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Sample records for risk factor electronic

  1. Identification and Progression of Heart Disease Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients from Longitudinal Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jonnagaddala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risk of its occurrence is a crucial step in predicting serious cardiac events. Identifying heart disease risk factors and tracking their progression is a preliminary step in heart disease risk assessment. A large number of studies have reported the use of risk factor data collected prospectively. Electronic health record systems are a great resource of the required risk factor data. Unfortunately, most of the valuable information on risk factor data is buried in the form of unstructured clinical notes in electronic health records. In this study, we present an information extraction system to extract related information on heart disease risk factors from unstructured clinical notes using a hybrid approach. The hybrid approach employs both machine learning and rule-based clinical text mining techniques. The developed system achieved an overall microaveraged F-score of 0.8302.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through Januar...

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of electronic cigarette use among adolescents: Data from four Swedish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geidne Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use, with special focus on e-cigarettes containing nicotine, among grade 9 students (aged 15–16 years in four different municipalities in Sweden.

  4. Risk factors for medication errors in the electronic and manual prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Cris Renata Grou; Melo, Eveline Maria Magalhães de; Aguiar, Lucas Barbosa de; Pinho, Diana Lúcia Moura; Stival, Marina Morato

    2016-08-08

    to compare electronic and manual prescriptions of a public hospital of Brasilia, identifying risk factors for the occurrence of medication errors. descriptive-exploratory, comparative and retrospective study. Data collection occurred from July 2012 to January 2013, using an instrument for the review of the information contained in medical records related to the medication process. A total of 190 manual and 199 electronic records composed the sample, with 2027 prescriptions each. compared to the manual prescription, a significant reduction was observed in the risk factors after implantation of the electronic prescription, in items such as "lack of the form of dilution" (71.1% to 22.3%) and "prescription with brand name" (99.5% to 31.5%). Conversely, the risk factors "no check" and "lack of CRM of the prescriber" increased. The lack of the allergy registration and the occurrences related to medication were the same for both groups. generally, the use of the electronic prescription system was associated with a significant reduction in risk factors for medication errors, concerning the following aspects: illegibility, prescription with brand name and presence of essential items that provide a safe and effective prescription. comparar as prescrições eletrônicas e manuais de um hospital público do Distrito Federal, identificando os fatores de risco para ocorrência de erros de medicação. Estudo descritivo-exploratório, comparativo e retrospectivo. A coleta de dados ocorreu no período de julho de 2012 a janeiro de 2013, através de instrumento para revisão das informações referentes ao processo de medicação contidas em prontuários. Integraram a amostra 190 prontuários manuais e 199 eletrônicos, com 2027 prescrições cada. na comparação com a prescrição manual, observou-se redução significativa dos fatores de risco após implantação da eletrônica, em itens como "falta da forma de diluição" (71,1% e 22,3%) e "prescrição com nome comercial" (99

  5. Risk factors for radiotherapy incidents and impact of an online electronic reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, David W.; Cheetham, Lynn; Marvelde, Luc te; Bressel, Mathias; Kron, Tomas; Gill, Suki; Tai, Keen Hun; Ball, David; Rose, William; Silva, Linas; Foroudi, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: To ascertain the rate, type, significance, trends and the potential risk factors associated with radiotherapy incidents in a large academic department. Materials and methods: Data for all radiotherapy activities from July 2001 to January 2011 were reviewed from radiotherapy incident reporting forms. Patient and treatment data were obtained from the radiotherapy record and verification database (MOSAIQ) and the patient database (HOSPRO). Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine variables associated with radiotherapy incidents. Results: In that time, 65,376 courses of radiotherapy were delivered with a reported incident rate of 2.64 per 100 courses. The rate of incidents per course increased (1.96 per 100 courses to 3.52 per 100 courses, p < 0.001) whereas the proportion of reported incidents resulting in >5% deviation in dose (10.50 to 2.75%, p < 0.001) had decreased after the introduction of an online electronic reporting system. The following variables were associated with an increased rate of incidents: afternoon treatment time, paediatric patients, males, inpatients, palliative plans, head-and-neck, skin, sarcoma and haematological malignancies. In general, complex plans were associated with higher incidence rates. Conclusion: Radiotherapy incidents were infrequent and most did not result in significant dose deviation. A number of risk factors were identified and these could be used to highlight high-risk cases in the future. Introduction of an online electronic reporting system resulted in a significant increase in the number of incidents being reported

  6. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Abstract. Purpose: To explore the literature regarding prevalance, risk factors and the involvement of ..... Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence. Urology.

