated age-related glomerular filtration rate decline in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Vidar T N; Schei, Jørgen; Solbu, Marit D; Jenssen, Trond G; Melsom, Toralf; Eriksen, Bjørn O

    2018-05-01

    Rapid age-related glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline increases the risk of end-stage renal disease, and a low GFR increases the risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease. High body mass index and the metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, but their role in accelerating age-related GFR decline independent of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes is not adequately understood. We studied body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome as risk factors for accelerated GFR decline in 1261 middle-aged people representative of the general population without diabetes, cardiovascular disease or kidney disease. GFR was measured as iohexol clearance at baseline and repeated after a median of 5.6 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined as fulfilling three out of five criteria, based on waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The mean GFR decline rate was 0.95 ml/min/year. Neither the body mass index, waist circumference nor waist-hip ratio predicted statistically significant changes in age-related GFR decline, but individuals with baseline metabolic syndrome had a significant mean of 0.30 ml/min/year faster decline than individuals without metabolic syndrome in a multivariable adjusted linear regression model. This association was mainly driven by the triglyceride criterion of metabolic syndrome, which was associated with a significant 0.36 ml/min/year faster decline when analyzed separately. Results differed significantly when GFR was estimated using creatinine and/or cystatin C. Thus, metabolic syndrome, but not the body mass index, waist circumference or waist-hip ratio, is an independent risk factor for accelerated age-related GFR decline in the general population. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans

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    Sang-Wook Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death.Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years.Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5–7.7] of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009. After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50–90] than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41–76].Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  14. Depressive symptoms and other risk factors predicting suicide in middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study among Korean Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Few studies have prospectively examined whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are associated with a higher risk of suicide death in individuals other than high-risk populations such as psychiatric patients and individuals with self-harm histories. The purpose of the study is to prospectively examine whether depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are associated with greater risk of suicide death and whether depressive symptoms and other risk factors are independent predictors of suicide in general-risk populations. Another aim is to evaluate the sensitivity of the BDI for predicting suicide death. Methods. 10,238 Korean Vietnam War veterans (mean age: 56.3 years) who participated in two surveys in 2001 were followed up for suicide mortality over 7.5 years. Results. 41 men died by suicide. Severely depressed participants had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (aHR = 3.4; 95% CI [1.5-7.7]) of suicide than non-to-moderately depressed ones. Higher suicide risk was associated with more severe depressive symptoms (p for trend = 0.009). After adjustment for depressive symptoms and other factors, very poor health, low education, and past drinking were associated with higher suicide risk, while good health, body mass index, and marital status were not associated with suicide. The sensitivity at the cut-off score of 31 for detecting suicide was higher during the earlier 3.5 years of the follow-up (75%; 95% CI [50-90]) than during the latter 4 years (60%; 95% CI [41-76]). Conclusions. Depressive symptoms are a strong independent predictor and very poor health, low education, and drinking status may be independent predictors of future suicide. The BDI may have acceptable diagnostic properties as a risk assessment tool for identifying people with depression and suicidal potential among middle-aged men.

  15. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Dietary Risk Factors by Race/Ethnicity, Age-Group, and Gender in a Representative Sample of US Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, J A; Huffman, F G

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional study. Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups. All participants read, understood, and signed informed consent forms under data collection procedures by trained individuals. Sociodemographics were collected by trained interviewers using a general questionnaire. Food groups were determined by 24-hour recall using the validated USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Data were presented by cross-tabulation and logistic regression to investigate relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, and age groups. Over 70% of older adults failed to consume 2.75 cups of combined fruits and vegetables. Other Hispanics (Hispanics excluding Mexican Americans) had higher Odds of sugar-containing food consumption compared to non-Hispanic Whites (adjusted model). Being older and female were protective factors for over-consumption of sugar. Older Americans are not meeting dietary guidelines and there are differences by gender and ethnicity. Since diet has been associated with quality of life and medical costs, public health interventions can benefit by knowing age-, gender- and racial/ethnic- specific dietary behaviors.

  17. Detection of mild cognitive impairment in people older than 65 years of age and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors (DECRIVAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agudo-Conde Cristina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies centered on the detection of cognitive impairment and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in elderly people have gained special relevance in recent years. Knowledge of the cardiovascular risk factors that may be associated to cognitive impairment could be very useful for introducing treatments in early stages - thereby possibly contributing to improve patient quality of life. The present study explores cognitive performance in people over 65 years of age in Salamanca (Spain, with special emphasis on the identification of early symptoms of cognitive impairment, with the purpose of detecting mild cognitive impairment and of studying the relationships between this clinical situation and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design A longitudinal study is contemplated. The reference population will consist of 420 people over 65 years of age enrolled through randomized sampling stratified by healthcare area, and who previously participated in another study. Measurement: a Sociodemographic variables; b Cardiovascular risk factors; c Comorbidity; d Functional level for daily life activities; and e Study of higher cognitive functions based on a neuropsychological battery especially adapted to the evaluation of elderly people. Discussion We hope that this study will afford objective information on the representative prevalence of cognitive impairment in the population over 65 years of age in Salamanca. We also hope to obtain data on the relationship between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular risk factors in this specific population group. Based on the results obtained, we also will be able to establish the usefulness of some of the screening tests applied during the study, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the 7 Minute Screen test. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01327196

  18. Differences in reproductive risk factors for breast cancer in middle-aged women in Marin County, California and a sociodemographically similar area of Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uratsu Connie S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Northern California county of Marin (MC has historically had high breast cancer incidence rates. Because of MC's high socioeconomic status (SES and racial homogeneity (non-Hispanic White, it has been difficult to assess whether these elevated rates result from a combination of established risk factors or other behavioral or environmental factors. This survey was designed to compare potential breast cancer risks and incidence rates for a sample of middle-aged MC women with those of a demographically similar population. Methods A random sample of 1500 middle-aged female members of a large Northern California health plan, half from Marin County (MC and half from a comparison area in East/Central Contra Costa County (ECCC, were mailed a survey covering family history, reproductive history, use of oral contraceptives (OC and hormone replacement therapy (HRT, behavioral health risks, recency of breast screening, and demographic characteristics. Weighted data were used to compare prevalence of individual breast cancer risk factors and Gail scores. Age-adjusted cumulative breast cancer incidence rates (2000–2004 were also calculated for female health plan members aged 40–64 residing in the two geographic areas. Results Survey response was 57.1% (n = 427 and 47.9% (n = 359 for MC and ECCC samples, respectively. Women in the two areas were similar in SES, race, obesity, exercise frequency, current smoking, ever use of OCs and HRT, age at onset of menarche, high mammography rates, family history of breast cancer, and Gail scores. However, MC women were significantly more likely than ECCC women to be former smokers (43.6% vs. 31.2%, have Ashkenazi Jewish heritage (12.8% vs. 7.1%, have no live births before age 30 (52.7% vs. 40.8%, and be nulliparous (29.2% vs. 15.4%, and less likely to never or rarely consume alcohol (34.4% vs. 41.9%. MC and ECCC women had comparable 2000–2004 invasive breast cancer incidence rates. Conclusion

  19. Age-related risk factors with nonfatal traffic accidents in urban areas in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Willian Augusto; Alarcão, Ana Carolina Jacinto; de Oliveira, Analice Paula Rocha; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros

    2017-02-17

    The present study aimed to analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of nonfatal traffic accidents regarding age. A retrospective, transversal, and analytical study was carried out in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, based on data from Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito ("Police Occurrence Bulletins"; BOATs). Following probability sampling, the sociodemographic aspects, logistics, environmental conditions, and time of occurrence of 418 cases of accidents were analyzed. The age of the victims was considered to be the dependent variable. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate, multivariate, and variance analysis, considering a confidence interval of 95% and a significance level of 5% (P accidents (P accidents were being single, having over 8 years of education, having had a driver's license for less than 3 years, roads with low luminosity, and driving at night. Demographic, environmental, and logistical factors were associated with morbidity due to traffic accidents among young people. These results challenge society and policy makers to create more effective strategies to minimize this serious public health problem.

  20. Cause-Specific Mortality after Stroke: Relation to Age, Sex, Stroke Severity, and Risk Factors in a 10-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, UB; Olsen, TS; Andersen, KK

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cause-specific mortality in relation to age, sex, stroke severity, and cardiovascular risk factor profile in the Copenhagen Stroke Study cohort with 10 years of follow-up. In a Copenhagen community, all patients admitted to the hospital with stroke during 1992-1993 (n = 988) were.......2% for nonvascular disease. Death after stroke was associated with older age, male sex, greater stroke severity, and diabetes regardless of the cause of death. Previous stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were associated with death by stroke, ischemic heart disease was associated with death by heart/arterial disease...... registered on admission. Evaluation included stroke severity, computed tomography scan, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Cause of death within 10 years according to death certificate information was classified as stroke, heart/arterial disease, or nonvascular disease. Competing-risks analyses were...

  1. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė Garlauskaitė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the aging of the population of Lithuania. After analysis it is concluded in the article that the decline in the birth rate and increase in the number of emigrants compared to immigrants have the greatest impact on aging of the population, so in order to show the aging of the population, a lot of attention should be paid to management of these demographic processes.

  2. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60 and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60. The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20. It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional instability, feeling of physical distress, sensitivity to external impacts, vulnerability in social interaction, communication difficulties, leading to increased mental stress. It acts predispozitciej an aggressive response. Hostility, susceptibility to reactions of irritation and anger at the lack of formation of mechanisms of deterrence immediate motivation, increase the likelihood of aggression. It is possible that the described problems are clinical conditionality. Therefore, a timely multidisciplinary evaluation of risk factors for aggressive behavior. Its elements can be screening for mental health.

  3. Obesity increases metabolic syndrome risk factors in school-aged children from an urban school in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Schiffman-Selechnik, Esther; Barbato-Dosal, Annarella; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the nutritional status of school-aged children from an urban public school in Mexico City, Mexico, and to assess the influence of obesity on health status in a subgroup of these children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A nutrition screening was done for all children, including anthropometric (ie, weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure assessment. In the subgroup of children, complementary dietary and biochemical assessment (ie, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels) was done. Children from an urban school in Mexico City (N=561) aged 6 to 13 years. The representative subgroup (n=88) was selected based on age (9 to 12 years) and weight status (ie, normal, overweight, or obese). Descriptive statistics, correlations, mean differences tests (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U), and chi(2) tests (categorical variables) were done with SPSS version 13 (2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). In the whole school, overweight and obesity prevalence were 27.1% and 21.4%, respectively. High systolic blood pressure was seen in 8.4% of children and 6.2% of children had prehypertension. Higher hypertension risk was seen in children with body mass index > or =95th percentile and waist circumference > or =90th percentile (88 cm). Significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance indexes, and triglyceride levels were found among the obese when compared with normal-weight children. Childhood obesity prevalence is high in Mexico and it is having an influence on children's health. It is urgent to design, implement, and evaluate specific childhood obesity prevention programs.

  4. Obese parents--obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0-3: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Bergmann, Sarah; Keitel, Anja; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Wendt, Verena; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2013-12-17

    The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children's weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants' weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent-child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent-child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the fathers, and the observation of parent

  5. Risk factors for obesity among school aged children in western Algeria: results of a study conducted on 293 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Mohamed Abdelhaq; Bereksi-Reguig, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Before a prevention approach, it is essential to make a diagnosis on the problem and its risk factors. We opted for a cross-sectional survey of 293 primary students of Sougueur. The prevalence of overweight including obesity according to IOTF cutoffs was 8.18%. A significant relationship existed between obesity and educational level of parents, level of physical activity; taking a snack and skipping the dinner. Our results seem much lower than published values. We find that excess food intake and light exercise can trigger overweight. In Algeria, it is time to launch programs for good nutritional information and a sufficient physical activity in children.

