WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk factor status

  1. Unaccompanied status as a risk factor in Vietnamese Amerasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, R S; Webb, J A

    1995-07-01

    This study prospectively evaluates the relationship between unaccompanied status and levels of psychological distress in a group of Vietnamese Amerasians both prior to, and during, migration. Its objective was to determine whether unaccompanied migrant status functions as an independent post-departure risk factor for psychological distress, or if unaccompanied migrants are already at increased risk for, and have higher levels of, psychological distress prior to departure and the acquisition of unaccompanied status. Seventy-five Vietnamese Amerasian youth were evaluated at two points during their migration utilizing Felsman's Personal Information Form, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and the Youth Self-Report. The first assessment was conducted prior to migration at the Amerasian Transit Center in Vietnam, and the second during migration at the Philippine Refugee Processing Center. Unaccompanied Amerasians were found to have significantly higher risk levels for, and significantly more symptoms of, psychological distress prior to migration than accompanied Amerasians. During migration the difference in levels of psychological distress between accompanied and unaccompanied Amerasians increased beyond that attributable to predeparture risk levels alone. This significant differential increase in levels of psychological distress among unaccompanied Amerasians is attributable to unaccompanied status. Unaccompanied migrant status thus appears to function both as an independent postdeparture risk factor for psychological distress and also as a marker for increased levels of risk and psychological distress prior to migration.

  2. Socio-economic status, risk factors and coronary heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship of socio-economic status (SES) indicators and coronary risk factors (RFs) with coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence was examined in 5620 subjects aged 20 ... The SES indicators had Iitlle or no independent effect on CHD prevalence in multivariate logistic analyses after, inclusion of the standard RFs.

  3. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income education. Important differences were noted between the socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  4. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Chapman, M John; Ray, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies.......The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies....

  5. Vitamin d status, filaggrin genotype, and cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Martinussen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in observational studies. Whether these associations are causal is not clear. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene result in up to 10% higher serum vitamin D concentrations, supposedly due to a decreased UV......-protection of the keratinocytes. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to estimate the causal effect of vitamin D status on serum lipids, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and the metabolic syndrome....

  6. Risk factors of fatigue status among Chinese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yuelong; Peng, Baozhen; Li, Yijun; Song, Lei; He, Lianping; Fu, Rui; Wu, Qianqian; Fan, Qingxiu; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, fatigue is common among adolescents. The aim of this study is to evaluate fatigue status and find related factors of fatigue among students ranged from 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This is a case-control, cross-sectional observational study. The students from six middle schools (high school? 26 years old?) in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Fatigue Scale (SFS) was used to measure the fatigue status among students ranged from 13-26 years, and some demographic characteri...

  7. Risk factors of poor anthropometric status in children under five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data generated by questionnaire and anthropometric indices were used to construct a logistic regression model, taking into account hierarchical relationships of risk factors to determine the odds of a child being stunted, underweight or overweight. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Factors ...

  8. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  9. Risk factors of fatigue status among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuelong; Peng, Baozhen; Li, Yijun; Song, Lei; He, Lianping; Fu, Rui; Wu, Qianqian; Fan, Qingxiu; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, fatigue is common among adolescents. The aim of this study is to evaluate fatigue status and find related factors of fatigue among students ranged from 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This is a case-control, cross-sectional observational study. The students from six middle schools (high school? 26 years old?) in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Fatigue Scale (SFS) was used to measure the fatigue status among students ranged from 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 726 students are included in our study. A significant difference was observed between fatigue status and grade, a balanced diet, the partial eclipse, picky for food, lack of sleep, excessive fatigue, drinking (P sleep, drinking; grade while a balanced diet is the protective factor of fatigue. Therefore, the school should pay more attention to the fatigue among students in middle school in China, and take some properly measures to reduce the fatigue.

  10. Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace.

  11. Health status as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A

    2009-01-01

    Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...... on the influence of health status on prognosis in CHF and CAD....

  12. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  13. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  14. Vitamin A status, other risk factors and acute respiratory infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... ARI is a major health problem for South African children, in terms of morbidity ... status), poverty, household crowding, indoor and outdoor air pollution, lack of ..... children has clear benefits that outweigh the opportunity costs.

  15. Vitamin D status and changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and hyper......A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension...

  16. Risk factors for nutritional status determination and indications for preventive nutrition therapy in hospitalized gastroenterological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roganović Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Risk factors for the intrahospital nutritional status worsening (NSW have not been precisely defined in the literature. The objective was defining thoese factors among gastroenterological patients and defining the risk patients requiring a preventive nutritional therapy. Methods. In 650 gastroenterological patients, NSW was evaluated on the basis of reducing of the six parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, midupper arm muscle circumference (MAMC, serum albumin level (ALB, and lymphocyte count (LYM. The influence on NSW was tested for 13 factors concerning characteristics of the patient, disease, and diagnostic procedures. Among the factors influencing significantly the NSW, primary and secondary risk factors were selected. After scoring of risk factors had been performed, the risk-score for NSW (RSNSW was defined. The critical value of RSNSW which required preventive nutritional therapy was also calculated. Results. The incidence of NSW was in the range 29.2%−57.9%. The presence of general complications and severe disease activity were considered as primary risk factors, whereas malignant disease, age above 71, hepato-billiary tract involvement, hospitalization longer than 14 days, and mobility worsening were considered as secondary risk factors. The best predictive value for the NSW was proved for the RSNSW ≥ 6. Because of that, preventive nutritional therapy should be indicated in patients presenting with both primary risk factors or in patients presenting with one primary factor combined with three secondary risk factors at least. Conclusion. There are 7 risk factors for NSW in gastroenterological patients, but they are not of the same importance - two primary and five secondary risk factors can be differentiated. Preventive nutritional therapy is indicated only in patients having both primary risk factors or in those presenting with one primary risk factor combined with three

  17. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  18. Associations of oxidative stress status parameters with traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Milovanović, Srđan; Ðorđević, Brižita; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Ivanišević, Jasmina; Miljković, Milica; Spasić, Slavica

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess oxidative stress status parameters and their possible associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia, as well as their potential for patient-control discrimination. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress status parameters were assessed in 30 schizophrenic patients with atypical antipsychotic therapy and 60 control subjects. Malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB) and total anti-oxidant status (TAS) were significantly higher whereas total sulfhydryl (SH) groups were significantly lower in schizophrenic patients vs. control group. Higher serum PAB values showed an independent association with schizophrenia. The addition of PAB to conventional risk factors improved discrimination between healthy control subjects and patients. Increased oxidative stress and changed lipid profile parameters are associated in schizophrenic patients and may indicate risk for atherosclerosis. The serum PAB level may reflect the levels of oxidative stress in schizophrenia and improve discrimination of patients from controls.

  19. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  20. Relationships between Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Distribution of Breast Cancer Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p valuesocioeconomic status and number of pregnancies, and duration of breast feeding were significant (p value> 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.

  1. Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Impact of dietary mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Hatzis, George; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    It is well known that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western societies. A number of risk factors such as family history, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity are responsible for a significant proportion of the overall cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, recent data suggest there is a gradient in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease across the spectrum of socioeconomic status, as this is defined by educational level, occupation or income. Additionally, dietary mediators seem to play significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, mediating some of the discrepancies in atherosclerosis among different socioeconomic layers. Therefore, in the present article, we aim to review the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and the role of different dietary mediators. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic Status As a Risk Factor for Unintended Pregnancy in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseyemi, Abigail; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association of low socioeconomic status as an independent risk factor for unintended pregnancy. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Contraceptive CHOICE project. Between 2007 and 2011, 9,256 participants were recruited and followed for up to 3 years. The primary outcome of interest was unintended pregnancy; the primary exposure variable was low socioeconomic status, defined as self-report of either receiving public assistance or having difficulty paying for basic necessities. Four contraceptive groups were evaluated: 1) long-acting reversible contraceptive method (hormonal or copper intrauterine device or subdermal implant); 2) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection; 3) oral contraceptive pills, a transdermal patch, or a vaginal ring; or 4) other or no method. Confounders were adjusted for in the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the effect of socioeconomic status on risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants with low socioeconomic status experienced 515 unintended pregnancies during 14,001 women-years of follow-up (3.68/100 women-years; 95% CI 3.37-4.01) compared with 200 unintended pregnancies during 10,296 women-years (1.94/100 women-years; 95% CI 1.68-2.23) among participants without low socioeconomic status. Women with low socioeconomic status were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.2). After adjusting for age, education level, insurance status, and history of unintended pregnancy, low socioeconomic status was associated with an increased risk of unintended pregnancy (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7). Despite the removal of cost barriers, low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher incidence of unintended pregnancy.

  3. A questionnaire study of associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C C; Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene; Emanuelson, Ulf; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    In this study associations between potential risk factors and salmonella status in Swedish dairy herds were investigated. A case-control study design was used, including existing as well as new cases. Herds were assigned a salmonella status on the basis of antibody analysis of bulk milk samples. Information on potential risk factors was collected from registry data and from farmers via a questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between salmonella status and potential risk factors. In addition, multivariate analysis with Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) modelling was performed to improve understanding of the complex relationship between all the variables. Because of the difficulty in identifying associations between potential risk factors and infections with low prevalence and a large regional variation, exposure of potential risk factors in the high-prevalence region (Öland) were compared to exposure in other regions in Sweden. In total 483 of 996 (48%) farmers responded to the questionnaire, 69 herds had test-positive bulk milk samples. The strongest association with salmonella status was 'presence of salmonella test-positive herds pastures and providing protective clothing for visitors. The latter is probably a reflection of increased disease awareness in Öland. The ABN model showed associations between herd size and housing as well as several management procedures. This provides an explanation why herd size frequently has been identified as a risk factor for salmonella by other studies. The study confirms the importance of local transmission routes for salmonella, but does not identify specific components in this local spread. Therefore, it supports the use of a broad biosecurity approach in the prevention of salmonella. In Öland, some potential risk factors are more common than in other parts of Sweden. Theoretically these could contribute to the spread of salmonella, but this was not

  4. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Denny, Clark H; Greenlund, Kurt J; Benjamin, Stephanie M; Strine, Tara W; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; Pvs. 43.3%; Pvs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; Ptwo or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; Pstroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.

  5. Health status and occupational risk factors in Greek small fisheries workers

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fishing is an extremely dangerous occupational activity that predisposes to occupational diseases and accidents. Greece, with about 16,000 km of coastline and its unique morphological characteristics with small islands and peninsulas, represents a strong proof of its great tradition in the fisheries sector since ancient times. The aim of the study was to examine the health status and the health risk factors present in Greek fishery workers, by exploring their working environment, ...

  6. Examining Residence Status as a Risk Factor for Health Risk Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M.; Benz, Madeline B.; Miller, Mary Beth; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to evaluate college student residence as a unique risk factor for a range of negative health behaviors. Participants: We examined data from 63,555 students (66% females) from 157 campuses who completed the National College Health Assessment Survey in Spring 2011. Methods: Participants answered questions about…

  7. [Evaluation of occupational risk factors, nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagała-Dobrzycka, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between selected risk factors at the workplace and health indices in relation to nutritional habits and nutritional status in industrial workers. Exposure to physical and chemical risk factors and their impact on health in the province of Szczecin and in Poland was evaluated basing on data published in the Yearbooks of the Province of Szczecin, the Central Statistics Bureau (GUS) and Regional Inspectorate of Labor (OIP) in Szczecin. A random selection of plants in Szczecin was done and workplaces with chemical and physical risk levels exceeding the highest acceptable values were identified. Measurements of concentrations of chemicals and intensity of physical factors were performed by Work Environment Research Laboratories of the plants and by the laboratory of the Sanitary and Epidemiological Center in Szczecin. Eighty-eight men exposed to occupational risk factors were randomly selected. The mean period of exposure in that group was approximately ten years. The control group was composed of male workers (n = 83) not exposed to any of the risk factors in question (Tab. 3). Nutritional habits and nutritional status were studied during summer/autumn and winter/spring periods. Dietary survey consisted of the last 24-hour nutrient intake questionnaire. Nutritional status evaluation was based on body mass index (BMI) values and results of the following laboratory tests: blood cell count, levels of total protein, prealbumin, retinol binding protein (RBP), magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. The following results were obtained: 1. Physical factors constituted the most frequent source of occupational risk in the province of Szczecin and in Poland in 1990-1994 (Tab. 1); 2. The incidence of occupational risk and occupational disease morbidity rates in 1990-1994 were lower for the province of Szczecin than the average for Poland; 3. The rate of fatal accidents at work in 1982-1994 was higher for the

  8. Frequent hospital admissions in Singapore: clinical risk factors and impact of socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lian Leng; Tay, Wei Yi; Ng, Matthew Joo Ming; Tan, Shu Yun; Liu, Nan; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2018-01-01

    Frequent admitters to hospitals are high-cost patients who strain finite healthcare resources. However, the exact risk factors for frequent admissions, which can be used to guide risk stratification and design effective interventions locally, remain unknown. Our study aimed to identify the clinical and sociodemographic risk factors associated with frequent hospital admissions in Singapore. An observational study was conducted using retrospective 2014 data from the administrative database at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Variables were identified a priori and included patient demographics, comorbidities, prior healthcare utilisation, and clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for frequent admissions. A total of 16,306 unique patients were analysed and 1,640 (10.1%) patients were classified as frequent admitters. On multivariate logistic regression, 16 variables were independently associated with frequent hospital admissions, including age, cerebrovascular disease, history of malignancy, haemoglobin, serum creatinine, serum albumin, and number of specialist outpatient clinic visits, emergency department visits, admissions preceding index admission and medications dispensed at discharge. Patients staying in public rental housing had a 30% higher risk of being a frequent admitter after adjusting for demographics and clinical conditions. Our study, the first in our knowledge to examine the clinical risk factors for frequent admissions in Singapore, validated the use of public rental housing as a sensitive indicator of area-level socioeconomic status in Singapore. These risk factors can be used to identify high-risk patients in the hospital so that they can receive interventions that reduce readmission risk. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  9. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors: The CRONICAS Cohort Study of Peruvian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income education. Important differences were noted between the socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). All rights reserved.

  10. Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, Hapizah M; Nor, Idris M; Noor, Ismail M; Karim, Norimah A; Arshad, Fatimah; Khan, Rahmattullah; Yusoff, Khalid

    2002-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of > or = 5.2, > or =6.5 and > or =7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8% respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1%), hypertension (30.3%), smokers (24.4%), diabetes (6.4%), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9%), overweight or obesity (44.7%) and increased WHR (48.5%). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3% of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5% in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.

  11. [ANALYSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN YOUNG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Alarcón Hormazábal, Manuel; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe

    2015-10-01

    obesity is one of the most serious not transmissible illnesses and prevalent at present, it is considered a major risk factor for the cardiovascular disease and is associated with the development of insulin resistance, intolerance to the glucose, arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome. the purpose of the study is to analyze the nutritional status in young university students and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. there were evaluated 153 university students, 51 men and 102 women between 17 and 33 years old. Anthropometric measurements were made by BMI and waist circumference, systolic and diastolic pressure, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDL), LDL cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides and blood glucose. the variables HDL cholesterol (p = 0.000) and systolic pressure (p = 0.043) showed significant differences in comparison by gender. The 35.29% presented overweight or obesity. In the comparison by nutritional status; the contour waist, systolic and diastolic pressure showed significant differences (p university students; in addition it is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, being the obese students those who present major deterioration in all the evaluated variables. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

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    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  13. Community and Individual Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse and Child Neglect: Variations by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Font, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status. Specifically, we used a three-level hierarchical linear model (families nested within census tracts and nested within cities) to estimate the relationships between physical child abuse and child neglect and neighborhood structural factors, neighborhood processes, and individual characteristics. We compared these relationships between lower and higher income families in a sample of approximately 3,000 families from 50 cities in the State of California. We found that neighborhood-level disadvantage was especially detrimental for families in poverty and that neighborhood-level protective processes (social) were not associated with physical child abuse and child neglect for impoverished families, but that they had a protective effect for higher income families.

  14. Management Status of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongseok; Son, Heejeong; Ryu, Ohk Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010-2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations.

  15. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

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    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R{sup 2}) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4

  16. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Sik

    2000-01-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R 2 ) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4. In

  17. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (Pperiodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (Pperiodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

  18. Is grand multiparity a risk factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women of lower socioeconomic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, Ö; Demirtaş, G; Hurşitoğlu, B S; Terzi, H; Şekerci, Z; Ök, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether grand multiparity is a risk factor for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of lower socioeconomic status. We conducted a single center study between February 2012 and February 2013 on 50-60 year old postmenopausal women of lower socioeconomic status without a history of medical disease. Women with a body mass index (BMI) between 20 and 25 were included in the study. The grand multiparous group (group A) consisted of 38 women with 10 or more deliveries. Women with a history of three or fewer deliveries composed the control group (group B). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur neck and lumbar spine (L1-L4). The mean ages of groups A and B were found to be 54.3 ± 2.5 and 53.1 ± 2.7 years, respectively. Average parity in groups A and B was 11.1 ± 1.7 and 2.4 ± 0.7, respectively. Time since the onset of menopause was 3.6 ± 2.7 years in group A and 6.0 ± 2.9 in group B. The prevalence of osteoporosis was similar in both groups (71.1%-81.4%, p = 0.273). We found that grand multiparity was an ineffective indicator of either femoral or lumbar osteoporosis (p = 0.87 and p = 0.26), but osteoporosis five years after the onset of menopause was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.02). The duration of menopause is an independent risk factor of osteoporosis. However, the number of pregnancies is neither a determinant nor a protective factor for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women coming from a low socioeconomic background.

  19. Hepatitis B virus in Pakistan: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Abrar; Ur Rehman, Irshad; Saleem, Sana; Afzal, Samia; Butt, Sadia

    2011-03-06

    In Pakistan, there are estimated 7-9 million carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with a carrier rate of 3-5%. This article reviews the available literature about the prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes of the HBV in Pakistan by using key words; HBV prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes in Pakistani population in PubMed, PakMediNet, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and Google Scholar. One hundred and six different studies published from 1998 to 2010 were included in this study. Weighted mean and standard deviation were determined for each population group. The percentage of hepatitis B virus infection in general population was 4.3318% ± 1.644%, healthy blood donors (3.93% ± 1.58%), military recruits (4.276% ± 1.646%), healthcare persons (3.25% ± 1.202%), pregnant women (5.872% ± 4.984), prisoners (5.75% ± 0.212%), surgical patients (7.397% ± 2.012%), patients with cirrhosis (28.87% ± 11.90%), patients with HCC (22% ± 2.645%), patients with hepatitis (15.896% ± 14.824%), patients with liver diseases (27.54% ± 6.385%), multiple transfused patients (6.223% ± 2.121%), opthalmic patients (3.89% ± 1.004%) and users of injectable drugs (14.95% ± 10.536%). Genotype D (63.71%) is the most prevalent genotype in Pakistani population. Mass vaccination and awareness programs should be initiated on urgent basis especially in populations with HBV infection rates of more than 5%.

  20. Hepatitis B virus in Pakistan: A systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Samia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Pakistan, there are estimated 7-9 million carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV with a carrier rate of 3-5%. This article reviews the available literature about the prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes of the HBV in Pakistan by using key words; HBV prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes in Pakistani population in PubMed, PakMediNet, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ and Google Scholar. One hundred and six different studies published from 1998 to 2010 were included in this study. Weighted mean and standard deviation were determined for each population group. The percentage of hepatitis B virus infection in general population was 4.3318% ± 1.644%, healthy blood donors (3.93% ± 1.58%, military recruits (4.276% ± 1.646%, healthcare persons (3.25% ± 1.202%, pregnant women (5.872% ± 4.984, prisoners (5.75% ± 0.212%, surgical patients (7.397% ± 2.012%, patients with cirrhosis (28.87% ± 11.90%, patients with HCC (22% ± 2.645%, patients with hepatitis (15.896% ± 14.824%, patients with liver diseases (27.54% ± 6.385%, multiple transfused patients (6.223% ± 2.121%, opthalmic patients (3.89% ± 1.004% and users of injectable drugs (14.95% ± 10.536%. Genotype D (63.71% is the most prevalent genotype in Pakistani population. Mass vaccination and awareness programs should be initiated on urgent basis especially in populations with HBV infection rates of more than 5%.

  1. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  2. Risk factors associated with death in in-hospital pediatric convulsive status epilepticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Loddenkemper

    Full Text Available To evaluate in-patient mortality and predictors of death associated with convulsive status epilepticus (SE in a large, multi-center, pediatric cohort.We identified our cohort from the KID Inpatient Database for the years 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006. We queried the database for convulsive SE, associated diagnoses, and for inpatient death. Univariate logistic testing was used to screen for potential risk factors. These risk factors were then entered into a stepwise backwards conditional multivariable logistic regression procedure. P-values less than 0.05 were taken as significant.We identified 12,365 (5,541 female patients with convulsive SE aged 0-20 years (mean age 6.2 years, standard deviation 5.5 years, median 5 years among 14,965,571 pediatric inpatients (0.08%. Of these, 117 died while in the hospital (0.9%. The most frequent additional admission ICD-9 code diagnoses in addition to SE were cerebral palsy, pneumonia, and respiratory failure. Independent risk factors for death in patients with SE, assessed by multivariate calculation, included near drowning (Odds ratio [OR] 43.2; Confidence Interval [CI] 4.4-426.8, hemorrhagic shock (OR 17.83; CI 6.5-49.1, sepsis (OR 10.14; CI 4.0-25.6, massive aspiration (OR 9.1; CI 1.8-47, mechanical ventilation >96 hours (OR9; 5.6-14.6, transfusion (OR 8.25; CI 4.3-15.8, structural brain lesion (OR7.0; CI 3.1-16, hypoglycemia (OR5.8; CI 1.75-19.2, sepsis with liver failure (OR 14.4; CI 5-41.9, and admission in December (OR3.4; CI 1.6-4.1. African American ethnicity (OR 0.4; CI 0.2-0.8 was associated with a decreased risk of death in SE.Pediatric convulsive SE occurs in up to 0.08% of pediatric inpatient admissions with a mortality of up to 1%. There appear to be several risk factors that can predict mortality. These may warrant additional monitoring and aggressive management.

  3. Evaluation of lifestyle risk factors and job status associated with back injuries among employees at a mid-western university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidassie, Balmatee; McGlothlin, James D; Mena, Irene; Duffy, Vincent G; Barany, James W

    2010-01-01

    For decades the literature has shown an association between work-related risk factors and back injuries among employees. However, only recently, there is a growing body of literature that suggests lifestyle risk factors may also be associated with back injuries. The purpose of this research was to determine if selected lifestyle risk factors are associated with a greater risk of back injuries. Further, there may be an association between job status and incident reporting, lost workdays cases and workers' compensation (WC) paid for back injuries among university employees. Aggregate data from a Health Risk Assessment (HRA) questionnaire were used to analyze 6053 university employees for lifestyle risk factors associated with back injuries. Of the total sample, 57% (n=3471) were female; 46% (n=2778) worked as clerical or service staff; and the mean age was 45years. Pearson chi-square (chi(2)) analyses indicate that job status (chi(2)=307.07, df=4, pOSHA) 300 logs and WC claims data paid for back injuries supported the finding that clerical or service staff had the greatest risk of back injuries. Based on the results of this study, there appears to be an association between lifestyle risk factors, job status and back injuries among university employees. We believe our evaluation approach may be used to study other work populations to verify the outcomes observed in this study.

  4. Obesity and related risk factors among low socio-economic status minority students in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Liang, Huifang; Tussing, Lisa; Braunschweig, Carol; Caballero, Benjamin; Flay, Brian

    2007-09-01

    To assess overweight and related risk factors among urban low socio-economic status (SES) African-American adolescents in an attempt to study the underlying causes of ethnicity and gender disparities in overweight. Cross-sectional data collected on anthropometric measures, diet, physical activity and family characteristics from 498 students in grades 5-7 in four Chicago public schools were analysed to study the risk factors for overweight using stepwise regression analysis. Only 37.2% of the students lived with two parents. Nearly 90% had a television (TV) in their bedroom, and had cable TV and a video game system at home. Overall. 21.8% (17.7% boys versus 25.1% girls) were overweight (body mass index (BMI) >/= 95th percentile); and 39.8% had a BMI >/= 85th percentile. Compared with national recommendations, they had inadequate physical activity and less than desirable eating patterns. Only 66.1% reported having at least 20 min vigorous exercise or 30 min of light exercise in >/= 5 days over the past 7 days; 62.1% spent >3 h days- 1 watching TV/playing video games/computer, while 33.1% spent >/= 5 h days- 1. Their vegetable and fruit consumption was low, and they consumed too many fried foods and soft drinks: 55.1% consumed fried food twice or more daily and 19.5% four times or more daily; 70.3% consumed soft drinks twice or more daily and 22.0% four times or more daily on average. Gender, physical activity and pocket money were significant predictors of overweight (P students' behaviours, school and family environments may increase overweight risk among this population. There is a great need for health promotion programmes with a focus on healthy weight and lifestyle, and targeting urban low-SES minority communities.

  5. Metabolic syndrome's risk factors and its association with nutritional status in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Costa Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic risk factors (RF to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been evidenced at early ages, including children. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of RF to the diagnosis of MetS and its association with nutritional status of schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 505 students of municipal schools in Macae, Brazil, conducted from 2013 to 2014. The RF evaluated were: blood pressure (mm Hg, triglycerides (mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L fasting glucose (mmol/L and waist circumference (cm. At least one RF was present in 61% (n = 308 of the sample. By nutritional status, there was higher prevalence of RF in overweight/obese schoolchildren compared to those with normal weight, except in the concentration of HDL-c. The prevalence of one, two and three RF (MetS were 34.7% (n = 175, 21.0% (n = 106 and 5.3% (n = 27, respectively. Two RF were more present in overweight (28.2% 95%CI 19.0; 39.0 and obese (41.5% 95%CI 31.4; 52.1 compared to normal weight children (13.5% 95%CI 9.9; 17.8. Three or more RF were more frequent among obese (25.5% 95%CI 17.0; 35.5 in relation to overweight (2.4% 95%CI 0.2; 8.2 and normal weight children (0.3% 95%CI 0; 1.7. The data indicate high prevalence of RF and its relationship with the magnitude of body weight excess. Therefore, the identification and early treatment of these RF might minimize the risk of MetS and related diseases.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Msuya, Sia E; Swai, Mark; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2012-10-05

    The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children less than 36 months of age in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Using a cross sectional study design, children and their caregivers were recruited into the study. Anthropometric measures were taken based on established protocol while a standard questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic data. A finger-prick blood sample was collected from all the children and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration analyzed using a HemoCue photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden). Four hundred and twenty three (423) children (214 females) took part in this study. Participating children were aged between 1–35 months (mean = 13.04, SD = 7.70). We observed high rates of stunting (44.2%) and underweight (19.1%). Nearly 70% (n = 295) of the sample was anaemic (Hb education, and child's age were found to independently predict stunting; whereas concerns over child's growth and development, and distance to water source were found to uniquely predict being underweight. Maternal education was the only factor related to the child's anaemia. The current study further emphasizes the need to implement context relevant interventions to combat malnutrition in this region of Tanzania and other similar settings.

  7. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gary T.C.; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Yeung, Vincent T.F.; Chow, Chun-Chung; Tsang, Lynn W.W.; Cockram, Clive S.

    2001-01-01

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age

  8. Effect of one course exercise with consumption vitamin E on antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Naghizadeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of different physical activity with consumption supplements on the function of body vital systems and decrease free radicals effects is not well known during exercise. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of aerobics exercise (HRmax: 60-65% with vitamin E on antioxidant status and oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk factors in active male students. Materials and Methods: 45 normal active male students were randomly divided in to three groups: Exp 1(N=15, mean±SD age=23.8±1.6; Exp 2(N=15, mean±SD age=22.4±2.3 and control III (N=15, mean±SD age=22.9±1.8. The treatment for exercise-supplement included moderate aerobic exercise (HRmax 60-65% with consumption a 500 mg vitamin E tablet. The treatment for exercise-placebo included exercise above along with a placebo tablet consumed for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week and session lasted 45 minutes. The variables in the experiment were measured in two stages in the standardized environment of a laboratory. This research performed the Islamic Azad university branch of Tabriz. Results: The results showed that, there was a significant statistical difference between MAD (p<0.02, CP (p<0.04, TAC (p<0.03, LDL (p<0.03 and Vo2max (p<0.03 in the three groups. Discussion: In summery performing moderate aerobic exercise (HRmax 60-65% with consumption Vitamin E may decrease membrane damage and lipid peroxidation, and cardiovascular risk factors

  9. Subjective social status and psychosocial and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Malavika A; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Hickson, Demarc A; Sarpong, Daniel F; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A; Williams, David R; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2012-04-01

    Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000-2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N=5301), we quantified the association of subjective social status with selected cardiovascular risk factors: depressive symptoms, perceived stress, waist circumference, insulin resistance and prevalence of diabetes. We contrasted the strength of the associations of these outcomes with subjective versus objective social status and examined whether perceived discrimination confounded or modified these associations. Subjective social status was measured using two 10-rung "ladders," using the U.S. and the community as referent groups. Objective social status was measured using annual family income and years of schooling completed. Gender-specific multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to examine associations. Subjective and objective measures were weakly positively correlated. Independent of objective measures, subjective social status was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms (men and women) and insulin resistance (women). The associations of subjective social status with the outcomes were modest and generally similar to the objective measures. We did not find evidence that perceived racial discrimination strongly confounded or modified the association of subjective social status with the outcomes. Subjective social status was related to depressive symptoms but not consistently to stress or metabolic risk factors in African Americans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjective social status and psychosocial and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanyam, Malavika A.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Williams, David R.; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2012-01-01

    Subjective social status has been shown to be inversely associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, independent of objective social status. However, few studies have examined this association among African Americans and the results have been mixed. Additionally, the influence of discrimination on this relationship has not been explored. Using baseline data (2000–2004) from the Jackson Heart Study, an African American cohort from the U.S. South (N = 5301), we quantified the associati...