  7. Cardiac implantable electronic device hematomas: Risk factors and effect of prophylactic pressure bandaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Youlin; Bingham, Nicholas E; Law, Natalie; Le, Dustin; Mariani, Justin A

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) hematomas are associated with many adverse outcomes. We examined the incidence and risk factors associated with hematoma formation post-CIED implantation, and explored the preventative effect of prophylactic pressure bandaging (PPB) in a large tertiary center. 1,091 devices were implanted during October 2011-December 2014. Clinically significant hematomas (CSH) were those that necessitated prolonged admission, including those due to reoperation, and clinically suspicious hematomas were swellings noted by medical/nursing staff. We screened for variables affecting hematoma incidence prior to conducting multivariate logistic regression analyses, one for all hematomas and one for CSH. 61 hematomas were identified (5.6% of patients), with 12 of those clinically significant (1.1% of patients). Factors significantly increasing the odds of developing any hematoma were stage 2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.08-7.94], P = 0.034) and 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 3.39 [1.20-9.56], P = 0.021), unfractionated heparin/therapeutic enoxaparin (OR = 3.15 [1.22-8.14], P = 0.018), and dual antiplatelets-aspirin + clopidogrel (OR = 2.95 [1.14-7.65], P = 0.026) + other combinations. Body Mass index (BMI) 25.0-29.9 (OR 0.52 [0.28-0.98], P = 0.044) and >30 were associated with decreased hematoma risk (OR 0.43 [0.20-0.91], P = 0.028). Factors significant for CSH formation were unfractionated heparin/therapeutic enoxaparin (OR = 9.55 [1.83-49.84], P = 0.007) and aspirin + clopidogrel (OR = 7.19 [1.01-50.91], P = 0.048). PPB nonsignificantly increased the odds of total hematoma development (OR = 1.53 [0.87-2.69], P = 0.135), and reduced CSH (OR = 0.67 [0.18-2.47], P = 0.547). Heparin and dual antiplatelet use remain strong predictors of overall hematoma formation. CKD is a comparatively moderate predictor. BMI > 25 may decrease the risk of hematoma formation. PPB had nonsignificant effects on hematoma development

  8. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we spend more time in front of computers, video games, TV, and other electronic pastimes, we have fewer ... no other risk factors. Overweight and obesity also increase the risks for diabetes, high blood pressure, high ...

  9. Investigating the role of electronic insurance on decreasing exporting charges risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh MosallaiZade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the electronic insurance (EI is one the electronic services, which is used in most countries, and that is one effective factor in developing the exporting products and services. On the other hand, the incurrence industry and very especially EI represent their importance both domestically and internationally. One of the ways for transferring the exporting risks is to transfer the risks to the insurer. This paper examines the characteristics of EI and the effects of decreasing the exporting risk charges. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in the form of Likert scale, the validity of the questionnaire is validated by some the experts' viewpoints and the Cronbach' alpha is measure as 0.794. The results of applying Freedman test have disclosed that facilitating export activities was the most important factor followed by access to target export market information.

  10. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  11. The comparison of cardiovascular risk scores using two methods of substituting missing risk factor data in patient medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dalton

    2011-07-01

    Conclusions A simple method of substituting missing risk factor data can produce reliable estimates of CVD risk scores. Targeted screening for high CVD risk, using pre-existing electronic medical record data, does not require multiple imputation methods in risk estimation.

  12. What are the main risk factors for running-related injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Rainbow, Michael J; Davis, Irene S; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2014-08-01