  6. Are religiosity and prayer use related with multiple behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases in European adults aged 50+ years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardakis, M; Papadaki, A; Smpokos, E; Sarri, K; Vozikaki, M; Philalithis, A

    2015-05-01

    Behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases involve factors relating to lifestyle habits. This study examined the relationship of religious and spiritual beliefs with the adoption and presence of multiple behavioural risk factors (MBRFs) in European adults. Cross-sectional study. Data were used from 16,557 individuals, aged 50+ years, participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004/05). MBRFs clustering was defined by high body weight, smoking, physical inactivity and risky alcohol consumption, and regression estimations with religiosity and prayer use were assessed based on sampling weights. In total, 79.4% of participants had received religious education, 33.4% had used prayer '≥1 time/day' and 53.3% had clustering of 2+ MBRFs. Lower prevalence of smoking was found in males (20.6% vs. 29.4%, P prayer use (standardized beta = 0.056, P prayer use were related to the presence of fewer MBRFs in European adults aged 50+ years. These lifestyle factors should be assessed as potential determinants of MBRFs adoption when examining chronic disease development in multicultural populations. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting Risk of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults Using Three Models: The Framingham Stroke Risk Profile; the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia Model; and Oxi-Inflammatory Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephanie L; de Craen, Anton J M; Kerse, Ngaire; Teh, Ruth; Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Wesnes, Keith A; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Robinson, Louise; Jagger, Carol; Siervo, Mario; Stephan, Blossom C M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP); the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) risk score, and oxi-inflammatory load (cumulative risk score of three blood biomarkers-homocysteine, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) for associations with cognitive decline using three cohort studies of very old adults and to examine whether incorporating these biomarkers with the risk scores can affect the association with cognitive decline. Three longitudinal, population-based cohort studies. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom; Leiden, the Netherlands; and Lakes and Bay of Plenty District Health Board areas, New Zealand. Newcastle 85+ Study participants (n = 616), Leiden 85-plus Study participants (n = 444), and Life and Living in Advanced Age, a Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ Study) participants (n = 396). FSRP, CAIDE risk score, oxi-inflammatory load, FSRP incorporating oxi-inflammatory load, and CAIDE risk score incorporating oxi-inflammatory load. Oxi-inflammatory load could be calculated only in the Newcastle 85+ and the Leiden 85-plus studies. Measures of global cognitive function were available for all three data sets. Domain-specific measures were available for the Newcastle 85+ and the Leiden 85-plus studies. Meta-analysis of pooled results showed greater risk of incident global cognitive impairment with higher FSRP (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.98), CAIDE (HR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.09-2.14), and oxi-inflammatory load (HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.04-2.88) scores. Adding oxi-inflammatory load to the risk scores increased the risk of cognitive impairment for the FSRP (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.17-2.33) and the CAIDE model (HR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.39-2.67). Adding oxi-inflammatory load to cardiovascular risk scores may be useful for determining risk of cognitive impairment in very old adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Oral health as a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged men: the role of socioeconomic position and health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sheiham, Aubrey; Batty, G David; Batty, David

    2013-05-01

    There is evidence of an association between poor oral health and mortality. This association is usually attributed to inflammatory and nutrition pathways. However, the role of health behaviours and socioeconomic position has not been adequately examined. The aims of this study were to examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel. The authors examined risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality in relation to poor oral health in middle age, adjusting for age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, IQ, behavioural factors and systemic conditions. Men with poor oral health experienced a higher risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality. HRs for all-cause mortality were 2.94 (95% CI 2.11 to 4.08) among individuals with poor oral health and 3.98 (95% CI 2.43 to 6.49) among edentates compared with those with good oral health after adjusting for ethnicity and age. The association attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for systemic conditions, socioeconomic position and behaviours. Socioeconomic and behavioural factors explained 52% and 44% of mortality risks attributed to poor oral health and being edentate, respectively. The findings suggest that oral health-mortality relation is partly due to measured covariates in the present study. Oral health appears to be a marker of socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors related to all-cause mortality.

  9. Cross-sectional relations of race and poverty status to cardiovascular risk factors in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Shari R; Moody, Danielle L Beatty; McNeely, Jessica M; Allen, Allyssa J; Sprung, Mollie R; Shah, Mauli T; Al'Najjar, Elias; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-03-14

    Examine interactive relations of race and poverty status with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a socioeconomically diverse sample of urban-dwelling African American (AA) and White adults. Participants were 2,270 AAs and Whites (57% AA; 57% female; ages 30-64 years) who completed the first wave of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. CVD risk factors assessed included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), and systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure (SBP, DBP, PP). Interactive and independent relations of race, poverty status, and sex were examined for each outcome via ordinary least squares regression adjusted for age, education, literacy, substance use, depressive symptoms, perceived health care barriers, medical co-morbidities, and medications. Significant interactions of race and poverty status (p's poverty had lower BMI and WC and higher HDL-C than non-poverty AAs, whereas Whites living in poverty had higher BMI and WC and lower HDL-C than non-poverty Whites. Main effects of race revealed that AAs had higher levels of HbA1c, SBP, and PP, and Whites had higher levels of TC, LDL-C and TG (p's Poverty status moderated race differences for BMI, WC, and HDL-C, conveying increased risk among Whites living in poverty, but reduced risk in their AA counterparts. Race differences for six additional risk factors withstood extensive statistical adjustments including SES indicators.

  10. Effectiveness of exercise intervention and health promotion on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cardiovascular disease has decreased, there is still potential for prevention as obesity and diabetes increase. Exercise has a positive effect on many cardiovascular risk factors, and it can significantly reduce the components of metabolic syndrome. The main challenge with exercise in primary care is how to succeed in motivating the patients at risk to change and increase their exercise habits. The objective of this study is to modify the cardiovascular risk in middle-aged men, either through a health promotion intervention alone or combined with an exercise intervention. Methods/design During a two-year period we recruit 300 men aged from 35 to 45 years with elevated cardiovascular risk (> two traditional risk factors). The men are randomized into three arms: 1) a health promotion intervention alone, 2) both health promotion and exercise intervention, or 3) control with usual community care and delayed health promotion (these men receive the intervention after one year). The main outcome measures will be the existence of metabolic syndrome and physical activity frequency (times per week). The participants are assessed at baseline, and at 3, 6, and 12 months. The follow-up of the study will last 12 months. Discussion This pragmatic trial in primary health care aimed to assess the effect of a health promotion programme with or without exercise intervention on cardiovascular risk and physical activity in middle-aged men. The results of this study may help to plan the primary care interventions to further reduce cardiovascular mortality. The study was registered at the Controlled Trials ( http://www.controlled-trials.com). Trial number: ISRCTN80672011. The study received ethics approval from the Coordinating Ethics Committee at Helsinki University Hospital on 8 June 2009 (ref: 4/13/03/00/09). PMID:23398957

  11. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  12. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

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    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  13. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9–15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China

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    Li Ping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9–15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. Methods A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO (2007. And then a frequency matched case–control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. Results 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8% had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity. The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P P >0.05. Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746, maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713, paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583, preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564, full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454 and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418 were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P Conclusions While overweight and obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  14. Prevalence of low bone health using quantitative ultrasound in Indian women aged 41-60 years: Its association with nutrition and other related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chawla, Jasmine Kaur; Gupta, Swati; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the prevalence of low bone health conditions and assess associated nutritional and other risk factors in Indian women aged 41-60 years. A total of 1,911 women participated in this cross-sectional study. Bone health was assessed using an Omnisense multisite quantitative ultrasound bone densitometer on two sites (radius and tibia). Crude prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be 30.09% and 19.89%, respectively. The Indian women were deficient in a majority of nutrients. Postmenopause, hysterectomy, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid, hypertension, low physical activity, low sun exposure, high stress levels, and low calcium levels were found to be independent risk factors of low bone health.

  15. The prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factors among women of reproductive age in Ziway Dugda district, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferede, Abebe; Lemessa, Firaol; Tafa, Mesfin; Sisay, Solomon

    2017-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is an important factor to determine the health and well-being of women, children and society as a whole. Although various nutritional policies were formulated and aimed at reducing malnutrition at the global level, the magnitude of malnutrition (body mass index [BMI] malnutrition and to identify the associated risk factors among women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ziway Dugda district in Ethiopia among 430 women of reproductive age between September 20 and November 21, 2015. A systematic sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify associated independent risk factors such as women's age, housing conditions, drinking water sources, habits of hand washing, dietary intake and food insecurity. The mean values of weight, height and BMI of the study participants were 51 kg, 157 cm and 18.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition (BMI malnutrition among women of the same age group compared to women from food secured households. A high prevalence of malnutrition (48.6%) was observed among women of reproductive age. Although nutrient-rich foods were available, their consumption appears insufficient. Hence, it is strongly recommended to have behavioural change communication for enhancing adequate intake of a diversified diet and to promote environmental and hygienic conditions of women through improving their socio-economic status. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating risk factors for protein-energy malnutrition in children under the age of six years: a case-control study from Iran

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    Sharghi A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Afshan Sharghi1, Aziz Kamran2, Mohammad Faridan31Department of Community Medicine, Medical School, Ardebil University of Medical Sciences, Ardebil, 2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 3Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Lorestan, IranIntroduction: Protein-energy malnutrition is one of the most important public health problems in Iran. It not only accounts for more than half of child mortality but can also produce somatic and mental impairment in survivors. The main aim of this study was to identify risk factors for protein-energy malnutrition in children under 6 years of age in Namin city.Methods: This was a population-based, multicenter case-control study. Seventy-six children with malnutrition and 76 children without malnutrition were randomly recruited for case and control groups. The prevalence of risk factors in the two groups was compared. Data were gathered from a health center database and interviews with mothers and health workers. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and logistic regression were used for data analysis.Results: Female gender, poverty, short maternal height, and use of unhygienic latrines in the home were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (P , 0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate four main factors (poverty, small maternal height, female gender, and absence of hygienic latrines in the home as underlying factors in malnutrition of children under the age of 6 years.Keywords: protein-energy malnutrition, children, risk factors, Namin

  17. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  18. Thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in a general population: MRI-based reference values and association with age and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensel, Birger; Hesselbarth, Lydia; Wenzel, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Hegenscheid, Katrin [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Doerr, Marcus [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Internal Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Lieb, Wolfgang [Christian Albrechts University, Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Lorbeer, Roberto [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To generate reference values for thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyse their association with cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. Data from participants (n = 1759) of the Study of Health in Pomerania were used for analysis in this study. MRI measurement of thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters was performed. Parameters for calculation of reference values according to age and sex analysis were provided. Multivariable linear regression models were used for determination of aortic diameter-related risk factors, including smoking, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For the ascending aorta (β = -0.049, p < 0.001), the aortic arch (β = -0.061, p < 0.001) and the subphrenic aorta (β = -0.018, p = 0.004), the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted diameters were lower in men. Multivariable-adjusted models revealed significant increases in BSA-adjusted diameters with age for all six aortic segments (p < 0.001). Consistent results for all segments were observed for the positive associations of diastolic BP (β = 0.001; 0.004) and HDL (β = 0.035; 0.087) with BSA-adjusted aortic diameters and for an inverse association of systolic BP (β = -0.001). Some BSA-adjusted median aortic diameters are smaller in men than in women. All diameters increase with age, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C and decrease as systolic BP increases. (orig.)

  19. Risk and resilience factors in coping with daily stress in adulthood: the role of age, self-concept incoherence, and personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L

    2010-09-01

    This study observed young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 239; Mage = 49.6 years; range = 18-89 years) for 30 consecutive days to examine the association between daily stress and negative affect, taking into account potential risk (i.e., self-concept incoherence) and resilience (i.e., age, perceived personal control) factors. Results indicated that younger individuals and individuals with a more incoherent self-concept showed higher average negative affect across the study. As well, individuals reported higher negative affect on days that they experienced more stress than usual and on days that they reported less control than usual. These main effects were qualified by significant interactions. In particular, the association between daily stress and negative affect was stronger on days on which adults reported low control compared with days on which they reported high control (i.e., perceptions of control buffered stress). Reactivity to daily stress did not differ for individuals of different ages or for individuals with different levels of self-concept incoherence. Although all individuals reported higher negative affect on days on which they reported less control than usual, this association was more pronounced among younger adults. The current study helps to elucidate the role of risk and resilience factors when adults are faced with daily stress.