  11. Perceived health status : is obesity perceived as a risk factor and disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommy L.S. Visscher; Jeroen Lakerveld; Nanna Olsen; Leanne Küpers; Sofia Ramalho; Laura Keaver; Christina Brei; Jan-Inge Bjune; Silvia Ezquerro; Volkan Yumuk

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This

  12. Health status and occupational risk factors in Greek small fisheries workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is an extremely dangerous occupational activity that predisposes to occupational diseases and accidents. Greece, with about 16,000 km of coastline and its unique morphological characteristics with small islands and peninsulas, represents a strong proof of its great tradition in the fisheries sector since ancient times. The aim of the study was to examine the health status and the health risk factors present in Greek fishery workers, by exploring their working environment, thus providing a current baseline for documentation of the needs for prevention and health promotion. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was distributed in 2013 to a random sample of 172 professional small-scale fishermen of the Evros district in North-Eastern Greece. Eighty-eight per cent worked in coastal fisheries and 73% were using small fishing vessels, less than 10 m in length overall. Health disorders included musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and visual problems and to a minor degree by hearing, dermatologic and respiratory problems in all age groups. Seventy per cent had experienced at least one occupational accident. Heavy smoking and daily alcohol consumption was seen among nearly half of the fishermen. The health effects observed are causally related to the work process exposures on board and to diet, smoking, and lack of exercise. This in turn relates to the specific working conditions, the culture and level of education in small-scale fishing that need to be taken into consideration together in the prevention programmes.

  13. Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the US elderly: the role of risk factors in the EPESE study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lenthe, Frank J van; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P; Bos, G A M van den; Fay, Martha E; Berkman, Lisa F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assesses the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke incidence in the elderly, and the contribution of risk factors to stroke disparities. METHODS: Data comprised a sample of 2812 men and women aged 65 years and over from the New Haven cohort of the Established

  14. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  15. Primary drug-resistant tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam: present status and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Le Hang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB to anti-tuberculosis (TB drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6% MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9% were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7% were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.15-4.35; 1.91, 1.18-3.10; and 1.69, 1.06-2.69, respectively. The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29-3.40. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07-14.14; 6.23, 2.34-16.58, respectively. CONCLUSION: Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment

  16. Iodine nutritional status and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Iodine deficiency affects nearly 1.9 billion people worldwide, but it can be prevented by salt iodization. This cross-sectional survey assessed current iodine status, iodized salt coverage and risk factors for goitre among schoolchildren in South Tajikistan. Methods Ten primary schools in four districts in South Tajikistan were randomly selected. In schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 years, a spot urine sample was collected for measurement of urinary iodine, dried blood spots were collected for measurement of thyroglobulin, and goitre was assessed by palpation. Iodine content of salt samples and local selling points was determined by coloration using rapid test kits and titration method. Results Of 623 schoolchildren enrolled, complete data was obtained from 589. The overall median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 51.2 μg/L indicating mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Among all children, 46.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 42.4%-50.6%) of children were found to be goitrous (grade 1 goitre: 30.6%, 95% CI = 26.9%-34.5%; grade 2 goitre: 16.0%, 95% CI = 13.1%-19.2%). The risk factor for goitre remaining significant in the multivariable logistic regression model was 'buying salt once a month’ (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.01-8.22) and 'buying salt once every six months’ (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.01-5.04) compared to 'buying salt every one or two weeks’. The overall median thyroglobulin concentration was elevated at 13.9 μg/L. Of the salt samples from households and selling points, one third were adequately iodised, one third insufficiently and one third were not iodised. Conclusion Iodine deficiency remains a serious health issue among children in southern Tajikistan. There is a persisting high prevalence of goitre, elevated thyroglobulin and low UIC despite interventions implemented by Tajikistan and international partners. Quality control of salt iodine content needs to be improved. Continued efforts to raise awareness of the

  17. Association of Ovarian Tumor β2-Adrenergic Receptor Status with Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyi; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hecht, Jonathan L; Rice, Megan S; Sood, Anil K; Kubzansky, Laura D; Poole, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    The β 2 -adrenergic signaling pathway mediates the effects of chronic stress on ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. The relevance of this pathway to human ovarian cancer remains unknown. We assessed tumor expression of β 2 -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) using tissue microarrays in 237 ovarian cancer cases from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). Competing risks Cox regression was used to evaluate whether associations of reproductive, hormonal, and psychosocial factors with ovarian cancer risk differed by ADRB2. We also examined the association between tumor ADRB2 expression and ovarian cancer survival. Forty-five (19%) cases were positive for ADRB2 staining. High levels of anxiety symptoms were positively associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR, 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-5.84) but not with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.81-1.66; P heterogeneity = 0.07). We observed similar results for depression. No associations were observed for job strain, caregiving stress, or widowhood for either positive or negative ADRB2 status. Lifetime ovulatory years were more strongly associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR per 5 years, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.15-2.21) compared with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.96-1.27; P heterogeneity = 0.04). Significant heterogeneity by ADRB2 was also observed for parity (P heterogeneity = 0.01), oral contraceptive use (P heterogeneity = 0.03), and age at menopause (P heterogeneity = 0.04). Tumor expression of ADRB2 was not associated with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.69-1.59). Several stress- and ovulation-related factors were differentially associated with ovarian tumors responsive to β 2 -adrenergic signaling. Replication in larger studies is warranted to confirm the role of β 2 -adrenergic signaling in ovarian cancer etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1587-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recrui...

  19. Psychosocial Factors in the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Cardiometabolic Risk: the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Jessica L; Penedo, Frank; Roesch, Scott C; Isasi, Carmen R; Carnethon, Mercedes; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Schneiderman, Neil; Gonzalez, Patricia; Chirinos, Diana A; Camacho, Alvaro; Teng, Yanping; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    U.S. Hispanics/Latinos display a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), a group of co-occurring cardiometabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure) associated with higher cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher risk for MetSyn in Hispanics/Latinos, and psychosocial factors may play a role in this relationship. This cross-sectional study examined psychosocial factors in the association of SES and MetSyn components in 4,996 Hispanic/Latino adults from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study. MetSyn components were measured at the baseline examination. Participants completed interviews to determine psychosocial risks (e.g., depression) and resources (e.g., social support) within 9 months of baseline (psychosocial indicators, and three factors for MetSyn [blood pressure, lipids, metabolic factors]. SEMs showed that lower SES was related to MetSyn factors indirectly through higher psychosocial risk/lower resources (Y-Bχ 2 (df = 420) = 4412.90, p psychosocial risk/resource variables (Mackinnon's 95% asymmetric CI = -0.13 to -0.02). SES is related to metabolic variables indirectly through psychosocial factors in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos of diverse ancestries.

  20. Perceived Health Status: Is Obesity Perceived as a Risk Factor and Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Olsen, Nanna; Küpers, Leanne; Ramalho, Sofia; Keaver, Laura; Brei, Christina; Bjune, Jan-Inge; Ezquerro, Silvia; Yumuk, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This paper aims at describing perception of obesity as risk factor and disease among individuals seeking care, individuals not seeking care, the society, and different professionals having a role in the field of obesity. The paper is a reflection of the lecture on the topic that was given at the EASO's New Investigators United's Summer School 2016 in Portugal and the discussion with the new investigators and other senior speakers. Individual obese patients seeking help are very much aware of obesity being a risk factor and disease, but perceptions regarding obesity seem to be flawed among those who do not seek help for obesity. Also, misperceptions regarding obesity play a role at different levels, including society, different political levels, the fields of health care and social work, prevention organizations, and the food and marketing industry. The food and marketing industry has an enormous role in changing perceptions by the society and policy makers. Obesity rates will continue to increase as long as individuals, the society, and professionals at different levels have false interpretations of the severity of obesity. Severe action is needed against those who are playing a role in maintaining false perceptions of obesity as a risk factor and disease. PMID:28278496

  1. Impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie; Ridker, Paul M

    2006-12-12

    Persons of lower socioeconomic status have greater cardiovascular risk than those of higher socioeconomic status. However, the mechanism through which socioeconomic status affects cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. Virtually no data are available that examine the prospective association between novel inflammatory and hemostatic CVD risk indicators, socioeconomic status, and incident CVD events. We assessed the relationship between 2 indicators of socioeconomic status (education and income), traditional and novel CVD risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, fibrinogen, and homocysteine), and incident CVD events among 22,688 apparently healthy female health professionals participating in the Women's Health Study. These women were followed up for 10 years for the development of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular death. More educated women were less likely to be smokers; had a lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity; and were more likely to participate in vigorous physical activity than less educated women. At baseline, median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, fibrinogen, and homocysteine levels for women in 5 categories of education (master's degree, and a doctoral degree) and 6 categories of income [ or = 100,000 dollars) decreased progressively with increasing education or income levels (all Prisk of incident CVD events decreased with increasing education (1.0, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4, and 0.5; P for trend risk factors on the relationship between education/income and CVD events, the relative hazard of incident CVD associated with a 1-category-higher level of education changed from 0.79 in age- and race-adjusted analysis to 0.89 in fully adjusted analysis. The 11% lower risk per 1 category of education remained significant (P for trend=0.006), suggesting that controlling

  2. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  3. Sexual Lifestyle, Risk Factors and Socioeconomic Status of the STD Patients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, A K; Hossain, K J; Islam, A S

    2017-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are increasing alarmingly with time among the young-adults in Bangladesh. The objective of the study was to investigate Sexual lifestyle, Risk Factors and Socioeconomic Status of the STD Patients. A total of 205 STD patients were selected following convenient method of sampling consistent with defined selection criteria from outpatient department of Skin and Venereal Disease of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh. Period of data collection was from July 2014 to June 2015. The research instrument was an interviewer questionnaire and laboratory investigation reports. Results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 27±5.9 years of which 104(50.7%) unmarried and 95(46.3%) married. Level of education, 168(82.0%) of the STD patients were literate. Occupation of the STD patients, 201(98.0%) had specific occupation of which 74(36.1%) were businessmen, 48(23.4%) student, 24(11.7%) technical jobs, 20(9.8%) day labourer, 15(7.3%) household workers, 14(6.8%) service holders and 6(2.9%) were transport workers. Their average monthly income was Tk. 7892±6763. Majority of the STD patients 115((56.1%) expressed that they enjoyed extra-marital sex or illegal sex out of curiosity, 32(15.6%) habitual, 24(11.7%) to test sexual performance, 18(8.8%) inadequate response of the legal sex partners, 8(3.9%) hyper-sexuality and 8(3.9%) family disharmony. Most of the patients 200(97.6%) were heterosexual of which 165(80.5%) visited 1-10 sex partners, 18(8.8%) 11-20 sex partners and 22(10.7%) visited 21-100 sex partners in lifetime. In category of sex partners, 60(29.3%) were hotel-based sex partners, 111(54.1%) brothel-based, 20(9.8%) friends sex partners, 10(4.9%) street sex sellers and 4(2.0%) were residential sex partners respectively. Of them, 132(64.4%) did not use condom during sex, 65(31.7%) use it occasionally and only 8(3.9%) use condom regularly. Most of them 170((82.8%) had been suffering from gonococcal urethritis, 19

  4. Nutritional status and eating disorders: neglected risks factor for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Karina; Morera, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) in immunocompetent patients is an increasingly important epidemiologic concern. However, risk factors associated with susceptibility to NTMLD are not completely known. A prevalence of NTMLD appears to be rising, mainly in some populations such as middle-aged or elderly thin women, (a group including those with Lady Windermere syndrome) with neither remarkable history of respiratory disease nor smoking habit. Right middle lobe (RML) and lingula are often involved. Various predisposing factors and genetic defects have been described as possible causes of development of NTMLD, namely: voluntary suppression of cough, RML anatomical factors, menopause and mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Malnutrition is also an important and common risk factor associated with other mycobacterial disease like tuberculosis (TB) and its probable association with NTMLD as have been pointed out for some authors. However, a real description of all nutritional aspects and eating habits of patients prior to NTMLD diagnosis is lacking. We hypothesized that malnutrition and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa could be risk factors that may promoting NTMLD. From a clinical viewpoint, if this hypothesis proves to be correct, eating habits and nutritional aspects should be taken into account in the diagnosis process of suspected NTMLD, since they are easily identifiable and treatable conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental risk factors for allergy and socioeconomic status in a birth cohort (BAMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannerö, E; Kull, I; Wickman, M; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, S L

    2002-06-01

    Associations between parental educational level and possible risk factors for atopic disease during the first months of life were explored in a cohort of 4089 neonate children born 1994-96 in Stockholm, Sweden. Reports concerning a number of life style factors during pregnancy and after the baby was born were obtained by questionnaire. There was a strong negative association between duration of education and maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental smoking after the baby was born and keeping of cat and dog (p-trend < 0.001), respectively. For example, smoking during pregnancy was reported by 6.7% (95% CI 5.5-7.9) of mothers with college or university degree and by 22.2% (95% CI 20.1-24.5) of those with the shortest education. Indicators of dampness and poor ventilation were also more common in homes of those with the shortest education. The results show that the educational level has an influence on risk factors for development of atopic disease in childhood and indicates a need of deeper understanding of life style in different socioeconomic groups. The data also indicate that various possible confounding factors need to be thoroughly investigated when analysing studies of risk factors for allergic disease in childhood.

  6. Gender perspective of risk factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinetti, Elisa; Santacatterina, Michele; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients in South Africa. A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73%) with median age of 39 years. Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR) 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-1.0; p = 0.05)). Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90-11.7; p = 0.07) than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.99; p = 0.17) than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (pwomen were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (pgender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended.

  7. Associations between noncommunicable disease risk factors, race, education, and health insurance status among women of reproductive age in Brazil - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Jonetta Johnson; de Moura, Lenildo; Farr, Sherry L; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Moehlecke; Ivata Bernal, Regina Tomie; Robbins, Cheryl L; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    Noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors increase the risk of adverse reproductive health outcomes and are becoming increasingly common in Brazil. We analyzed VIGITEL 2011 telephone survey data for 13,745 Brazilian women aged 18-44 years in a probabilistic sample from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. We examined associations between NCD risk factors (fruit and vegetable intake, leisure time physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, BMI and hypertension status) and race, education, and insurance using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models, estimating the average marginal effects to produce adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRs). Analyses were conducted using SAS 9.3 survey procedures and weighted to reflect population estimates. Women with less than a college education were more likely to report physical inactivity (adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence interval = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.7 (1.3-2.2)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension (aRR = 2.0 (1.6-2.5)) compared to women with a college education or greater. Similarly, women without health insurance were more likely to report physical inactivity (aRR = 1.1 (1.1-1.2)), smoking (aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.8)), and self-reported diagnoses of hypertension aRR = 1.4 (1.1-1.7)) compared to women with health insurance. Less variation was found by race and NCD risk factors. Targeted public health strategies and policies are needed to increase healthcare access and decrease educational and racial disparities in NCD risk factors among women of reproductive age in Brazil.

  8. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  9. Gender perspective of risk factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Longinetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. AIM: To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART recipients in South Africa. SETTING: A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. PATIENTS: A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73% with median age of 39 years. RESULTS: Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.1-1.0; p = 0.05. Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90-11.7; p = 0.07 than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.99; p = 0.17 than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (p<0.01, and to partner and family (p<0.01, women were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (p<0.01, to child, family and others (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Being employed imposed a risk factor for HIV status disclosure, additionally we found an interaction effect of gender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended.

  10. Homocysteine status and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A-M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative, cutaneous disorder with the potential to lower levels of folate. This may result in raised levels of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to compare levels of red-cell folate (RCF) and homocysteine in patients with psoriasis and in healthy controls. Levels of homocysteine were also examined in the context of other major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In total, 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 controls had their RCF, homo-cysteine and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had a trend towards lower levels of RCF. Significantly raised levels of homocysteine were found in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P = 0.007). There was no correlation between homocysteine levels, RCF levels or disease activity as measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (P < 0.004) and higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. This may contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with psoriasis.

  11. Socioeconomic status, non-communicable disease risk factors, and walking speed in older adults: multi-cohort population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Jokela, Markus; Avendaño, Mauricio; McCrory, Cathal; d'Errico, Angelo; Bochud, Murielle; Barros, Henrique; Costa, Giuseppe; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Delpierre, Cyrille; Gandini, Martina; Fraga, Silvia; Goldberg, Marcel; Giles, Graham G; Lassale, Camille; Kenny, Rose Anne; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Paccaud, Fred; Layte, Richard; Muennig, Peter; Marmot, Michael G; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Steptoe, Andrew; Shipley, Martin J; Zins, Marie; Mackenbach, Johan P; Vineis, Paolo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2018-03-23

    To assess the association of low socioeconomic status and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (diabetes, high alcohol intake, high blood pressure, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking) with loss of physical functioning at older ages. Multi-cohort population based study. 37 cohort studies from 24 countries in Europe, the United States, Latin America, Africa, and Asia, 1990-2017. 109 107 men and women aged 45-90 years. Physical functioning assessed using the walking speed test, a valid index of overall functional capacity. Years of functioning lost was computed as a metric to quantify the difference in walking speed between those exposed and unexposed to low socioeconomic status and risk factors. According to mixed model estimations, men aged 60 and of low socioeconomic status had the same walking speed as men aged 66.6 of high socioeconomic status (years of functioning lost 6.6 years, 95% confidence interval 5.0 to 9.4). The years of functioning lost for women were 4.6 (3.6 to 6.2). In men and women, respectively, 5.7 (4.4 to 8.1) and 5.4 (4.3 to 7.3) years of functioning were lost by age 60 due to insufficient physical activity, 5.1 (3.9 to 7.0) and 7.5 (6.1 to 9.5) due to obesity, 2.3 (1.6 to 3.4) and 3.0 (2.3 to 4.0) due to hypertension, 5.6 (4.2 to 8.0) and 6.3 (4.9 to 8.4) due to diabetes, and 3.0 (2.2 to 4.3) and 0.7 (0.1 to 1.5) due to tobacco use. In analyses restricted to high income countries, the number of years of functioning lost attributable to low socioeconomic status by age 60 was 8.0 (5.7 to 13.1) for men and 5.4 (4.0 to 8.0) for women, whereas in low and middle income countries it was 2.6 (0.2 to 6.8) for men and 2.7 (1.0 to 5.5) for women. Within high income countries, the number of years of functioning lost attributable to low socioeconomic status by age 60 was greater in the United States than in Europe. Physical functioning continued to decline as a function of unfavourable risk factors between ages 60 and 85. Years of functioning

  12. Acculturation, immigration status and cardiovascular risk factors among Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg: findings from ORISCAV-LUX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkerwi Ala’a

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No previous study has examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and explored the influence of immigration status and acculturation on overweight/obesity among the Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg. Our objectives were to (1 compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between native Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants, (2 examine the relationship between immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg and language proficiency or preference (as proxy variables of acculturation and overweight/obesity among Portuguese immigrants, and (3 elucidate the role of underlying socioeconomic, behavioral and dietary factors in overweight/obesity differences among the two populations. Methods Recent national cross-sectional data from ORISCAV-LUX survey 2007–2008, composed of 843 subjects were analyzed. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI >25kg/m2. Acculturation score was measured by using immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg, and language proficiency or preference. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between acculturation markers and overweight/obesity. Further, a series of successive models were fitted to explore the separated and added impact of potential mediators (socioeconomic status, physical activity, dietary factors on overweight/obesity among Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants. Results Compared to Luxembourgers, Portuguese immigrants of first and second generation were younger and currently employed. About 68% of first generation Portuguese had only primary school, and about 44% were living below poverty threshold. Although the cardiovascular risk factors were comparable, Portuguese immigrants were more frequently overweight and obese than Luxembourgers, even after age and gender standardization to the European population. Overweight/obesity was significantly

  13. Socio-economic status and cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas of Vellore, Tamilnadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, Palani; Richard, Joseph; Fall, Caroline H D

    2012-10-01

    We examined associations between socio-economic status (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education and paternal education. CVD risk factors included obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, plasma total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and triglyceride levels and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and risk factors. Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants' own education and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all the three SES indicators, adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score. Compared with those in the lowest fifth of the score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity [odds ratio (OR) =6.4, 95% CI 3.4-11.6], high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.9-4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) was lower. Except for hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. In this young cohort of rural and urban south Indians, higher SES was associated with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile but lower tobacco use.

  14. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

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    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  15. Acculturation, immigration status and cardiovascular risk factors among Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg: findings from ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Pagny, Sybil; Beissel, Jean; Delagardelle, Charles; Lair, Marie-Lise

    2012-10-11

    No previous study has examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and explored the influence of immigration status and acculturation on overweight/obesity among the Portuguese immigrants to Luxembourg. Our objectives were to (1) compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors between native Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants, (2) examine the relationship between immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg and language proficiency or preference (as proxy variables of acculturation) and overweight/obesity among Portuguese immigrants, and (3) elucidate the role of underlying socioeconomic, behavioral and dietary factors in overweight/obesity differences among the two populations. Recent national cross-sectional data from ORISCAV-LUX survey 2007-2008, composed of 843 subjects were analyzed. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2). Acculturation score was measured by using immigrant generation status, proportion of life spent in Luxembourg, and language proficiency or preference. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between acculturation markers and overweight/obesity. Further, a series of successive models were fitted to explore the separated and added impact of potential mediators (socioeconomic status, physical activity, dietary factors) on overweight/obesity among Luxembourgers and Portuguese immigrants. Compared to Luxembourgers, Portuguese immigrants of first and second generation were younger and currently employed. About 68% of first generation Portuguese had only primary school, and about 44% were living below poverty threshold. Although the cardiovascular risk factors were comparable, Portuguese immigrants were more frequently overweight and obese than Luxembourgers, even after age and gender standardization to the European population. Overweight/obesity was significantly higher among Portuguese of first generation compared

  16. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29

  17. Law enforcement officer versus non-law enforcement officer status as a longitudinal predictor of traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Bruce R; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hoekstra, T.

    Objective: To determine whether law enforcement officer (LEO) status and perceived stress are longitudinal predictors of traditional and inflammatory cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Method: Linear hierarchical regression was employed to investigate the longitudinal (more than 7 years) relationship

  18. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  19. The relationship between employment and veteran status, disability and gender from 2004-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, about 1.8 million or 8 percent of the 22.2 million veterans were women in the US. The unemployment rate for female veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan rose to 13.5%, above the 8.4% for non-veteran adult women. To examine data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), from 2004-2011 to determine the relationship between employment and veteran status, disability and gender. Chi square analysis was used to determine if significant differences existed between the employment rate of female veterans with disabilities and female veterans without disabilities, female non-veterans with disabilities and male veterans with disabilities. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine how veteran status, disability and gender affected the likelihood of not being employed. Significant differences were found in employment rate between female veterans with disabilities and female veterans without disabilities, but not when compared to female non-veterans with disabilities or male veterans with disabilities. Disability was the strongest factor increasing the likelihood of not being employed, though veteran status and female gender were also predictive. Female veterans with disabilities experience low levels of employment. Policies and programs are needed to address the unique needs of these veterans.

  20. Risk factors associated with nonvaccination rabies status of dogs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hergert M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Hergert,1 Kevin le Roux,2 Louis H Nel3,4 1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Environment, Agriculture and Rural Development, Government Veterinary Services, Pietermaritzburg, 3Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: Canine rabies has been enzootic in the dog population of the KwaZulu-Natal ­province of South Africa since the mid-1970s and has been associated with high rates of human exposures and frequent transmissions to other domestic animal species. Several decades of control efforts, consisting primarily of mass vaccination programs, failed to sufficiently curb rabies in this province. For meaningful progression toward better control and elimination, the factors contributing to the persistence of this disease need to be elucidated and addressed. This paper reports evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding owned canine populations in this South African province. We used logistic regression modeling to predict variables associated with risk of nonvaccination of rabies in owned dogs. The study indicated that husbandry practices, rabies knowledge, geographical area/location, and the ages of dogs were important factors associated with the risk of nonvaccination. High population turnover, together with large free roaming dog populations, compromised the levels of vaccination achieved and contributed to the persistence of dog rabies in the province. Dog owners in this study also reported that they were more likely to present their dogs for vaccination when the vaccines were free of charge (52% and less than a kilometer from their homes (91%. It has been suggested that effective dog rabies control

  1. Survey of Blood Pressure Status and Knowledge of Risk Factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Health authorities including the World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended that ... excessive fat ingestion; but more than a third of respondents were unaware of their BP status.

  2. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  3. Employment status of women with disabilities from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (1995-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Diane Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Among working aged adults (18-64) with disabilities, three out of 10 (32%) work full or part-time, compared to eight out of 10 (81%) of those without disabilities [9]. In addition, 24.7% of women with a severe disability and 27.8% of men with a severe disability are employed, while women with a non-severe disability have an employment rate of 68.4% and men with a non-severe disability have an employment rate of 85.1% [14]. This study examined data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 1995-2002 to determine whether or not disparities exist in the rate of unemployment for women with disabilities, compared to men with disabilities and women and men without disabilities. In addition, regression analysis looked at the how disability and gender predict the outcome of unemployment. Results showed that there has been essentially no change with regard to employment for any of these populations. In addition, disability and gender were found to be the strongest predictors of unemployment for women with disabilities. Possible explanations were discussed as to the reasons for the results and issues were presented for future research.

  4. Health insurance status and control of diabetes and coronary artery disease risk factors on enrollment into the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Mary; Jenkins, Margaret; Sansing, Veronica V; MacGregor, Joan; Brooks, Maria Mori; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Amendola, Angela; Abbott, J Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine measures of chronic disease severity and treatment according to insurance status in a clinical trial setting. Baseline insurance status of 776 patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) enrolled in the United States in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial was analyzed with regard to measures of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factor control. Compared with patients with private or public insurance, the uninsured were younger, more often female, and less often white non-Hispanic. Uninsured patients had the greatest burden of CAD. Patients with public insurance were treated with the greatest number of medications, had the greatest self-reported functional status, and the lowest mean glycosylated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol values. Overall, for 5 measured risk factor targets, the mean number above goal was 2.49 ± 1.18. After adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, insurance status was not associated with a difference in risk factor control. In the BARI 2D trial, we did not observe a difference in baseline cardiovascular risk factor control according to insurance status. An important observation, however, was that risk factor control overall was suboptimal, which highlights the difficulty in treating type 2 diabetes and CAD irrespective of insurance status.

  5. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau....

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  7. Health Status and Risk Factors among Adolescent Survivors One Month after the 2014 Ludian Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihan Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An earthquake struck Ludian in Yunnan Province (China on 3 August 2014, resulting in 3143 injuries, 617 deaths, and 112 missing persons. Our study aimed at estimating the health status and associated determinants among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 845 was conducted at the Ludian No. 1 Middle School. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and stepwise linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The mean scores on the physical component summary (PCS and mental component summary (MCS were 46.23 (SD = 7.10 and 36.34 (SD = 7.09, respectively. Lower PCS scores in the aftermath of an earthquake were associated with being trapped or in danger, being female, being an ethnic minority, injury to self and house damage, while lower MSC scores were associated with fear during the earthquake, Han ethnicity, death in the family, not being involved in the rescue and low household income. Conclusions: In our study, significant associations between demographic, socio-economic, and trauma-related experiences variables and overall physical and mental health of adolescent survivors were presented. The results of this study help expand our knowledge of health status among adolescent survivors after the Ludian earthquake.

  8. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9-15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Fan; Xiong, Fei; Huo, Tingzhu; Tong, Yu; Yang, Sufei; Mao, Meng

    2012-08-10

    Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9-15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). And then a frequency matched case-control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls) were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8%) had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity). The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P 0.05). Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746), maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713), paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583), preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564), full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454) and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418) were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  9. Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manganelli Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15 attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15% tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81% out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19% presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.

  10. The intersection of sex, marital status, and cardiovascular risk factors in shaping stroke incidence: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselko, Joanna; Bates, Lisa M; Avendaño, Mauricio; Glymour, M Maria

    2009-12-01

    To examine the role of sex and marital status in the distribution and consequences of cardiovascular risk factors for stroke. Longitudinal cohort. U.S. national sample, community based. U.S. adults aged 50 and older and their spouses. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants born between 1900 and 1947 (N=22,818), aged 50 and older, and stroke-free at baseline were followed an average of 9.4 years for self- or proxy-reported stroke (2,372 events). Financial resources, behavioral risk factors, and cardiovascular conditions were used to predict incident stroke in Cox proportional hazard models stratified according to sex and marital status (married, widowed, divorced or separated, or never married). Women were less likely to be married than men. The distribution of risk factors differed according to sex and marital status. Men had higher incident stroke rates than women, even after full risk factor adjustment (hazard ratio (HR)=1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.11-1.34). For both sexes, being never married or widowed predicted greater risk, associations that were attenuated after adjustment for financial resources. Widowed men had the highest risk (HR=1.40, 95% CI=1.12-1.74 vs married women). Lower income and wealth were associated with similarly high risk across subgroups, although this risk factor especially affected unmarried women, with this group reporting the lowest income and wealth levels. Most other risk factors had similar HRs across subgroups, although moderate alcohol use did not predict lower stroke risk in unmarried women. Stroke incidence and risk factors vary substantially according to sex and marital status. It is likely that gendered social experiences, such as marriage and socioeconomic disadvantage, mediate pathways linking sex and stroke.