    Despite several studies that have been conducted on running injuries, the risk factors for running-related injuries are still not clear in the literature. The aim of this study was to systematically review prospective cohort studies that investigated the risk factors for running injuries in general. We conducted electronic searches without restriction of language on EMBASE (1980 to Dec 2012), PUBMED (1946 to Dec 2012), CINAHL (1988 to Dec 2012) SPORTDiscus (1977 to Dec 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Centre on Health Sciences Information (1985 to Dec 2012) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (1998 to Dec 2012) databases, using subject headings, synonyms, relevant terms and variant spellings for each database. Only prospective cohort studies investigating the risk factors for running-related musculoskeletal injuries were included in this review. Two independent reviewers screened each article and, if they did not reach a consensus, a third reviewer decided whether or not the article should be included. Year of publication, type of runners, sample size, definition of running-related musculoskeletal injury, baseline characteristics, reported risk factors and the statistical measurement of risk or protection association were extracted from the articles. A scale adapted by the authors evaluated the risk of bias of the articles. A total of 11 articles were considered eligible in this systematic review. A total of 4,671 pooled participants were analysed and 60 different predictive factors were investigated. The main risk factor reported was previous injury (last 12 months), reported in 5 of the 8 studies that investigated previous injuries as a risk factor. Only one article met the criteria for random selection of the sample and only six articles included a follow-up of 6 months or more. There was no association between gender and running injuries in most of the studies. It is possible that eligible articles for this review were published in journals that were

  13. Utilizing Dental Electronic Health Records Data to Predict Risk for Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Padman, Rema; Vyawahare, Karnali; Darade, Pratiksha; Paranjape, Rhucha

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a major cause for tooth loss and adversely affects individuals' oral health and quality of life. Research shows its potential association with systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and social habits such as smoking. This study explores mining potential risk factors from dental electronic health records to predict and display patients' contextualized risk for periodontal disease. We retrieved relevant risk factors from structured and unstructured data on 2,370 patients who underwent comprehensive oral examinations at the Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Predicting overall risk and displaying relationships between risk factors and their influence on the patient's oral and general health can be a powerful educational and disease management tool for patients and clinicians at the point of care.

  14. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  15. Portal vein thrombosis; risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, Kirstine K; Astrup, Lone B; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    and treatment of portal vein thrombosis in a single-centre. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients were identified in the electronic records from 1992 to 2005. All data were obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: One or more risk factors (e.g. prothrombotic disorder or abdominal inflammation) were present in 87......BACKGROUND: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly frequently being diagnosed, but systematic descriptions of the natural history and clinical handling of the condition are sparse. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe risk factors, clinical presentation, complications...

  16. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) risk assessment at core assembly production of electronic components manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. M.; Zahid, M. N. O.

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted to assess the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among the workers at core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company located in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The study is to identify the WMDs risk factor and risk level. A set of questionnaires survey based on modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaires have been distributed to respective workers to acquire the WMDs risk factor identification. Then, postural analysis was conducted in order to measure the respective WMDs risk level. The analysis were based on two ergonomics assessment tools; Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). The study found that 30 respondents out of 36 respondents suffered from WMDs especially at shoulder, wrists and lower back. The WMDs risk have been identified from unloading process, pressing process and winding process. In term of the WMDs risk level, REBA and RULA assessment tools have indicated high risk level to unloading and pressing process. Thus, this study had established the WMDs risk factor and risk level of core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company at Malaysia environment.

  17. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  18. Representing and Retrieving Patients' Falls Risk Factors and Risk for Falls among Adults in Acute Care through the Electronic Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Jann

    2013-01-01

    Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…

  19. Coronary artery disease risk assessment from unstructured electronic health records using text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Ray, Pradeep; Kumar, Manish; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) often leads to myocardial infarction, which may be fatal. Risk factors can be used to predict CAD, which may subsequently lead to prevention or early intervention. Patient data such as co-morbidities, medication history, social history and family history are required to determine the risk factors for a disease. However, risk factor data are usually embedded in unstructured clinical narratives if the data is not collected specifically for risk assessment purposes. Clinical text mining can be used to extract data related to risk factors from unstructured clinical notes. This study presents methods to extract Framingham risk factors from unstructured electronic health records using clinical text mining and to calculate 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores in a cohort of diabetic patients. We developed a rule-based system to extract risk factors: age, gender, total cholesterol, HDL-C, blood pressure, diabetes history and smoking history. The results showed that the output from the text mining system was reliable, but there was a significant amount of missing data to calculate the Framingham risk score. A systematic approach for understanding missing data was followed by implementation of imputation strategies. An analysis of the 10-year Framingham risk scores for coronary artery disease in this cohort has shown that the majority of the diabetic patients are at moderate risk of CAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  1. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  2. Biomechanical factors associated with the risk of knee injury when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To systematically assess the literature investigating biomechanical knee injury risk factors when an individual lands from a jump. Data sources. Four electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed English journals containing landing biomechanical studies published over 14 years (1990 - 2003).