  20. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Irene; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Cleathero, Lesley A; Janssen, Patricia A; Lanphear, Bruce P; Hayes, Michael V; Mattman, Andre; Pampalon, Robert; Venners, Scott A

    2012-06-13

    The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction

  1. Relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone with vitamin D and metabolic syndrome risk factors in late reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmie; Kim, Jin Ju; Kim, Min-Jeong; Han, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) with vitamin D (25OH-D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk was evaluated in healthy, late reproductive-age (35-49 years) women with regular menstrual cycles. Among the 291 participants (mean age = 42.5 years), most (76.6%, n = 223) were serum vitamin D insufficient (D were 2.04 ng/mL and 15.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no correlation between AMH and 25OH-D after adjustment for age (r = -0.093, p = 0.113). Subjects with higher MetS score, higher waist circumference, and higher diastolic blood pressure had significantly higher serum AMH levels when adjusted for age, but the association attenuated when BMI was included. There was no significant correlation between MetS risk components with serum level of AMH or vitamin D. In conclusion, there was no association between AMH with serum 25OH-D or MetS risk factors in this population.

  2. ɛ3ɛ4 Genotype as Risk Factor of Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged People in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (apoE plays an important role in lipid metabolism. Its ɛ4 allele has been consistently associated with lipoprotein disorders but its connection to myocardial infarction (MI is controversial. Because ɛ4 frequency decreases with age we thought that the contradictory results in different studies could be due to the wide age range of the subjects included. To test our hypothesis, ApoE genotyping was performed in 474 MI cases and an analysis was performed by percentiles of age. The frequencies of ɛ3ɛ4 genotype and ɛ4 allele in the MI group as a whole (subjects aged 31 to 92 were not significantly different from those in our area general population. However, significant differences were observed when comparing by group of age. The frequencies decreased as age increased. The ɛ3ɛ4 and ɛ4 frequencies were significantly higher in MI subjects aged 31 to 56 than in subjects over 74. The ɛ3ɛ4 genotype prevalence in an age and sex matched control group of subjects aged 31 to 56 was significantly lower than in the 31–56 year-old MI group. In conclusion, our data shows different ɛ3ɛ4 and ɛ4 frequencies depending on the age range of the subjects with MI, being significantly higher in the middle-aged group. This finding may help explain the discrepancies between studies analyzing association between apoE genotype and MI, and emphasizes the idea of considering apoE genotype for prevention at early age.

  3. Utility of a stool antigen test to detect the incidence of helicobacter pylori infection and familial and community enviromental risk factors for this infection in pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, T; Dall'Oglio, L; De Angelis, P; Torroni, E; Colistro, F; Azzolina, M; Santoni, A; Di Ciommo, V; Benedetto, M

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is mainly acquired during childhood; it is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer and it has been classified as a group A carcinogen by World Health Organization. The exact mode of transmission is as yet, not known. Aim of our study has been to identify risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in a preschool and school population and to confirm if Hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening in epidemiological studies. We interviewed, with questionnaire, 400 children (203 male; age range 3-10 years; mean age 6 years) of 3 different schools and stool samples were collected of all children too. 35 of 400 (8%) children underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of a suspect of upper gastrointestinal disease. stool were collected from 400 school children and 35 of them shown positivity of Hp antigen test. A questionnaire about presence of nausea, vomit, recurrent abdominal pain, family size, parent's occupations and education, use of antibiotics, country of birth of child and parents, personal hygiene, breast feeding, presence of the animals was completed. 35 children with positive Hp stool antigen test and a suspicious of upper gastrointestinal disease (recurrent abdominal pain, diurnal or nocturnal abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, iron deficiency) underwent to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) that demonstrated antral gastritis and positive histology and urease rapid test. the results of this study suggest that risk factors for Hp infection are low socioeconomics factors, hygiene and living conditions and that Hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening test.

  4. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured.Results: Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.13, P<0.05, as well as AISS (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51, P<0.001.Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that older age is an independent risk factor for AMS upon rapid ascent to high altitude among young adult Chinese men, and pre-existing poor subjective sleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects. Keywords: acute mountain sickness, age, Athens Insomnia Scale, rapid ascent, sleep

  5. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  6. Usefulness of Desirable Lifestyle Factors to Attenuate the Risk of Heart Failure Among Offspring whose Parents had Myocardial Infarction before Age 55 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Owais; Kotler, Gregory; Gaziano, John Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in United States and throughout Europe. While a higher risk of HF with antecedent myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in offspring whose parents had MI before age 55, it is unclear whether adherence to healthful behaviors could mitigate that risk. The aim of the current study was therefore to prospectively examine if adherence to healthy weight, regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, and abstinence from smoking can attenuate such increased HF risk. The information on parental history of MI and lifestyle factors was collected using questionnaires. Subjects adhering to at least three healthy lifestyle factors were classified as having good vs. poor lifestyle score. Incident HF was assessed via yearly follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample. During an average follow up of 21.7 (6.5) years, 1,323 new HF cases (6.6%) of which 190 (14.4%) were preceded by MI occurred. Compared to subjects with good lifestyle score and no parental history of premature MI, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for incident HF with antecedent MI was 3.21 (1.74–5.91) for people with good lifestyle score and parental history of premature MI; 1.52 (1.12–2.07) for individuals with poor lifestyle score and no parental history of premature MI; and 4.60 (2.55–8.30) for people with poor lifestyle score and parental history of premature MI. In conclusion, our data suggest that even in people at higher risk of HF due to genetic predisposition, adherence to healthful lifestyle factors may attenuate such an elevated HF risk. PMID:22516528

  7. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stora, T.; Wang, August Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods...... of increase, the most vulnerable were the young and middle-aged males, unmarried, divorced, and alcohol played a crucial role Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10...

  8. Clinical and sonographic risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia - a case-control study with parity and gestational age matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parantainen, Jukka; Palomäki, Outi; Talola, Nina; Uotila, Jukka

    2014-06-01

    To examine the clinical risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia today and to evaluate ultrasound methods predicting it. Retrospective, matched case-control study at a University Hospital with 5000 annual deliveries. The study population consisted of 152 deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia over a period of 8.5 years (January 2004-June 2012) and 152 controls matched for gestational age and parity. The data was collected from the medical records of mothers and children and analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Incidences and odds ratios were calculated for risk factors and complications. Antenatal ultrasound data was analyzed when available by conditional logistic regression to test for significant differences between study groups. Birthweight (OR 12.1 for ≥4000 g; 95% CI 4.18-35.0) and vacuum extraction (OR 3.98; 95% CI 1.25-12.7) remained the most significant clinical risk factors. Only a trend of an association of pregestational or gestational diabetes was noticed (OR 1.87; 95% CI 0.997-3.495, probability of type II error 51%). Of the complications of shoulder dystocia the incidence of brachial plexus palsies was high (40%). Antenatal ultrasound method based on the difference between abdominal and biparietal diameters had a significant difference between cases and controls. The impact of diabetes as a risk factor has diminished, which may reflect improved screening and treatment. Antenatal ultrasound methods are showing some promise, but the predictive value of ultrasound alone is probably low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Important Risk Factors of Mortality Among Children Aged 1-59 Months in Rural Areas of Shahroud, Iran: A Community-based Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Reza; Alami, Ali; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Entezarmahdi, Rasool; Shati, Mohsen; Shariati, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk factors of children mortality between 1-59 months of age. This nested case-control study was conducted among children born from June 1999 to March 2009 in rural areas of Shahroud, located in the central region of Iran using health care visit reports and follow-up data available in household health records. MORTALITY WAS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH BREASTFEEDING DURATION (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81-0.93), total health care visits (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98) and low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 7.38, 95% CI: 1.37-39.67). In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators.

  10. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    risk factors has potential negative effects for both short and longer term health. Hence, screening tools, such as NutricheQ described here, offer an opportunity for early identification and subsequent appropriate timely intervention from 12 months of age. This paper describes the development and validation of NutricheQ, a short user-friendly questionnaire. Designed to be administered by parents or carers, it aims to help healthcare professionals identify children at risk based on known, evidence-based nutritional risk factors. It is hoped in the longer term that this tool can be adapted for use globally and improve child health through early identification, which can be followed up by targeted, cost-effective interventions.

  11. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84%

  12. Cross sectional study of childhood obesity and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in children aged 11–13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy Sinead

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and examine factors associated with the presence of these risk factors in school children aged 11–13. Methods and design Participants will be recruited from schools across South Wales. Schools will be selected based on catchment area, recruiting those with high ethnic minority or deprived catchment areas. Data collection will take place during the PE lessons and on school premises. Data will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist, hip and neck circumferences, skinfold thickness at 4 sites, physiological variables (blood pressure and aerobic fitness (20 metre multi stage fitness test (20 MSFT, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnire for Adolescents (PAQ-A, accelerometery and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, fibrinogen (Fg, adiponectin (high molecular weight, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Deprivation at the school level will be measured via information on the number of children receiving free school meals. Townsend deprivation scores will be calculated based on the individual childs postcode and self assigned ethnicity for each participating child will be collected. It is anticipated 800 children will be recruited. Multilevel modeling will be used to examine shared and individual factors associated with obesity, stratified by ethnic background, deprivation level and school. Discussion This study is part of a larger project which includes interviews with older children regarding health behaviours and analysis of existing cohort studies

  13. Hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for new onset micro-albuminuria in a middle-aged and elderly population: a prospective cohort study in taiwan.

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    Hung-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Micro-albuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. We hypothesized that elevated serum uric acid (UA is associated with development of micro-albuminuria in the general population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study. A total of 1862 subjects from southern Taiwan, all older than 40 years, were screened and 993 of these participants without micro-albuminuria were followed for 4 years. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured two times per year. A multiple linear regression model indicated that serum UA was independently associated with ln(ACR after adjustment for 8 factors (age, sex, and 6 metabolic metrics (β = 0.194, p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated that each 1 mg/dL increase of UA was associated with a 1.42-fold increased risk of micro-albuminuria after adjustment for the same 8 factors (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.27-1.59, p<0.01. A Cox regression model using subjects with serum UA less than 5 mg/dL as reference group indicated higher hazard ratios (HRs only found in subjects with serum UA more than 7 mg/dL (HR = 3.54, 95% CI: 2.11-5.93, p<0.01 and not in subjects with serum UA of 5 to 7 mg/dL (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.82-2.07, p = 0.15. CONCLUSION: Hyperuricemia is significantly associated with micro-albuminuria in middle-aged and elderly males and females from a general population in Taiwan. Elevated serum UA is an independent predictor for development of micro-albuminuria in this population.

  14. Regular physical activity in old age : effect on coronary heart disease risk factors and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, A.J.

    1997-01-01


    Background. Regular physical activity is considered an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle. It may improve fitness, physical competence and may lower the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, until now, data on the

  15. Birth cohort differences in cardiovascular risk factors in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

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    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether cohort differences exist in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among older elderly from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. Participants were those aged 71-81 years at two points in time a decade apart: 457 in 1997 (earlier cohort and 553 in 2008 (recent cohort. The prevalence of hypertension (PR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.19-1.36 and of diabetes mellitus (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.06-1.83 was higher in the recent cohort compared to the earlier one, regardless of sex. The recent cohort had a lower prevalence of smoking (PR = 0.58; 95%CI: 0.42-0.80, and lower total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio level (PR = 0.85; 95%CI: 0.80-0.89. There was a 136% increase in the pharmacologic treatment of diabetes and a 56% increase in pharmacologic management of hypertension in 2008 in comparison with 1997. Overall, the number of cardiovascular risk factors in the recent cohort remained similar to that of the early cohort.

  16. A three-year follow-up study on risk factors for obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in aging populations in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guansheng

    1999-01-01

    Obesity is being recognized as a major public health problem of global significance. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and also in China. Studies indicated that obesity is the major risk factor for several chronic degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of obesity development and its relation to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is not well understood. The major aim of the proposed research study is to investigate the effect of energy intake and expenditure on body composition and obesity development, and to identify obesity and NIDDM risk factors. This study will be conducted in 100 men and women aged 65 living in urban Beijing, China. 2-H and 18-O will be used for body composition and energy expenditure measurements, energy intake by a 3-day food weighted method, physical activity level by questionnaire, insulin determinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Demographic data of the subjects will also be collected. We anticipate that the results of this study would help us understand the underlying mechanism of obesity and the relation of obesity to NIDDM in Chinese aging population, so that effective strategies can be identified for prevention and management of obesity and NIDDM. (author)

  17. A study of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children of age 06-59 months in rural area of Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh

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    Nandini Shukla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Malnutrition is a silent emergency”. Malnutrition is not only an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity, but also leads to permanent impairment of both physical and mental growth of those who survive. Aims & Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and association with various risk factors among children of age 06-59 months in rural area of Jabalpur district Madhya Pradesh. Material and Methods: Study was conducted among 517 children of age group 06-59 months in two randomly selected blocks of Jabalpur District.  Multistage random sampling technique was used. Predesigned questionnaire was used to collect data and anthropometric measurements were done. Data analysis was done using Epi Info™ 7.1.5 and SPSS 20.0 (free trial version. Result: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were found to be 35.8%, 41.4% and 19.7% respectively while the prevalence of obese and overweight was 2.7% & 5.6% respectively. Children born with low birth weight, having higher birth order, more number of siblings, those with incomplete immunization status and inappropriate feeding practices were associated with malnutrition. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the multiple risk factors for childhood malnutrition requiring multisectoral approach to fight against this silent killer.