  11. Current state of cardiac rehabilitation in Germany: patient characteristics, risk factor management and control status, by education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestehorn, Kurt; Jannowitz, Christina; Horack, Martin; Karmann, Barbara; Halle, Martin; Völler, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    After the acute hospital stay, most cardiac patients in Germany are transferred for a 3-4-week period of inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. We aim to describe patient characteristics and risk factor management of cardiac rehabilitation patients with a focus on drug treatment and control status, differentiated by education level (low level, elementary school; intermediate level, secondary modern school; high level, grammar school/university). Data covering a time period between 2003 and 2008 from 68,191 hospitalized patients in cardiac rehabilitation from a large-scale registry (Transparency Registry to Objectify Guideline- Oriented Risk Factor Management) were analyzed descriptively. Further, a multivariate model was applied to assess factors associated with good control of risk factors. In the total cohort, patients with a manifestation of coronary artery disease (mean age 63.7 years, males 71.7%) were referred to cardiac rehabilitation after having received percutaneous coronary intervention (51.6%) or coronary bypass surgery (39.5%). Statin therapy increased from 76.3% at entry to 88.9% at discharge, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol education. In contrast with patients having high education, those with low education had more diabetes, hypertension, and peripheral arterial disease, had lower exercise capacity, and received less treatment with statins and guideline-orientated therapy in general. In the multivariate model, good control was significantly more likely in men (odds ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.46), less likely in patients of higher age (0.99; 0.99-0.99), with diabetes (0.90; 0.85-0.95), or peripheral arterial disease (0.88; 0.82-0.95). Compared with a low level education, a mid level education was associated with poor control (0.94; 0.89-0.99), while high education did not have a significant effect (1.08; 0.99-1.17). Patients with different levels of education treated in cardiac rehabilitation did not differ relevantly in terms of

  12. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  14. Mental health status and gender as risk factors for onset of physical illness over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Flora I; Smith, Katherine L W; Moineddin, Rahim; Dunn, James R; Glazier, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the connection between mental illness (MI) and the onset of new physical illnesses among previously physically healthy individuals. Yet the role of gender is often forgotten in research focused on comorbidity of health problems. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the onset of physical illness in a cohort of respondents who met criteria for MI compared with a control cohort without mental health problems. This cohort study, conducted in Ontario, Canada, used a unique linked dataset with information from the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and medical records (n=15,902). We used adjusted Cox proportional survival analysis to examine risk of onset of four physical health problems (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, asthma, hypertension and diabetes) for those with and without baseline MI across a 10-year period (2002-2011) among respondents aged 18-74 years. We controlled for socioeconomic and health indicators associated with health. The incidence of physical illness in the MI cohort was 28.5% among women and 29.9% among men (p=0.85) relative to controls (23.8% and 24%, respectively; p=0.48). Women in the MI cohort developed secondary physical health problems a year earlier than their male counterparts (p=0.002). Findings from the Cox proportional survival regression showed that women were at 14% reduced risk of developing physical illness, meaning that men were more disadvantaged (HR=0.89, CI 0.80 to 0.98). Those in the MI cohort were at 10 times greater risk of developing a secondary physical illness over the 10-year period (HR=1.10, CI 0.98 to 1.21). There was no significant interaction between gender and MI cohort (HR=1.05, CI 0.85 to 1.27). Policy and clinical practice have to be sensitive to these complex-needs patients. Gender-specific treatment and prevention practices can be developed to target those at higher risk of multiple health conditions.

  15. Recruitment of child soldiers in Nepal: Mental health status and risk factors for voluntary participation of youth in armed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D

    2016-08-01

    Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p =0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.

  16. NT-proBNP, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ducros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between NT-proBNP and malnutrition in HD patients while taking into account the four established categories of parameters for diagnosis of protein energy wasting (PEW. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in Afro-Caribbean dialysis patients. One component in each of the 4 categories for the wasting syndrome was retained: serum albumin ≤ 38 g/L, BMI ≤ 23 Kg/m2, serum creatinine ≤ 818 µmol/L, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR ≤ 0.8 g/kg/day. NT-proBNP was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Two multivariate logistic regression models were performed to determine the parameters associated with high NT-proBNP concentrations. Results. In 207 HD patients, 16.9% had PEW (at least three components. LVEF lower than 60% was found in 13.8% of patients. NT-proBNP levels ranged from 125 to 33144 pg/mL. In model 1, high levels of NT-proBNP (≥6243 pg/mL were independently associated with PEW OR 14.2 (3.25–62.4, male gender 2.80 (1.22–6.57, hsCRP > 5 mg/L 3.90 (1.77–8.57, and dialysis vintage > 3 years 3.84 (1.35–10.8. In model 2, LVEF OR was 0.93 (0.88–0.98. NT-proBNP concentrations were significantly higher when the PEW component number was higher. Conclusion. In dialysis patients, high NT-proBNP levels must draw attention to cardiac function but also to nutritional status.

  17. The role of prenatal care and social risk factors in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal morbidity: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paz-Zulueta

    Full Text Available Literature evaluating association between neonatal morbidity and immigrant status presents contradictory results. Poorer compliance with prenatal care and greater social risk factors among immigrants could play roles as major confounding variables, thus explaining contradictions. We examined whether prenatal care and social risk factors are confounding variables in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal morbidity.Retrospective cohort study: 231 pregnant African immigrant women were recruited from 2007-2010 in northern Spain. A Spanish population sample was obtained by simple random sampling at 1:3 ratio. Immigrant status (Spanish, Sub-Saharan and Northern African, prenatal care (Kessner Index adequate, intermediate or inadequate, and social risk factors were treated as independent variables. Low birth weight (LBW < 2500 grams and preterm birth (< 37 weeks were collected as neonatal morbidity variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR were estimated by unconditional logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.Positive associations between immigrant women and higher risk of neonatal morbidity were obtained. Crude OR for preterm births in Northern Africans with respect to nonimmigrants was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.04-5.00, and crude OR for LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 0.74-4.22. However, after adjusting for prenatal care and social risk factors, associations became protective: adjusted OR for preterm birth = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.14-1.32; LBW = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.15-1.52. Poor compliance with prenatal care was the main independent risk factor associated with both preterm birth (adjusted OR inadequate care = 17.05; 95% CI: 3.92-74.24 and LBW (adjusted OR inadequate care = 6.25; 95% CI: 1.28-30.46. Social risk was an important independent risk factor associated with LBW (adjusted OR = 5.42; 95% CI: 1.58-18.62.Prenatal care and social risk factors were major confounding variables in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal

  18. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age: Impulsivity, cigarette smoking status, and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Laura L; Hand, Dennis J; Priest, Jeff S; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant. Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US. Half (n=400) reported current, daily smoking and half (n=400) reported smoking e-cigarette use were examined using logistic regression. Daily cigarette smoking was associated with greater impulsivity, lower education, past illegal drug use, and White race/ethnicity. E-cigarette use in the overall sample was associated with being a cigarette smoker and greater education. E-cigarette use among current smokers was associated with increased nicotine dependence and quitting smoking; among never smokers it was associated with greater impulsivity and illegal drug use. E-cigarette use was associated with hookah use, and for never smokers only with use of cigars and other nicotine products. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age varies by smoking status, with use among current smokers reflecting attempts to quit smoking whereas among non-smokers use may be a marker of a more impulsive repertoire that includes greater use of alternative tobacco products and illegal drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transition in health status from childhood to adulthood and associated risk factors: A 13 year interval follow-up study in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, MA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IN HEALTH STATUS FROM CHILDHOOD TO ADULTHOOD AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS: A 13 YEAR INTERVAL FOLLOW-UP STUDY IN SOUTH AFRICA [Program and Abstracts: The Seventeenth Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE): Abstracts...- communicable diseases of which the risk factors are largely associated with lifestyle. Emerging infections such as HIV/AIDS and re-emerging infections (polio) together with existing diseases (TB and malaria) and the exposure to occupational and environmental...

  20. Current state of cardiac rehabilitation in Germany: patient characteristics, risk factor management and control status, by education level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestehorn K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kurt Bestehorn1, Christina Jannowitz2, Martin Horack3, Barbara Karmann2, Martin Halle4, Heinz Völler5 1Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, Technical University, Dresden; 2Medical Department, MSD Sharp and Dohme GmbH, Haar; 3Institut für Herzinfarktforschung Ludwigshafen an der Universität Heidelberg, Ludwigshafen; 4Center for Prevention and Sports Medicine, Technical University, Munich; 5Klinik am See, Rehabilitation Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Rüdersdorf, Germany Background: After the acute hospital stay, most cardiac patients in Germany are transferred for a 3–4-week period of inpatient cardiac rehabilitation. We aim to describe patient characteristics and risk factor management of cardiac rehabilitation patients with a focus on drug treatment and control status, differentiated by education level (low level, elementary school; intermediate level, secondary modern school; high level, grammar school/university. Methods: Data covering a time period between 2003 and 2008 from 68,191 hospitalized patients in cardiac rehabilitation from a large-scale registry (Transparency Registry to Objectify Guideline-Oriented Risk Factor Management were analyzed descriptively. Further, a multivariate model was applied to assess factors associated with good control of risk factors. Results: In the total cohort, patients with a manifestation of coronary artery disease (mean age 63.7 years, males 71.7% were referred to cardiac rehabilitation after having received percutaneous coronary intervention (51.6% or coronary bypass surgery (39.5%. Statin therapy increased from 76.3% at entry to 88.9% at discharge, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL rates increased from 31.1% to 69.6%. Mean fasting blood glucose decreased from 108 mg/dL to 104 mg/dL, and mean exercise capacity increased from 78 W to 95 W. Age and gender did not differ by education. In contrast with patients having high education, those with low education had more diabetes

  1. Risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility

  2. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Firouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of <6.5% with no significant differences between genders. The mean body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7 kg/m 2 , with 86.5% either were overweight or obese. Only 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397 (P < 0.05 higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391 (P < 0.01 and 14.3 (2.647-77.500 (P < 0.01 higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  3. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Azmi, Kamaruddin Nor

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397) (P types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391) (P 1) and 14.3 (2.647-77.500) (P 1) higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  4. Phenylketonuria is not a risk factor for changes of inflammation status as assessed by interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozrzymas, Renata; Duś-Żuchowska, Monika; Kałużny, Łukasz; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    High oxidative stress and a reduced potential for free radical scavenging in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, a phenomenon confirmed in a few studies, may lead to systemic chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare the inflammation status, as assessed by interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 concentrations, in patients with PKU and in healthy controls. Twenty patients with classical PKU, aged 18-34 years and under dietary control, were enrolled in the study. The control group comprised of 20 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Interleukin 6 and 8 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in all study participants. IL-6 concentrations in the study group ranged from 0.74 pg/ml to 1.34 pg/ml. No significant differences were found between IL-6 concentration between the study group and the control group (p = 0.989). IL-8 concentrations ranged from 17.56 pg/ml to 20.87 pg/ml. The obtained results of IL-8 levels did not differ significantly between the study group and control group (p = 0.192). No significant correlation was observed between Phe blood levels and IL-6 or IL-8 concentrations in the study group (ρ respectively: -0.225, 0.177). In a multivariate analysis, neither IL-6 nor IL-8 concentrations were correlated with sex, age, BMI and Phe levels. Phenylketonuria is not a risk factor for changes of inflammation status as assessed by IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations.

  5. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Azmi, Kamaruddin Nor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397) (P < 0.05) higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391) (P < 0.01) and 14.3 (2.647-77.500) (P < 0.01) higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents. PMID:25767521

  6. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis with Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…

  7. Urological comorbidities in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients: Risk factors and relation to disease activity and functional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Niazy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: To assess the urological disorders in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, analyse the risk factors and to find their relation to disease activity and functional status. Patients and methods: 291 RA patients (253 females and 38 males; F:M 6.7:1 and 242 matched controls were included. Urological disorders in the form of urinary tract infections (UTI, urolithiasis and acute urine retention (AUR were assessed, risk factors were analysed. Disease activity score (DAS-28 and modified health assessment questionnaire (mHAQ were calculated. Results: RA patients had more frequent urological disorders (38.14% than controls (20.66%, more UTI (p < 0.001 and this difference persisted in females (p < 0.001. Urolithiasis tended to be more frequent in RA patients (p = 0.3; the difference was significant between the female patients and controls (p = 0.04. Urinary stones were comparable between the male patients and controls (p = 0.2. RA patients had more AUR (4.8% than the controls (2.1% (p = 0.07. Asthmatic patients particularly the females had more UTI (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively. UTIs were observed with higher steroid doses (p = 0.04 and urolithiasis were noticed more in hypertensive female patients (p = 0.03. Patients with higher DAS-28 and mHAQ developed more urological comorbidities (p0.49 and p = 0.82 respectively. UTI and urolithiasis were detected in patients with higher DAS 28 (p = 0.1 and p = 0.4 respectively. Conclusion: RA patients were found to have more urological disorders. Bronchial asthma, hypertension and higher steroid doses may increase risk for urinary comorbidities in RA. Patients with higher DAS28 and mHAQ had more urological comorbidities, however without statistically significant difference.

  8. Examining the social status, risk factors and lifestyle changes of tuberculosis patients in Sri Lanka during the treatment period: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Madapathage Gayan Buddhika; Wickramasinghe, Sumudu Indika; Samaraweera, Sudath; De Silva, Pubudu; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem, commonly seen in underdeveloped countries. The probability of contracting the disease is significantly higher among the economically vulnerable and the socially disadvantaged. Risk factors associated with TB can also change over time. In the Sri Lankan context, no study has explored how these factors impact patients. Therefore, we aimed to explore social status, associated risk factors and lifestyle changes during the treatment period of TB patients attending a tertiary respiratory center in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. The study population consisted of diagnosed tuberculosis patients above the age of 15 years. Patient records were retrieved from the TB patient registry for the Colombo district. Systematic sampling was used to identify patients to be invited to the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were collected on social status (example, level of education, employment, and income), associated risk factors (example, smoking and alcohol consumption, contact history, narcotic drug use) and lifestyle changes during treatment (example, employment status, social interactions). The analysis included a logistic regression model to explore the association between social status and risk factors. The total number of patients included in the study was 425. Tuberculosis was found to be strongly prevalent among participants from the lower socio-economic status. It was also common in participants with a low level of education, unemployed, if employed, those who are engaged in unskilled employment and have low levels of income. Risk factors associated with the patients were smoking, alcohol consumptions, narcotic drug use, imprisonment, close contact history with active TB patients and chronic medical conditions. Changes in employment and the reduction of social-interactions were the main lifestyle changes of the participants

  9. High prevalence of HBV infection, detection of subgenotypes F1b, A2, and D4, and differential risk factors among Mexican risk populations with low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora A; Roman, Sonia

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be underestimated among high-risk individuals in regions of low HBs antigenemia. This study aimed to assess HBV serological markers, genotypes, and risk factors in Mexican patients with risk of HBV infection and low socioeconomic status. Demographics, clinical, and risk factor data were collected in patients with HIV (n = 289), HCV (n = 243), deferred blood donors (D-BD) (n = 83), and two native populations, Mixtecos (n = 57) and Purepechas (n = 44). HBV infection was assessed by HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV-DNA testing. Overall, patients had low education and very-low income. Totally, HBsAg prevalence was 16.5% (113/684) ranging from 0.7% (HCV) to 37.3% (D-BD), while anti-HBc was 30.2% (207/684). Among 52 sequences, genotypes H (n = 34, 65.4%), G (n = 4, 7.7%), subgenotypes F1b (n = 7, 13.5%), A2 (n = 6, 11.5%), and D4 (n = 1, 1.9%) were detected. Surgeries, sexual promiscuity, and blood transfusions had a differential pattern of distribution. In HCV patients, single (OR = 5.84, 95%Cl 1.91-17.80, P = 0.002), MSM (OR = 4.80, 95%Cl 0.75-30.56, P = 0.097), and IDU (OR = 2.93, 95%CI 1.058-8.09, P = 0.039) were predictors for HBV infection. While IDU (OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.08-6.61, P = 0.033) and MSM (OR = 2.64, 95%CI 1.39-5.04, P = 0.003) were predictors in HIV patients. In this group, MSM was associated with HBsAg positivity (OR = 3.45, 95%CI 1.48-8.07, P = 0.004) and IDU with anti-HBc positivity (OR = 5.12, 95%CI 2.05-12.77, P HBV markers, a high prevalence of HBV infection, a differential distribution of HBV genotypes, including subgenotypes F1b, A2, and D4, as well as risk factors in low-income Mexican risk groups were detected. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Combined effect of educational status and cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Ferrario, Marco M

    2017-01-01

    Background The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. Methods We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35......-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk...... genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% (+0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% (-0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts. Conclusions Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from...

  11. Evaluation of socioeconomic status as a risk factor of pterygium using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Young; Park, Yong Gyu; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Jin-Wou; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Young Chun

    2017-03-01

    Pterygium is a common conjunctival disorder. The socioeconomic risk factors of pterygium have not been systematically evaluated in Korea. The study investigated risk factors of pterygium considering socioeconomic status.Participants were 9839 adults aged 19 to 74 years, who underwent ophthalmic slit-lamp examinations as part of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2011. Pterygium was diagnosed as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. The socioeconomic risk factors were analyzed in association with the presence of pterygium. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the odds ratios for differences in socioeconomic status.The presence of pterygium was associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and sun exposure time (>5 h/d). The blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was higher in the pterygium group than in the control group, but both groups were deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared with the normal reference level. Pterygium was almost 3 times as frequent among persons who worked outdoors, such as skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, than among those who worked indoors (odds ratio 3.061, 95% confidence interval 1.946-4.813). Low educational status and longer working hours were also significantly associated with pterygium.This study used a nationwide population-based survey conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reveal that pterygium is associated with low socioeconomic status. Efforts should be made to reduce the risk of pterygium by changing modifiable risk factors, especially among people with low socioeconomic status.

  12. Attitudes toward mental illness in adults by mental illness-related factors and chronic disease status: 2007 and 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M

    2013-11-01

    We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.

  13. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  14. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  15. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days for subsequent risk of childhood overweight in an Asian cohort: significance of parental overweight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, I M; Bernard, J Y; Chen, L-W; Tint, M T; Pang, W W; Soh, S E; Saw, S-M; Shek, L P-C; Godfrey, K M; Gluckman, P D; Chong, Y-S; Yap, F; Kramer, M S; Lee, Y S

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have identified early-life risk factors for subsequent childhood overweight/obesity, but few have evaluated how they combine to influence risk of childhood overweight/obesity. We examined associations, individually and in combination, of potentially modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days after conception with childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity in an Asian cohort. Six risk factors were examined: maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg m -2 ), paternal overweight/obesity at 24 months post delivery, maternal excessive gestational weight gain, raised maternal fasting glucose during pregnancy (⩾5.1 mmol l -1 ), breastfeeding duration childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity. Early-life and preconception intervention programmes may be more effective in preventing overweight/obesity if they concurrently address these multiple modifiable risk factors.

  16. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  17. Cross-sectional relations of race and poverty status to cardiovascular risk factors in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Lifespan (HANDLS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Shari R; Moody, Danielle L Beatty; McNeely, Jessica M; Allen, Allyssa J; Sprung, Mollie R; Shah, Mauli T; Al'Najjar, Elias; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-03-14

    Examine interactive relations of race and poverty status with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a socioeconomically diverse sample of urban-dwelling African American (AA) and White adults. Participants were 2,270 AAs and Whites (57% AA; 57% female; ages 30-64 years) who completed the first wave of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. CVD risk factors assessed included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), and systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure (SBP, DBP, PP). Interactive and independent relations of race, poverty status, and sex were examined for each outcome via ordinary least squares regression adjusted for age, education, literacy, substance use, depressive symptoms, perceived health care barriers, medical co-morbidities, and medications. Significant interactions of race and poverty status (p's poverty had lower BMI and WC and higher HDL-C than non-poverty AAs, whereas Whites living in poverty had higher BMI and WC and lower HDL-C than non-poverty Whites. Main effects of race revealed that AAs had higher levels of HbA1c, SBP, and PP, and Whites had higher levels of TC, LDL-C and TG (p's Poverty status moderated race differences for BMI, WC, and HDL-C, conveying increased risk among Whites living in poverty, but reduced risk in their AA counterparts. Race differences for six additional risk factors withstood extensive statistical adjustments including SES indicators.

  18. Social support and employment status modify the effect of intimate partner violence on depression symptom severity in women: results from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaccination status and sequence of vaccinations as risk factors for hospitalisation among outpatients in a high mortality country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biai, Sidu; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Nielsen, Jens; Sodemann, Morten; Aaby, Peter

    2011-05-09

    Most developing countries are implementing the WHO immunisation programme. Although vaccines reach most children, many modifications of the recommended schedule are observed in practice. We investigated the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in Guinea-Bissau. From May 2003 to May 2004, all consultations of children less than five years of age at the outpatient clinic of the paediatric ward at the national hospital in Bissau were registered. For each consultation, information was collected about the child's name, sex, age and socio-cultural conditions, as well as diagnosis and whether the child was hospitalised. Information about vaccinations was also registered from the child's vaccination card. We analysed the association between vaccination status and risk of hospitalisation in age intervals according to the pre-dominant vaccines. We particularly emphasised the comparison of those who had received the recommended vaccination for the age groups and those who were delayed and only had the previous vaccinations. We also examined those who had received the vaccines out of sequence. Information about vaccinations was available for 11,949 outpatient children of whom 2219 (19%) were hospitalised. Among children less than 3 months of age, unvaccinated children compared to BCG children had as expected a higher risk of hospitalisation; controlled for important determinants of hospitalisation, the hospitalisation risk ratio (HRR) was 1.99 (95% CI 1.37-2.89). In contrast, there was no difference in the HRR for children aged 1½-8 months who were delayed and had only received BCG compared to those who as recommended had received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine after BCG (HRR=1.10 (0.77-1.59)). In the age interval 9-17 months of age, children who were delayed and had only received DTP had significantly higher risk of hospitalisation compared with children who as recommended had measles vaccine (MV) as the most recent vaccination (HRR

  20. Cumulative socioeconomic status risk, allostatic load, and adjustment: a prospective latent profile analysis with contextual and genetic protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Evans, Gary W; Beach, Steven R H; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental precursors to this pattern. Hypotheses were tested with a representative sample of 443 African American youths living in the rural South. Cumulative SES risk and protective processes were assessed at ages 11-13 years; psychological adjustment was assessed at ages 14-18 years; genotyping at the 5-HTTLPR was conducted at age 16 years; and allostatic load (AL) was assessed at age 19 years. A latent profile analysis identified 5 profiles that evinced distinct patterns of SES risk, AL, and psychological adjustment, with 2 relatively large profiles designated as focal profiles: a physical health vulnerability profile characterized by high SES risk/high AL/low adjustment problems, and a resilient profile characterized by high SES risk/low AL/low adjustment problems. The physical health vulnerability profile mirrored the pattern found in the adult health disparities literature. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that carrying an s allele at the 5-HTTLPR and receiving less peer support distinguished the physical health vulnerability profile from the resilient profile. Protective parenting and planful self-regulation distinguished both focal profiles from the other 3 profiles. The results suggest the public health importance of preventive interventions that enhance coping and reduce the effects of stress across childhood and adolescence.

  1. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  2. Hydration status measured by BCM: A potential modifiable risk factor for peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumaran, Territa; Samad, Nasreen; Fan, Stanley L

    2016-05-01

    Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis and fluid overhydration (OH) are frequent problems in peritoneal dialysis. The latter can cause gut wall oedema or be associated with malnutrition. Both may lead to increased peritonitis risk. We wished to determine if OH is an independent risk factor for peritonitis (caused by enteric organisms). Retrospectively study of patients with >2 bioimpedance assessments (Body Composition Monitor). We compared peritonitis rates of patients with above or below the median time-averaged hydration parameter (OH/extracellular water, OH/ECW). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for peritonitis by enteric organism. We studied 580 patients. Peritonitis was experienced by 28% patients (followed up for an average of 17 months). The overall peritonitis rate was 1:34 patient months. Patients with low OH/ECW values had significantly lower rates of peritonitis from enteric organisms than overhydrated patients (incident rate ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.38-1.70, P peritonitis from enteric organisms when multivariate model included demographic parameters (odds ratio for a 1% increment of OH/ECW was 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.10, P peritonitis. While this may partly be due to the high co-morbidity of patients (advanced age and diabetes), on multivariate analysis, only inclusion of nutritional parameters reduced this association. It remains to be determined if overhydration will prove to be a modifiable risk factor for peritonitis or whether malnutrition will prove to be more important. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Contextual, experiential, and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV status: a descriptive analysis of transgender women residing in Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard A; Jones, Jamal; Kota, Krishna; Hill, Brandon; Masyn, Katherine E

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported HIV infection among a community sample of transgender women and identified associated contextual, experiential, and behavioral factors. Ninety-two transgender women completed a self-administered interview. Recruitment occurred through an LGBT service organization, a transgender support group, transgender advocates, and informal communications. Eighty-two percent were African American/Black. Of 83 who knew their status, 60% reported being HIV infected. High rates of childhood sexual abuse (52%), rape (53%), intimate partner violence (56%), and incarceration (57%) were reported. Many did not have health insurance (53%), were not employed full-time nor in school (63%) and had been recently homeless (49%). HIV-infected transgender women as compared to HIV-uninfected transgender women were more likely to be African American/Black ( P = 0.04), and older than 34 years ( P = 0.01), unemployed/not in school ( P transgender women also experienced less trans-related discrimination ( P = 0.03), perceived less negative psychosocial impact due to trans status ( P = 0.04) and had greater happiness with their physical appearance ( P = 0.01). HIV-infected transgender women may experience relatively less trans-related stress compared to their HIV-uninfected counterparts. High rates of HIV, trauma, and social marginalization raise concerns for this population and warrant the development of structural and policy-informed interventions.

  4. Nutritional risk factors and status of serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with breast cancer: A case control study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Nighat Y; Jain, Monika; Kapil, Umesh; Seenu, Vuthaluru; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Pandey, Ravinder Mohan

    2018-01-01

    To study the nutritional risk factors and status of serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with breast cancer. A total of 100 women (cases) with confirmed breast cancer (BC) matched with equal number of healthy females (controls) of similar age and socioeconomic status (SES) were included in study. Controls included were nonbreast cancer patients who accompanied the patients to a tertiary care hospital. All the subjects (cases and controls) were administered a questionnaires to collect data on socioeconomic status, dietary pattern and the frequency of food consumption using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric assessment was done for waist and hip circumference to calculate waist to hip ratio (WHR). Non fasting blood samples were collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels estimation using chemiluminescent immunoassay technique and total serum calcium levels by colorimetric assay technique. Serum 25(OH)D and total calcium levels were expressed in ng/ml and mg/dl. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as per the guidelines set by United States Endocrine Society. The mean age of cases and controls was 45±9 and 46±10 years respectively. On multivariate analysis, an inverse association with BC was found for less frequency of fruits consumption with an adjusted (ORs, 95% CI) (2.7, 0.5-15.7) respectively. Mushroom intake was inversely associated with risk of BC (ORs, 95% CI) (5.6, 1.9-16.6). Saturated fat intake and high WHR were significantly associated with high risk of BC with adjusted ORs, 95% CI of (3.4, 1.4-8.1) and (5, 1.4-17). A significant association (pnutritional risk factors determined by higher WHR was found to be significantly associated with the risk of BC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between subjective social status and cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Karen L; Rashid, Ruksana; Godley, Jenny; Ghali, William A

    2016-03-18

    To determine the association between subjective social status (SSS), or the individual's perception of his or her position in the social hierarchy, and the odds of coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, Web of Science and reference lists of all included studies up to October 2014, with a verification search in July 2015. Inclusion criteria were original studies in adults that reported odds, risk or hazard ratios of at least one outcome of interest (CAD, hypertension, diabetes, obesity or dyslipidaemia), comparing 'lower' versus 'higher' SSS groups, where SSS is measured on a self-anchoring ladder. ORs were pooled using a random-effects model. 10 studies were included in the systematic review; 9 of these were included in the meta-analysis. In analyses unadjusted for objective socioeconomic status (SES) measures such as income, education or occupation, the pooled OR comparing the bottom versus the top of the SSS ladder was 1.82 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.99) for CAD, 1.88 (95% CI 1.27 to 2.79) for hypertension, 1.90 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.87) for diabetes, 3.68 (95% CI 2.03 to 6.64) for dyslipidaemia and 1.57 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.59) for obesity. These associations were attenuated when adjusting for objective SES measures, with the only statistically significant association remaining for dyslipidaemia (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.06), though all ORs remained greater than 1. Lower SSS is associated with significantly increased odds of CAD, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia, with a trend towards increased odds of obesity. These trends are consistently present, though the effects attenuated when adjusting for SES, suggesting that perception of one's own status on a social hierarchy has health effects above and beyond one's actual income, occupation and education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  6. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    conditioned by the interaction of a person and a gambling activity, in a particular context. This conceptual model is based on the well-known theory of Olivenstein on toxicomania, which was proposed in the seventies. The structural factors that appeared to be highly related to pathological gambling development and maintenance are payment modality, entertaining dimension, temporality, reward level, educational messages, gambling ambiance, gambling medium and part of hazard. Among contextual factors, availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities are well known. However, social and economic factors (e.g. culture, ethnicity, religion, education) are also important. Lastly, among individual factors, psychosocial factors are gender, age, familial and personal antecedents and psychiatric comorbidities. Neurobiological factors are not discussed here. This paper briefly summarises risk factors for development and maintenance of pathological gambling. It highlights that these factors are very similar to those that are implicated in substance use disorders, except for the gambling activity and context. Prevention regarding behavioural addictions should, in the future, take advantage of the findings on substance use disorder, since behavioural addictions are less known. Conversely, it seems obvious that findings on pathological gambling, and more widely behavioural addictions, could highlight all types of addiction. It appears that this fact is especially valid with regards to the evolution and stability of addictive status, which must be taken into account for treatment proposals. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  8. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress, and current smoking status: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Peppone, Luke J; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J; Carroll, Jennifer K; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-05-01

    We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination-smoking association. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment.