  3. Infective endocarditis and risk of death after cardiac implantable electronic device implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Raunsø, Jakob; Lamberts, Morten

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) following implantation of a first-time, permanent, cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide administrative registers (beginning in 1996), we identified all...

  4. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  5. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  6. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  7. Perceived Attributes of Factors Influencing Consumers’ Engagement with Electronic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Adewale Muritala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to critically analyze the relationship between perceived attributes as factors and consumers’ engagement with electronic banking technology. A survey method was used to gather data from 200 secondary school teachers from five selected local government in South-Western part of Nigeria namely; Ibadan North, Egbeda, Ido, Ibadan North-East and Ibadan North-West Local government. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire and analyzed with several descriptive statistics to identify consumers’ engagement in electronic banking technology in Nigeria. The results of the study therefore reveals that the most common influential factors hindering consumers’ adoption of electronic banking in Nigeria are relative advantage of economic gains and non-economic gains, social character, communication behavior, trialability as well as observability. Hence, it therefore recommends that the banks should create channels through which customers’ awareness will be enhanced and employ IT trained personnel to monitor and report any fraudulent transaction in order to secure customers’ trust on safety risk/security.

  8. A protocol improves GP recording of long-term sickness absence risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Paul; Hogervorst, Wouter; ter Riet, Gerben; van Dijk, Frank

    2008-06-01

    If general practitioners (GPs) were better informed about patients' risks of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), they could incorporate these risk assessments into their patient management plans and cooperate more with occupational physicians to prevent LTSA. To evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol helping GPs in recording risks of LTSA and in co-operating with occupational physicians (OPs). Twenty-six GPs (co-operating in four groups) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, participated in a controlled intervention study. Fourteen GPs were the protocol-supported intervention group and twelve GPs were the reference group. Outcome measures were consultations containing work-related information, information about two risk factors for LTSA, referrals to OPs and contacts of OPs with GPs and patients. Outcomes were identified through an electronic search in the GPs' information systems. Entries containing information were independently scored by two investigators. The proportions of patients with consultations documenting LTSA-pertinent items were compared between the groups, accounting for differences at baseline. There was no increase in consultations containing work-related information. Recording of risk factor information increased in the intervention group; the difference was 4.5% [95% CI 1.5-7.6] and 1.8% (95% CI -0.8 to 4.4) for the two risk factors. The referral rate to the OP increased by 2.9% (95% CI 1.2-4.5). There was no effect on contacts of OPs with GPs or with patients. Protocol-supported consultations may lead to a modest increase in information regarding two risk factors for LTSA in GPs' electronic records and to more referrals to OPs.

  9. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  10. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for examining healthcare professionals' assessments of risk factors. The relative importance of risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, L; Bath, P A; Pendleton, N; Bracale, M

    2011-01-01

    A gap exists between evidence-based medicine and clinical-practice. Every day, healthcare professionals (HCPs) combine empirical evidence and subjective experience in order to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. Consequently, it is important to understand how HCPs interpret the research evidence and apply it in everyday practice. We focused on the prevention of falls, a common cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in later life, for which there is a wide range of known risk factors. To use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to investigate the opinions of HCPs in prioritizing risk factors for preventing falls. We used the AHP to develop a hierarchy of risk factors for falls based on the knowledge and experience of experts. We submitted electronic questionnaires via the web, in order to reach a wider number of respondents. With a web service, we pooled the results and weighted the coherence and the experience of respondents. Overall, 232 respondents participated in the study: 32 in the technical pilot study, nine in the scientific pilot study and 191 respondents in the main study. We identified a hierarchy of 35 risk factors, organized in two categories and six sub-categories. The hierarchy of risk factors provides further insights into clinicians' perceptions of risk factors for falls. This hierarchy helps understand the relative importance that clinicians place on risk factors for falls in older people and why evidence-based guidelines are not always followed. This information may be helpful in improving intervention programs and in understanding how clinicians prioritize multiple risk factors in individual patients. The AHP method allows the opinions of HCPs to be investigated, giving appropriate weight to their coherence, background and experience.