  18. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

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    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes in normal aging adults.

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    Hiroyuki Sakai

    Full Text Available Although low executive functioning is a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly drivers, the neural basis of individual differences in this cognitive ability remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to examine regional frontal gray matter volume associated with executive functioning in normal aging individuals, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. To this end, 39 community-dwelling elderly volunteers who drove a car on a daily basis participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging, and completed two questionnaires concerning executive functioning and risky driving tendencies in daily living. Consequently, we found that participants with low executive function capacity were prone to risky driving. Furthermore, VBM analysis revealed that lower executive function capacity was associated with smaller gray matter volume in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Thus, the current data suggest that SMA volume is a reliable predictor of individual differences in executive function capacity as a risk factor for vehicle crashes among elderly persons. The implication of our results is that regional frontal gray matter volume might underlie the variation in driving tendencies among elderly drivers. Therefore, detailed driving behavior assessments might be able to detect early neurodegenerative changes in the frontal lobe in normal aging adults.

  20. Significance of Specificity of Tinetti B-poma Test and Fall Risk Factor in Third Age of Life

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    Dijana Avdić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available As for the third age, psychophysical abilities of humans gradually decrease, while the ability of adaptation to endogenous and exogenous burdens is going down. In 1987, "Harada" et al. (1 have found out that 9.5 million persons in USA have difficulties running daily activities, while 59% of them (which is 5.6 million are older than 65 years in age. The study has encompassed 77 questioned persons of both sexes with their average age 71.73 +/- 5.63 (scope of 65-90 years in age, chosen by random sampling. Each patient has been questioned in his/her own home and familiar to great extent with the methodology and aims of the questionnaire. Percentage of questioned women was 64.94% (50 patients while the percentage for men was 35.06% (27 patients. As for the value of risk factor score achieved conducting the questionnaire and B-POMA test, there are statistically significant differences between men and women, as well as between patients who fell and those who never did. As for the way of life (alone or in the community, there are no significant statistical differences. Average results gained through B-POMA test in this study are statistically significantly higher in men and patients who did not provide data about falling, while there was no statistically significant difference in the way of life. In relation to the percentage of maximum number of positive answers to particular questions, regarding gender, way of life and the data about falling, there were no statistically significant differences between the value of B-POMA test and the risk factor score (the questionnaire.

  1. Outcome and Risk Factors Presented in Old Patients Above 80 Years of Age Versus Younger Patients After Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Line; Christensen, Louisa; Christensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: The analysis was based on consecutive patients admitted within 6 hours after stroke onset and discharged with ischemic stroke, surviving at least 3 months after ictus. To prevent bias, the analysis was based on a registry from before implementation of tissue plasminogen activator treatment; all...... of age or older presented with significantly more severe strokes than younger patients, median Scandinavian Stroke Scale score 39 vs 42 (P = .003). Median mRS score before stroke was significantly higher in patients aged 80 years or older (P ictus (P...

  2. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study

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    Kuss Oliver

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005, 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20

  3. Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Eveline; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this relationship. We hypothesised that parental stress, large number of children in the home, low socioeconomic status (including neighbourhood problems) and poor parenting would account for the link between early first motherhood and their offspring's delinquency. Four hundred and sixty-two boys were selected from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of school boys in Pittsburgh, initially assessed half-yearly and then annually from 7 to 19 years of age, using self-reporting and other reporting methods. Indirect effect models were used to test relationships between variables. Higher levels of parental stress, poorer parent-child communication and caring for a larger number of children all mediated the relationship between maternal youth and persistent delinquency by their boys, but only explained about 20% of it. At least partial explanations of the relationship between a mother's age at first childbirth and persistent delinquency in her male offspring suggest that future research should test whether early interventions with younger mothers to decrease their sense of stress in parenting and improve their capacity for communication with their child(ren) may help to prevent persistent delinquency in their boys. Programmes designed to help young women make more informed and planned decisions about their pregnancies should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding

  5. Comparative analysis of characteristics and risk factors of traffic injury in aged people from urban and rural areas in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Ji-Hong; Qiu, Jun; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Yuan, Dan-Feng; Gao, Zhi-Ming; Dai, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To study the epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among people over 60 years old in the Nan'an district (urban) and Jiangjin district (rural) of Chongqing, and to discuss the corresponding strategies for its prevention and cure. Records of traffic injuries in people over 60 years old registered by the traffic police between 2000 and 2006 in Nan'an district and Jiangjin district were collected in the Database of Road Traffic Accidents and Traffic Injuries. Epidemiologic characteristics of traffic injuries among the aged people were analyzed and compared. Between the year 2000 and 2006, the average annual incidence of traffic injuries and mortality rate in the aged people in Nan'an district were 124.62/100 000 and 13.85/ 100 000 respectively, higher than that in Jiangjin district (27.49/ 100 000, 7.13/100 000, P less than 0.01). However, the mortality rate for the aged people who were involved in traffic injuries in Jiangjin district was 20.60%, higher than that in Nan'an district (10.00%, P less than 0.01). Head injury was the primary cause of death. Totally 76.58% of casualties were pede-strians. Over 90% of the traffic accidents occurred in the areas with no traffic signal or traffic control system. The traffic environment is unfavorable to the aged people. It is important to enhance traffic safety consciousness of drivers and the elderly and to strengthen traffic safety system and traffic law, so as to provide a safe road traffic environment for the aged people.

  6. Childhood risk factors for lifetime bulimic or compulsive eating by age 30 years in a British national birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, D; Statham, R; Costa, S; Micali, N; Viner, R M

    2016-10-01

    To examine whether previously identified childhood risk factors for bulimia or compulsive eating (BCE) predict self-reported lifetime BCE by age 30 years in a prospective birth cohort. Using data from the 1970 British Cohort Study at birth, 5, and 10 years, associations between 22 putative childhood risk factors and self-reported lifetime BCE at 30 years were examined, adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status. Only female sex (odds ratio (OR): 9.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-43.7; p = 0.005), low self-esteem (OR:2.9; 95%CI: 1.1-7.5; p = 0.03) and high maternal education (OR:5.4; 95%CI: 2.0-14.8; p = 0.001) were significantly associated with higher risk of BCE, whereas high SES at 10 years was significantly protective (OR:0.2; 95%CI: 0.1-0.8; p = 0.022) of BCE in fully adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis. Our findings do not support a strong role for childhood weight status and eating behaviours in the development of bulimia and compulsive eating pathology, rather suggesting a focus on self esteem may have greater relative importance. Findings in relation to maternal education and SES need further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors of avascular necrosis of the femoral head and fixation failure in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures over the age of 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung Keun; Choi, Ho June; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) and fixation failure (FF) after screw osteosynthesis in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures. We conducted a retrospective study of 308 patients (mean age, 72.5 years, range, 50-97 years), with a mean follow-up of 21.4 months (range, 12-64 months). The risk for failure in treatment (FIT) associated with patient- and fracture-related factors was evaluated by logistic regression analyses. FIT was identified in 32 cases (10.3%): 22 cases (7.1%) of AVN and 10 cases (3.2%) of FF. Initial valgus tilt>15° (p=0.023), posterior tilt>15° (p=0.012), and screw sliding distance (p=0.037) were significantly associated with FIT. FIT occurred in 7 patients (5.2%) with B1.2.1 fractures and 17 patients (48.6%) with B1.1.2 fractures (p15° (B1.1.2) compared to patients with 15° are reasonable candidates for primary arthroplasty due to high risk of FIT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  9. Different Associations of Trunk and Lower-Body Fat Mass Distribution with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors between Healthy Middle-Aged Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess whether the gender-specific pattern of fat mass (FM distribution is related to gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors. 207 healthy middle-aged Japanese were included in the study. We measured FM in the total body, trunk, and lower-body with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The percentage of trunk FM (TFM and lower-body FM (LFM is noted as %TFM and %LFM, respectively. Other measurements included glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, and systemic oxidative stress marker. Arterial properties were indicated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI and intima-media thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery. The results showed that %TFM is higher whereas %LFM is lower in men than in women and men have a more atherogenic cardiometabolic profile. In both genders, %TFM (%LFM is related to an unfavorable (favorable cardiometabolic profile. In particular, the relation between %LFM and OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity index is stronger in women than in men. These findings suggested that in relatively healthy adults, android and gynoid pattern of FM distribution contributes to gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.

  10. Early and late onset depression in young and middle aged adults : Differential symptomatology, characteristics and risk factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, Nicole C. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Lamers, Femke; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Early onset depression (EOD) and late onset depression (LOD) may be different phenomena. In this study, differences between EOD and LOD in symptomatology, psychiatric characteristics and psychosocial/somatic factors were examined. Methods: Baseline data were from 1104 participants with a

  11. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic.

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    Yajun Mu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes, aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01. Bland-Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Chinese elderly in an urban community: results from the Shanghai aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianfeng; Zhu, Guoxing; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥ 60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6-44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9-49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4-40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8-36.4%) in those aged 60-69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9-59.1%) in those aged ≥ 80 years (p value for trendsleep quality. Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities might alleviate the sleep problem in the elderly.

  13. Age of onset as a risk factor of renal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledika, Masayu Amanda; Sapartini, Gartika; Setiabudiawan, Budi

    2014-01-01

    Background Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children, characterized by triad of symptoms; palpable purpura without thrombocytopenia, abdominal pain, and arthritis. Renal involvement often occur in children with HSP. No data on the renal involvement of children with HSP in Indonesia, especially West Java. Objective To evaluate renal involvement in children with HSP. Methods Retrospective study was conducted in children with HSP in Department of Child Health, Hasan Sadikin Hospital, from 2006 to 2011. Characteristics and clinical manifestations was reviewed from medical record. HSP was diagnosed by American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria or European League Against Rheumatism/Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization/Pediatric Rheumatology European Society 2008. Results There were 128 patients, consisting of 82 male (64.9%) and 46 female (35.1%) with ratio 1.8:1. Mean age was 7.9 ± 2.9 years old which range from 6 month to 15 years. Peak morbidity was between 5-10 years old. Prevalence of HSP in Hasan Sadikin Hospital tend to raise from 2.7/100,000 in 2008 to 5.2/100,000 in 2010. In most patients (71%) purpura was the first symptom. Seventy-one patients (44.5%) had arthritis and 89 patients (69.5%) had abdominal pain, while renal involvement was in 28 patients (21.8%). Gastrointestinal manifestations tend to manifest in patients less than 5 years old (p = 0.267), while renal involvement tend to manifest in age group 11-15 years old (p = 0.015) with odds ratio 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-8.1). Conclusion Renal involvement in children with HSP is more common in age group 11 to 15 years old. PMID:24527410

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Cameroon: A Multistage, Stratified Cluster Sampling Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Methods Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13–24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25–36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. Conclusion This study underlines a high prevalence of early childhood overweight with significant disparities between ecological areas of Cameroon. Risk factors of overweight included high maternal BMI, high

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Cameroon: A Multistage, Stratified Cluster Sampling Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13-24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25-36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. This study underlines a high prevalence of early childhood overweight with significant disparities between ecological areas of Cameroon. Risk factors of overweight included high maternal BMI, high birth weight, male gender, low birth rank

  16. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all Poverweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  17. Survival Bias When Assessing Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Tutorial with Application to the Exposure of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Myra B; Karahalios, Amalia; Kasza, Jessica; Guymer, Robyn H; Finger, Robert P; Simpson, Julie A

    2017-08-01

    We illustrate the effect of survival bias when investigating risk factors for eye disease in elderly populations for whom death is a competing risk. Our investigation focuses on the relationship between smoking and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an observational study impacted by censoring due to death. Statistical methodology to calculate the survivor average causal effect (SACE) as a sensitivity analysis is described, including example statistical computing code for Stata and R. To demonstrate this method, we examine the causal effect of smoking history at baseline (1990-1994) on the presence of late AMD at the third study wave (2003-2007) using data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Of the 40,506 participants eligible for inclusion, 38,092 (94%) survived until the start of the third study wave, 20,752 (51%) were graded for AMD (60% female, aged 47-85 years, mean 65 ± 8.7 years). Late AMD was detected in 122 participants. Logistic regression showed strong evidence of an increased risk of late AMD for current smokers compared to non-smokers (adjusted naïve odds ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.74-5.13). Among participants expected to be alive at the start of follow-up regardless of their smoking status, the estimated SACE odds ratio comparing current smokers to non-smokers was at least 3.42 (95% CI 1.57-5.15). Survival bias can attenuate associations between harmful exposures and diseases of aging. Estimation of the SACE using a sensitivity analysis approach should be considered when conducting epidemiological research within elderly populations.