  9. Perceived Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Current Smoking Status: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race Module, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J.; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. Methods. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Results. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination–smoking association. Conclusions. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment. PMID:22420821

  10. Study of Nutritional Status and Identification of Associated Risk Factors in Children Below Five Years of Age in an Urban Slum of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dishant Joy Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child malnutrition is a single large contributor to under-five mortality due to greater susceptibility to infections and slow recovery from illness. Prevalence of malnutrition is high in Madhya Pradesh as compared to other states of India. Aims & Objectives: The study was aimed to find the prevalence, and study the risk factors for malnutrition, in children under the age of five years, in an urban slum, and also recommend appropriate remedial measures. Material and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 93 children under the age of 5 years in an urban slum Pipaliya Pende Khan in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh from August 2013 to October 2013. Anthropometric measurements like weight and height were recorded. They were also made to fill a pretested questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis was done. Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting according to WHO Child Growth Standards, April 2006 was 62.6% (52.1%, 73.1%, 41.9%(31.4% , 52.5% and 17.4% (9.1% , 25.7% respectively. Stunting was associated with educational status of mother, more prevalent in children of less literate mother. Underweight was associated with both educational status of mother and type of toilet facility. Wasting was more prevalent in Muslim community and families with low socio-economic status. Conclusions: The study shows very high prevalence of the malnutrition, in the given community. The results also confirmed that education status of mother, type of toilet facility, religion and socio-economic status are some of the key determinants of nutritional status of children under the age of 5 years.

  11. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  12. Use of the Suicide Status Form-II to investigate correlates of suicide risk factors in psychiatrically hospitalized children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Magdalena; O'Connor, Stephen S; Schak, Kathryn M; Swintak, Cosima C; Lineberry, Timothy W

    2013-11-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death in the United States for youth 12-17 years or age. Acute psychiatric hospitalization represents a clear worst point clinically and acute suicide risk is the most common reason for psychiatric admission. We sought to determine factors associated with differences in individual suicide risk assessment for children and adolescents during acute psychiatric admission. Study participants were 1153 youth consecutively admitted to an inpatient psychiatry unit who completed a self-administered Suicide Status Form (SSF) within 24h of admission. Additional information on suicide risk factors was obtained through medical chart abstraction. Females reported significantly greater psychological pain, stress, hopelessness, and self-hate on the SSF and were significantly more likely to have made a suicide attempt just prior to the index hospital admission (OR=1.59, SE=0.29; CI=1.12-2.26), report a family history of suicide (OR=2.02, SE=0.33; CI=1.47-2.78), and had experienced a greater number of inpatient psychiatry admissions related to suicidal ideation (RR=1.33, SE=0.13; CI=1.10-1.61). High school aged youth and those with a primary diagnosis of depression displayed consistently elevated SSF scores and risk factors for suicide compared to comparison groups. Diagnosis was determined through chart abstraction. Responses to access to firearm question had missing data for 46% of the total sample. Systematic administration of a suicide-specific measure at admission may help clinicians improve identification of suicide risk factors in youth in inpatient psychiatry settings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  14. Dental status, dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and oncological data as potential risk factors for infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw after radiotherapy for oral neoplasms: a retrospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewald, Marcus; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Mang, Kristina; Holtmann, Henrik; Spitzer, Wolfgang J; Rübe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of the dental status of patients with oral cancer before radiotherapy, the extent of dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and radiotherapy data as potential risk factors for development of infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw. A total of 90 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for oral cancer were included into this retrospective evaluation. None of them had distant metastases. After tumour surgery the patients were referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for dental examination and the necessary dental rehabilitation procedures inclusive potential tooth extraction combined with primary soft tissue closure. Adjuvant radiotherapy was started after complete healing of the gingiva (> 7 days after potential extraction). The majority of patients (n = 74) was treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses ranging from 50-70Gy whereas further 16 patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy up to 72Gy. The records of the clinical data were reviewed. Furthermore, questionnaires were mailed to the patients’ general practitioners and dentists in order to get more data concerning tumour status and osteoradionecrosis during follow-up. The patients’ dental status before radiotherapy was generally poor. On average 10 teeth were present, six of them were regarded to remain conservable. Extensive dental rehabilitation procedures included a mean of 3.7 tooth extractions. Chronic periodontitis with severe attachment loss was found in 40%, dental biofilm in 56%. An infected osteoradionecrosis (IORN) grade II according to (Schwartz et al., Am J Clin Oncol 25:168-171, 2002) was diagnosed in 11 of the 90 patients (12%), mostly within the first 4 years after radiotherapy. We could not find significant prognostic factors for the occurrence of IORN, but a trendwise correlation with impaired dental status, rehabilitation procedures, fraction size and tumour outcome. The occurrence of IORN is an important long

  15. Dental status, dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and oncological data as potential risk factors for infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw after radiotherapy for oral neoplasms: a retrospective evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewald, Marcus; Fleckenstein, Jochen [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrberger Str. 1, D-66421 Homburg (Germany); Mang, Kristina [Dental Practice, Duisburg (Germany); Holtmann, Henrik; Spitzer, Wolfgang J [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrberger Str. 1, D-66421 Homburg (Germany); Rübe, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrberger Str. 1, D-66421 Homburg (Germany)

    2013-10-02

    Retrospective evaluation of the dental status of patients with oral cancer before radiotherapy, the extent of dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and radiotherapy data as potential risk factors for development of infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw. A total of 90 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for oral cancer were included into this retrospective evaluation. None of them had distant metastases. After tumour surgery the patients were referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for dental examination and the necessary dental rehabilitation procedures inclusive potential tooth extraction combined with primary soft tissue closure. Adjuvant radiotherapy was started after complete healing of the gingiva (> 7 days after potential extraction). The majority of patients (n = 74) was treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses ranging from 50-70Gy whereas further 16 patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy up to 72Gy. The records of the clinical data were reviewed. Furthermore, questionnaires were mailed to the patients’ general practitioners and dentists in order to get more data concerning tumour status and osteoradionecrosis during follow-up. The patients’ dental status before radiotherapy was generally poor. On average 10 teeth were present, six of them were regarded to remain conservable. Extensive dental rehabilitation procedures included a mean of 3.7 tooth extractions. Chronic periodontitis with severe attachment loss was found in 40%, dental biofilm in 56%. An infected osteoradionecrosis (IORN) grade II according to (Schwartz et al., Am J Clin Oncol 25:168-171, 2002) was diagnosed in 11 of the 90 patients (12%), mostly within the first 4 years after radiotherapy. We could not find significant prognostic factors for the occurrence of IORN, but a trendwise correlation with impaired dental status, rehabilitation procedures, fraction size and tumour outcome. The occurrence of IORN is an important long

  16. Vegetarianism and colorectal cancer risk in a low-selenium environment: effect modification by selenium status? A possible factor contributing to the null results in British vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G

    2017-08-01

    Despite the consistent findings of lower total cancer incidence in vegetarians than in meat-eaters in the UK, the results of studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in British vegetarians have largely been null. This was in contrast to the hypothesis of a decreased risk of CRC in this population due to null intake of red and processed meats and increased intake of fibre. Although the data are inconsistent, it has been suggested that selenium (Se) status may influence CRC risk. A literature review was performed of studies on CRC risk in vegetarians, Se intakes and status in vegetarians, and changes of Se intakes and status in the UK throughout the follow-up periods of studies on CRC risk in British vegetarians. Vegetarians in the UK and other low-Se areas were found to have low Se intakes and status compared to non-vegetarians. There was some evidence of a reverse J-shaped curve of Se intakes and status in the UK throughout the last three decades. These presumed patterns were followed by the changes in CRC mortality or incidence in British vegetarians during this period. Available data on Se intake and status in British vegetarians, as well as the relationship between their secular changes in the UK and changes in CRC risk in this dietary group, are compatible with the hypothesis that low Se status may contribute to the largely null results of studies of CRC risk in vegetarians in the UK.

  17. Socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioural risk factors in low-income and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Luke; Williams, Julianne; Townsend, Nick; Mikkelsen, Bente; Roberts, Nia; Foster, Charlie; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin

    2017-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases are the leading global cause of death and disproportionately afflict those living in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). The association between socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioural risk factors is well established in high-income countries, but it is not clear how behavioural risk factors are distributed within LLMICs. We aimed to systematically review evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and harmful use of alcohol, tobacco use, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity within LLMICs. We searched 13 electronic databases, including Embase and MEDLINE, grey literature, and reference lists for primary research published between Jan 1, 1990, and June 30, 2015. We included studies from LLMICs presenting data on multiple measures of socioeconomic status and tobacco use, alcohol use, diet, and physical activity. No age or language restrictions were applied. We excluded studies that did not allow comparison between more or less advantaged groups. We used a piloted version of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group data collection checklist to extract relevant data at the household and individual level from the included full text studies including study type, methods, outcomes, and results. Due to high heterogeneity, we used a narrative approach for data synthesis. We used descriptive statistics to assess whether the prevalence of each risk factor varied significantly between members of different socioeconomic groups. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42015026604. After reviewing 4242 records, 75 studies met our inclusion criteria, representing 2 135 314 individuals older than 10 years from 39 LLMICs. Low socioeconomic groups were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use than did high socioeconomic groups. These groups also consumed less fruit, vegetables, fish, and fibre than those of high

  18. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  19. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  20. Gestational Vitamin 25(OHD Status as a Risk Factor for Receptive Language Development: A 24-Month, Longitudinal, Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging data suggest that vitamin D status during childhood and adolescence can affect neurocognitive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gestational 25(OHD status is associated with early childhood cognitive and receptive language development. The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood Study (CANDLE study enrolled 1503 mother-child dyads during the second trimester of healthy singleton pregnancies from Shelby County TN. Among 1020 participants of the total CANDLE cohort for whom 25(OHD levels were available, mean gestational 25(OHD level during the second trimester was 22.3 ng/mL (range 5.9–68.4, with 41.7% of values <20 ng/dL. Cognitive and language scaled scores increased in a stair-step manner as gestational 25(OHD levels in the second trimester rose from <20 ng/dL, through 20–29.99 ng/dL, to ≥30 ng/dL. When controlling for socioeconomic status, race, use of tobacco products, gestational age of the child at birth, and age at the 2-year assessment, the gestational 25(OHD was positively related to receptive language development (p < 0.017, but not cognitive or expressive language.

  1. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9–15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9–15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. Methods A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO (2007. And then a frequency matched case–control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. Results 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8% had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity. The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P P >0.05. Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746, maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713, paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583, preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564, full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454 and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418 were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P Conclusions While overweight and obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  2. Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Gerdes, L U; Davidsen, M

    2000-01-01

    The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk...

  3. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issler Roberto M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  4. Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M.S. Issler

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

  5. Nutrition status and associated factors among children in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Objective: To assess the nutrition status and associated risk factors of children in selected public primary schools in ... influence on the future economic development of a ..... growth of school children in urban Bangladesh.

  6. High peritoneal transport status is not an independent risk factor for high mortality in patients treated with automated peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Ik; Park, Jung Tak; Lee, Dong Hyung; Lee, Ju Hyun; Yoo, Tae Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Shin-Wook; Lee, Ho Yung; Choi, Kyu Hun

    2010-09-01

    We undertook this study to elucidate whether baseline peritoneal membrane transport characteristics are associated with high mortality in incident automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients. This retrospective study includes 117 patients who started APD at Yonsei University Health System from 1996 to 2008 and had a PET within 3 months of APD initiation. High transporters were significantly older and had a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Patient survival for years 1, 3, and 5 were 85%, 64%, and 35% for high transporter and 94%, 81%, and 68% for non-high transporter group (Ptransport status was not a significant predictor for mortality in this population when the other covariates were included. Even though high transport was significantly associated with mortality in the univariate analysis, its role seemed to be influenced by other comorbid conditions. These findings suggest that the proper management of these comorbid conditions, as well as appropriate ultrafiltration by use of APD and/or icodextrin, must be considered as protective strategies to improve survival in peritoneal dialysis patients with high transport.

  7. Housing and Food Insecurity, Care Access, and Health Status Among the Chronically Ill: An Analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhchi, Paniz; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Carlos, Ruth C

    2018-05-01

    The proportion of the United States population with chronic illness continues to rise. Understanding the determinants of quality of care-particularly social determinants-is critical to the provision of care in this population. To estimate the prevalence of housing and food insecurity among persons with common chronic conditions and to assess the independent effects of chronic illness and sociodemographic characteristics on (1) housing and food insecurity, and (2) health care access hardship and health status. Cross-sectional study. We used data from the 11 states and one territory that completed the social context module of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We estimated the prevalence of housing and food insecurity among patients with cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent effects of housing and food insecurity, chronic conditions, and demographics on health care access and health status. Among the chronically ill, 36.71% (95% CI: 35.54-37.88) experienced housing insecurity and 30.60% (95% CI: 29.49-31.71) experienced food insecurity. Cardiovascular and lung disease increased the likelihood of housing (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.07-2.66 and OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.12-2.60, respectively) and food insecurity (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12-2.73 and OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.20-2.63, respectively). Housing and food insecurity significantly increased the risk of health care access hardship. Being insured or having an income level above 200% of the federal poverty level significantly reduced the likelihood of access hardship, while female gender significantly increased the likelihood. Chronic illness independently affects housing and food insecurity. In turn, food and housing anxiety leads to reduced access to care, likely due to cost concerns, and correlates with poorer health. A more complete understanding of the pathways by which chronic illness influences social determinants and

  8. What is the comparative health status and associated risk factors for the Métis? A population-based study in Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Patricia J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Métis are descendants of early 17th century relationships between North American Indians and Europeans. This study's objectives were: (1 to compare the health status of the Métis people to all other residents of Manitoba, Canada; and (2 to analyze factors in predicting the likelihood of diabetes and related lower limb amputation. Methods Using de-identified administrative databases plus the Métis Population Database housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, age/sex-adjusted rates of mortality and disease were calculated for Métis (n = 73,016 and all other Manitobans (n = 1,104,672. Diseases included: hypertension, arthritis, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (age 19+; osteoporosis (age 50+; acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke (age 40+; total respiratory morbidity (TRM, all ages. Using logistic regression, predictors of diabetes (2004/05-2006/07 and diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (2002/03-2006/07 were analyzed. Results Disease rates were higher for Métis compared to all others: premature mortality before age 75 (4.0 vs. 3.3 per 1000, p Conclusion Despite universal healthcare, Métis' illness and mortality rates are mostly higher. Although elevated diabetes risk persists for the Métis even after adjusting for sociodemographic, healthcare and comorbidity variables, the risk of amputation for Métis appears more related to healthcare access rather than ethnicity.

  9. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  10. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  11. Xanthine Oxidase Activity Is Associated with Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Inflammatory and Oxidative Status Markers in Metabolic Syndrome: Effects of a Single Exercise Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. Materials/Methods. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Results. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Conclusions. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Xanthine oxidase activity is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and inflammatory and oxidative status markers in metabolic syndrome: effects of a single exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers) was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of breast cancer by age and hormone receptor status-A prospective study within the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Johnson, Theron; Tikk, Kaja; Sookthai, Disorn; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Buckland, Genevieve; Argüelles, Marcial; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2014-06-01

    Experimental evidence shows cross-talk in mammary cells between estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and their respective receptors and possible synergistic effects of estrogen receptor (ER) activation and increased IGF-I signaling with regard to breast tumor development, and epidemiological evidence suggests that circulating IGF-I levels may be related more to the risk of ER-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European EPIC cohort (938 breast cancer cases and 1,394 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum IGF-I levels with the risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors. IGF-I levels were positively associated with the risk of ER+ breast tumors overall (pre- and postmenopausal women combined, odds ratio (OR)Q4-Q1 = 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.98] for the highest vs. lowest quartile; OR = 1.17 [95% CI 1.04-1.33] per 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in IGF-I, ptrend = 0.01) and among women who were diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or older (ORQ3-Q1 = 1.38 [95% CI 1.01-1.89]; OR = 1.19 [95% CI 1.04-1.36] per 1-SD increase in IGF-I, ptrend = 0.01) but not with receptor-positive disease diagnosed at an earlier age. No statistically significant associations were observed for ER- breast tumors overall and by age at diagnosis. Tests for heterogeneity by receptor status of the tumor were not statistically significant, except for women diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or older (phet = 0.03 for ER+/PR+ vs. ER-/PR- disease). Our data add to a global body of evidence indicating that higher circulating IGF-I levels may increase risk specifically of receptor-positive, but not receptor-negative, breast cancer diagnosed at 50 years or older. © 2013 UICC.

  14. Interaction of dietary and genetic factors influencing body iron status and risk of type 2 diabetes within the EPIC-InterAct study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meidtner, Karina; Podmore, Clara; Kröger, Janine; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Agnoli, Claudia; Arriola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Cross, Amanda J.; Dow, Courtney; Ekblom, Kim; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gunter, Marc J.; Huerta, José María; Jakszyn, Paula; Jenab, Mazda; Katzke, Verena A.; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Kyrø, Cecilie; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Melander, Olle; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, José Ramón; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sluijs, Ivonne; Stepien, Magdalena; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Schulze, Matthias B.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2018-01-01

    © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association. OBJECTIVE Meat intake has been consistently shown to be positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Part of that association may be mediated by body iron status, which is influenced by genetic factors. We aimed to test for interactions of genetic

  15. Glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with diabetes with and without coronary artery disease: insights from the diabetes mellitus status in Canada survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Jasmine; Leiter, Lawrence A; Langer, Anatoly; Goldin, Lianne; Teoh, Hwee; Connelly, Kim A; Cheng, Alice Y Y; Tan, Mary K; Fitchett, David; McGuire, Darren K; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Andrew T

    2016-10-01

    Current diabetes guidelines recommend an individualized approach to glycaemic control. There are limited data on the contemporary and comprehensive management of patients with diabetes in relation to coronary artery disease (CAD). The Diabetes Mellitus Status in Canada (DM-SCAN) survey included 5123 patients with type 2 diabetes seen in primary care in November 2012. Primary care physicians (PCPs) collected clinical data and specified the A1C target for each patient on standardized forms. We compared management strategies and achievement of treatment targets in patients with and without CAD. Among the 4994 patients with data on CAD history, 22.5% had CAD. Primary care physicians were more likely to select a higher A1C target for patients with CAD (≤7.5 or ≤8.0%) versus without (≤7.0%). There was no difference in median A1C or in the proportion of patients with A1C ≤7.0% between the two groups. Compared with the group without known CAD, patients with CAD had a higher reported prevalence of hypoglycaemia in the preceding 6 months; more frequently received aspirin, statins, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers, and were more likely to achieve blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol targets. Only 15.4 and 12.0% of patients with and without CAD (P = 0.002), respectively, achieved all three guideline-recommended targets. Compared with patients with diabetes without CAD, those with CAD more frequently had a less stringent A1C target selected by their PCPs but achieved similar glycaemic control. Overall, risk factor management remained suboptimal in both groups. There remains an important opportunity to improve the care and outcome of patients with diabetes.

  16. Associations of sexual and gender minority status with health indicators, health risk factors, and social stressors in a national sample of young adults with military experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Gordon, Adam J; Fine, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    To assess the associations of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning sexual orientation or transgender status (LGBTQ) and military experience with health indicators. We used data from the Fall 2012 National College Health Assessment. The survey included self-identified sociodemographic characteristics, mental (e.g., depression) and physical (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus) conditions, health risk behaviors (e.g., smoking), and social stressors (e.g., victimization). We used modified Poisson regression models, stratified by self-reported military service, to examine LGBTQ-related differences in health indicators, whereas adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Of 27,176 in the sample, among the military-experienced group, LGBTQ individuals had increased adjusted risks of reporting a past-year suicide attempt (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-13.67), human immunodeficiency virus (aRR = 9.90; 95% CI = 1.04-79.67), and discrimination (aRR = 4.67; 95% CI = 2.05-10.66) than their non-LGBTQ peers. Among LGBTQ individuals, military experience was associated with a nearly four-fold increased risk of reporting a past-year suicide attempt (aRR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.46-8.91) adjusting for age, sex, race and ethnicity, marital status, depression, and other psychiatric diagnoses. Military experience may moderate health indicators among LGBTQ populations, and likewise, LGBTQ status likely modifies health conditions among military-experienced populations. Results suggest that agencies serving military populations should assess how and if the health needs of LGBTQ individuals are met. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Prognostic Factors for Refractory Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN studied the outcome and identified prognostic factors for refractory status epilepticus (RSE in 54 adult patients, median age 52 years [range 18-93].

  18. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  19. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  20. Educational status and knowledge level of pre- and postmenopausal women about osteoporosis and risk factors: a cross-sectional study in a group of Turkish female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, M; Ceceli, E; Tasbas, O; Kocaoglu, S; Akdogan, S; Borman, P

    2013-01-01

    Most women are unaware of the risk factors for osteoporosis (OP). In an effort to prevent the development of OP, women need to have a raised awareness on this issue. The aims of this study were to determine any differences in the level of awareness and knowledge about OP between pre- and postmenopausal women. Three hundred and six women who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department were included into the study. Demographic characteristics of the subjects were recorded. The participants were interviewed via an OP awareness questionnaire, which was designed to determine their knowledge of OP and risk factors. The mean ages of the 126 pre- and 180 postmenopausal women were 41.3 ± 5.9 and 58.9 ± 8.1 years, respectively. Thirty-two percent of premenopausal and 51% of postmenopausal women had heard about OP (p 0.05). Both pre- and postmenopausal women with a higher level of education demonstrated better knowledge of OP based on their awareness questionnaire score (pwomen reported having some awareness of OP, their level of knowledge was poor, particularly with regard to the risk factors associated with the condition and its complications. Having information about the risks of OP and a better understanding of the health beliefs of those at risk are important, as both may play a major role in influencing an individual's OP-preventing behaviors.

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. Risk Factors in Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Tükenmez Demirc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

  3. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  4. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  5. Plant risk status information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.; Ellison, B.C.; Glynn, J.C.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIMS) is a PC program that presents information about a nuclear power plant's design, its operation, its technical specifications, and the results of the plant's probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in a logically and easily accessible format. PRISIMS provides its user with unique information for integrating safety concerns into day-to-day operational decisions and/or long-range management planning

  6. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  7. Socioeconomic status and the 25 × 25 risk factors as determinants of premature mortality: a multicohort study and meta-analysis of 1·7 million men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Jokela, Markus; Avendaño, Mauricio; Muennig, Peter; Guida, Florence; Ricceri, Fulvio; d'Errico, Angelo; Barros, Henrique; Bochud, Murielle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Costa, Giuseppe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Fraga, Silvia; Goldberg, Marcel; Giles, Graham G; Krogh, Vittorio; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Layte, Richard; Lasserre, Aurélie M; Marmot, Michael G; Preisig, Martin; Shipley, Martin J; Vollenweider, Peter; Zins, Marie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Steptoe, Andrew; Mackenbach, Johan P; Vineis, Paolo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-03-25

    In 2011, WHO member states signed up to the 25 × 25 initiative, a plan to cut mortality due to non-communicable diseases by 25% by 2025. However, socioeconomic factors influencing non-communicable diseases have not been included in the plan. In this study, we aimed to compare the contribution of socioeconomic status to mortality and years-of-life-lost with that of the 25 × 25 conventional risk factors. We did a multicohort study and meta-analysis with individual-level data from 48 independent prospective cohort studies with information about socioeconomic status, indexed by occupational position, 25 × 25 risk factors (high alcohol intake, physical inactivity, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity), and mortality, for a total population of 1 751 479 (54% women) from seven high-income WHO member countries. We estimated the association of socioeconomic status and the 25 × 25 risk factors with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality by calculating minimally adjusted and mutually adjusted hazard ratios [HR] and 95% CIs. We also estimated the population attributable fraction and the years of life lost due to suboptimal risk factors. During 26·6 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 13·3 years [SD 6·4 years]), 310 277 participants died. HR for the 25 × 25 risk factors and mortality varied between 1·04 (95% CI 0·98-1·11) for obesity in men and 2 ·17 (2·06-2·29) for current smoking in men. Participants with low socioeconomic status had greater mortality compared with those with high socioeconomic status (HR 1·42, 95% CI 1·38-1·45 for men; 1·34, 1·28-1·39 for women); this association remained significant in mutually adjusted models that included the 25 × 25 factors (HR 1·26, 1·21-1·32, men and women combined). The population attributable fraction was highest for smoking, followed by physical inactivity then socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 2·1-year

  8. The effects of socioeconomic status on stroke risk and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Iain James; Wang, Yanzhong; Crichton, Siobhan Laura; McKevitt, Christopher John; Rudd, Anthony; Wolfe, Charles David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased average levels of conventional risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lif...

  9. The effect of the World Kidney Day campaign on the awareness of chronic kidney disease and the status of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and renal progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ho Jun; Ahn, Jeong Myeong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Lee, Tae Woo; Heo, Nam Joo; Kim, Suhnggwon

    2010-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide problem. We describe the trends in CKD awareness before and after the World Kidney Day (WKD) campaign and the impact of the WKD campaign in increasing awareness and appropriate management of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and renal progression. We selected 57 718 people who had undergone a routine health check-up. The average CKD awareness was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.6-3.7%) and was increased with progressing CKD stage. The awareness was increased from 1.1% before the WKD campaign to 5.8% after the campaign (P campaign had a positive impact on the awareness and control of risk factors in CKD subjects but the absolute frequency of CKD awareness still remains undesirable in Korea. We need new campaign strategies to publicize the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate management of CKD.

  10. Difficult mask ventilation in general surgical population: observation of risk factors and predictors [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/47z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Cattano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few predictors of difficult mask ventilation and a simple, objective, predictive system to identify patients at risk of difficult mask ventilation does not currently exist. We present a retrospective - subgroup analysis aimed at identifying predictive factors for difficult mask ventilation (DMV in patients undergoing pre-operative airway assessment before elective surgery at a major teaching hospital. Methods: Data for this retrospective analysis were derived from a database of airway assessments, management plans, and outcomes that were collected prospectively from August 2008 to May 2010 at a Level 1 academic trauma center. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the difficulty of mask ventilation and the cohorts were analyzed using univariate analysis and stepwise selection method. Results: A total of 1399 pre-operative assessments were completed with documentation stating that mask ventilation was attempted. Of those 1399, 124 (8.9% patients were found to be difficult to mask ventilate. A comparison of patients with and without difficult mask ventilation identified seven risk factors for DMV: age, body mass index (BMI, neck circumference, history of difficult intubation, presence of facial hair, perceived short neck and obstructive sleep apnea. Although seven risk factors were identified, no individual subject had more than four risk factors. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that in a real world clinical setting, the incidence of DMV is not negligible and suggest the use of a simple bedside predictive score to improve the accuracy of DMV prediction, thereby improving patient safety. Further prospective studies to validate this score would be useful.

  11. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  12. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  13. Risk factors for goiter and thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, N.; Laurberg, P.; Perrild, H.

    2002-01-01

    is probably dependent on iodine status, because it seems that the zenith of goiter prevalence appears earlier in life the more severe iodine deficiency the population is exposed to. The association with individual risk factors has been investigated in some studies, especially the association with tobacco......The occurrence of thyroid diseases is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status, but other environmental factors influencing entire populations have been identified such as goitrogens in food...... and drinking water. Less focus has been on individual environmental factors and the interplay between factors. The goiter prevalence is higher in certain groups in the population. The variation in goiter prevalence between the genders is well known with a higher occurrence among women. The association with age...

  14. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  15. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  16. The Impact of Ethnic-Immigrant Status and Obesity-Related Risk Factors on Behavioral Problems among US Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the prevalence and correlates of parent-reported behavioral problems among immigrants and US-born children aged 6–17 years. The 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health was used to develop an 11-item factor-based behavioral problems index (BPI and a dichotomous serious behavioral problems (SBP measure. Logistic and least-squares regression and disparity indices were used to analyze differentials. BPI scores varied from 92.3 for immigrant Asian children to ≥102.4 for native Hispanic and Black children. The prevalence of SBP ranged from 2.9% for immigrant Asian children to 17.0% for native Black children. Children in most ethnic-immigrant groups had higher adjusted levels of behavioral problems than immigrant Asian children. Native Hispanic children, native and immigrant White children, immigrant Black children, and native Asian children had ≥3.0 times higher adjusted odds of SBP than immigrant Asian children. Lower socioeconomic status, obesity, physical inactivity, lack of sports participation, increased television viewing, and sleep disruption were associated with greater behavioral problems. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors accounted for 37.0% and 48.5% of ethnic-immigrant disparities in BPI and SBP, respectively. Immigrant children had fewer behavioral problems than native-born children. Policies aimed at modifying obesity-related behaviors and social environment may lead to improved behavioral/emotional health in both immigrant and native children.

  17. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  18. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  19. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  20. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  2. Plasma methoxytyramine: a novel biomarker of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in relation to established risk factors of tumour size, location and SDHB mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W M; Siegert, Gabriele; Bornstein, Stefan R; Friberg, Peter; Milosevic, Dragana; Mannelli, Massimo; Linehan, W Marston; Adams, Karen; Timmers, Henri J; Pacak, Karel

    2012-07-01

    There are currently no reliable biomarkers for malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). This study examined whether measurements of catecholamines and their metabolites might offer utility for this purpose. Subjects included 365 patients with PPGLs, including 105 with metastases, and a reference population of 846 without the tumour. Eighteen catecholamine-related analytes were examined in relation to tumour location, size and mutations of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB). Receiver-operating characteristic curves indicated that plasma methoxytyramine, the O-methylated metabolite of dopamine, provided the most accurate biomarker for discriminating patients with and without metastases. Plasma methoxytyramine was 4.7-fold higher in patients with than without metastases, a difference independent of tumour burden and the associated 1.6- to 1.8-fold higher concentrations of norepinephrine and normetanephrine. Increased plasma methoxytyramine was associated with SDHB mutations and extra-adrenal disease, but was also present in patients with metastases without SDHB mutations or those with metastases secondary to adrenal tumours. High risk of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations reflected large size and extra-adrenal locations of tumours, both independent predictors of metastatic disease. A plasma methoxytyramine above 0.2nmol/L or a tumour diameter above 5cm indicated increased likelihood of metastatic spread, particularly when associated with an extra-adrenal location. Plasma methoxytyramine is a novel biomarker for metastatic PPGLs that together with SDHB mutation status, tumour size and location provide useful information to assess the likelihood of malignancy and manage affected patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma methoxytyramine: A novel biomarker of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in relation to established risk factors of tumor size, location and SDHB mutation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W.M.; Siegert, Gabriele; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Friberg, Peter; Milosevic, Dragana; Mannelli, Massimo; Linehan, W. Marston; Adams, Karen; Timmers, Henri J.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There are currently no reliable biomarkers for malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). This study examined whether measurements of catecholamines and their metabolites might offer utility for this purpose. Methods Subjects included 365 patients with PPGLs, including 105 with metastases, and a reference population of 846 without the tumor. Eighteen catecholamine-related analytes were examined in relation to tumor location, size and mutations of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB). Results Receiver-operating characteristic curves indicated that plasma methoxytyramine, the O-methylated metabolite of dopamine, provided the most accurate biomarker for discriminating patients with and without metastases. Plasma methoxytyramine was 4.7-fold higher in patients with than without metastases, a difference independent of tumor burden and the associated 1.6- to 1.8-fold higher concentrations of norepinephrine and normetanephrine. Increased plasma methoxytyramine was associated with SDHB mutations and extra-adrenal disease, but was also present in patients without SDHB mutations and metastases or those with metastases secondary to adrenal tumors. High risk of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations reflected large size and extra-adrenal locations of tumors, both independent predictors of metastatic disease. A plasma methoxytyramine above 0.2 nmol/L or a tumor diameter above 5 cm indicated increased likelihood of metastatic spread, particularly when associated with an extra-adrenal location. Interpretation Plasma methoxytyramine is a novel biomarker for metastatic PPGLs that together with SDHB mutation status, tumor size and location provide useful information to assess the likelihood of malignancy and manage affected patients. PMID:22036874

  4. Risk factors for impaired health status differ in women and men treated with percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Ong, Andrew T L; Lemos, Pedro A

    2006-01-01

    In patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era, we compared women's and men's health status 6 and 12 months post-PCI and investigated whether predictors of poor health status at 12 months are similar for women and men....

  5. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  7. Nutritional status, lifestyle and knowledge of predisposing factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional status, lifestyle and knowledge of predisposing factors on ... influenced their lifestyle, dietary habit and subsequently their nutritional/health status. Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, nutritional status, diet, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases ...

  8. Breast Cancer and Risk Factors Among African-American Women Aged 20-54: A Case-Control Study According to Estrogen Receptor Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Kangmin

    1999-01-01

    ...) status among African-American women. During the period of the project, we established collaborations with the Tennessee Cancer Reporting System, hospitals in the study areas, and basic science researchers...

  9. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  10. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these ... with age, gender or haematological test. ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies on ..... The marked difference may be because monthly .... and dyslipidemia among patients taking first-line,.

  11. blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predisposing to increased risk for blood transfusion identified from previous ... This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for blood transfusion during anaesthesia for caesarean section. ... study which could fall into either of the following conditions: satisfactory post- operative clinical status up to 48 hours ...

  12. Night work and breast cancer risk defined by human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and hormone receptor status: A population-based case-control study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Koudou, Yves; Truong, Thérèse; Arveux, Patrick; Kerbrat, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Guénel, Pascal

    Night work has been associated with risk of breast cancer but this association needs to be confirmed. Because breast cancer is an etiologically heterogeneous disease, we explored the association of night work with breast cancer subtypes defined by tumor status (positive of negative) for estrogen-receptor (ER), progesterone-receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor-receptor 2 (HER2). Using the data from a case-control study in France including 975 cases and 1317 controls, we found that the odds ratios for ER+, PR+ or HER2+ breast cancers subtypes were significantly elevated, while no association with night shift work was observed for ER, PR or HER2-negative tumors. After stratification by menopausal status, the associations of night work with receptor-positive breast tumor subtypes were clearly seen in premenopausal women (odds ratios 2.04, 1.98 and 2.80, respectively) but did not appear in postmenopausal women. This study provides evidence that working at night may increase risk of ER, PR and HER2-positive subtypes of breast cancer particularly among premenopausal women.

  13. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  14. The basic mobility status upon acute hospital discharge is an independent risk factor for mortality up to 5 years after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose — Mortality rates following hip fracture (HF) surgery are high. We evaluated the influence of the basic mobility status on acute hospital discharge to 1- and 5-year mortality rates after HF. Patients and methods — 444 patients with HF ≥60 years (mean age 81 years, 77% women......) being pre-fracture ambulatory and admitted from their own homes, were consecutively included in an in-hospital enhanced recovery program and followed for 5 years. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS, 0–6 points, 6 points equals independence) was used to evaluate the basic mobility status on hospital...... discharge. Results — 102 patients with a CAS stayed in the acute ward a median of 22 (15–32) days post-surgery as compared with a median of 12 (8–16) days for those 342 patients who achieved a CAS =6. Overall 1-year mortality was 16%; in those with CAS

  15. Gestational Vitamin 25(OH)D Status as a Risk Factor for Receptive Language Development: A 24-Month, Longitudinal, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylavsky, Frances A; Kocak, Mehmet; Murphy, Laura E; Graff, J Carolyn; Palmer, Frederick B; Völgyi, Eszter; Diaz-Thomas, Alicia M; Ferry, Robert J

    2015-12-02

    Emerging data suggest that vitamin D status during childhood and adolescence can affect neurocognitive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gestational 25(OH)D status is associated with early childhood cognitive and receptive language development. The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood Study (CANDLE) study enrolled 1503 mother-child dyads during the second trimester of healthy singleton pregnancies from Shelby County TN. Among 1020 participants of the total CANDLE cohort for whom 25(OH)D levels were available, mean gestational 25(OH)D level during the second trimester was 22.3 ng/mL (range 5.9-68.4), with 41.7% of values receptive language development (p < 0.017), but not cognitive or expressive language.

  16. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  17. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  18. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  19. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  20. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  1. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  2. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  3. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural......-born children, we observed 1193 cases of isolated CHC (0.062/1000) born children. First-borns had an increased risk of isolated CHC compared to later-borns (1.32 95% CI 1.17 to 1.49) (0.72/1000 born children). First trimester exposure to maternal use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly...

  4. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  5. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children malnutrition potentially affects...... using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0...

  6. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  7. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  8. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Risk Factor and Comorbidity of Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.

  10. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: A discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire, T.; Stevenson, H.; Pieters, M.N.; Rennen, M.; Slob, W.; Hakkert, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute toward the further harmonization of human health risk assessment. It first discusses the development of a formal, harmonized set of assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed, that is, the type of

  11. Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: a discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeire TG; Stevenson H; Pieters MN; Rennen M; Slob W; Hakkert BC; Nederlandse organisatie voor; CSR; LEO; TNO-ITV

    1998-01-01

    The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute towards further harmonisation of the human health risk assessment. It discusses the development of a formal, harmonised set of default assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed. Options are presented

  12. Adolescent self-harm and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  14. Risk factors for tornado injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, M; Lybarger, J A; Parsons, J E; MacCormack, J N; Freeman, J I

    1990-12-01

    Tornadoes in North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984 caused 252 people to be injured seriously enough to require hospitalization and 59 to be killed. To evaluate risk factors, we gathered information on 238 (94%) of those hospitalized and 46 (78%) of those killed. Those hospitalized or deceased had statistically significantly more deep cuts, concussions, unconsciousness and broken bones than those with them at the time of the tornado who were not hospitalized or killed. People living in mobile homes were more likely to be hospitalized or die than people occupying conventional houses. Other risk factors for hospitalization or death included advanced age (60+ years), no physical protection (not having been covered with a blanket or other object), having been struck by broken window glass or other falling objects, home lifted off its foundation, collapsed ceiling or floor, or walls blown away. More awareness of the tornado risk before it strikes and better adherence to tornado protection guidelines could reduce injuries and deaths in the future.

  15. Risk factor management: antiatherogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Sandri, Marcus; Schuler, Gerhard; Teupser, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Despite the advances in interventional techniques, the management of stable atherosclerosis remains the domain of optimal guideline-oriented therapy. Recent studies on the effects of aggressive lipid lowering on atheroma volume changes using intravascular ultrasound indicate that it is possible to achieve atherosclerosis regression by reaching low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels less than 75 mg/dl. The pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular (CV) event observed with aggressive lipid lowering. As a second important strategy to prevent disease progression, lifestyle changes with regular physical exercise are capable of halting the atherosclerotic process and reducing angina symptoms and CV events. Optimal medical therapy, a healthy lifestyle with regular physical exercise, and coronary interventions are not mutually exclusive treatment strategies. Over the last few decades, both have proved to be effective in significantly reducing the CV mortality in the Western world. However, risk factor modification contributed to at least half the effect in the reduction of CV mortality. This figure provides an estimate of what could be achieved if we were to take risk factor modification more seriously - especially in the acute care setting. The knowledge is there: today we have a better understanding on how to stop progression and even induce regression of atherosclerosis. Much research still needs to be done and will be done. In the meantime, however, our primary focus should lie in implementing what is already known. In addition, it is essential not just to treat CV risk factors, but also to treat them to achieve the target values as set by the guidelines of European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2011-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United King...

  17. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  18. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  19. New risk factors for atherosclerosis and patient risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Nierman, Melchior C.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Duriez, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the ways in which the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including standard lipid (eg, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and nonlipid (eg, hypertension) risk factors, interact to initiate

  20. Matching Judicial Supervision to Clients’ Risk Status in Drug Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Lee, Patricia A.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports outcomes from a program of experimental research evaluating the risk principle in drug courts. Prior studies revealed that participants who were high risk and had (a) antisocial personality disorder or (b) a prior history of drug abuse treatment performed better in drug court when scheduled to attend biweekly judicial status hearings in court. In contrast, participants who were low risk performed equivalently regardless of the court hearings schedule. This study prospectively matches drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based on an assessment of their risk status and compares outcomes to clients randomly assigned to the standard hearings schedule. Results confirmed that participants who were high risk and matched to biweekly hearings had better during-treatment outcomes than participants assigned to status hearings as usual. These findings provide confirmation of the risk principle in drug courts and yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug courts. PMID:18174915

  1. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  2. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  3. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  4. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  5. Low-socioeconomic status workers: their health risks and how to reach them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Huang, Yi; Hannon, Peggy A; Williams, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    To help workplace health promotion practitioners reach low-socioeconomic status workers at high risk for chronic diseases. We describe low-socioeconomic status workers' diseases, health status, demographics, risk behaviors, and workplaces, using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and Bureau of Labor Statistics. Workers with household annual incomes less than $35,000, or a high school education or less, report more chronic diseases and lower health status. They tend to be younger, nonwhite, and have much higher levels of smoking and missed cholesterol screening. They are concentrated in the smallest and largest workplaces and in three low-wage industries that employ one-quarter of the population. To decrease chronic diseases among low-socioeconomic status workers, we need to focus workplace health promotion programs on workers in low-wage industries and small workplaces.

  6. Risk of Status Epilepticus in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of status epilepticus (SE after the initial diagnosis of epilepsy was determined in a prospective community-based cohort study of 613 children at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY; Yale Medical School, New Haven, CT; and BIOS/NIU, DeKalb, IL.

  7. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  8. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Factors in Development of Postoperative Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many etiological factors play a role in the occurrence of postoperative empyema. We aimed to define the effects of these factors on the development of empyema. Material and Method: Two hundred and eighty-eight cases from our clinic who underwent tube thoracostomy and/or were operated due to any cause out of the primary empyema  between August 2009 and May 2010 were prospectively studied in terms of empyema development. Data comprised gender, age, chemoradiotherapy, surgical procedure, intraoperative thoracic lavage with povidone-iodine, emergency surgery status, sharing the same room with other cases with empyema, primary disease, additional comorbidity, operation duration, drain number, complication, number of patients in the room, and drain discontinuation and hospitalization duration. Blood leukocyte-neutrophil count was ordered in all cases at 3-day intervals, and fluid culture specimens were simultaneously collected from cases with drains. Drainage fluid culture specimens were evaluated with “Automated Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing” using standard procedures. Empyema cases who developed clinical manifestation and/or with bacterial growth in culture specimens were studied in terms of risk factors. The findings were analyzed using SPSS (version 16. Results: The results showed that gender, age, chemoradiotherapy, surgical procedure, intraoperative thoracic lavage with povidone-iodine, emergency surgery status, and sharing a same room with other empyema cases were not significantly correlated with the risk of empyema development. Contribution of the primary disease (p<0.05, additional comorbidity (p<0.05, operation duration (p<0.05, drain number (p<0.05, complication (p<0.05, number of people in the room (p<0.05, drain discontinuation time (p<0.05 and hospitalization duration (p<0.05 were found to be significant in the development of postoperative empyema. Discussion: Postoperative development of empyema is one

  10. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Little, M.P.

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  11. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD preeclampsia (FDR preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D-associated transcriptomes implicated the emergence of an early pregnancy, distinctive immune response in women who went on to develop preeclampsia. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00920621. Quebec Breast Cancer Foundation and Genome Canada Innovation Network. This trial was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. For details see Acknowledgments.

  12. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages-the largest category within income-are risk factors. We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25-65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25-44 and 45-65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25-44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables-obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities-were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25-30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25-44 years. The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25-44 years.

  13. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...

  14. Risk factors and predictors of dementia and cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper

    the most prevalent dementia type, is the only cause of death among the top 10 killers in the United States that cannot be prevented, cured, or even delayed. The knowledge of risk and protective factors is therefore especially important for the development of prevention strategies, as prevention by risk...... factor intervention, is considered the key to a better control of the epidemic. Women outlive men on average, however they have poorer health status. Moreover, women have an elevated risk of dementia. This clearly justifies an increased focus on dementia specifically for women. In the development of new......, are required to ensure that the new drugs are tested on the right patients at the right time. The aims of this thesis were: i) to identify risk factors for all cause and differential dementia diagnoses, ii) to identify risk factors associated with progression from normal cognition to dementia within the follow...

  15. Developing health status index using factor analysis | Mohamad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper intends to develop health status index among drug abuse prison inmates in Malaysia. A self-admistered questionnaire distributed to 1753 respondents. In this study, to calculate the health status index number of drug abuse inmates, descriptive and factor analyses applied. The data based on 10 indicators of ...

  16. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Methods: This cross sectional study involved 206 asthmatic children, 5 to 15 years old. They were enrolled from the School ... exercise-induced asthma while 64.6% stated that emotional stress triggered their symptoms. ... Keywords: asthma severity; asthma triggers; children; residence; risk factors; smoking; social status.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus transmission among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharing of toothbrushes among siblings was found to be a significantly associated risk factor. Only 6.4% of mothers knew their hepatitis B status. Conclusion: There is a gradual fall in the prevalence of HBsAg in our environment due to HB immunization. Sharing of toothbrushes may be a potent means of transmission of HBV ...

  18. Risk factors for severe abruptio placenta in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were followed up and compared to five hundred women (controls) who had normal deliveries. Outcome variables: Socio-demographic characteristics, familial history, medical history, gynaecological and obstetric history. Results: The risk factors for severe abruptio placenta were low socio economic status (OR 10.5 ...

  19. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  20. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  1. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  2. Is zinc deficiency a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, John H; Kwun, In-Sook

    2004-02-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is influenced by genetic, lifestyle and nutritional risk factors. Zn and metallothionein deficiency can enhance oxidative-stress-related signalling processes in endothelial cells, and since changes in available plasma Zn may affect the Zn status of the endothelium, Zn deficiency could be a risk factor for IHD. Although the association of Zn with many proteins is essential for their function, three key signalling processes are highlighted as being principal targets for the effect of Zn deficiency: the activation of NF-kappaB, the activation of caspase enzymes and the signalling of NO. The need to develop a reliable indicator of Zn status is critical to any epidemiological approach for studying the relationship between Zn status and disease incidence. Studies using appropriate animal models and investigating how the plasma Zn pool influences endothelial intracellular labile Zn would be helpful in appreciating the importance of Zn deficiency in atherogenesis.

  3. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  4. A Research on Functional Status, Environmental Conditions, and Risk of Falls in Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of disability, physical activity, and functional status as well as environmental conditions on the risk of falls among the elderly with dementia after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a group including 1210 Malaysian elderly who were demented and noninstitutionalized. The study was a national cross-sectional survey that was entitled “Determinants of Health Status among Older Malaysians.” Approximately 17% of subjects expe...

  5. Synthesizing Risk from Summary Evidence Across Multiple Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Colditz, Graham A; Steele, Russell J

    2018-07-01

    Although meta-analyses provide summary effect estimates that help advise patient care, patients often want to compare their overall health to the general population. The Harvard Cancer Risk Index was published in 2004 and uses risk ratio estimates and prevalence estimates from original studies across many risk factors to provide an answer to this question. However, the published version of the formula only uses dichotomous risk factors and its derivation was not provided. The objective of this brief report was to provide the derivation of a more general form of the equation that allows the incorporation of risk factors with three or more levels.

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraporti, Marisete Inês; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Dutra Rosolen, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Systemic hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in childhood can potentially have a significant impact on future adverse outcomes. To investigate the relationship of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with anthropometric data and area of residence of children in municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of 709 children between six and nine years of age. Blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Statistical tests had a maximum significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) and the software used was SPSS version 13.0. Obesity was significantly associated with pre-hypertension, and stage 1 and 2 hypertension as assessed by DBP and SBP (≤0.05); high WC was significantly associated with a classification of pre-hypertension and stage 1 hypertension based on DBP and a classification of stage 1 and 2 hypertension based on SBP (≤0.01). Children living in urban areas had significantly higher mean SBP than those living in rural areas. Those with high WC presented higher SBP and DBP compared to children with normal WC. Obese children showed higher mean SBP and DBP compared to those who were overweight or normal weight and mean SBP and DBP also increased with older age and higher mean body mass index and WC. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Nutritional status and risk in hospitalized children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankard, R; Bloch, J; Martin, P; Randrianasolo, H; Bannier, M F; Machinot, S; Cézard, J P

    2001-11-01

    A few studies report malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This one-day cross-sectional survey performed in January 1999 assessed nutritional status and protein-energy intake in a pediatric population hospitalized in medicine or surgery units. Every child older than six months, hospitalized for more than 48 h and free of nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, or special regimens for metabolic diseases) was included. Fifty-eight children among the 183 present the day of the study met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analysis. They were hospitalized in medicine (48%), psychiatry (31%) and surgery (21%). The body mass index (BMI) was below -2 standard deviations (DS) in 21% of them. Excluding patients with anorexia nervosa, BMI was +2 SD, or in between these limits in respectively 12, 14 and 74%. Energy intake measured at the hospital was below 75% of the recommended dietary allowances in two-thirds of the children whether malnourished or not. Fifty percent of the malnourished children had been referred to a dietician the day of the study. Malnutrition is frequent in a population of hospitalized children. Energy intake and referral to a dietician are insufficient.

  8. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  9. Misperception of weight status and associated factors among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogre, Victor; Aleyira, Samuel; Nyaba, Rauf

    2015-01-01

    We compared participants' self-perception of their weight with the World Health Organisation (WHO) definition for BMI categories among undergraduate university students undertaking health related academic programmes in Ghana. Also, we investigated factors associated to the underestimation of weight status in this sample. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 368 undergraduate students. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were measured with appropriate tools and computed into Body Mass Index (BMI) categorised based on WHO classifications. Waist and hip circumferences were also measured appropriately. Participants' self-perception of weight status was assessed by the question: How do you perceive your weight? (a) Underweight, (b) normal weight, (c) overweight, and (d) obese. The BMI-measured weight status was compared to the self-perceived weight status by cross-tabulation, Kappa statistics of agreement and χ(2) for trend analysis. Factors associated with misperception of weight status was measured using univariate and multivariable analysis. Thirteen percent (n=48) of the participants were overweight/obesity (BMI) and 31.5% had central obesity. Overall, 20.6% of the participants misperceived their weight status in which 78.9% of them underestimated it. Among overweight/obese participants, 41.7% self-perceived themselves accurately. Whereas 10.6% of normal weight participants underestimated their weight status, over half (58.3%) of overweight/obese participants did so. Factors that were associated with underestimation of weight status were having overweight/obesity (BMI) and central obesity. Underestimation of weight status was frequent. Health professionals and related government agencies should develop intervention programmes to empower young people to have accurate weight status perception. Copyright © 2015 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cold - an underrated risk factor for health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors

  11. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  12. Status of drinking behavior and risk factors of college students in Luzhou%泸州市在校大学生饮酒现状及危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟丽; 宋丽娟; 张涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of college students′drinking behavior,and to analyze the related risk factors of students′ hazardous and harmful drinking behaviors in Luzhou of Sichuan Province,and to provide the factual basis to reducing their hazardousand harmful drinking behavior. Methods A stratified cluster random sampling method was used in the investigation,and 1381 students were selected from four colleges in Luzhou form March 10,2015 to March 20,2015. They finished the survey which include self - designed demographic data,drinking situation questionnaire and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test( AUDIT). Then effective questionnaires were statistical analysis. Results ①The total past drinking rate was 73. 3% ,present drinking rate was 51. 1% ,excessive drinking rate was 41. 0% ,ebriety rate was 24. 0% ,hazardous and harmful drinking rate was 20. 8% . Male students were statistical different from girls in drinking rate(83. 4% vs. 60. 8% ),hazardous and harmful drinking rate(30. 9% vs. 8. 3% ) (χ2 =88. 39、57. 39,P <0. 01). ②The gender,age of alcohol initiation,self - rating alcohol dependence status,self - rating of alcohol consumption,the drinking days of the past year,drunk days of the past one year,the bad results of drinking and the binge drinking frequency of the past year of 8 variables were the risk factors of hazardous and harmful drinking(OR =0. 248 ~1. 647). Conclusion Male students were higher than girls in drinking rate and hazardous and harmful drinking rate in Luzhou college students. Boys,the smaller age of initiation,heavier self - rating alcohol dependence status,higher self - rating of alcohol consumption,more drinking days and drunk days of the past one year,more the bad results of drinking and the binge drinking more frequency on past one year,were easier to be hazardous and harmful drinkers.%目的:调查泸州市在校大学生饮酒现状,探讨大学生危险和有害饮酒的危险因素,为有效防治大学

  13. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for

  14. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  15. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , although not being statistically significant. In conclusion, HIV is a strong risk factor for HPV among men in Tanzania. Additionally, in HIV-positive men a high BMI seems to be associated with a lower risk of HPV. Finally, we observed a tendency toward a lower risk of HPV both among HIV-positive and HIV......The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participants...... were offered HIV testing. Risk factors for HPV (HC2 high-risk and/or low-risk positivity) were assessed using logistic regression with adjustment for age, lifetime number of sexual partners, and HIV status. Altogether, 372 men (20.5%) were HPV-positive. Among men tested for HIV (n = 1,483), the HIV...

  16. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain...... fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were...

  17. Evaluation of risk management status for Croatian logistic operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BOŽIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding organisational risks makes possible to control them and to change them into organisational strengths. Being known as “measure of uncertainty” in the business process, the risk is the uncertainty of achieving the organizational objectives. It may involve positive or negative consequences. There is a level of uncertainty in every supply chain while operating transportation and warehousing, positioning on the market, developing customer support, reducing cycle times or cutting costs. Therefore, the risk assessment should be one of the main tasks for any supply chain management team. It is required to develop formal risk assessment procedures, to identify the potential impacts to the supply chain operations and to develop a set of contingency plans to mitigate risks. This paper deals with supply chain risk assessment methodology, outlining the present risk management status of Croatian logistic operators.

  18. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Frestada, Daria; Michelsen, Marie Mide

    2016-01-01

    physically active than women while women have healthier dietary habits. Genetic factors also affect cardiovascular risk but no sex differences have been seen. Increased cardiovascular risk attributed to psychosocial distress is similar in men and women, but since women are more prone to psychosocial distress......Background: Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in both sexes in developed countries for decades. In general, men and women share the same cardiovascular risk factors. However, in recent trials including both men and women sexspecific analyses have raised awareness of sex...... differences in cardiovascular risk factors due to both biological and cultural differences. Results: Women experience their first myocardial infarction (MI) 6-10 years later than men and a protective effect of their natural estrogen status prior to menopause has been suggested. Female sex hormones have been...

  19. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  20. The effects of gender and socioeconomic status on youth sexual-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV and AIDS remains one of the most serious problems facing youths in many sub-Saharan African countries. Among young people in South Africa, gender is linked with a number of HIV-risk behaviours and outcomes. The literature suggests that factors such as socioeconomic status, intimate partner violence, and several ...

  1. Cardiometabolic disease risk and HIV status in rural South Africa : establishing a baseline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, Samuel J.; Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier; Houle, Brian; Thorogood, Margaret; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Angotti, Nicole; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Williams, Jill; Menken, Jane; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: To inform health care and training, resource and research priorities, it is essential to establish how non-communicable disease risk factors vary by HIV-status in high HIV burden areas; and whether long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) plays a modifying role. Methods: As part of a

  2. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  3. Does the impact of subsequent incontinence risk factors depend on continence status during the first pregnancy or the postpartum period 12 years before? A cohort study in 232 primiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viktrup, L.; Rortveit, G.; Lose, G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assess the impact of subsequent urinary incontinence risk factors in women with different urinary incontinence history. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort study 232 women answered validated questions about urinary incontinence after the first delivery and 12 years later. Women who were continent...

  4. Cardiometabolic disease risk in metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity: Stability of metabolic health status in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2016-02-01

    To assess the stability of metabolic status and body mass index (BMI) status and their relative contribution to risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, and mortality. A total of 14,685 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and 4,990 from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were included. People with healthy obesity (HO) are defined as those meeting all three indices of blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids. People with unhealthy obesity crossed the risk threshold for all three criteria. In both healthy and unhealthy subgroups, risks for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and mortality were comparable among BMI status during a mean 18.7-year follow-up. When compared with HO, hazard ratios were increased for diabetes (5.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.12-7.48), CHD (5.60, 95% CI 3.14-9.98), stroke (4.84, 95% CI 2.13-10.97), and mortality (2.6, 95% CI 1.88-3.61) in people with unhealthy obesity. BMI only moderately increased the risks for diabetes among healthy subjects. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study over 20 years, 17.5% of lean subjects and 67.3% of overweight subjects at baseline developed obesity during follow-up. Despite rising BMI, metabolic status remained relatively stable. Metabolic status is relatively stable despite rising BMI. HO had lower risks for diabetes, CHD, stroke, and mortality than unhealthy subjects but increased diabetes risks than healthy lean people. Cardiometabolic risk factors confer much higher risk than obesity per se. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  5. Risk Factors for Depression : Differential Across Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of well-established risk factors for depression differs across the lifespan. Risk factors may be more strongly associated with depression at ages when occurrence, and therefore expectance, is relatively low ("on-time off-time" hypothesis). This large-scale study examined

  6. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, Geertje A M; Van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  7. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy

  8. Dual protection, contraceptive use, HIV status and risk among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate dual protection, contraceptive use, HIV status risk among a national sample of South African women. The final sample included only female participants (N=4675) who reported to have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months aged 15 to 49 years. Results indicate that almost one ...

  9. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  10. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  11. Individual housing-based socioeconomic status predicts risk of accidental falls among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Euijung; Juhn, Young J; Wheeler, Philip H; Hathcock, Matthew A; Wi, Chung-Il; Olson, Janet E; Cerhan, James R; Takahashi, Paul Y

    2017-07-01

    Accidental falls are a major public health concern among people of all ages. Little is known about whether an individual-level housing-based socioeconomic status measure is associated with the risk of accidental falls. Among 12,286 Mayo Clinic Biobank participants residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, subjects who experienced accidental falls between the biobank enrollment and September 2014 were identified using ICD-9 codes evaluated at emergency departments. HOUSES (HOUsing-based Index of SocioEconomic Status), a socioeconomic status measure based on individual housing features, was also calculated. Cox regression models were utilized to assess the association of the HOUSES (in quartiles) with accidental fall risk. Seven hundred eleven (5.8%) participants had at least one emergency room visit due to an accidental fall during the study period. Subjects with higher HOUSES were less likely to experience falls in a dose-response manner (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.76 for comparing the highest to the lowest quartile). In addition, the HOUSES was positively associated with better health behaviors, social support, and functional status. The HOUSES is inversely associated with accidental fall risk requiring emergency care in a dose-response manner. The HOUSES may capture falls-related risk factors through housing features and socioeconomic status-related psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for readmission in schizophrenia patients following involuntary admission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Hung

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia who are involuntarily admitted may have poorer prognosis, including higher readmission rates, than those voluntarily admitted. However, little is known about the risk factors for readmission in those schizophrenia patients who are involuntarily admitted.We aim to explore the risk factors for readmission in this population.We enrolled 138 schizophrenia patients with involuntary admission from July 2008 to June 2013 and followed those patients for readmission outcomes at 3 months and at 1 year.The one-year and 3-months readmission rates were 33.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Unmarried status (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 6.28, 95% CI: 1.48-26.62, previous history of involuntary admission (aOR = 4.08, 95% CI: 1.19-14.02, longer involuntary admission days (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07 and shorter total admission days (aOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Younger age (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18 was associated with increased risk for 3-months readmission.Unmarried status, prior history of involuntary admission, longer involuntary admission days and shorter total admission days were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Healthcare providers may need to focus on patients with these risk factors to reduce subsequent readmissions.