  18. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Mugisha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2 to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods: Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS. We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results: In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3 and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6. Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0 and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0 were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion: Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the

  19. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  20. Utility of a stool antigen test to detect the incidence of helicobacter pylori infection and familial and community enviromental risk factors for this infection in pediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sabbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: helicobacter pylori (hp infection is mainly acquired during childhood; it is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer and it has been classified as a group A carcinogen by World health organization. the exact mode of transmission is as yet, not known. Aim of our study has been to identify risk factors associated with helicobacter pylori infection in a preschool and school population and to confirm if hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening in epidemiological studies. Methods: We interviewed, with questionnaire, 400 children (203 male; age range 3-10 years; mean age 6 years of 3 different schools and stool samples were collected of all children too. 35 of 400 (8% children underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of a suspect of upper gastrointestinal disease. Results: stool were collected from 400 school children and 35 of them shown positivity of hp antigen test. A questionnaire about presence of nausea, vomit, recurrent abdominal pain, family size, parent’s occupations and education, use of antibiotics, country of birth of child and parents, personal hygiene, breast feeding, presence of the animals was completed. 35 children with positive hp stool antigen test and a suspicious of upper gastrointestinal disease (recurrent abdominal pain, diurnal or nocturnal abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, iron deficiency underwent to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (egdS that demonstrated antral gastritis and positive histology and urease rapid test. Conclusions: the results of this study suggest that risk factors for hp infection are low socioeconomics factors, hygiene and living conditions and that hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening test.

  1. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Stórá, Tormódur

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate some supposed core features of suicide through a study of suicide in a low-incidence population. The material covered all suicides and undetermined deaths 1945-2004 in the Faroe Islands (a low-incidence population) and the study made use of all available...... information. Results showed that suicide rate had been low since the Second World War. However, there was an increase throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Supposed core features of suicide, such as gender, marital status, former psychiatric admittance, former suicidal behaviour, alcohol and method preference were...... 25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods...

  2. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  3. The Global Age NGIOA @ Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Pandya, Jayshree

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Jayshree Pandya, founder of Risk Group LLC, is ahead of the curve in addressing the changing global fundamentals of the emerging Global Age.   The Global Age, and its changing global fundamentals has brought complex, chaotic, and turbulent times for every nation—where failures on all levels have become self-evident, repetitive, destructive, and potentially hopeless in nature and uncertainty. Nations are caught off guard.   From what is visible worldwide today, the promise of progress and prosperity for all nations does not seem to have materialized in this Global Age. Instead of progress and prosperity, we see crisis and catastrophe  overpowering and overwhelming the capability of most nations to meet their promise of progress and prosperity. Nations are in crisis. This introductory book addresses the global shifts and the changing global fundamentals of the Global Age, to lay out a much needed foundation of an integrated NGIOA risk governance framework for the near future. This book will make a conv...

  4. Effects of supervised whole body vibration exercise on fall risk factors, functional dependence and health-related quality of life in nursing home residents aged 80+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Barbosa, Francisco; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Alfonso-Rosa, Rosa M; Rogers, Michael E; Zhang, Yanxin

    2014-12-01

    To test the feasibility and effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy on fall risk, functional dependence and health-related quality of life in nursing home residents aged 80+ years. Twenty-nine 80-95 years old volunteers, nursing home residents were randomized to an eight-week WBV intervention group) (n=15) or control group (n=14). Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test. Lower limb performance was evaluated using the 30-s Chair Sit to Stand (30-s CSTS) test. Postural stability was measured using a force platform. The Barthel Index was used to assess functional dependence and the EuroQol (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at a follow-up after 8 weeks. At the 8-week follow up, TUG test (p<0.001), 30-s CSTS number of times (p=0.006), EQ-5Dmobility (p<0.001), EQ-5DVAS (p<0.014), EQ-5Dutility (p<0.001) and Barthel index (p=0.003) improved in the WBV intervention group when compared to the control group. An 8-week WBV-based intervention in a nursing home setting is effective in reducing fall risk factors and quality of life in nursing home residents aged 80+. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of Small for Gestational Age Infants in Healthy Nulliparous Women Using Clinical and Ultrasound Risk Factors Combined with Early Pregnancy Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley M E McCowan

    Full Text Available Most small for gestational age pregnancies are unrecognised before birth, resulting in substantial avoidable perinatal mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to develop multivariable prediction models for small for gestational age combining clinical risk factors and biomarkers at 15±1 weeks' with ultrasound parameters at 20±1 weeks' gestation.Data from 5606 participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE cohort study were divided into Training (n = 3735 and Validation datasets (n = 1871. The primary outcomes were All-SGA (small for gestational age with birthweight <10th customised centile, Normotensive-SGA (small for gestational age with a normotensive mother and Hypertensive-SGA (small for gestational age with an hypertensive mother. The comparison group comprised women without the respective small for gestational age phenotype. Multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression beginning with clinical variables, and subsequent additions of biomarker and then ultrasound (biometry and Doppler variables. Model performance was assessed in Training and Validation datasets by calculating area under the curve.633 (11.2% infants were All-SGA, 465(8.2% Normotensive-SGA and 168 (3% Hypertensive-SGA. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals for All-SGA using 15±1 weeks' clinical variables, 15±1 weeks' clinical+ biomarker variables and clinical + biomarkers + biometry /Doppler at 20±1 weeks' were: 0.63 (0.59-0.67, 0.64 (0.60-0.68 and 0.69 (0.66-0.73 respectively in the Validation dataset; Normotensive-SGA results were similar: 0.61 (0.57-0.66, 0.61 (0.56-0.66 and 0.68 (0.64-0.73 with small increases in performance in the Training datasets. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals for Hypertensive-SGA were: 0.76 (0.70-0.82, 0.80 (0.75-0.86 and 0.84 (0.78-0.89 with minimal change in the Training datasets.Models for prediction of small for gestational age, which combine biomarkers, clinical and

  6. Results of the population study of the prevalence and risk factors of the food intolerance in children of different school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Р. Pakholchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food

  7. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  8. Socioeconomic gradients of cardiovascular risk factors in China and India: results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peifeng; Wang, Serena; Lee, Jinkook

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease has become a major public health challenge in developing countries. The goal of this study is to compare socioeconomic status (SES) gradients of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) both within and between China and India. We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between SES and CVRF, using data from the China health and retirement longitudinal study and the longitudinal aging study in India. The results showed that, compared to illiteracy, the odds ratios of completing junior high school for high-risk waist circumference were 4.99 (95% confidence interval: 1.77-14.06) among Indian men, 3.42 (95% confidence interval: 1.66-7.05) among Indian women, but 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.92) among Chinese women. Similar patterns were observed between educational attainment and high-risk body mass index, and between education and hypertension, based on self-reported physician diagnosis and direct blood pressure measurements. SES is associated with CVRF in both China and India. However, this relationship showed opposite patterns across two countries, suggesting that this association is not fixed, but is subjective to underlying causal pathways, such as patterns of risky health behaviors and different social and health policies.

  9. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Agersew; Tegegne, Yalewayker; Damte, Demekech; Melku, Mulugeta

    2016-05-23

    Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Of the total children, 141 (35.2 %) harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 %) of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 %) followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %). The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %). After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97-17.95), being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27-25.4), using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2-12.3) and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.64) were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in Chuahit. This finding calls for a need of public health education

  10. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agersew Alemu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Results Of the total children, 141 (35.2 % harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 % of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 % followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %. The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %. After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97–17.95, being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27–25.4, using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2–12.3 and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01–3.64 were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. Conclusion The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in

  11. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Forga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8 years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7% developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age 44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy.

  12. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu-Gang; Zhang, Ji-hang; Qin, Jun; Gao, Xu-bin; Li, Qian-ning; Yu, Jie; Ding, Xiao-han; Huang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS) when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude. A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS) was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were measured. Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.13, Psleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects.

  13. The Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D and Its Associated Risk Factors Among Women of Reproductive Age in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is currently a worldwide epidemic. Middle Eastern countries, including Saudi Arabia, have high vitamin D deficiency prevalence, most prominently among women, despite their plentiful year-round sunshine. Previous research investigating vitamin D status among Saudi women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is scarce, and no study has used a nationally representative sample, so this review quantified overall hypovitaminosis D prevalence among women in Saudi Arabia and explored the associated risk factors. The Web of Science, Scopus, and Medline databases were searched for prior studies in Saudi Arabia exploring vitamin D status among women of reproductive age, published between January 1, 2000 and May 25, 2017. Data were extracted from the identified studies, and a random effects model meta-analysis established the overall hypovitaminosis D prevalence. The initial search yielded 223 possibly relevant articles; 13 were confirmed as eligible, with samples totaling 2877 women aged between 15 and 49 years. Meta-analysis revealed a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D, level of 13.1 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.6-14.6) and an overall prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, defined as 25(OH)D Saudi Arabia by advising them on natural vitamin D sources, and recommending the timing and duration of sun exposure, while also defining a national approach to vitamin D fortification and supplementation.

  14. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  15. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  16. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  17. Serum uric acid level as a cardio-cerebrovascular event risk factor in middle-aged and non-obese Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jun; Yi, Chen-Ju; Li, Jing; Tang, Na

    2017-04-11

    The role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases is controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid level and the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular events in middle-aged and non-obese Chinese men. We included 3152 participants from the health examination center of Tongji Hospital from June 2007 to June 2010. Clinical examination and medical records were collected at the annual health examination. The hazard ratios (HRs) of uric acid for cardio-cerebrovascular events were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. Generalized additive model and threshold effect analysis were used to explore the non-linear relationship between serum uric acid level and the incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular event. The mean follow-up time was 52 months. When the participants were classified into four groups by the serum acid quarter (Q1-Q4), the HRs (95% CI) of Q2-Q4 for cardio-cerebrovascular events were 1.26 (0.83, 1.92), 1.97 (1.33, 2.91) and 2.05 (1.40, 3.01), respectively, compared with the reference (Q1). The actual incidence and conditional incidence of cardio-cerebrovascular events in the high serum acid group were higher than those in the low serum acid group, which were stratified by the turning point (sUA = 372 μmol/L). We also showed a strong prognostic accuracy of the multiple variable-based score in 3 years and 5 years, with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.790 (0.756-0.823) and 0.777 (0.749-0.804), respectively. Serum uric acid level is a strong risk factor for cardio-cerebrovascular events.

  18. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  19. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  20. Timing Is Everything: Age of Onset Influences Long-Term Retinopathy Risk in Type 2 Diabetes, Independent of Traditional Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Jencia; Molyneaux, Lynda; Constantino, Maria; Twigg, Stephen M.; Yue, Dennis K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?To test the hypothesis that age of type 2 diabetes onset influences inherent susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy, independent of disease duration and degree of hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Retinopathy data from 624 patients with a type 2 diabetes duration of 20?30 years (group A) were analyzed by stratifying patients according to age of onset of diabetes and glycemic control. Retinopathy status was scored clinically as per a modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinop...