  13. Risk factors for readmission in schizophrenia patients following involuntary admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Yuan; Chan, Hung-Yu; Pan, Yi-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who are involuntarily admitted may have poorer prognosis, including higher readmission rates, than those voluntarily admitted. However, little is known about the risk factors for readmission in those schizophrenia patients who are involuntarily admitted. We aim to explore the risk factors for readmission in this population. We enrolled 138 schizophrenia patients with involuntary admission from July 2008 to June 2013 and followed those patients for readmission outcomes at 3 months and at 1 year. The one-year and 3-months readmission rates were 33.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Unmarried status (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 6.28, 95% CI: 1.48-26.62), previous history of involuntary admission (aOR = 4.08, 95% CI: 1.19-14.02), longer involuntary admission days (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) and shorter total admission days (aOR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Younger age (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18) was associated with increased risk for 3-months readmission. Unmarried status, prior history of involuntary admission, longer involuntary admission days and shorter total admission days were associated with increased risk for 1-year readmission. Healthcare providers may need to focus on patients with these risk factors to reduce subsequent readmissions.

  14. Contextual factors in liquidity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.; van Lelyveld, I.P.P.; Zymek, R.

    2015-01-01

    We assess the determinants of banks’ liquidity holdings using data for nearly 7000 banks from 25 OECD countries. We highlight the role of several bank-specific, institutional and policy variables in shaping banks’ liquidity risk management. Our main question is whether liquidity regulation

  15. [Influence of sociohygienic factors on the shaping of the nutritional status in children and teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, E S; Kuzmichev, Yu G; Olushina, E A; Polyashova, A S; Kotova, N V; Badeeva, T V; Ashina, M V; Maksimenko, E O; Kiseleva, A S; Pisareva, A N; Kovalchuk, S N; Shaposhnikova, M V

    There was revealed the structure of deteriorations in the nutritional status of schoolchildren in the city: the most of students has normal nutritional status, but there was noted the high prevalence of excessive body weight and obesity among children and teenagers. Risk factors for development of deteriorations of the nutrition state were detected as follows: irrational food regimen, qualitative compartment offood, factors of educational environment, lifestyle. The main role in system of control of the nutritional status in children is referred to the correction of socio-hygienic factors which prove to be the priority ones in the shaping of the nutritional status in students. As the main condition determining the nutrition state of the up-to-date schoolchildren and the quality of their life in the whole the social cultural level of children and adolescents must be regarded as a result of the hygienic education and training in fundamentals of healthy lifestyle. Priority protective factors of the gain in the part of schoolchildren with normal nutritional status (optimalfood regimen, optimal dietary habits, sufficient level of physical activity) laidfrom the child age in conditions of the family, sufficient level of the physical activity and the implementation of the other element of hygienically expedient day regimen served as the base for the elaboration of the system of the control of nutritional status. Algorithm of the control of the nutritional status in the students of educational institutions includes the creation of healthcare educational environment, optimization of nutrition and physical activity, the shaping of the culture of healthy lifestyle, health-improving measures for children with disorders of nutritional status and their psychological pedagogical supports at the stage of the correction of the nutritional status, improvement of the medical service for the early detection of deviations of nutritional status with the estimation of the efficiency of

  16. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  17. Does the impact of subsequent incontinence risk factors depend on continence status during the first pregnancy or the postpartum period 12 years before? A cohort study in 232 primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktrup, Lars; Rortveit, Guri; Lose, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Assess the impact of subsequent urinary incontinence risk factors in women with different urinary incontinence history. In a cohort study 232 women answered validated questions about urinary incontinence after the first delivery and 12 years later. Women who were continent during the first pregnancy or postpartum period (group 1) or who became incontinent during these periods (group 2) were identified. Urinary incontinence symptoms 12 years after the first delivery were reported by 32.6% (44/135) in group 1 and 66.0% (64/97) in group 2. Overweight and to a minor extent pelvic organ prolapse symptoms or heavy lifting at work was associated with higher relative risk of urinary incontinence in group 1 compared with group 2. Other risk factors such as age, breastfeeding 6 months or longer after both the first and second deliveries, bowel movements or urinary infections were not associated differentially with urinary incontinence in the 2 groups. Subsequent risk factors had a more significant impact in women without initial urinary incontinence.

  18. Overview of the plant risk status information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.R.; Campbell, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) is a personal computer program that presents PRA results and related information for use by decision-makers. The program was originally developed for NRC inspectors, but now an expanded version of the program with more potential applications is complete. Prototypes of both versions have been developed for Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, and the inspection-related version is currently being field-tested. Interim results of these field tests are favorable. The PRISIM database contains both pre-processed information that is useful for long-term planning and a plant risk model for assessing the risk implications of the current plant status. The program provides rapid access to specific information by making extensive use of menus. Development of PRISIM programs for Peach Bottom-Unit 2 is underway, and there are plans to create programs for other plants

  19. Nutritional status and nutritional risk in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mette; Dam, Gitte Aarøe; Knudsen, Anne Wilkens

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequent among patients with malignancies and associated with impaired function, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Few data are available in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) on nutritional status, nutritional risk, and nutrition impact symptoms...... (NIS). We aimed to assess nutritional status (NS) and risk, level of function and associations with NIS in NET patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of NET patients, we measured body mass index (BMI) and handgrip strength (HGS) as markers of NS and muscle function assessed by HGS....... The nutritional risk score (NRS) was determined by NRS-2002. NIS was assessed by the eating symptoms questionnaire (ESQ), and disease-related appetite questionnaire (DRAQ). RESULTS: We included 186 patients (51% women), median age 66 years. We observed low BMI (

  20. Social factors and coping status in asymptomatic middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller

    2013-01-01

    by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals......Aims: Understanding the determinants of social and coping inequalities in subclinical cardiovascular disease is an important prerequisite in developing and implementing preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social factors and coping status...

  1. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  2. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  4. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  5. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  6. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  7. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  8. Risk factors for total hip arthroplasty aseptic revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatod, Monti; Cafri, Guy; Namba, Robert S; Inacio, Maria C S; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient, operative, implant, surgeon, and hospital factors associated with aseptic revision after primary THA in patients registered in a large US Total Joint Replacement Registry. A total of 35,960 THAs registered from 4/2001-12/2010 were evaluated. The 8-year survival rate was 96.7% (95% CI 96.4%-97.0%). Females had a higher risk of aseptic revision than males. Hispanic and Asian patients had a lower risk of revision than white patients. Ceramic-on-ceramic, ceramic-on-conventional polyethylene, and metal-on-conventional polyethylene bearing surfaces had a higher risk of revision than metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene. Body mass index, health status, diabetes, diagnosis, fixation, approach, bilateral procedures, head size, surgeon fellowship training, surgeon and hospital volume were not revision risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  10. Evaluation of Oral Health status and influential factors in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to comparatively analyze oral health status and influential factors in children with autism living in the Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Subjects and Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in two steps: 1 ‑ questionnaire and 2 ‑ interview. This study was conducted ...

  11. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  12. Status of the NLO Corrections to the Photon Impact Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Gieseke, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We present the status of the programme of calculating the next-to-leading order corrections to the virtual photon impact factor. In particular, we discuss new results for the transversely polarized photon. We briefly outline the definition of infrared finite terms and the subtraction of the leading logarithmic parts.

  13. Gambling Disorder and Minority Populations: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Mayumi; Liu, Weiwei; Cisewski, Jodi A; Segura, Luis; Storr, Carla L; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrate disparities in health and health services including gambling disorders (GD) among ethnic and racial minority groups. In this review, we summarize studies examining the prevalence of GD across different ethnic and racial minorities. We describe the sociodemographic subgroup variations at heightened risk for GD and factors associated with GD in racial and ethnic minority groups including gambling availability, comorbid substance use, psychiatric conditions, stress, acculturation, and differences in cultural values and cognitions. We found that research of GD among minority groups is scant, and the prevalence of GD among these groups is at a magnitude of concern. Racial and ethnic minority status in it of itself is not a risk factor for GD but may be a proxy for underlying potential risk factors. The need for prevention and treatment programs for different cultural group remains unmet.

  14. RISK FACTORS OF DELAYS OF CHILD PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Kaganova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research targeted studying risk factors for delays physical development of children (n = 70 aged 7–11 years. Control group was comprised of 30 children of normal height of the same age. Physical development was evaluated by centile method using regional and international standards, studying data of life and disease anamnesis, family anamnesis, living conditions. Children had their thyroid glands studied ultrasonically. Blood levels of calcium, phosphor, magnesium, ferrum, zinc were identified by photometry method for some children in both groups. Correlation analysis makes it possible to state risk factors of children dwarfism: low educational status of parents, child height figures at the age of 1 and 3 years, calcium and phosphor blood levels, as well as thyroid hypo plasy.Key words: dwarfism, children, risk factors, calcium deficit.

  15. Infection status and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among school-going children in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa two years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuyaya, Muhubiri; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2018-04-18

    To assess the efficacy of praziquantel of infected children with Schistosoma haematobium over a 2year period in the Ndumo area of uMkhanyakude district, South Africa. This cohort study enrolled 173 school-going children in September 2017 that participated in a baseline survey conducted in 2015 in the Ndumo area. Questionnaire interviews were conducted to collect information on the risk factors related to transmission of schistosomiasis and filtration technique was performed to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine. Infection intensity was classified as light and heavy. A Chi square test was performed to assess association between variables with 95% confidence interval and p-value=0.05 was considered significant. Of the 173 participants screened two years post-treatment, 10 were infected and six were new infection cases while 4 were re-infections. The intensity of infection decreased significantly (P value=0.001) in the follow-up survey compare to the baseline survey. However, no significant difference was found among the risk factors of schistosomiasis 2 years later. The prevalence of S. haematobium decreased significantly in the cohort 2 years post praziquantel treatment during persistent drought in the area. Risk factors which were significantly associated with schistosomiasis at baseline were not two years following treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer: nationwide, population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case-control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82-0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72-0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90-0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84-0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88-0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  17. Fatherhood status and risk of prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirén, Sara M; Drevin, Linda I; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Akre, Olof; Holmberg, Erik C; Robinson, David E; Garmo, Hans G; Stattin, Pär E

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a decreased risk of prostate cancer for childless men; however, the cause of the association remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of prostate cancer by fatherhood status, also considering potential confounding factors. In a case–control study in Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0, a nationwide, population-based cohort, data on number of children, marital status, education, comorbidity and tumor characteristics obtained through nationwide healthcare registers and demographic databases for 117,328 prostate cancer cases and 562,644 controls, matched on birth year and county of residence, were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for prostate cancer overall and by risk category, adjusting for marital status and education. Childless men had a decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to fathers, OR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.82–0.84), and risk was lower for low-risk prostate cancer, OR = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.72–0.77), than for metastatic prostate cancer, OR = 0.93 (95% CI = 0.90–0.97). Adjustment for marital status and education attenuated the association in the low-risk category, adjusted OR = 0.87 (95% CI = 0.84–0.91), whereas OR for metastatic cancer remained virtually unchanged, adjusted OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88–0.96). Our data indicate that the association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer to a large part is due to socioeconomic factors influencing healthcare-seeking behavior including testing of prostate-specific antigen levels. PMID:23354735

  18. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  20. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    experiences were correlated with the development of fibromyalgia. Data pertaining to disability, quality of life, life satisfaction, number of days of depression, emotional support, and marriage status illustrated the extent of subjective disability that these patients feel every day.Keywords: fibromyalgia, adverse childhood events, risk factors

  1. Risk factors for addiction potential among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ranjbaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tendency toward addiction is provided before drug use begins. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for addiction potential in the students of Arak University of Medical Sciences. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study among 305 students from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2016. We selected the students by stratified random sampling and collected the data by family and sociodemographic factors questionnaires and Addiction Potential Scale. Results: Male students, students with low economic status and high family members were more prone to addiction. We identified variable; addiction in close friends, adverse family conditions (dispute with the family, poor economic condition of families, and family size by controlling the effect of other variables, as risk factors for addiction potential. Conclusions: Preventive and intervention actions appear necessary considering the mentioned factors.

  2. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. ... ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes.

  3. risk factors for abnormal tubal hysterosalpingographic findings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    So many presumed risk factors for female tubal infertility are seen among. Nigerian women. ... strategies such as health awareness campaigns against unwanted pregnancy, promotion of responsible ..... of CT findings in acute pyogenic pelvic.

  4. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  5. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD...

  6. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  7. THE RISK FACTORS FOR INITIAL REPRODUCTIVE LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Игоревна Лебедева

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion. Mixed somatic and gynecological pathology, abnormalities in hemostasis, combination of inherited and acquired thrombogenic risk factors dominates in women with initial reproductive loss, though only 37,3 % such pregnancies have favorable outcome.

  8. Documentation Status as a Contextual Determinant of HIV Risk Among Young Transgender Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, Sarah L; Yamanis, Thespina J; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population.

  9. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  10. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to

  11. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  12. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  13. Status of human factors engineering system design in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, G.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the European status of human factors engineering has been carried out covering a wide scope of activities which includes psychology, cognitive science, ergonomics, design, training, procedure writing, operating, artificial intelligence and expert systems. There is an increasing awareness of the part that human factors play in major nuclear power plant accidents. The emphasis of attention in human factors is changing. In some areas there are encouraging signs of progress and development, but in other areas there is still scope for improvement

  14. Risk Factors Correlated with Incidence of Low Birth Weight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjas Dwi Purwanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The infant with Low Birth Weight (LBW was one of the risk factors that contributed to the high infant mortality, especially in the neonatal period. About 17% from 25 millions birth each year in the world are infant with LBW. LBW could be caused by multifactor that were maternal factors (maternal age, birth interval, parity, anemia, social-economic and behaviour, fetus factor, placental factor, and environmental factor. The research aims was to analyze the risk factors correlated with incidence of LBW. This research was an observational  research with case-control design. The number of samples in this research were 120 mothers who delivered in working area of RSIA Kendangsari in 2014. The subjects were selected used systematic random method. The independent variabels in this research were maternal age, education level, employment status, birth interval, parity, age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension, and anemia, while the dependent variable in this research was LBW. Based on correlation analysis used Chi-square test showed there were not significant correlation (p>0,05 between birth interval and parity with LBW cases and there were significant correlations (p<0,05 between age pregnancy, hypertension during pregnancy and anemia with LBW cases. Odds Ratio (OR were 13,571 on age pregnancy, 2,224 on multiple pregnancy,2,753 on hypertension and 4,030 on anemia. The conlusion showed that the risk factors of LBW cases were age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension and anemia. While maternal age, education level, employment status, birth intervaland parity were not had any correlation with LBW cases. Keywords: LBW, risk factors, babies, maternal, pregnancy

  15. Factors associated with blue-collar workers' risk perception of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oisaeng; Kim, Mi Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as, individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors as predictors of CVD risk perception among Korean blue-collar workers. The participants were 238 Korean blue-collar workers who worked in small companies. Data were collected through a survey; anthropometric and blood pressure measures; and blood sampling for lipid levels. Blue-collar workers had high actual CVD risk and low CVD risk perception. The significant predictors of risk perception included perceived health status, alcohol consumption, knowledge of CVD risk, actual CVD risk, decision latitude, and shift work. The model explained 26% of the variance in CVD risk perception. The result suggests when occupational health nurses are giving routine health examination in small companies, they can enhance CVD risk perception in blue-collar workers by providing essential information about CVD risk factors and personal counseling on the individual worker's CVD risk status.

  16. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  17. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  18. Atrial fibrillation and bleeding complication - risk factors and risk marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithardt, G.; Ravens, U.; Kirchhof, P.; van Gelder, I. C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is closely linked to risk factors like hypertension and heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and valvular heart disease. These factors partly overlap with those which determine the progression of atrial fibrillation and the incidence of

  19. Late life socioeconomic status and hypertension in an aging cohort: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoom, M Maya; Palta, Priya; Vart, Priya; Juraschek, Stephen P; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Diez Roux, Ana V; Coresh, Josef

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the association between individual and area-level socioeconomic status and hypertension risk among individuals later in life. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of socioeconomic status with incident hypertension using race-specific neighborhood socioeconomic status, median household income, and education among 3372 participants (mean age, 61 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at Visit 4 (1996-1998). Incident hypertension was defined as self-reported diagnosis or reported use of antihypertensive medications. Over a median follow-up time of 9.4 years, there were 1874 new cases of hypertension (62.1 per 1000 person-years). Overall, being in high as compared with low socioeconomic status categories was associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension in late life, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.87 (0.77-0.98) for high neighborhood socioeconomic status tertile, 0.79 (0.69-0.90) for high individual income, and 0.75 (0.63-0.89) for college education after adjustment for traditional risk factors. These findings were consistent and robust whenever accounting for competing risks of all-cause mortality. No significant interactions by race and age (dichotomized at age 65) were observed. Among participants free of hypertension in midlife, high neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status are associated with a decreased risk of incident hypertension. Our findings support population-level interventions, such as blood pressure screening at senior centers and faith-based organizations, that are tailored to shift the distribution of blood pressure and reduce hypertension health inequalities among older adults.

  20. Risk factors in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Magon, Rakesh; Mishra, B P; Sidhu, G B S; Mahajan, Ranjiv

    2003-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially serious idiosyncratic response to neuroleptic antipsychotics. It usually affects young males, but the risk has been seen to increase with certain factors including the administration practices of antipsychotic neuroleptics in these individuals. Even though no predictors for NMS are yet known, this article highlights the findings on certain risk factors as seen from a series of fifteen patients who developed NMS. Cautious use of neuroleptics in those at risk, early recognition and institution of immediate management is important.

  1. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  2. Risk factors of anxiety and depression in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Stéphane; Lahmek, Pierre; Durance, Christelle; Olympie, Alain; Lesgourgues, Bruno; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Gendre, Jean-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Little is known in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) regarding risk factors for psychological distress. The aim of this work was to study the disease characteristics and socioeconomic factors associated with anxiety and depression in IBD. From December 2008 to June 2009, 1663 patients with IBD (1450 were members of the Association Francois Aupetit, French association of IBD patients) answered a questionnaire about psychological and socioeconomic factors and adherence to treatment. In this study we focused the analysis on the characteristics of IBD (type, location, severity, treatment) and socioeconomic factors (professional, educational, and marital status and Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers [EPICES] score of socioeconomic deprivation; score established in medical centers in France; http://www.cetaf.asso.fr) associated with depression and anxiety. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Comparison between groups according to the existence of depression or anxiety was carried out using univariate and multivariate analysis. In all, 181 patients (11%) were depressed; 689 patients (41%) were anxious. By multivariate analysis, factors associated with anxiety were: severe disease (P = 0.04), flares (P = 0.05), nonadherence to treatment (P = 0.03), disabled or unemployed status (P = 0.002), and socioeconomic deprivation (P < 0.0001). Factors associated with depression were: age (P = 0.004), flares (P = 0.03), disabled or unemployed status (P = 0.03), and socioeconomic deprivation (P < 0.0001). In this large cohort of IBD patients, risk factors for anxiety and depression were severe and active disease and socioeconomic deprivation. Psychological interventions would be useful when these factors are identified. Copyright © 2012 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  3. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoutová, J.; Janáčková, P.; Šerý, Omar; Zeman, T.; Ambrož, P.; Kovalová, M.; Vařechová, K.; Hosák, L.; Jiřík, V.; Janout, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-8 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14504 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : schizophrenia * risk factors * epidemiology Subject RIV: FQ - Public Health Care, Social Medicine Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  4. Osteonecrosis. Part 1. Risk factors and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valeriyevna Ilyinykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different risk factors for osteonecrosis (ON and some aspects of its pathogenesis: impairments in the differentiation of stromal cells, the vascular provision of intraand extravasal genesis, the quality of proper bone tissue due to generalized or local osteoporosis, intravascular coagulation factors contributing to microthrombogenesis. The basic types of ON are identified.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  6. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  7. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  8. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  10. Overweight and Obesity in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among University Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phing Chee Huei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: In light of the urbanization, industrialization and mechanized transportation, cardiovascular risk factors have been predominated. Hence, it is hypothesized that Malaysian students entering the university would not be oblivious to this reality. The study aims to investigate the cardiovascular disease risk factors stratified on genders and body weight status.

  11. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors...

  14. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  15. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  17. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  18. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  19. A risk-factor analysis of medical litigation judgments related to fall injuries in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Insook; Won, Seonae; Lee, Mijin; Lee, Won

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors through analysis of seven medical malpractice judgments related to fall injuries. The risk factors were analysed by using the framework that approaches falls from a systems perspective and comprised people, organisational or environmental factors, with each factor being comprised of subfactors. The risk factors found in each of the seven judgments were aggregated into one framework. The risk factors related to patients (i.e. the people factor) were age, pain, related disease, activities and functional status, urination state, cognitive function impairment, past history of fall, blood transfusion, sleep endoscopy state and uncooperative attitude. The risk factors related to the medical staff and caregivers (i.e. people factor) were observation negligence, no fall prevention activities and negligence in managing high-risk group for fall. Organisational risk factors were a lack of workforce, a lack of training, neglecting the management of the high-risk group, neglecting the management of caregivers and the absence of a fall prevention procedure. Regarding the environment, the risk factors were found to be the emergency room, chairs without a backrest and the examination table. Identifying risk factors is essential for preventing fall accidents, since falls are preventable patient-safety incidents. Falls do not happen as a result of a single risk factor. Therefore, a systems approach is effective to identify risk factors, especially organisational and environmental factors.

  20. Violence against women: prevalence and risk factors in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Selma; Bolsoy, Nursen

    2017-11-03

    This study reports on a large cross-sectional study of violence against women in Turkey, and outlines the risk factors associated with intimate partner violence. The purpose of this study was to identify in order to evaluate the domestic violence against women living in Manisa and to determine the risk factors affecting this situation. We implemented a cross-sectional descriptive study in the Manisa province of Turkey. The research data were collected by using a "Women's Information Form" consisting of 32 items, and "Scale of Domestic Violence Against Women". The study was conducted with 1760 women who complied with the inclusion criteria. It was determined that score averages of 30.0% of women from the scale of domestic violence against women were above the score average of the scale (71.38 ± 10.71) and they were exposed to violence more than the others. A statistically significant difference was obtained in the statistical analysis made between score averages from the scale of domestic violence against women and such variables as age, education, employment status, social insurance, immigration status, place of residence, marital age, year of marriage of women; age, education status, employment status of husband; and whether the husband has another wife (p violence against women is high, women does not perceive many behaviors of their husbands as violence, and the most important factor leading to this situation is social status. It is believed that the results of the study will be a guidance to local authorities, formal and voluntary organizations, educational institutions, and relevant researchers in the prevention of violence against women.

  1. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David

    2017-01-01

    long hours (≤55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years...... of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0......Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working...

  2. Associations of breast cancer risk factors with tumor subtypes: a pooled analysis from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors.......Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors....

  3. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  4. Relation of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors between Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Tanya; Moran, Antoinette; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M; Sinaiko, Alan R; Zhou, Xia; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-11-01

    To explore the relations of parent-child cardiometabolic risk factors and assess the influence of adiposity on these associations. Associations of adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and a risk factor cluster score (CS) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 179 parents and their children (6-18 years, N = 255). Insulin resistance was assessed by euglycemic clamp in parents and children aged 10 years or older. Metabolic syndrome in parents was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. CSs of the risk factors were created based on age-specific z-scores. Analyses included Pearson correlation and linear regression, adjusted for parent and child age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI), accounting for within-family correlation. We found positive parent-child correlations for measures of adiposity (BMI, BMI percentile, waist, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat; r = 0.22-0.34, all P ≤ .003), systolic BP (r = 0.20, P = .002), total cholesterol (r = 0.39, P parent-child correlations, except systolic BP, remained significant. Although adiposity is strongly correlated between parents and children, many cardiometabolic risk factors correlate independent of parent and child BMI. Adverse parental cardiometabolic profiles may identify at-risk children independent of the child's adiposity status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional status and related factors of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyan; Lu, Yuhan; Fang, Yu

    2014-04-14

    The scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is considered to be the most appropriate tool for detecting malnutrition in cancer patients. In particular, malignant tumours derived from the gastrointestinal tract may impair nutrient intake and absorption and cause malnutrition. We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status and related factors of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Nutritional status was determined using the scored PG-SGA in patients (n 498) with advanced gastrointestinal cancer admitted to the Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Unit at Beijing Cancer Hospital between 1 August 2012 and 28 February 2013. The possible related factors including age, sex, hospitalisation frequency and pathology were explored. We found that 98% of the patients required nutrition intervention and 54% of the patients required improved nutrition-related symptom management and/or urgent nutritional support (PG-SGA score ≥9). Factors related to malnutrition were age (r 0.103, Pcancer had a lower risk of malnutrition than patients with other types of gastrointestinal cancer (F=35.895, Pnutritional status of gastrointestinal patients, especially those at a higher risk of malnutrition, such as elderly patients, those hospitalised for the first time, male patients and those with other types of gastrointestinal cancer except rectal cancer. The nutritional status of these patients should be evaluated and they should be given proper nutrition education and nutritional support in a timely manner.

  6. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We...... open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per......; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international...

  7. A Research on Functional Status, Environmental Conditions, and Risk of Falls in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of disability, physical activity, and functional status as well as environmental conditions on the risk of falls among the elderly with dementia after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a group including 1210 Malaysian elderly who were demented and noninstitutionalized. The study was a national cross-sectional survey that was entitled “Determinants of Health Status among Older Malaysians.” Approximately 17% of subjects experienced falls. The results showed that ethnic non-Malay (OR=1.73 and functional decline (OR=1.67 significantly increased the risk of falls in samples (P0.05. It was concluded that functional decline and ethnic non-Malay increased the risk of falls but the increased environmental quality reduced falls.

  8. Migration Status, Familial Risk for Mental Disorder, and Schizotypal Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odin van der Stelt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Markedly raised incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have been observed in several migrant and ethnic minority groups. To contribute to a better understanding of the elevated risk for psychotic disorders that is conferred by migration status, the present study examined effects associated with migration risk status on schizotypal personality traits, which are thought to reflect an underlying vulnerability to psychotic disorder. Effects of migration status were also compared to effects associated with a family history of psychopathology, which represents a robust nonspecific risk factor. We assessed schizotypal traits, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, in a community-based sample of 62 Moroccan migrants and 41 Dutch nonmigrants, who were classified by the presence or absence of a family history of psychopathology. Overall, Moroccan migrants obtained higher SPQ scores than Dutch nonmigrants. However, migrants who had been classified as having a familial load of psychopathology displayed higher SPQ scores than migrants without such a family history, who in turn did not differ from Dutch nonmigrants. Furthermore, migrants with a familial load, relative to migrants without such a family history, reported higher levels of substance use and feelings of anxiety or depression, and perceived more often ethnic discrimination, which closely paralleled their SPQ scores. These findings indicate that primarily those migrants who are both intrinsically vulnerable and chronically exposed to social adversity, particularly ethnic discrimination, are at elevated risk for psychotic and other disorders. The results add to the evidence that migration status and perceived discrimination are associated with mental health.

  9. Study protocol to investigate the effect of a lifestyle intervention on body weight, psychological health status and risk factors associated with disease recurrence in women recovering from breast cancer treatment [ISRCTN08045231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer survivors often encounter physiological and psychological problems related to their diagnosis and treatment that can influence long-term prognosis. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of a lifestyle intervention on body weight and psychological well-being in women recovering from breast cancer treatment, and to determine the relationship between changes in these variables and biomarkers associated with disease recurrence and survival. Methods/design Following ethical approval, a total of 100 patients will be randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention (incorporating dietary energy restriction in conjunction with aerobic exercise training or normal care control group. Patients randomised to the dietary and exercise intervention will be given individualised healthy eating dietary advice and written information and attend moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions on three to five days per week for a period of 24 weeks. The aim of this strategy is to induce a steady weight loss of up to 0.5 Kg each week. In addition, the overall quality of the diet will be examined with a view to (i reducing the dietary intake of fat to ~25% of the total calories, (ii eating at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, (iii increasing the intake of fibre and reducing refined carbohydrates, and (iv taking moderate amounts of alcohol. Outcome measures will include body weight and body composition, psychological health status (stress and depression, cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. In addition, biomarkers associated with disease recurrence, including stress hormones, estrogen status, inflammatory markers and indices of innate and adaptive immune function will be monitored. Discussion This research will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of a practical, easily implemented lifestyle intervention for evoking positive effects on body weight and psychological well-being, two

  10. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  11. Fall risk profile and quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Kelly R; Noone, Paul L; Short, Krystal; Elley, C Raina; Haavik, Heidi

    2011-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fall risk factors in older chiropractic patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the quality-of-life status of older chiropractic patients and to see whether a history of falling was related to quality-of-life status. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 12 chiropractic practices throughout Auckland, New Zealand, and Melbourne, Australia. The study involved gaining a profile of health status, fall history, and fall risk from active chiropractic patients who were 65 years or older. One hundred ten older chiropractic patients were approached, and 101 agreed to participate in this study (response rate, 91.8%). Thirty-five percent of participants had experienced at least 1 fall in the previous 12 months. Of those that had fallen, 80% had at least a minor injury, with 37% of fallers requiring medical attention and 6% suffering a serious injury. The prevalence of most fall risk factors was consistent with published data for community-dwelling older adults. Quality of life of older chiropractic patients appeared to be good, but fallers reported a lower physical component summary score compared with nonfallers (P = .04). A portion of the older chiropractic patients sampled in this study had a substantial risk of falling. This risk could be assessed on a regular basis for the presence of modifiable fall risk factors, and appropriate advice, given when fall risks are identified. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Karim Tourkmani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases, incomplete medical notes (5 cases and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases. We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS: Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P0.05 between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05, although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION: After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.

  13. Education, marital status, and risk of hip fractures in older men and women: the CHANCES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetou, V; Orfanos, P; Feskanich, D; Michaëlsson, K; Pettersson-Kymmer, U; Ahmed, L A; Peasey, A; Wolk, A; Brenner, H; Bobak, M; Wilsgaard, T; Schöttker, B; Saum, K-U; Bellavia, A; Grodstein, F; Klinaki, E; Valanou, E; Papatesta, E-M; Boffetta, P; Trichopoulou, A

    2015-06-01

    The role of socioeconomic status in hip fracture incidence is unclear. In a diverse population of elderly, higher education was found to be associated with lower, whereas living alone, compared to being married/cohabiting, with higher hip fracture risk. Educational level and marital status may contribute to hip fracture risk. The evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and hip fracture incidence is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the potential association of education and marital status with hip fracture incidence in older individuals from Europe and USA. A total of 155,940 participants (79 % women) aged 60 years and older from seven cohorts were followed up accumulating 6456 incident hip fractures. Information on education and marital status was harmonized across cohorts. Hip fractures were ascertained through telephone interviews/questionnaires or through record linkage with registries. Associations were assessed through Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for several factors. Summary estimates were derived using random effects models. Individuals with higher education, compared to those with low education, had lower hip fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.95]. Respective HRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.82-1.13) for men and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.85) for women. Overall, individuals living alone, especially those aged 60-69 years, compared to those being married/cohabiting, tended to have a higher hip fracture risk (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.02-1.22). There was no suggestion for heterogeneity across cohorts (P heterogeneity > 0.05). The combined data from >150,000 individuals 60 years and older suggest that higher education may contribute to lower hip fracture risk. Furthermore, this risk may be higher among individuals living alone, especially among the age group 60-69 years, when compared to those being married/cohabiting.

  14. Impact of Helicobacter pylori Immunoglobulin G Levels and Atrophic Gastritis Status on Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeoka

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP infection is implicated in gastric and extra-gastric diseases. While gastritis-related chronic inflammation represents a known trigger of metabolic disturbances, whether metabolic syndrome (MetS is affected by gastritis status remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of HP-related gastritis on the risk of MetS.We retrospectively enrolled patients undergoing screening for MetS between 2014 and 2015. Investigations included HP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody assays to detect HP infection, and serum pepsinogen assays to evaluate atrophic gastritis status. The risk of MetS was evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses with two covariates: serum HP infection status (IgG levels and atrophic gastritis status (two criteria were applied; pepsinogen I/II ratio < 3 or both pepsinogen I levels ≤ 70 μg/L and pepsinogen I/II ratio < 3.Of 1,044 participants, 247 (23.7% were HP seropositive, and 62 (6.0% had MetS. HP seronegative and seropositive patients had similar risks of MetS. On the other hand, AG (defined in terms of serum PG I/II <3 was significant risk of MetS (OR of 2.52 [95% CI 1.05-7.52]. After stratification according to HP IgG concentration, patients with low HP infection status had the lowest MetS risk (defined as an odds ratio [OR] adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking and physical activity status. Taking this result as a reference, patients with negative, moderate, and high HP infection status had ORs (with 95% confidence intervals [CI] of 2.15 (1.06-4.16, 3.69 (1.12-16.7, and 4.05 (1.05-26.8.HP-associated gastritis represents a risk factor for MetS. Research should determine why low and not negative HP infection status is associated with the lowest MetS risk.

  15. Complications and their risk factors following hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Keng Soon; Lingaraj, K

    2013-08-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate various postoperative complications and their risk factors in hip fracture patients. METHODS. 207 female and 87 male consecutive patients (mean age, 78.1 years) who underwent surgical (n=242) or conservative (n=52) treatment for closed fractures of the femoral neck (n=157) or peritrochanter (n=137) were prospectively studied. The types of complication and outcome were recorded. The comorbidity status of the patients was categorised based on the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Complications and their associations with various risk factors and mortality were analysed. RESULTS. For all patients, the mean length of hospitalisation was 14.6 days. For the 242 patients who underwent surgical treatment after a mean of 3.6 days, 56.8% of them had at least one complication. Acute urinary retention (39.3%) and urinary tract infection (24.0%) were most common. Patients with ASA grade III or higher had 2.3 fold higher risk of developing complications than those with lower-grade comorbidity, whereas patients with delayed operation (>48 hours after presentation) had 1.8 fold higher risk of developing complications than those without delayed operation. Four patients died in hospital: 2 from myocardial infarction and 2 from upper gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSION. Complications after hip fracture surgery were common. Advanced age, high ASA status, and delay in surgery were associated with higher complication rates. Operations should be performed on medically fit patients as early as possible.

  16. Risk status for dropping out of developmental followup for very low birth weight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Catlett, A T; Thompson, R J; Johndrow, D A; Boshkoff, M R

    1993-01-01

    Not keeping scheduled visits for medical care is a major health care issue. Little research has addressed how the interaction of demographic and biomedical parameters with psychosocial processes has an impact on appointment keeping. Typical factors are stress of daily living, methods of coping, social support, and instrumental support (that is, tangible assistance). In this study, the authors examine the role of these parameters and processes in the risk status for dropping out of a developme...

  17. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  18. Marital status is a prognostic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, R; Volanti, P; Lo Coco, D; La Bella, V

    2017-12-01

    Several variables have been linked to a shorter survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), for example, female sex, older age, site of disease onset, rapid disease progression, and a relatively short diagnostic delay. With regard to marital status, previous studies suggested that living with a partner might be associated to a longer survival and a higher likelihood to proceed to tracheostomy. Therefore, to further strengthen this hypothesis, we investigated the role of marital status as a prognostic variable in a cohort of ALS patients. We performed a retrospective analysis on 501 consecutive ALS patients for which a complete disease's natural history and clinical/demographic data were available. At diagnosis, 409 patients (81.6%) were married or lived with a stable partner, whereas 92 patients (18.4%) were single/widowed/divorced. In our ALS cohort, being married was associated with a median longer survival (married, 35 months [24-50] vs unmarried, 27 months [18-42]; Pmarried and unmarried patients were significantly different in many clinical and demographic variables, including age at disease onset, gender, body mass index, and number of children. Cox regression analysis showed that age at onset, diagnostic delay, and marital status were independent predictors of survival. In unmarried patients, female sex was also significantly associated with shorter survival. Marital status is a prognostic factor in ALS, and it significantly affects survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Pryor

    Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.

  20. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  1. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  2. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  3. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  5. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors: a childhood perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources.

  7. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.

  8. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...

  9. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  10. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  12. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  13. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pdefinition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  15. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  16. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  17. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  19. Changes in risk factors during adolescence: implications for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Deković, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Hoeve, M.; van Amelsfort, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined to what extent the significance of both static and dynamic risk factors for recidivism changes in the course of adolescence. For this purpose, file and interview data of 1,396 juveniles charged with a criminal offense were analyzed. This study showed that the impact of almost all

  20. Nutritional Status and Non-Diet Associated Factors of Hospitalized Heart-Failure Elderly Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hosseini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status and identify the most significant MNA-items (Mini Nutritional assessment to accelerate the determination of nutritional risk of heart-failure in elderly patients. Methods and Materials: The present research was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical survey on hospitalized heart- failure elderly patients (n=225. The sampling method was enrolled nonrandomly. The MNA questionnaires (18 items were used for nutritional assessment. Results: Based on the MNA questionnaire, 9.8% of the elderly were malnourished, 80.9% were at risk of malnutrition and 9.3% were well-nourished. Conclusion: Regarding the factors related to nutritional status of heart failure elderly patient, it is indicated that bed sore, the ability of eating, self-view of nutritional status and self-rated health status relative to peers had significant relationship with the nutritional status according to MNA (P<0.005. Regarding high prevalence of vulnerable or malnourished hospitalized elderly, nutritional intervention is necessary.

  1. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  2. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS FOR PREMATURITY IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto de Melo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the risk factors associated with preterm birth through a cross-sectional study in 4,440 newborns. Examined the factors associated between maternal sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, education and occupation, obstetric (pregnancy and delivery type and number of prenatal visits and neonatal (sex, race/color, birth weight and Apgar. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression technique. Among the 480 (10.8% preterm risk factors were prevalent type of pregnancy (OR=6.48, number of prenatal visits (OR=2.09, Apgar score at first (OR=2.00 and fifth minute (OR=2.14 and birth weight (OR=31.8 indicating that these variables are directly associated with the occurrence of prematurity. The identification of risk factors should be the object of attention of health professionals and services to support effective measures to promote health to the general population; especially for women in fertile included some criteria of gestational risk.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of frailty among home care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Minna; Tiihonen, Miia; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Nykänen, Irma

    2017-11-17

    Frailty is a common problem among older people and it is associated with an increased risk of death and long-term institutional care. Early identification of frailty is necessary to prevent a further decline in the health status of home care clients. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among 75-year-old or older home care clients. The study participants were 75-year-old or older home care clients living in three cities in Eastern and Central Finland. Home care clients who had completed the abbreviated Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (aCGA) for frailty (n = 257) were included in the present study. Baseline data were obtained on functional status, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, self-rated health, ability to walk 400 m, nutritional status, drug use and comorbidities. Most of the home care clients (90%) were screened for frailty using the aCGA. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of malnutrition or malnutrition (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 1.56, 11.68) and a low level of education (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.23) were associated with frailty. Frailty is a prevalent problem among home care clients. The risk of malnutrition or malnourishment and a lower level of education increase the risk of frailty. Screening for frailty should be done to detect the most vulnerable older people for further intervention to prevent adverse health problems. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02214758 .

  4. Representing and Retrieving Patients' Falls Risk Factors and Risk for Falls among Adults in Acute Care through the Electronic Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Jann

    2013-01-01

    Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…

  5. Psychosocial risk factors and personality disorders in outpatient cardiology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2015-01-01

    Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  7. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  8. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  9. Risk factors for meningitis after transsphenoidal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, M. O.; de Marie, S.; van der Lely, A. J.; Singh, R.; van den Berge, J. H.; Poublon, R. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Lamberts, S. W.; de Herder, W. W.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate possible risk factors for meningitis, we retrospectively reviewed 228 transsphenoidal operations (in which a standard regimen of amoxicillin prophylaxis was used) for sellar pathology. The incidence of meningitis was 3.1% (seven of 228 cases). Cultures of preoperative specimens from the

  10. Risk factors in oil and gas lending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.; Kipp, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that with the increasing internationalization of the petroleum industry, lenders to the industry must understand and overcome several new credit risk factors. As a result, new financial products are now available to reserve-based borrowers. Traditional project financing now also may include futures hedging, swaps, and collar elements

  11. Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with oesophageal malignancy among Ethiopian patients: a case control study. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  12. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  13. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  14. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  15. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population.

  16. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  17. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis | Berriche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and ...

  18. Risk factors for falls of older citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, C.; Hekman, E. E. G.; Verkerke, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fall prevention is a major issue in the ageing society. This study provides an overview of all risk factors for falls of older citizens. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to retrieve studies of the past 25 years. All participants from the studies lived in the community or

  19. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  20. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  1. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  2. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing

  3. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  4. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In

  5. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from c...

  6. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex.We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics.Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants.Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  7. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Shaw, Stacey A; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Primbetova, Sholpan; Ma, Xin; Chang, Mingway; Ismayilova, Leyla; Hunt, Tim; West, Brooke; Wu, Elwin; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics. Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants. Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  8. [Risk factors for post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dois, Angelina; Uribe, Claudia; Villarroel, Luis; Contreras, Aixa

    2012-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a public health problem with high prevalence in Chile. Many factors are associated with PPD. To analyze the factors associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (SD) in women with low obstetric risk. Cross-sectional analytical study on a sample of 105 postpartum women with low obstetric risk assessed by the Edinburgh Depression Scale at the eighth week postpartum. A 37% prevalence of depressive symptoms was found. Univariate analysis showed that the perception of family functioning, overcrowding and number of siblings, were significantly associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. A multiple regression model only accepted family functioning as a predictor of depression. Perception of family functioning was the only variable that explained in part the presence of depressive symptoms in women with low obstetric risk.

  9. Oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merglova, Vlasta; Hecova, Hana; Stehlikova, Jaroslava; Chaloupka, Pavel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies. A case-control study of 142 pregnant women was conducted. The case group included 81 pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies, while 61 women with normal pregnancies served as controls. The following variables were recorded for each woman: age, general health status, DMF, CPITN, and PBI index, amounts of Streptococcus mutans in the saliva and dental treatment needs. The Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and chi-squared test were used for statistical analyses. Statistically significant differences were detected between the PBI indices and dental treatment needs of the two groups. Out of the entire study cohort, 77% of the women in the case group and 52% of the women in the control group required dental treatment. In this study, women with complications during pregnancy had severe gingivitis and needed more frequent dental treatment than those in the control group.

  10. Pathways from childhood intelligence and socioeconomic status to late-life cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Mõttus, René; Craig, Leone C A; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase marker of systemic inflammation and considered an established risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in old age. Previous studies have suggested that low childhood intelligence, lower socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood or in later life, unhealthy behaviors, poor wellbeing, and high body mass index (BMI) are associated with inflammation. Life course models that simultaneously incorporate all these risk factors can explain how CVD risks accumulate over time, from childhood to old age. Using the data from 1,091 Scottish adults (Lothian Birth Cohort Study, 1936), a path model was constructed to predict CRP at age 70 from concurrent health behaviors, self-perceived quality of life, and BMI and adulthood SES as mediating variables, and from parental SES and childhood intelligence as distal risk factors. A well-fitting path model (CFI = .92, SRMR = .05) demonstrated significant indirect effects from childhood intelligence and parental social class to inflammation via BMI, health behaviors and quality of life (all ps intelligence, unhealthy behaviors, and higher BMI were also direct predictors of CRP. The life course model illustrated how CVD risks may accumulate over time, beginning in childhood and being both direct and transmitted indirectly via low adult SES, unhealthy behaviors, impaired quality of life, and high BMI. Knowledge on the childhood risk factors and their pathways to poor health can be used to identify high-risk individuals for more intensive and tailored behavior change interventions, and to develop effective public health policies.

  11. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  12. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  13. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  14. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  15. Behavior Risk Factors Among Russian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.

  16. Outcome of acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome according to health insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, Ali; Anand, Ankit; Abdelfatah, Mohamed; Kanaan, Zeyad; Hammonds, Tracy; Haller, Nairmeen; Cherry, Mohamad

    2014-12-01

    Age, cytogenetic status, and molecular features are the most important prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients with AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) according to insurance status. A retrospective chart review was performed, covering all patients with AML and high-risk MDS evaluated and treated at Akron General Medical Center between 2002 and 2012. A Cox regression model was analyzed to account for survival over time, adjusted for insurance type, while controlling for patient age at diagnosis and patient risk of mortality. A total of 130 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) were identified. Insurance information was available for 97 patients enrolled in the study; 3 were excluded because of self-pay status. Cox regression analysis with insurance type as the predictor found that overall survival declines over time and that the rate of decline may be influenced by insurance type (χ(2)(2) = 6.4; P = .044). The likelihood of survival in patients with Medicaid or Medicare without supplemental insurance was .552 (95% CI, .338-.903; P = .018) times the likelihood in patients who had Medicare with supplemental insurance. To explain the difference, variables of age, gender, and risk of mortality were added to the model. Age and risk of mortality were found to be significant predictors of survival. The addition of insurance type to the model did not significantly contribute (χ(2)(3) = 3.83; P = .147). No significant difference in overall survival was observed when patients with AML or high-risk MDS were analyzed according to their health insurance status. The overall survival was low in this study compared with the national average. Early referral to a specialized center or possible clinical trial enrollment may be a good alternative to improve outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Muscle and bone health as a risk factor of fall among the elderly. An approach to identify high-risk fallers by risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    Fall-induced hip fracture is one of the major causes rendering the elderly to be in a low ADL or bed-ridden status. Fall is not only the cause for fractures, but it lowers elderly peoples'ADL. History of fall, age, decline of motor function, orthostatic hypotension, balance deficit, dementia, drug and environmental factors were raised as possible risk factor for falls. We created a fall predicting score which consist of 21 risk factors and a history of falls. We found that the score is useful to identify high-risk fallers. It would be necessary to identify high-risk fallers early and give an appropriate individual approach.

  18. Risk of seizures and status epilepticus in older patients with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Rubinos, Clio; Kummer, Benjamin R; Parikh, Neal S; Chen, Monica; Chatterjee, Abhinaba; Reynolds, Alexandra; Merkler, Alexander E; Claassen, Jan; Kamel, Hooman

    2018-06-06

    Seizures can be provoked by systemic diseases associated with metabolic derangements, but the association between liver disease and seizures remains unclear. We performed a retrospective cohort study using inpatient and outpatient claims between 2008 and 2015 from a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries. The primary exposure variable was cirrhosis, and the secondary exposure was mild, noncirrhotic liver disease. The primary outcome was seizure, and the secondary outcome was status epilepticus. Diagnoses were ascertained using validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes. Survival statistics were used to calculate incidence rates, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between exposures and outcomes while adjusting for seizure risk factors. Among 1 782 402 beneficiaries, we identified 10 393 (0.6%) beneficiaries with cirrhosis and 19 557 (1.1%) with mild, noncirrhotic liver disease. Individuals with liver disease were older and had more seizure risk factors than those without liver disease. Over 4.6 ± 2.2 years of follow-up, 49 843 (2.8%) individuals were diagnosed with seizures and 25 patients (0.001%) were diagnosed with status epilepticus. Cirrhosis was not associated with seizures (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.3), but there was an association with status epilepticus (HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8). Mild liver disease was not associated with a higher risk of seizures (HR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6-0.9) or status epilepticus (HR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.5). In a large, population-based cohort, we found an association between cirrhosis and status epilepticus, but no overall association between liver disease and seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Tracheostomy risk factors and outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Stephen S; Wilson, Laura D; McKenna, John W; Leath, Taylor C; Song, Yanna; Davidson, Mario A; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Patel, Mayur B

    2016-01-01

    To determine risk factors associated with tracheostomy placement after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent outcomes among those who did and did not receive a tracheostomy. This retrospective cohort study compared adult trauma patients with severe TBI (n = 583) who did and did not receive tracheostomy. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed the associations between age, sex, race, insurance status, admission GCS, AIS (Head, Face, Chest) and tracheostomy placement. Ordinal logistic regression models assessed tracheostomy's influence on ventilator days and ICU LOS. To limit immortal time bias, Cox proportional hazards models assessed mortality at 1, 3 and 12-months. In this multivariable model, younger age and private insurance were associated with increased probability of tracheostomy. AIS, ISS, GCS, race and sex were not risk factors for tracheostomy placement. Age showed a non-linear relationship with tracheostomy placement; likelihood peaked in the fourth decade and declined with age. Compared to uninsured patients, privately insured patients had an increased probability of receiving a tracheostomy (OR = 1.89 [95% CI = 1.09-3.23]). Mortality was higher in those without tracheostomy placement (HR = 4.92 [95% CI = 3.49-6.93]). Abbreviated injury scale-Head was an independent factor for time to death (HR = 2.53 [95% CI = 2.00-3.19]), but age, gender and insurance were not. Age and insurance status are independently associated with tracheostomy placement, but not with mortality after severe TBI. Tracheostomy placement is associated with increased survival after severe TBI.

  20. Differences in modifiable feeding factors by overweight status in Latino infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Diana; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Masho, Saba W

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevalence remains disproportionally high for young American children from low-socioeconomic and ethnic minorities. Modifiable feeding factors may lead to infant overfeeding and an increased risk for obesity. This study explored differences in modifiable feeding factors by overweight status (>85% weight-for-length) in the first year of life of Latino infants. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional pilot study of 62 low-income immigrant Latina mothers and their infants (ages 4-12 months). Measures included maternal feeding practices, feeding pattern, infant's 24-hour dietary recall, and maternal perception of infant weight. Chi-square and t-tests were used for comparisons between healthy weight and overweight infants. Birth weight z-scores did not significantly differ by weight status. Overweight status was not associated with maternal feeding practices, feeding pattern or infant dietary intake. A trend toward significance was seen in the maternal perception of infant weight. Overweight infants were similar to healthy weight infants in their birth weight z-scores and supports the premise that modifiable feeding factors are in play and thus targeted early feeding interventions may prove effective in decreasing obesity risk in Latinos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Awareness of Individual Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Self-Perception of Cardiovascular Risk in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques; Pham, Tai; Karam, Nicole; Amar, Laurence; Chicheportiche-Ayache, Corinne; Menasché, Philippe; Desnos, Michel; Dardel, Paul; Weill, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) self-perception by women may be inaccurate. A questionnaire was completed anonymously Online by women who self-reported their personal CVRF levels including age, weight, contraceptive use, menopausal status, smoking, diet and physical activities. Self-perceived risk was matched to actual cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score. Among 5,240 young and middle-aged women with a high educational level, knowledge of personal CVRFs increased with age, from 51-90% for blood pressure (BP), 22-45% for blood glucose and 15-47% for blood cholesterol levels, between 30 and 65 years, respectively. This knowledge was lower for smoking compared with nonsmoking women: 62.5% vs. 74.5% for BP (P self-perception of individual risk are inaccurate in women. Educational interventions should be emphasized. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking among young urban Malaysian women and its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Rosliza A; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to determine the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with smoking among young urban women. A cross-sectional study through self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female students enrolled in private higher learning institutions in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, between July and October 2005. Analysis on 408 respondents showed that current smoker prevalence rate was 18.6%. Adjusted analyses showed significant association between smoking and individual factors, which are the importance of slim image, average monthly allowance, and car ownership. For family factors, analyses showed significant association between smoking and parental marital status and smoking status of male siblings. Strong associations were seen between female smoking and environmental factors, such as having more smoker friends, having smokers as best friends, keeping cigarette-brand items, being offered free cigarette, and perceiving female smoking as normal. The identified risk factors could be used to develop more effective prevention programs to overcome smoking among young urban women.

  3. Health Behaviors and Health Status of At-Risk Latino Students for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T; Santos, Silvia; Reynosa, Astrid

    This research study examined the behavioral lifestyle patterns and health status of at-risk Latino college students for future diabetes onset in relation to their age, gender, and acculturation status. Participants were 156 Latino (34% male and 66% female) university students who had a first and/or second degree relative afflicted with diabetes. Findings indicated that Latino students exhibit similar lifestyle patterns in terms of dietary intake, physical activity, and drinking and smoking behaviors observed in the general and college population that have been linked to obesity-a particularly problematic risk factor among those who already have a genetic predisposition for diabetes. The reported findings are of importance for the development of culturally-relevant treatment interventions targeting young Latinos in college.

  4. Risk Factors for Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Emily; Marcotte, Michael; Mehlman, Charles; Lippert, William; Huang, Bin; Paulson, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations. The odds of BPBI were 2.5 times higher when oxytocin was used and 3.7 times higher when tachysystole occurred. The odds of BPBI injury are increased when tachysystole and oxytocin occur during the mother’s labor. Logistic regression identified a higher risk for BPBI when more than three of the following variables (>30 lbs gained during the pregnancy, stage 2 labor >61.5 min, mother’s age >26.4 years, tachysystole, or fetal malpresentation) were present in any combination. PMID:29596309

  5. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  6. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  7. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  8. Risk Factors for Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Louden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations. The odds of BPBI were 2.5 times higher when oxytocin was used and 3.7 times higher when tachysystole occurred. The odds of BPBI injury are increased when tachysystole and oxytocin occur during the mother’s labor. Logistic regression identified a higher risk for BPBI when more than three of the following variables (>30 lbs gained during the pregnancy, stage 2 labor >61.5 min, mother’s age >26.4 years, tachysystole, or fetal malpresentation were present in any combination.

  9. [Influencing factors of reproduction status of patients undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang-hui; Zhang, Song-ying; Li, Bai-jia; Wei, Wei; Huang, Dong; Lin, Xiao-na; Lou, Hong-ying

    2013-09-17

    To explore the influencing factors of reproduction status in women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). A total of 278 LM patients were recruited.We retrospectively reviewed the reproduction status of 87 pregnant cases after LM. The correlations of their pregnancy outcomes and such clinical profiles as age, operative techniques, biological characteristics of fibroids (number, type, size and location) were analyzed.No uterine rupture occurred during the gestation period. None of them switched to open surgery due to laparoscopic difficulties. However, one patient had a laparoscopic suture for secondary bleeding of uterine incision. At 3 months post-operation, sonography showed no heterogeneous echo, effusion and hematoma in uterine incision.Incision through uterine cavity occurred intraoperatively in 8 cases, but no intrauterine adhesion was found on hysteroscopy 3 months later. And 87 women became pregnant and the postoperative fertilization time was from 2 months to 5 years. Age influenced the postoperative pregnancy rate.Other factors such as location, number and size of fibroid had no impact on fertility. For achieving a high conception rate and guaranteeing the safety of pregnant women, a clinician should select reasonable surgical approaches, perform accurate anatomical restoration, apply strict hemostasis and choose a right time of conception.

  10. Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in India. Rural area constitutes 80% of India. Hence it is essential to understand the epidemiology for appropriate interventions. Objectives: to identify risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural Puducherry. Methodology: Cross sectional study in two villages of Puducherry, India. 1403 subjects above 25 years from 2 villages. Study measured demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, physical activity, family history of Diabetes Mellitus, smoking and alcohol consumption. Fasting blood glucose was measured for study subjects. Further, those with >126 mg/dl were subjected for Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. Receiver Operating characteristic Curve was plotted to find out cut off for Diabetic Risk Score. Findings: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM was 5.8%. The response rate was (88%. In univariate analysis age, occupation, Socio Economic Status, BMI, physical activity, family history were significant for DM. In multivariate analysis age, BMI, family history of diabetes and occupation were significant for type 2 DM. The ‘diabetes risk score’ generated by the study using age, BMI and family history of DM, had specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of 54%, 77% and 76.2% respectively. The area under curve for scoring system was 0.784 (<0.05. Conclusions: Identified risk factors are useful for early diagnosis by using ‘diabetes risk score’ – thus uncovering the iceberg of disease.

  11. Risk factors for interpersonal conflicts at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raeve, Lore; Jansen, Nicole Wh; van den Brandt, Piet A; Vasse, Rineke M; Kant, Ijmert

    2008-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Longitudinal data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on "fatigue at work" (N=9241) were used. After the respondents who reported an interpersonal conflict at baseline were excluded, logistic regression analyses were used to determine the role of several work-related risk factors at baseline in the onset of a conflict with coworkers or supervisors after 1 year of follow-up. Higher psychological job demands, higher levels of role ambiguity, the presence of physical demands, higher musculoskeletal demands, a poorer physical work environment, shift work, overtime, and higher levels of job insecurity significantly predicted the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of coworker and supervisor social support, more autonomy concerning the terms of employment, good overall job satisfaction, monetary gratification, and esteem reward significantly protected against the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of decision latitude and more career opportunities also significantly protected against the onset of a supervisor conflict. Several factors in the work environment were related to the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Given the rather serious consequences of interpersonal conflicts at work with respect to health and well-being, the observed risk factors can serve as a starting point for effective prevention and intervention strategies in the workplace.

  12. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  13. Double jeopardy: interaction effects of marital and poverty status on the risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K R; Waitzman, N J

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis that marital and poverty status interact in their effects on mortality risks beyond their main effects. This study examines the epidemiological bases for applying an additive rather than a multiplicative specification when testing for interaction between two discrete risk factors. We specifically predict that risks associated with being nonmarried and with being poor interact to produce mortality risks that are greater than each risk acting independently. The analysis is based on men and women who were ages 25-74 during the 1971-1975 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (NHANES I) and who were traced successfully in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-Up Study in 1982-1984. Overall, being both poor and nonmarried places nonelderly (ages 25-64) men, but not women, at risk of mortality greater than that expected from the main effects. This study shows that for all-cause mortality, marital and poverty status interact for men but less so for women; these findings exist when interaction is assessed with either a multiplicative or an additive standard. This difference is most pronounced for poor, widowed men and (to a lesser degree) poor, divorced men. For violent/accidental deaths among men, the interaction effects are large on the basis of an additive model. Weak main and interaction effects were detected for the elderly (age 65+).

  14. Recurrent Shoulder Dystocia: Risk Factors and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurewitsch Allen, Edith D

    2016-12-01

    A prior history of delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia confers a 6-fold to nearly 30-fold increased risk of shoulder dystocia recurrence in a subsequent vaginal delivery, with most reported rates between 12% and 17%. Whereas prevention of shoulder dystocia in the general population is neither feasible nor cost-effective, directing intervention efforts at the particular subgroup of women with a prior history of shoulder dystocia has merit. Potentially modifiable risk factors and individualized management strategies that may reduce shoulder dystocia recurrence and its associated significant morbidities are reviewed.

  15. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    was also found among adolescents who had psychiatric disorder or a physical handicap, those who had been sentenced, were addicted to drugs, or had unstable education and unemployment records. A common feature of these significant risk factors seemed to be stigmatisation or social exclusion......This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  16. Evaluation of risk factors for vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Jin; Lim, Na Ri; Park, Hyo Jung; Yang, Jae Wook; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyunga; In, Yong Won; Lee, Young Mee

    2018-05-09

    Background Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic of choice for the treatment of serious infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. However, vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity (VAN) often limits its use. Previous data suggested a few risk factors of VAN, including higher mean vancomycin trough level, higher daily doses, old age, long duration of vancomycin therapy, and concomitant nephrotoxins. Objective To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of VAN and determine whether higher vancomycin trough concentrations were associated with a greater risk for VAN. Settings A retrospective, observational, single-center study at the 1960-bed university-affiliated tertiary care hospital (Samsung Medical Center), Seoul, Korea. Method A retrospective analysis of adult patients who received vancomycin parenterally in a tertiary care medical center from March 1, 2013 to June 30, 2013 was performed. We excluded patients with a baseline serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL and those who had a history of end-stage renal disease and dialysis at baseline. The clinical characteristics were compared between patients with nephrotoxicity and those without nephrotoxicity to identify the risk factors associated with VAN. Main outcome measure Incidence of VAN and VAN-associated risk factors were analyzed. Results Of the 315 vancomycin-treated patients, nephrotoxicity occurred in 15.2% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, higher vancomycin trough concentrations of > 20 mg∕L (OR 9.57, 95% CI 2.49-36.83, p < 0.01) and intensive care unit (ICU) residence (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.41-5.82, p < 0.01) were independently associated with VAN. Conclusion Our findings suggest that higher vancomycin trough levels and ICU residence might be associated with a greater risk for VAN. More careful monitoring of vancomycin serum trough levels and patient status might facilitate the timely prevention of VAN.