  1. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  2. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  3. Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Loeber, R.; Pardini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Aims Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this

  4. Risk factors for tornado injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, M; Lybarger, J A; Parsons, J E; MacCormack, J N; Freeman, J I

    1990-12-01

    Tornadoes in North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984 caused 252 people to be injured seriously enough to require hospitalization and 59 to be killed. To evaluate risk factors, we gathered information on 238 (94%) of those hospitalized and 46 (78%) of those killed. Those hospitalized or deceased had statistically significantly more deep cuts, concussions, unconsciousness and broken bones than those with them at the time of the tornado who were not hospitalized or killed. People living in mobile homes were more likely to be hospitalized or die than people occupying conventional houses. Other risk factors for hospitalization or death included advanced age (60+ years), no physical protection (not having been covered with a blanket or other object), having been struck by broken window glass or other falling objects, home lifted off its foundation, collapsed ceiling or floor, or walls blown away. More awareness of the tornado risk before it strikes and better adherence to tornado protection guidelines could reduce injuries and deaths in the future.

  5. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Description of OPRA: A Danish database designed for the analyses of risk factors associated with 30-day hospital readmission of people aged 65+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona K; Nielsen, Gunnar L; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Ole S; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2017-08-01

    To describe the construction of the Older Person at Risk Assessment (OPRA) database, the ability to link this database with existing data sources obtained from Danish nationwide population-based registries and to discuss its research potential for the analyses of risk factors associated with 30-day hospital readmission. We reviewed Danish nationwide registries to obtain information on demographic and social determinants as well as information on health and health care use in a population of hospitalised older people. The sample included all people aged 65+ years discharged from Danish public hospitals in the period from 1 January 2007 to 30 September 2010. We used personal identifiers to link and integrate the data from all events of interest with the outcome measures in the OPRA database. The database contained records of the patients, admissions and variables of interest. The cohort included 1,267,752 admissions for 479,854 unique people. The rate of 30-day all-cause acute readmission was 18.9% ( n=239,077) and the overall 30-day mortality was 5.0% ( n=63,116). The OPRA database provides the possibility of linking data on health and life events in a population of people moving into retirement and ageing. Construction of the database makes it possible to outline individual life and health trajectories over time, transcending organisational boundaries within health care systems. The OPRA database is multi-component and multi-disciplinary in orientation and has been prepared to be used in a wide range of subgroup analyses, including different outcome measures and statistical methods.

  7. Programa para mejorar marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares mexicanos A program to improve some cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Perichart-Perera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un programa de actividad física sobre los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares mexicanos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Escolares de dos escuelas públicas de Querétaro (n= 360, 8-14 años realizaron una rutina de actividad física durante 16 semanas (febrero a mayo de 2006. Se compararon mediciones antropométricas, de presión arterial y química sanguínea, antes y después de la intervención. RESULTADOS: La presión sistólica, los triacilglicéridos y el colesterol total disminuyeron de forma significativa en los escolares. La reducción de los lípidos fue mayor en los escolares con valores iniciales alterados. En niñas con riesgo cardiovascular inicial, el puntaje de conglomerado de riesgo disminuyó en grado considerable. No se observaron cambios en el IMC, circunferencia de cintura e insulina sé-rica. CONCLUSIONES: La aplicación de una rutina de ejercicio sencilla tiene efectos notorios sobre los indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares. Estos resultados pueden considerarse un modelo de intervención para paliar los efectos de la obesidad infantil.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a physical activity intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican school-age children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children from two public schools in Queretaro (n=360, 8-14 years old performed a 20-minute physical activity routine every school day during 16 weeks (February-May 2006. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical assessment was done before and after implementation. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels decreased significantly. The decrease in lipid and lipoprotein levels was higher in children with high baseline levels. In high-risk girls, the cardiovascular risk cluster score decreased significantly. No change in BMI, waist circumference, or insulin was observed. CONCLUSION: A simple physical activity program modified several cardiovascular risk markers

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of breast cancer by age and hormone receptor status-A prospective study within the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Johnson, Theron; Tikk, Kaja; Sookthai, Disorn; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Buckland, Genevieve; Argüelles, Marcial; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2014-06-01

    Experimental evidence shows cross-talk in mammary cells between estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and their respective receptors and possible synergistic effects of estrogen receptor (ER) activation and increased IGF-I signaling with regard to breast tumor development, and epidemiological evidence suggests that circulating IGF-I levels may be related more to the risk of ER-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European EPIC cohort (938 breast cancer cases and 1,394 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum IGF-I levels with the risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors. IGF-I levels were positively associated with the risk of ER+ breast tumors overall (pre- and postmenopausal women combined, odds ratio (OR)Q4-Q1 = 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.98] for the highest vs. lowest quartile; OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.04-1.33] per 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in IGF-I, ptrend = 0.01) and among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or older (ORQ3-Q1 = 1.38 [95% CI 1.01-1.89]; OR = 1.19 [95% CI 1.04-1.36] per 1-SD increase in IGF-I, ptrend = 0.01) but not with receptor-positive disease diagnosed at an earlier age. No statistically significant associations were observed for ER- breast tumors overall and by age at diagnosis. Tests for heterogeneity by receptor status of the tumor were not statistically significant, except for women diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or older (phet = 0.03 for ER+/PR+ vs. ER-/PR- disease). Our data add to a global body of evidence indicating that higher circulating IGF-I levels may increase risk specifically of receptor-positive, but not receptor-negative, breast cancer diagnosed at 50 years or older. © 2013 UICC.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of neurological impairment among children aged 6–9 years: from population based cross sectional study in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakatsu Yoshito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of disability is more severe among children in low income countries. Moreover, the number of children with disabilities (CWDs in sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to increase with reduction in child mortality. Although the issue on CWDs is important in sub-Saharan Africa, there are few researches on risk factors of disabilities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of neurological impairment (NI among children in western Kenya. Methods The present study was conducted in Mbita district (which has high HIV infectious prevalence, Kenya from April 2009 to December 2010. The study consisted of two phases. In phase 1, the Ten Question Questionnaire (TQQ was administered to all 6362 caregivers of children aged 6–9 years. In phase two, all 413 children with TQQ positive and a similar number of controls (n=420 which were randomly selected from children with TQQ negative were examined for physical and cognitive status. In addition, a structured questionnaire was also conducted to their caregivers. Results The prevalence was estimated to be 29/1000. Among the types of impairments, cognitive impairment was the most common (24/1000, followed by physical impairment (5/1000. In multivariate analysis, having more than five children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.85; 95%IC: 1.25 – 6.49; p=0.013], maternal age older than 35 years old [AOR: 2.31; 95%IC: 1.05 – 5.07; p=0.036] were significant factors associated with NI. In addition, monthly income under 3000 ksh [AOR: 2.79; 95%IC: 1.28 – 6.08; p=0.010] and no maternal tetanus shot during antenatal care [AOR: 5.17; 95%IC: 1.56 – 17.14; p=0.007] were also significantly related with having moderate/severe neurological impairment. Conclusion It was indicated that increasing coverage of antenatal care including maternal tetanus shot and education of how to take care of neonatal children to prevent neurological impairment are important.

  10. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  11. Parents' age and the risk of oral clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, C.; Skytthe, A.; Vach, W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some malformations are clearly associated with older maternal age, but the effect of older age of the father is less certain. The aim of this study is to determine the degree to which maternal age and paternal age independently influence the risk of having a child with oral clefts....... In a joint analysis, both maternal and paternal ages were associated with the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, but the contribution of each was dependent on the age of the other parent. In the analysis of cleft palate only, the effect of maternal age disappeared, leaving only paternal age...... as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: Both high maternal age and high paternal age were associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Higher paternal age but not maternal age increased the risk of cleft palate only....

  12. Age-related changes of healthy bone marrow cell signaling in response to growth factors provide insight into low risk MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblau, Steven M; Cohen, Aileen C; Soper, David; Huang, Ying-Wen; Cesano, Alessandra

    2014-11-01

    Single Cell Network Profiling (SCNP) is a multiparametric flow cytometry-based assay that quantifiably and simultaneously measures changes in intracellular signaling proteins in response to in vitro extracellular modulators at the single cell level. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of hematopoietic stem cells that occurs in elderly subjects and is characterized by dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. The functional responsiveness of MDS bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells, including functionally distinct myeloid and erythroid precursor subsets, to hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) and the relationship of modulated signaling to disease characteristics is poorly understood. SCNP was used first to examine the effects of age on erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF)-induced signaling in myeloid, nucleated red blood cells (nRBC), and CD34 expressing cell subsets in healthy BM (n = 15). SCNP was then used to map functional signaling profiles in low risk (LR) MDS (n = 7) for comparison to signaling in samples from healthy donors and to probe signaling associations within clinically defined subgroups. In healthy BM samples, signaling responses to HGF were quite homogeneous (i.e., tightly regulated) with age-dependent effects observed in response to EPO but not to GCSF. Despite the relatively small number of samples assayed in the study, LR MDS could be classified into distinct subgroups based on both cell subset frequency and signaling profiles. As a correlate of underlying genetic abnormalities, signal transduction analyses may provide a functional and potentially clinically relevant classification of MDS. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is warranted. © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. Study of Nutritional Status and Identification of Associated Risk Factors in Children Below Five Years of Age in an Urban Slum of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dishant Joy Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child malnutrition is a single large contributor to under-five mortality due to greater susceptibility to infections and slow recovery from illness. Prevalence of malnutrition is high in Madhya Pradesh as compared to other states of India. Aims & Objectives: The study was aimed to find the prevalence, and study the risk factors for malnutrition, in children under the age of five years, in an urban slum, and also recommend appropriate remedial measures. Material and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 children under the age of 5 years in an urban slum Pipaliya Pende Khan in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh from August 2013 to October 2013. Anthropometric measurements like weight and height were recorded. They were also made to fill a pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis was done. Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting according to WHO Child Growth Standards, April 2006 was 62.6% (52.1%, 73.1%, 41.9%(31.4% , 52.5% and 17.4% (9.1% , 25.7% respectively. Stunting was associated with educational status of mother, more prevalent in children of less literate mother. Underweight was associated with both educational status of mother and type of toilet facility. Wasting was more prevalent in Muslim community and families with low socio-economic status. Conclusions: The study shows very high prevalence of the malnutrition, in the given community. The results also confirmed that education status of mother, type of toilet facility, religion and socio-economic status are some of the key determinants of nutritional status of children under the age of 5 years.

  14. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  15. PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY, PAEDIATRIC METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS AMONG CHILDREN IN THE AGE GROUP OF 10-16 YEARS IN PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF SHIMLA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmol Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric obesity is a complex and growing global problem which is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries like India and considered an important predecessor to NCD multi-morbidity due to changing life style as a result of rapid urbanisation and mechanisation. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, paediatric metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 10-16 years in private schools of Shimla city. MATERIALS AND METHODS At total of 2100 adolescents attending school (aged 10-16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the anthropometric, clinical and biochemical assessment was done after proper consent. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed by using IOTF guidelines and the metabolic syndrome was determined by the Paediatric International Diabetic Federation definition modified for age group. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight, obesity and paediatric metabolic syndrome was 14.5%, 4.1% & 4.3% respectively. In the groups with PMS, hypertension, waist circumference, and TG were significantly higher, and HDL-C was significantly lower. Significant difference was observed in gender, physical activity level, metabolic equivalent, consumption of junk food & time spent on TV in the distribution of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION Our study highlights the possible role of change in the dietary pattern and physical activity pattern in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in early stage of life. Collective efforts of parents and schools are required to institute early preventive measures to reduce progression towards obesity and its future complications.

  16. Effects of different modes of exercise training on body composition and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

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    Hamid Reza Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have indicated that exercise training improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, strength and combined training on body composition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP in sedentary middle-aged men. Methods: Forty-seven male aged 40–60 years voluntarily participated in this study and were divided in four groups: aerobic (n = 12, strength (n = 12, combined (n = 11, and control (n = 12 groups randomly. Body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP were measured before and after 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and analysis of variance statistical methods. Results: There were significant differences in body weight between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.004 and aerobic and control groups (P = 0.018, body mass index between combined and strength training (P = 0.004 and combined and control groups (P = 0.001, fat percentage between aerobic training and control group (P = 0.017 and combined training and control groups (P = 0.004, and finally, fat-free mass between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.024, aerobic and combined training (P = 0.0001, strength and control groups (P = 0.035, and combined and control groups (P = 0.0001. Conclusions: The results indicated that 12-week workout, 20–60 min/session, 3 days a week of moderate intensity exercise improved body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP compared to those who did not participate in any training. However, all three types of exercises had small benefits on body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP in sedentary middle-aged men, and the importance of combined training required further investigations.