  17. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors and primary selection into shift work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Tüchsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences between future shift workers and future day workers as regards cardiovascular risk factors before they began different work schedules and the differences that remained after control for sociodemographic factors and general self-efficacy. METHODS......: In the unadjusted analyses, baseline obesity was associated with fixed evening work at follow-up. Minimal or light-to-moderate leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decrease in the odds ratio (OR) for two or three shifts including night work. Smoking status was associated with fixed evening work......, fixed night work, and two- or three- shift work including night work. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and general self-efficacy, smoking was prospectively associated with fixed evening work [OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.02] and fixed night work (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1...

  19. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina

    2014-01-01

    with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: There were 3,703 cases......OBJECTIVE: The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress...... at work, defined as "job strain," is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain...

  20. Risk management with regard to the effect of human factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components in today's market is a party decision-making under risk and uncertainty. The first step in making such decisions - to adequately process the information for estimating the future value of assets and the interests of investors probabilities of each particular scenario. The next step is to choose the alternative that has the greatest utility for the investor. Each of these steps is associated with numerous difficulties, the roots of which stem from the specificity of human psychology. The article notes that an integral part of professional risk management is to identify the nature of the object of management in the sphere of economy. Since the domestic theory of risk management is being formed-tion, the problem of a clear comprehensive definition of “risk” becomes now particularly relevant-ness. The article deals with along with economic forecasts of the risks and the human factor in decision-tions solutions. Along with economic forecasts, the report focuses on psychological problems and attempts to take into account the human factor in decision-making at the forecast of risks arising in the company. The important parameters are the status and position of the person in the society, as well as its social well-being. Analysis Meto-ing risk assessment concluded that the need to develop new models and methods of risk management, taking into account the four-lovecheskogo factor. Economic psychology and its applications have developed into a special branch of economic knowledge - the so-called behavioral economics, which surely develops a wide range of economic issues - from the actual theory of individual behavior to the problems of public choice and the financial economy. The most interesting item is the fact that the concept of “risk” is considered from different points of view - as the economist-mathematician with the position, and a psychologist.

  1. Anesthetic drugs in status epilepticus: Risk or rescue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Stephan; Fuhr, Peter; Kaplan, Peter W.; Rüegg, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the risks of continuously administered IV anesthetic drugs (IVADs) on the outcome of adult patients with status epilepticus (SE). Methods: All intensive care unit patients with SE from 2005 to 2011 at a tertiary academic medical care center were included. Relative risks were calculated for the primary outcome measures of seizure control, Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge, and death. Poisson regression models were used to control for possible confounders and to assess effect modification. Results: Of 171 patients, 37% were treated with IVADs. Mortality was 18%. Patients with anesthetic drugs had more infections during SE (43% vs 11%; p < 0.0001) and a 2.9-fold relative risk for death (2.88; 95% confidence interval 1.45–5.73), independent of possible confounders (i.e., duration and severity of SE, nonanesthetic third-line antiepileptic drugs, and critical medical conditions) and without significant effect modification by different grades of SE severity and etiologies. As IVADs were used after first- and second-line drugs failed, there was a correlation between treatment-refractory SE and the use of IVADs, leading to insignificant results regarding the risk of IVADs and outcome after additional adjustment for refractory SE. Conclusion: Our findings heighten awareness regarding adverse effects of IVADs. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further clarify the association of IVADs with outcome in patients with SE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that patients with SE receiving IVADs have a higher proportion of infection and an increased risk of death as compared to patients not receiving IVADs. PMID:24319039

  2. 25(OHD Status of Elite Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury Relative to Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Pritchett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the potential negative impact of low Vitamin D status on performance-related factors and the higher risk of low Vitamin D status in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI population, research is warranted to determine whether elite athletes with SCI have sufficient 25(OHD levels. The purposes of this study were to examine: (1 the seasonal proportion of vitamin D insufficiency among elite athletes with SCI; and (2 to determine whether lifestyle factors, SCI lesion level, and muscle performance/function are related to vitamin D status in athletes with SCI. Methods: Thirty-nine members of the Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association, and the US Olympic Committee Paralympic program from outdoor and indoor sports were recruited for this study. Dietary and lifestyle factors, and serum 25(OHD concentrations were assessed during the autumn (October and winter (February/March. An independent t-test was used to assess differences in 25(OHD status among seasons, and indoor and outdoor sports in the autumn and winter, respectively. Results: Mean ± SD serum 25(OHD concentration was 69.6 ± 19.7 nmol/L (range from 30 to 107.3 nmol/L and 67.4 ± 25.5 nmol/L (range from 20 to 117.3 nmol/Lin the autumn and winter, respectively. In the autumn, 15.4% of participants were considered vitamin D deficient (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L whereas 51.3% had 25(OHD concentrations that would be considered insufficient (<80 nmol/L. In the winter, 15.4% were deficient while 41% of all participants were considered vitamin D insufficient. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with SCI have insufficient (41%–51% and deficient (15.4% 25(OHD status in the autumn and winter. Furthermore, a seasonal decline in vitamin D status was not observed in the current study.

  3. Postoperative mortality after inpatient surgery: Incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Anne T Lunney1, Philip G Boysen1, Peter Rock2, Edward A Norfleet11Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: This study determined the incidence of and identified risk factors for 48 hour (h and 30 day (d postoperative mortality after inpatient operations.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Anesthesiology’s Quality Indicator database as the main data source. The database was queried for data related to the surgical procedure, anesthetic care, perioperative adverse events, and birth/death/operation dates. The 48 h and 30 d cumulative incidence of postoperative mortality was calculated and data were analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test and generalized estimating equations.Results: The 48 h and 30 d incidence of postoperative mortality was 0.57% and 2.1%, respectively. Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores, extremes of age, emergencies, perioperative adverse events and postoperative Intensive Care Unit admission were identified as risk factors. The use of monitored anesthesia care or general anesthesia versus regional or combined anesthesia was a risk factor for 30 d postoperative mortality only. Time under anesthesia care, perioperative hypothermia, trauma, deliberate hypotension and invasive monitoring via arterial, pulmonary artery or cardiovascular catheters were not identified as risk factors.Conclusions: Our findings can be used to track postoperative mortality rates and to test preventative interventions at our institution and elsewhere.Keywords: postoperative mortality, risk factors, operations, anesthesia, inpatient surgery

  4. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.

  5. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.

  6. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  7. Factors Affecting Herd Status for Bovine Tuberculosis in Dairy Cattle in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhla, Tawatchai; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Alvarez, Julio; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Phornwisetsirikun, Somphorn; Sankwan, Jamnong; Srijun, Mongkol; Wells, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this case-control study was to identify farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in dairy cows in northern Thailand. Spatial analysis was performed to identify geographical clustering of case-farms located in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces in northern Thailand. To identify management factors affecting bTB status, a matched case-control study was conducted with 20 case-farms and 38 control-farms. Case-farms were dairy farms with at least single intradermal tuberculin test- (SIT-) reactor(s) in the farms during 2011 to 2015. Control-farms were dairy farms with no SIT-reactors in the same period and located within 5 km from case-farms. Questionnaires were administered for data collection with questions based on epidemiological plausibility and characteristics of the local livestock industry. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. A significant geographic cluster was identified only in Chiang Mai province (p < 0.05). The risk factor associated with presence of SIT-reactors in dairy herds located in this region was purchasing dairy cows from dealers (OR = 5.85, 95% CI = 1.66–20.58, and p = 0.006). From this study, it was concluded that geographic clustering was identified for dairy farms with SIT-reactors in these provinces, and the cattle movements through cattle dealers increased the risks for SIT-reactor farm status. PMID:28553557

  8. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  9. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares Fernandez, Tomasa Maria; Correa Lozano, Zoila; Ibarra Fernandez de la Vega, Enrique Jose; Bonet Gorbea Mariano

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  10. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Berriche; Amrouche Chiraz; Rym Ben Othman; Hamdi Souheila; Ines Lahmer; Chaabani Wafa; Imen Sebai; Haifa Sfar; Feten Mahjoub; Henda Jamoussi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and witnesses. Methods: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including 60 postmenopausal women and screening for osteoporosis by a bone densitometry, recruited the outp...

  11. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia da Silva Leroy; Adélia Lúcio; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI) and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls) with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine...

  12. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Cyberbullying in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sticca, Fabio; Ruggieri, Sabrina; Alsaker, Françoise; Perren, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying has emerged as a new form of antisocial behaviour in the context of online communication over the last decade. The present study investigates potential longitudinal risk factors for cyberbullying. A total of 835 Swiss seventh graders participated in a short-term longitudinal study (two assessments 6 months apart). Students reported on the frequency of cyberbullying, traditional bullying, rule-breaking behaviour, cybervictimisation, traditional victimisation, and frequency of onl...

  13. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular nondepolarizing agents, sex factors, Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Additional studies were identified from article reference lists. Relevant, peer-reviewed original research articles, case series and reviews were considered for review. Current epidemiological studies on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have used different definitions for ADR-related terminology, often do not differentiate immunologically and non-immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivity, study different study populations (different ethnicities, inpatients or outpatients, adults or children), utilize different methodologies (spontaneous vs. non-spontaneous reporting, cohort vs. case-control studies), different methods of assessing drug imputability and different methods of data analyses. Potentially life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. HLA associations for SCAR associated with allopurinol, carbamazepine and abacavir have been reported with the potential for clinical use in screening prior to prescription. Identification of risk factors for drug allergy and appropriate genetic screening of at-risk ethnic groups may improve the outcomes of drug-specific SCAR. Research and collaboration are necessary for the generation of clinically-relevant, translational pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacogenomic knowledge, and success of health outcomes research and policies on drug allergies. © 2011 The Authors

  14. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  15. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Peery

    Full Text Available Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids.We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects' colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex.The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86. Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98. We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62-1.40. Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03. Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06.Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids.

  16. Risk Factors for Hemorrhoids on Screening Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Anne F; Sandler, Robert S; Galanko, Joseph A; Bresalier, Robert S; Figueiredo, Jane C; Ahnen, Dennis J; Barry, Elizabeth L; Baron, John A

    2015-01-01

    Constipation, a low fiber diet, sedentary lifestyle and gravidity are commonly assumed to increase the risk of hemorrhoids. However, evidence regarding these factors is limited. We examined the association between commonly cited risk factors and the prevalence of hemorrhoids. We performed a cross sectional study of participants who underwent a colonoscopy in a colorectal adenoma prevention trial and who had a detailed assessment of bowel habits, diet and activity. The presence of hemorrhoids was extracted from the subjects' colonoscopy reports. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals while adjusting for age and sex. The study included 2,813 participants. Of these, 1,074 had hemorrhoids recorded. Constipation was associated with an increased prevalence of hemorrhoids (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.11, 1.86). Of the fiber subtypes, high grain fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98). We found no association when comparing gravid and nulligravida women (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.62-1.40). Sedentary behavior was associated with a reduced risk (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98), but not physical activity (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.66-1.03). Neither being overweight nor obese was associated with the presence of hemorrhoids (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.09 and OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.06). Constipation is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhoids. Gravidity and physical activity do not appear to be associated. High grain fiber intake and sedentary behavior are associated with a decreased risk of hemorrhoids.

  17. Risk factors for fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Fourrier, A; Commenges, D; Dartigues, J F

    1998-07-01

    We report the results of a 5-year prospective cohort study of risk factors for fractures, including drinking fluoridated water, in a cohort of 3,216 men and women aged 65 years and older. We studied risk factors for hip fracture and fractures at other locations separately. We found a higher risk of hip fractures for subjects exposed to fluorine concentrations over 0.11 mg per liter but without a dose-effect relation (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25 for a concentration of 0.11-0.25 mg per liter; OR = 2.43 for > or = 0.25 mg per liter]. For higher thresholds (0.7 and 1 mg per liter), however, the OR was less than 1. We found no association between fluorine and non-hip fractures. Non-hip fractures were associated with polymedication rather than with specific drug use, whereas fracture was associated with polymedication and use of anxiolytic and antidepressive drugs. Subjects drinking spirits every day were more likely to have hip fractures. Tobacco consumption increased the risk for non-hip fractures.

  18. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  19. Fall risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P; Hildebrand, K

    2000-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.

  20. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  1. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  2. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  3. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in

  4. Modifiable risk factors for prescription medicine sharing behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Kebede; Aspden, Trudi; McNeill, Rob; Sheridan, Janie

    2018-04-06

    Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as giving one's own medicine to someone else (lending) or taking someone else's medicine (borrowing). Medicines can be shared for non-medical purposes (recreational sharing or drug abuse) or for their intended therapeutic benefits (non-recreational sharing, e.g. sharing antibiotics to self-treat); the latter is the focus of this research. Limited research evidence is available about modifiable risk factors for non-recreational medicine sharing and addressing this issue was the main aim of this research. An online, cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population comprised a convenience sample of 233 adults, who were primarily recruited through patient support groups across New Zealand. Principal component analysis was used to develop scales assessing attitudes toward medicine lending and borrowing. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between explanatory (demographics, medical conditions, and attitudes towards medicine sharing) and outcome (medicine sharing behaviours) variables. Half of the study participants reported ever borrowing/lending medicines, and approximately a third of participants reported borrowing/lending in the past year. Modifiable risk factors associated with an increased risk of medicine borrowing behaviour were having more difficulty with accessing medicine ('access-related issue'), stronger 'emotional beliefs about borrowing', and greater 'concern about missing doses.' Greater 'concern for the wellbeing of others' and stronger 'beliefs about the benefits and safety of lending' were associated with an increased risk of medicine lending behaviour. Those with a higher 'perceived risk of harm' were less likely to borrow or lend medicines. This research expands the current knowledge of medicine sharing by examining underlying behavioural factors which predict sharing behaviours and that can be modified by interventions. This research suggests using multifaceted

  5. Analysis of the status and influence factors of vision development in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Qiang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the visual acuity, refraction and influence factors of preschool children in some nurseries in Nanjing. METHODS: Children from 4 to 6 years old in Nanjing attended the visual acuity examination, and filled in factors questionnaire. The results were analyzed.RESULTS:Visual acuity at P5 was 0.4 of 4 years, 0.5 of 5 years, and 0.6 of 6 years. Refraction, gestational age, birth weight, closely using eyes, daily watching television time, daily outdoor activity time, picky eaters situation, chewing situation, parents diopter, home lighting status were associated with vision disorders. Factors score at P5 is 5.CONCLUSION: The visual acuity less than P5 at each ages was abnormal vision. Child whose factors score of less than 5 had high risk of abnormal vision, and need to pay close attention to visual conditions.

  6. Atopy risk factors at birth and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Erica; Garcia, Clécia Aparecida; Bettiol, Heloísa; Caldeira, Roseane Durães; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Arruda, Luiza Karla; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between atopy and variables such as weight, length, and socioeconomic level at birth and in young adulthood. A total of 2,063 subjects were investigated in a prospective birth cohort study of individuals born in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, in 1978/1979, and examined at the age of 23-25 years. Skin prick tests (SPT) for eight common allergens in Brazil were performed. Subjects with a wheal reaction ≥ 3 mm to one or more of the eight allergens tested were considered to be atopic. We used the log-binomial model (generalized linear model) in order to assess the association between atopy and birth or adult variables. The prevalence of positive SPT was 47.6%. Male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy (relative risk [RR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.07-1.30). Low level of schooling was a protective factor against atopy, with a RR = 0.74; 95%CI 0.62-0.89. Living with a smoker in childhood was also associated with lower risk of atopy (RR = 0.87; 95%CI 0.79-0.96). Birth weight, length and order, maternal age, and intrauterine growth restriction were not associated with positive SPT. This study showed that male gender was associated with an increased risk of atopy. Low socioeconomic status, assessed by low level of schooling, was a protective factor against atopy. These data agree with the hygiene hypothesis.

  7. Smoking overrules many other risk factors for small for gestational age birth in less educated mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Gerrit; van Eijsden, Manon; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is convincing evidence for the association between small for gestational age (SGA) and socioeconomic status (SES), it is not known to what extent explanatory factors contribute to this association. To examine to what extent risk factors could explain educational inequalities in SGA.

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Suicidal Ideation: A Multicampus, National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.

    2011-01-01

    Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…

  9. Healthy lifestyle status, antihypertensive treatment and the risk of heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2013-11-01

    To compare the association between antihypertensive drug treatment and heart failure (HF) risk with the association between engaging in a healthy lifestyle and HF risk. We prospectively investigated the single and joint associations of lifestyle factors and awareness, treatment, blood pressure control status with HF risk among 38 075 Finns, who were 25-74 years old and free of HF at baseline. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle was associated with an decreased risk of HF. Compared with normotensive people, hypertensive patients with and without antihypertensive treatment had a higher risk of HF. Hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs but did not engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF [HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.21] than hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drugs but engaged in a healthy lifestyle. In addition, compared with hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs and engaged in a healthy lifestyle, hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drug or engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24-1.95). The present study demonstrates that HF risk was lower in hypertensive patients who engaged in a healthy lifestyle but higher in hypertensive people using antihypertensive drug treatment.

  10. Using cognitive status to predict crash risk: blazing new trails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staplin, Loren; Gish, Kenneth W; Sifrit, Kathy J

    2014-02-01

    A computer-based version of an established neuropsychological paper-and-pencil assessment tool, the Trail-Making Test, was applied with approximately 700 drivers aged 70 years and older in offices of the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. This was a volunteer sample that received a small compensation for study participation, with an assurance that their license status would not be affected by the results. Analyses revealed that the study sample was representative of Maryland older drivers with respect to age and indices of prior driving safety. The relationship between drivers' scores on the Trail-Making Test and prospective crash experience was analyzed using a new outcome measure that explicitly takes into account error responses as well as correct responses, the error-compensated completion time. For the only reliable predictor of crash risk, Trail-Making Test Part B, this measure demonstrated a modest gain in specificity and was a more significant predictor of future safety risk than the simple time-to-completion measure. Improved specificity and the potential for autonomous test administration are particular advantages of this measure for use with large populations, in settings such as health care or driver licensing. © 2013.

  11. Climate Change Risk Perception in Taiwan: Correlation with Individual and Societal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Han, Ziqiang

    2018-01-08

    This study differentiates the risk perception and influencing factors of climate change along the dimensions of global severity and personal threat. Using the 2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSGS) data (N = 2001) as a representative sample of adults from Taiwan, we investigated the influencing factors of the risk perceptions of climate change in these two dimensions (global severity and personal threat). Logistic regression models were used to examine the correlations of individual factors (gender, age, education, climate-related disaster experience and risk awareness, marital status, employment status, household income, and perceived social status) and societal factors (religion, organizational embeddedness, and political affiliations) with the above two dimensions. The results demonstrate that climate-related disaster experience has no significant impact on either the perception of global severity or the perception of personal impact. However, climate-related risk awareness (regarding typhoons, in particular) is positively associated with both dimensions of the perceived risks of climate change. With higher education, individuals are more concerned about global severity than personal threat. Regarding societal factors, the supporters of political parties have higher risk perceptions of climate change than people who have no party affiliation. Religious believers have higher risk perceptions of personal threat than non-religious people. This paper ends with a discussion about the effectiveness of efforts to enhance risk perception of climate change with regard to global severity and personal threat.

  12. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-11-02

    Abstract Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved.

  13. Serum insulin-like growth factors, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Mellemkjær, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a positive association between serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and breast cancer risk in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women. IGF-II and estrogen receptor (ER) status has never been investigated. We examined the association between IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF...

  14. Risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.

  15. Shoulder dystocia: risk factors, predictability, and preventability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shobha H; Sokol, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia remains an unpredictable obstetric emergency, striking fear in the hearts of obstetricians both novice and experienced. While outcomes that lead to permanent injury are rare, almost all obstetricians with enough years of practice have participated in a birth with a severe shoulder dystocia and are at least aware of cases that have resulted in significant neurologic injury or even neonatal death. This is despite many years of research trying to understand the risk factors associated with it, all in an attempt primarily to characterize when the risk is high enough to avoid vaginal delivery altogether and prevent a shoulder dystocia, whose attendant morbidities are estimated to be at a rate as high as 16-48%. The study of shoulder dystocia remains challenging due to its generally retrospective nature, as well as dependence on proper identification and documentation. As a result, the prediction of shoulder dystocia remains elusive, and the cost of trying to prevent one by performing a cesarean delivery remains high. While ultimately it is the injury that is the key concern, rather than the shoulder dystocia itself, it is in the presence of an identified shoulder dystocia that occurrence of injury is most common. The majority of shoulder dystocia cases occur without major risk factors. Moreover, even the best antenatal predictors have a low positive predictive value. Shoulder dystocia therefore cannot be reliably predicted, and the only preventative measure is cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  17. Leisure activities, apolipoprotein E e4 status, and the risk of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Ying; Weng, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chen, Ta-Fu; Sun, Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Yip, Ping-Keung; Chu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Leisure activities have been associated with a decreased risk of dementia. However, to date, no study has explored how apolipoprotein E (ApoE) e4 status or vascular risk factors modified the association between leisure activities and dementia risks. This case-control study recruited patients (age ≥ 60 years) with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 292) and vascular dementia (VaD; n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 506) from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. Information on patient's leisure activities were obtained through a questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the association of leisure activities and ApoE e4 status with the risk of dementia. High-frequency physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of AD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45], and the results become more evident among ApoE e4 carriers with AD (AOR = 0.30) and VaD (AOR = 0.26). Similar findings were observed for cognitive (AOR = 0.42) and social activities (AOR = 0.55) for AD. High-frequency physical, cognitive, and social activities were associated with a decreased risk of VaD (AOR = 0.29-0.60). Physical and social activities significantly interacted with each other on the risk of VaD (pinteraction = 0.04). Physical activity consistently protects against AD and VaD. Significant interactions were identified across different types of leisure activities in lowering dementia risk. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Perinatal risk factors and social withdrawal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Cote, Sylvana J; Larroque, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to assess prevalence of social withdrawal behaviour in infants aged 12 months included in the French Perinatal Risk Factor Study Eden; (2) To study the correlation between relational withdrawal and several perinatal and parental factors assessed in the EDEN study. A longitudinal study using the ADBB scale was conducted within the Eden Cohort in the year 2008. 1,586 infants were included in the study. Fourteen percent of the children who had an ADBB assessment had a score at 5 and over on the ADBB, a scale designed to assess social withdrawal behaviour at age 0-24 months. Social withdrawal at 12 months was associated with low birth weight, low gestational age and with intra uterine growth retardation. Social withdrawal was independently associated with several maternal and paternal risk factors. The level of social withdrawal behaviour increased with a score of maternal difficulties. This study on a large longitudinally followed volunteer sample demonstrate a clear association of social withdrawal behaviour at age one with low birth weight and preterm birth, possibly mediated by parental vulnerabilities. Social withdrawal behaviour seems to be an important alarm signal to detect early on particularly in premature and small for date babies. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  19. [Risk factors for anorexia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Xiao; Lang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Qin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors for anorexia in children, and to reduce the prevalence of anorexia in children. A questionnaire survey and a case-control study were used to collect the general information of 150 children with anorexia (case group) and 150 normal children (control group). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors for anorexia in children. The results of the univariate analysis showed significant differences between the case and control groups in the age in months when supplementary food were added, feeding pattern, whether they liked meat, vegetables and salty food, whether they often took snacks and beverages, whether they liked to play while eating, and whether their parents asked them to eat food on time (Panorexia in children. Liking of meat (OR=0.093) and vegetables (OR=0.272) and eating on time required by parents (OR=0.079) were protective factors against anorexia in children. Timely addition of supplementary food, a proper diet, and development of children's proper eating and living habits can reduce the incidence of anorexia in children.

  20. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  1. OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis (OA, also often called “osteoarthrosis” or “degenerative joint disease” is the most common form of arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present retrospective statistical study was conducted at the Department of orthopaedics in a tertiary care hospital (Catering to a largely agricultural population over a period of 2 years from January 2012 to December 2014. RESULTS Prevalence of osteoarthritis common in farmers accounting to 70%. Other occupations at risk of OA of knee were, Teachers 12%, Housewives 08%, Athletes 04%, Policemen 04% and Drivers 02%. It is in conformity with most previous studies reviewed. CONCLUSION Osteoarthritis of Knee is a major health issue and important cause of disability in elderly population. Occupational risk factors are important in development of osteoarthritis.

  2. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  3. Perceptions of risk factors for road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.

  4. SOCIAL POLICY AS FACTOR OF STATE INSTITUTIONAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Zhukova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of social policy as the factor of institutional state statuses. Methodology. The researching in institutional providing of state social policy which may be considered as the base for performance of correspond reforms which are directed to the life level increasing, is enough popular task in scientific, theoretical and practical aspects. The scientific search of social policy as the factor of institutional status of state is carried out at the base of classical, neoclassical and institutional methodology. At the base of classical methodology it were defined the general approaches with help of dialectical analysis tools and synthesis of social relations array as historical action. With the help of system, structurally-functional analysis of social policy tasks, it’s opened its internal nature and ways of institutional providing. Institutional and neoclassical approaches allowed the specials analysing tools in modelling of dynamics and institute of social policy institute results in the conditions of market transformations. Also in the research process it were used the economic articles about the question of analysis in state social policy and given the statistic data about the analytical report to the annual President’s of Ukraine message to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine „About internal and external condition of Ukraine in year 2015”. Research results showed what in the conditions of socially-economic and political instability, the social sphere Ukraine became the hostage of common crisis in economic, catastrophic decreasing of life level, increasing of social confrontation and rough system mistakes in the process of social institution formation. All of this neutralizes the methods efficiency about improvement of socially-economic condition of population and prevents to the implementation of necessary reforms. Practical value lays in the clear definition of

  5. Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrowitz, Elliott H

    2012-07-01

    The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1-2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors.

  6. Testicular cancer - epidemiology, etiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Ondrus, D.

    2012-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare malignancy, that affects 1-2 % of male population. Trends of testicular cancer mortality are stable for a long period of time, even that incidence shows a rapid growth. This paper deals with national trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality in Slovakia from 1968 to 2007 by using the join-point regression analysis to propose potential changes in health care. The authors noted a statistically significant increase in the values of incidence and improvement in mortality after 1975. Paper also deals with the etiology and risk factors of this malignancy. (author)

  7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  8. [Risk factors in post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Monica; Battaglia, Eliana; Massimino, Marta; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    It is commonly believed that pregnancy is a time of good mental health. However it has been observed, until recently, that many pregnant women, above all in post partum period, manifest depressive symptoms like sadness, social withdrawal and lack of motivation. The consequences are enormous, for mother mental health and for the psychical development of the baby. It becomes therefore necessary to screening and to precociously intervene on these pathological conditions and thanks also to the suitable knowledge of the risk factors for the potential development of depression post partum.

  9. Risk Factors in Euro Adoption by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Maria BĂDÎRCEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of adopting a unique currency have been studied and outlined by the optimum currency areas theory. This theory of Mundell has suffered modifications, a series of economists identifying and introducing a series of subsequent or additional criteria in the analysis. Starting from the costs indicated by the optimum currency areas theory and its further developments, I have identified a series of factors that I believe to represent future risks for the Romanian economy within the process of adopting the unique euro currency.

  10. Risk factors for trachoma in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schémann, J-F; Sacko, D; Malvy, D; Momo, G; Traore, L; Bore, O; Coulibaly, S; Banou, A

    2002-02-01

    Prior to commencing a campaign to eliminate blinding trachoma in Mali, a national disease prevalence survey was conducted from March 1996 to June 1997. The prevalence of trachoma was estimated and potential risk factors were studied. In each of Mali's seven regions (excluding the capital Bamako), a sample of 30 clusters was taken from the general population, in accordance with the principle of probability proportional to the size of the community. All children under 10 years of age were examined. The simplified clinical coding system proposed by the World Health Organization was used. The position of each village was established and subsequently related to the nearest meteorological station. Socioeconomic and environmental information was collected at both village and household level. The mother or caretaker of each child was questioned about availability and use of water for washing the child. At the time of examination, facial cleanliness and the presence of flies on the face were noted. A total of 15,187 children under 10 years of age were examined. The prevalence of active trachoma (follicular [TF] or intense trachoma [TI]) was 34.9% (95% CI : 32.3-37.6) and the prevalence of TI was 4.2% (95% CI : 3.5-5.0). Aridity/environmental dryness appears to be a risk factor influencing the current geographical distribution of trachoma. Small villages had considerably higher trachoma prevalence than their larger neighbours. The proximity of a medical centre and the existence of social organizations such as a women's association were associated with lower levels of trachoma. Crowded living conditions increased the risk. Using a monetary marker of wealth, we observed a linear inverse relation between wealth and trachoma prevalence. The presence of a dirty face was strongly associated with trachoma (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67) as was the presence of flies on the child's face (OR = 3.62). Trachoma prevalence increased with distance to a water source. Disease prevalence decreased

  11. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  12. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors among an urban population in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Hepburn, Matthew J; Lawitz, Eric J

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The seroprevalence of hepatitis C varies substantially between countries and geographic regions. A better understanding of the seroprevalence of this disease, and the risk factors associated with seropositive status, supply data for the development of screening programs and provide insight into the transmission of the disease. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and associated risk factors in an urban population in Haiti. Me...