  17. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  18. Comparison of the Risk Factor Profile, Stroke Subtypes, and Outcomes Between Stroke Patients Aged 65 Years or Younger and Elderly Stroke Patients: A Hospital-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Min Chen

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that, apart from risk factors and stroke subtypes, the functional outcomes observed in the two groups differed. Early identification of these differences with good management may help to improve the clinical outcomes in younger stroke patients.

  19. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  20. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  1. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  2. Social, economic and environmental risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections among children under five years of age in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harerimana, Jean-Modeste; Nyirazinyoye, Leatitia; Thomson, Dana R; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In low and middle-income countries, acute lower respiratory illness is responsible for roughly 1 in every 5 child deaths. Rwanda has made major health system improvements including its community health worker systems, and it is one of the few countries in Africa to meet the 2015 Millennium Development Goals, although prevalence of acute lower respiratory infections (4 %) is similar to other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to assess social, economic, and environmental factors associated with acute lower respiratory infections among children under five to inform potential further improvements in the health system. This is a cross-sectional study using data collected from women interviewed in the 2010 DHS about 8,484 surviving children under five. Based on a literature review, we defined 19 health, social, economic, and environmental potential risk factors, tested bivariate associations with acute lower respiratory infections, and advanced variables significant at the 0.1 confidence level to logistic regression modelling. We used manual backward stepwise regression to arrive at a final model. All analyses were performed in Stata v13 and adjusted for complex sample design. The following factors were independently associated with acute lower respiratory infections: child's age, anemia level, and receipt of Vitamin A; household toilet type and residence, and season of interview. In multivariate regression, being in the bottom ten percent of households (OR: 1.27, 95 % CI: 0.85-1.87) or being interviewed during the rainy season (OR: 1.61, 95 % CI: 1.24-2.09) was positively associated with acute lower respiratory infections, while urban residence (OR: 0.58, 95 % CI: 0.38-0.88) and being age 24-59 months versus 0-11 months (OR: 0.53, 95 % CI: 0.40-0.69) was negatively associated with acute lower respiratory infections. Potential areas for intervention including community campaigns about acute lower respiratory infections symptoms and treatment, and

  3. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection and Associated Risk Factors among School-Age Children in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Zerdo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA to the most risky population including school-age children (SAC is the central strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection. The present study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of STHs reinfection three months posttreatment and associated risk factors among SAC in Chencha district. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April 20 to May 5, 2015, to enroll 408 SAC. Structured questionnaire and Kato-Katz thick smear technique were used to interview parents or guardians and quantify the number of eggs per gram of stool. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess the association between predictor variable and STH reinfection. The prevalence of STHs within three months of mass chemotherapy among SAC was 36.8% which is 93.4% of the prevalence (39.4% before treatment. The estimated prevalence of reinfection (95%CI for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms was 23.8% (21.1–28.2, 16.2% (12.7–20.1, and 1.0% (0.3–2.5, respectively. Children of merchant fathers were more likely to be reinfected by STHs in Chencha district. In conclusion, there is rapid reinfection after mass chemotherapy among SAC in Chencha district. Further studies should be carried out to generate cost efficient methods that can supplement mass drug administration to accelerate the control of STHs.

  4. Prevalence, Age Profile, and Associated Risk Factors for Hymenolepis nana Infection in a Large Population-Based Study in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez Barreto, Percy M; Gamboa, Ricardo; Santivañez, Saul; O'Neal, Seth E; Muro, Claudio; Lescano, Andrés G; Moyano, Luz-Maria; Gonzálvez, Guillermo; García, Hector H

    2017-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana , the dwarf tapeworm, is a common intestinal infection of children worldwide. We evaluated infection and risk factor data that were previously collected from 14,761 children aged 2-15 years during a large-scale program in northern Peru. We found that 1,124 of 14,761 children (7.61%) had H. nana infection, a likely underestimate given that only a single stool sample was examined by microscopy for diagnosis. The strongest association with infection was lack of adequate water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-2.48) and sanitation infrastructure in the house (aPR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64-2.29). One quarter of those tested did not have a bathroom or latrine at home, which doubled their likelihood of infection. Similarly, one quarter did not have piped public water to the house, which also increased the likelihood of infection. Continued efforts to improve access to basic water and sanitation services will likely reduce the burden of infection in children for this and other intestinal infections.

  5. The effect of 8 weeks of Circuit Resistance Training on metabolic syndrome risk factors and body composition in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Amene Azarmehr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM increased significantly in the last three decades, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Physical activity and exercise training is an effective way for metabolic syndrome risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. However, the effects of Circuit Resistance Training (CRT program on patients T2DM are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigation the effect of 8 weeks of Circuit resistance training (CRT on metabolic syndrome and body composition in women over age 50 with T2DM. Methods: Twenty women over 50 years old with diabetes Referred to diabetes Center of 17 Shahrivar hospital in Amol and they were divided randomly into two groups; Circuit resistance (n=10 and Control (n=10. Resistance training consisted of 10 stations for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week (Intensity 60-80% 1RM. Levels of Lipid profile and body composition before and after eight weeks training in both groups were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS (v. 22. Results Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS levels (P=0.021, Triglycerides (0.010, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.042, significant decreased in CRT. Also after 8 weeks circuit resistance training, BMI (P= 0.003, WHR (P=0.004 and body fat present (0.019 significant decreased in CRT. Conclusion: According to our results, CRT was an effective approach to improve the Anthropometrics, FBS, lipid profile in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2. Moreover, CRT did have influence on LDL level.  Keywords: Circuit resistance training, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, body composition

  6. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  7. Behavioral outcome including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder and minor neurological signs in perinatal high-risk newborns at 4-6 years of age with relation to risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masuko; Aotani, Hirofumi; Hattori, Ritsuko; Funato, Masahisa

    2004-06-01

    Diagnostic problems with the criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edn, have been identified. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the minor neurological signs test (MNT) the authors had previously reported was a predictor for the criteria of ADHD or hyperactivity disorder (HD) in perinatal risk children at 4-6 years of age and what kind of risk factors related to MNT. A total of 136 children discharged from neonatal intensive care units were examined at the age of 4-6 years by a developmental neuropediatrician using both MNT and diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV ADHD/ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edn) HD. SPSS base and professional were used for statistical analysis. On comparison of diagnostic criteria between ADHD (11.0%) and HD (27.5%), the incidence in the same subjects showed significant difference. MNT scores showed significant correlation with criteria of ADHD (P Apgar 5 in the NLBW group and toxemia of pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) in VLBW group were highly correlated with behavioral outcome. Minor neurological signs test score was a significant predictor for criteria of ADHD and HD. High incidences of positive MNT were suspected in not only VLBW children but also NLBW children and Apgar 5 in NLBW children and toxemia of pregnancy and SGA in VLBW children influenced behavioral outcome.

  8. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  9. Risk Factors and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Mediterranean-Basin Population: The PAMDI (Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Italy) Study--Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Tognetto, Daniele; Piermarocchi, Rita; Masetto, Morena; Monterosso, Gianluca; Segato, Tatiana; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Turrini, Aida; Peto, Tunde

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association of diet and other modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in rural and urban communities of a Mediterranean population in the northeast of Italy. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted among subjects aged over 60 years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the consumption of different food categories, i.e., protective (P), risky (R), lutein-rich (L) and neutral (N). Smoking habit and alcohol intake were also examined. Macular pigment was measured by Raman spectroscopy. P food intake reduced the risk of large drusen (ARM2; OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.96) within the rural community. In this sub-group, R foods resulted in a slight association with large drusen, though the R/P food ratio was highly correlated with ARM2 (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31). Raman measures showed an age-dependent decrease but did not correlate with lutein intake. Smoking habit showed a positive association with ARM2 among women (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.54-3.75), whereas alcohol consumption resulted in protective odds (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.60-0.86). FFQ analysis confirmed the role of P and R foods and the benefit of a Mediterranean diet in ARMD. Moderate alcohol consumption showed a beneficial effect, whereas the deleterious role of a smoking habit was more evident in females. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  11. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  12. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  13. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  15. Waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and BMI as indicators of percentage fat mass and cardiometabolic risk factors in children aged 3-7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Bocca, Gianni; L'abée, Carianne; Liem, Eryn T; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Objective: To assess whether waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) is a better estimate of body fat percentage (BF %) and a better indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI or waist circumference (WC) in young children. Methods: WHtR, WC and BMI were measured by trained staff according to

  16. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Yi ethnic group aged 50 years and over in rural China: the Yunnan minority eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixing; Zong, Yuan; Wei, Tao; Sheng, Xun; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Zhong, Hua

    2015-04-15

    Hypertension is an important public health issue in China, but there are few studies examining hypertension in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. This study, Yunnan Minority Eye Study (YMES), was initially designed to determine the prevalence and impact of eye diseases, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus. As a part of YMES, the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and the associated risk factors among the Yi ethnic population in rural China are reported. A population-based survey was conducted in 2012 with adult participants over 50 from rural communities in Shilin Yi Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, located in southwest China. A random cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample. The participants' blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. A total of 2208 adults were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5%, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 37.0%. The proportion of patients who were aware of their hypertension among those diagnosed with hypertension was 24.8%. Of those aware of having hypertension, 23.6% took antihypertensive drugs. Among all hypertensive patients, only 7.2% had controlled their hypertension (population of the Yi ethnic group in China. The ratio of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were considerately low. Hypertension education and screening programs in rural China are recommended to improve the health status of this population.

  17. Urinary Incontinence, Its Risk Factors, and Quality of Life: A Study among Women Aged 50 Years and above in a Rural Health Facility of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijit; Bhattacharyya, Aritra; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Karmakar, Anubrata; Mallick, Nazrul; Sembiah, Sembagamuthu

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is a chronic debilitating disease which is often under reported, but laid significant impact on one's quality of life (QoL) thus is of public health importance. The aim of this study is to find out proportion of rural women have UI, its associated risk factors and treatment-seeking behavior, QoL of affected women. This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017 among 177 women aged 50 years or above attending a rural health facility with a structured schedule. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods by SPSS (version 16). Forty-nine (27.7%) out of 177 women were found having UI. The most prevalent type of UI was stress UI (51.0%), followed by mixed UI (32.7%) and urge UI (16.3%). In bivariate analysis, study participants who were illiterate, having a history of prolonged labor, having a history of gynecological operation, normal vaginal deliveries (NVDs) (>3), diabetic, having chronic cough, having constipation, and having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) had shown significantly greater odds of having UI. In multivariable illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] - 2.41 [1.02-5.69]), NVDs (AOR - 3.37 [1.54-7.37]), a history of gynecological operation (AOR - 3.84 [1.16-12.66]), chronic cough (AOR - 2.69 [1.21-5.99]), LUTS (AOR - 2.63 [1.15-6.00]) remained significant adjusted with other significant variable in bivariate analysis. Those with mixed UI had 5.33 times higher odds having unfavorable QoL. Only 30.6% sought medical help. Treatment-seeking behavior shown negative correlation with QoL while fecal incontinence and LUTS shown possitive correlation. The study revealed that rural women are indeed at high risk of developing UI. Majority of them did not sought treatment for UI which is matter of concern. Generating awareness regarding UI may help to improve health-seeking behavior and QoL.

  18. Urinary incontinence, its risk factors, and quality of life: A study among women aged 50 years and above in a rural health facility of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijit Biswas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Urinary incontinence (UI is a chronic debilitating disease which is often under reported, but laid significant impact on one's quality of life (QoL thus is of public health importance. Aims: The aim of this study is to find out proportion of rural women have UI, its associated risk factors and treatment-seeking behavior, QoL of affected women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional clinic-based study conducted from October 2016 to January 2017 among 177 women aged 50 years or above attending a rural health facility with a structured schedule. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods by SPSS (version 16. Results: Forty-nine (27.7% out of 177 women were found having UI. The most prevalent type of UI was stress UI (51.0%, followed by mixed UI (32.7% and urge UI (16.3%. In bivariate analysis, study participants who were illiterate, having a history of prolonged labor, having a history of gynecological operation, normal vaginal deliveries (NVDs (>3, diabetic, having chronic cough, having constipation, and having lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS had shown significantly greater odds of having UI. In multivariable illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] - 2.41 [1.02–5.69], NVDs (AOR - 3.37 [1.54–7.37], a history of gynecological operation (AOR - 3.84 [1.16–12.66], chronic cough (AOR - 2.69 [1.21–5.99], LUTS (AOR - 2.63 [1.15–6.00] remained significant adjusted with other significant variable in bivariate analysis. Those with mixed UI had 5.33 times higher odds having unfavorable QoL. Only 30.6% sought medical help. Treatment-seeking behavior shown negative correlation with QoL while fecal incontinence and LUTS shown possitive correlation. Conclusions: The study revealed that rural women are indeed at high risk of developing UI. Majority of them did not sought treatment for UI which is matter of concern. Generating awareness regarding UI may help to improve health-seeking behavior and QoL.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Prevalence and associated risk factors of under nutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in internally displaced persons of jalozai camp, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, W.; Ayub, A.; Hussain, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The magnitude of under nutrition among children below five years of age is high in Pakistan. Undernutrition and infections are the two most important factors that affect the growth of children. This study explains the extent of undernutrition and prevalence of wasting and stunting among preschool children. Method: This cross sectional study with a sample size of 446 covered the age group 6-59 months in Jalozai Camp, District Nowshera. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height were measured as per WHO guidelines. Systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Results: According to height for age Z-score, out of 446 children studied, 8.5 percentage were stunted and 4.0 percentage were severely stunted. According to weight for age Z score, 11.4 percentage were underweight and 3.6 percentage were severely underweight. According to weight for height Z-score, 4.0 percentage were wasted and 2.7 percentage were severely wasted. Conclusion: The undernutrition in children is comparable to the national figures. Although our study found that absence of formal education, big family size, late and early weaning, absence of exclusive breast feeding and poverty were the factors associated with undernutrition in children, they could cause increase in under nutrition in future if not improved. (author)

  1. Occupational noise, smoking, and a high body mass index are risk factors for age-related hearing impairment and moderate alcohol consumption is protective: A European population-based multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, E.; Topsakal, V.; Hendrickx, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    A multicenter study was set up to elucidate the environmental and medical risk factors contributing to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Nine subsamples, collected by nine audiological centers across Europe, added up to a total of 4,083 subjects between 53 and 67 years. Audiometric data (pur...... as well as in the low frequencies. The results suggest that a healthy lifestyle can protect against age-related hearing impairment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  2. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  3. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  4. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  5. Risk factors for falls of older citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, C.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fall prevention is a major issue in the ageing society. This study provides an overview of all risk factors for falls of older citizens. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or

  6. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  7. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  8. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraporti, Marisete Inês; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Dutra Rosolen, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Systemic hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in childhood can potentially have a significant impact on future adverse outcomes. To investigate the relationship of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with anthropometric data and area of residence of children in municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of 709 children between six and nine years of age. Blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Statistical tests had a maximum significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) and the software used was SPSS version 13.0. Obesity was significantly associated with pre-hypertension, and stage 1 and 2 hypertension as assessed by DBP and SBP (≤0.05); high WC was significantly associated with a classification of pre-hypertension and stage 1 hypertension based on DBP and a classification of stage 1 and 2 hypertension based on SBP (≤0.01). Children living in urban areas had significantly higher mean SBP than those living in rural areas. Those with high WC presented higher SBP and DBP compared to children with normal WC. Obese children showed higher mean SBP and DBP compared to those who were overweight or normal weight and mean SBP and DBP also increased with older age and higher mean body mass index and WC. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Russia and South Africa: the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Chatterji, Somnath; Zheng, Yang; Naidoo, Nirmala; Jiang, Yong; Biritwum, Richard; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aaron; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Maximova, Tamara; Peltzer, Karl; Phaswanamafuya, Nancy; Snodgrass, James J; Thiele, Elizabeth; Ng, Nawi; Kowal, Paul

    2015-02-06

    Behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity and the harmful use of alcohol are known and modifiable contributors to a number of NCDs and health mediators. The purpose of this paper is to describe the distribution of main risk factors for NCDs by socioeconomic status (SES) among adults aged 50 years and older within a country and compare these risk factors across six lower- and upper-middle income countries. The study population in this paper draw from SAGE Wave 1 and consisted of adults aged 50-plus from China (N=13,157), Ghana (N=4,305), India (N=6,560), Mexico (N=2,318), the Russian Federation (N=3,938) and South Africa (N=3,836). Seven main common risk factors for NCDs were identified: daily tobacco use, frequent heavy drinking, low level physical activity, insufficient vegetable and fruit intake, high risk waist-hip ratio, obesity and hypertension. Multiple risk factors were also calculated by summing all these risk factors. The prevalence of daily tobacco use ranged from 7.7% (Ghana) to 46.9% (India), frequent heavy drinker was the highest in China (6.3%) and lowest in India (0.2%), and the highest prevalence of low physical activity was in South Africa (59.7%). The highest prevalence of respondents with high waist-to-hip ratio risk was 84.5% in Mexico, and the prevalence of self-reported hypertension ranging from 33% (India) to 78% (South Africa). Obesity was more common in South Africa, the Russia Federation and Mexico (45.2%, 36% and 28.6%, respectively) compared with China, India and Ghana (15.3%, 9.7% and 6.4%, respectively). China, Ghana and India had a higher prevalence of respondents with multiple risk factors than Mexico, the Russia Federation and South Africa. The occurrence of three and four risk factors was more prevalent in Mexico, the Russia Federation and South Africa. There were substantial variations across countries and settings, even between upper-middle income countries and lower-middle income

  11. Principales lesiones bucales y factores de riesgo presentes en población mayor de 60 años Leading oral lesions and risk factors present in a population aged over 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Gonzáles Ramos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo en la población mayor de 60 años del área de salud de la Policlínica Moncada, que recibieron atención en la Facultad de Estomatología "Raúl González Sánchez", Ciudad de La Habana, durante el año 2006, para determinar los factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de lesiones bucales, su distribución según edad y sexo, además de identificar el tipo de lesión y su localización anatómica. Se estudiaron 352 ancianos a los que se les aplicó una encuesta para identificar la presencia de factores de riesgo y se realizó un examen físico de la cavidad bucal y el cuello para detectar las lesiones y su localización. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que el 60,7 % de los ancianos presentaron factores de riesgo; los más frecuentes fueron: la ingestión de alimentos condimentados y calientes en un 83,4 %, el hábito de fumar en un 82,1 % seguido del uso de prótesis y el alcoholismo, ambos con 72,4 %. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado en un 58,2 %, el factor de riesgo que predominó fue la ingestión de alcohol en un 75,7 %. En las mujeres el uso de prótesis fue el factor de riesgo que predominó con un 73,3 %, seguido del hábito de fumar; la edad más afectada fue la de más de 80 años en un 41,7 %. El 48,5 % presentaban lesiones, el épulis fisurado fue el más representativo en un 39,1 %, la estomatitis subprotésica con un 35,6 %. La localización anatómica encontrada con mayor afectación fue el paladar duro, encía inferior y mucosa del carrillo. Se evidenció con estos resultados la falta de calidad de las actividades de educación para la salud, ya que predominaron estilos de vida perjudiciales a la salud.A descriptive study was conducted in a population aged over 60 from the health area of "Moncada" polyclinic seen in "Raúl González Sánchez" Stomatology Faculty of Ciudad de La Habana during 2006 to determine the risk factors associated with appearance of oral lesions, its

  12. Failing ageing? Risk management in the active ageing society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Commission's recent policy initiative on social investment, Danish Long term care offers new and innovative perspectives in ageing and the management of the risks associated thereof with the introduction of reablement (rehabilitering). From the perspective of governmenta......According to the European Commission's recent policy initiative on social investment, Danish Long term care offers new and innovative perspectives in ageing and the management of the risks associated thereof with the introduction of reablement (rehabilitering). From the perspective...

  13. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  14. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  15. Maternal Enterovirus Infection during Pregnancy as a Risk Factor in Offspring Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes between 15 and 30 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elfving

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA, and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4% were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.. Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22–17.6, as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P<.025. These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood.

  16. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pdefinition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Factors for Death in Bangladeshi Children Under 5 Years of Age Hospitalized for Diarrhea and Severe Respiratory Distress in an Urban Critical Care Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Tahmina; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Sarmin, Monira; Shahrin, Lubaba; Afroze, Farzana; Sharifuzzaman; Akhter, Shamima; Shahunja, K M; Shahid, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

    2017-01-01

    Children with diarrhea hospitalized for respiratory distress often have fatal outcome in resource-limited settings, although data are lacking on risk factors for death in such children. We sought to evaluate clinical predictors for death in such children. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled under-5 children with diarrhea admitted with severe respiratory distress to the intensive care unit of Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, from September 2014 through September 2015. We compared clinical and laboratory characteristics between study children those who died (n = 29) and those who survived (n = 62). In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the independent predictors for death in children hospitalized for diarrhea and severe respiratory distress were severe sepsis and hypoglycemia ( P < .05 for all). Thus, recognition of these simple parameters may help clinicians identify children with diarrhea at risk of deaths in order to initiate prompt management for the better outcome, especially in resource-poor settings.

  18. Lay Awareness of the Relationship between Age and Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Suls, Jerry M; Ferrer, Rebecca A

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest many people are unaware that cancer risk increases with age, but this misbelief has rarely been studied prospectively, nor are its moderators known. To assess whether people recognize that cancer risk increases with age and whether beliefs differ according to gender, education, smoking status, and family history of cancer. First, items from the cross-sectional Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 2069) were analyzed to examine the association of age and perceived cancer risk. Second, the prospective National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (n = 3896) was used to assess whether perceived cancer risk changes over a decade. Third, beliefs about the age at which cancer occurs were analyzed using the US Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer survey (n = 1080). As a comparator, perceived risk of heart disease was also examined. Cross-sectionally, older age was associated with lower perceived cancer risk but higher perceived heart disease risk. Prospectively, perceived cancer risk remained stable, whereas perceived heart attack risk increased. Seventy percent of participants reported a belief that cancer is equally likely to affect people of any age. Across three surveys, women and former smokers/smokers who recently quit tended to misunderstand the relationship between age and cancer risk and also expressed relatively higher perceived cancer risk overall. Data from three national surveys indicated that people are unaware that age is a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, those who were least aware perceived the highest risk of cancer regardless of age.

  19. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  20. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  1. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences.

  2. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  3. Cardiovascular disease risk factors: a childhood perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources.

  4. Age- and sex-specific prevalence and ten-year risk for cardiovascular disease of all 16 risk factor combinations of the metabolic syndrome - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus Susanne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the AHA/NHLBI-definition three out of five cardiometabolic traits must be present for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, resulting in 16 different combination types. The associated cardiovascular risk may however be different and specific combination may be indicative of an increased risk, furthermore little is known to which extent these 16 combinations contribute to the overall prevalence of MetS. Here we assessed the prevalence of all 16 combination types of MetS, analyzed the impact of age and gender on prevalence rates, and estimated the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI of each MetS combination type. Methods We used data of the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS, a cross-sectional study, performed during October 2005, including 35,869 participants (aged 18-99 years, 61% women. Age-standardized prevalence and 10-year PROCAM and ESC risk scores for MI were calculated. Results In both men and women the combination with elevated waist-circumference, blood pressure and glucose (WC-BP-GL was the most frequent combination (28%, however a distinct unequal distribution was observed regarding age and sex. Any combination with GL was common in the elderly, whereas any combination with dyslipidemia and without GL was frequent in the younger. Men without MetS had an estimated mean 10-year risk of 4.7% (95%-CI: 4.5%-4.8% for MI (PROCAM, whereas the mean 10-year risk of men with MetS was clearly higher (age-standardized 7.9%; 7.8-8.0%. In women without MetS the mean 10-year risk for MI was 1.1%, in those with MetS 2.3%. The highest impact on an estimated 10-year risk for MI (PROCAM was observed with TG-HDL-GL-BP in both sexes (men 14.7%, women 3.9%. However, we could identify combinations with equal risks of non-fatal and fatal MI compared to participants without MetS. Conclusions We observed large variations in the prevalence of all 16 combination types and their

  5. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  6. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  7. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more