  11. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: what electronic medical records tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Ramos, Arantxa; Verdú, Jose M; Grau, María; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; del Val García, José L; Consola, Alicia; Comin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence, control, and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Cross-sectional analysis of all individuals attended in the Catalan primary care centers between 2006 and 2009. History of cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, DM2, lipid profile, glycemia and blood pressure data were extracted from electronic medical records. Age-standardized prevalence and levels of management and control were estimated. Individuals aged 35-74 years using primary care databases. A total of 2,174,515 individuals were included (mean age 52 years [SD 11], 47% men). Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor (39% in women, 41% in men) followed by hypercholesterolemia (38% and 40%) and DM2 (12% and 16%), respectively. Diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were most often prescribed for hypertension control (women treated). Hypercholesterolemia was controlled (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol women with no history of cardiovascular disease, despite lipid-lowering treatment, primarily (90%) with statins. The percentage of women and men with DM2 and with glycated hemoglobin DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. A Bayesian network model for predicting type 2 diabetes risk based on electronic health records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiang; Liu, Yan; Zeng, Xu; Zhang, Wu; Mei, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    An extensive, in-depth study of diabetes risk factors (DBRF) is of crucial importance to prevent (or reduce) the chance of suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Accumulation of electronic health records (EHRs) makes it possible to build nonlinear relationships between risk factors and diabetes. However, the current DBRF researches mainly focus on qualitative analyses, and the inconformity of physical examination items makes the risk factors likely to be lost, which drives us to study the novel machine learning approach for risk model development. In this paper, we use Bayesian networks (BNs) to analyze the relationship between physical examination information and T2D, and to quantify the link between risk factors and T2D. Furthermore, with the quantitative analyses of DBRF, we adopt EHR and propose a machine learning approach based on BNs to predict the risk of T2D. The experiments demonstrate that our approach can lead to better predictive performance than the classical risk model.

  13. Risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Julia; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2018-05-01

    Non-specific spinal pain can occur at all ages and current evidence suggests that pediatric non-specific spinal pain is predictive for adult spinal conditions. A 5-year long, prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the lifestyle and environmental factors leading to non-specific spinal pain in childhood. Data were collected from school children aged 7-16 years, who were randomly selected from three different geographic regions in Hungary. The risk factors were measured with a newly developed patient-reported questionnaire (PRQ). The quality of the instrument was assessed by the reliability with the test-retest method. Test (N = 952) and validity (N = 897) datasets were randomly formed. Risk factors were identified with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models and the predictive performance of the final model was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. The final model was built up by seven risk factors for spinal pain for days; age > 12 years, learning or watching TV for more than 2 h/day, uncomfortable school-desk, sleeping problems, general discomfort and positive familiar medical history (χ 2  = 101.07; df = 8; p < 0.001). The probabilistic performance was confirmed with ROC analysis on the test and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.76; 0.71). A simplified risk scoring system showed increasing possibility for non-specific spinal pain depending on the number of the identified risk factors (χ 2  = 65.0; df = 4; p < 0.001). Seven significant risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood were identified using the new, easy to use and reliable PRQ which makes it possible to stratify the children according to their individual risk. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  14. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  15. Risk factors for first time incidence sciatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad E; Taylor, Jeffrey; Wright, Alexis; Milosavljevic, Steven; Goode, Adam; Whitford, Maureen

    2014-06-01

    Characteristically, sciatica involves radiating leg pain that follows a dermatomal pattern along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. To our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica. The purpose of the systematic review was to identify the longitudinal risk factors associated with first time incidence sciatica and to report incidence rates for the condition. For the purposes of this review, first time incidence sciatica was defined as either of the following: 1) no prior history of sciatica or 2) transition from a pain-free state to sciatica. Studies included subjects of any age from longitudinal, observational, cohort designs. The study was a systematic review. Eight of the 239 articles identified by electronic search strategies met the inclusion criteria. Risk factors and their respective effect estimates were reported using descriptive analysis and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Modifiable risk factors included smoking, obesity, occupational factors and health status. Non-modifiable factors included age, gender and social class. Incidence rates varied among the included studies, in part reflecting the variability in the operationalized definition of sciatica but ranged from sciatica are modifiable, suggesting the potential benefits of primary prevention. In addition, those risk factors are also associated with unhealthy lifestyles, which may function concomitantly toward the development of sciatica. Sciatica as a diagnosis is inconsistently defined among studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  17. Validation of a Delirium Risk Assessment Using Electronic Medical Record Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James L; Doherty, Kelly; Kelly, Brittany; Driver, Jane A; Archambault, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Identifying patients at risk for delirium allows prompt application of prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies; but is rarely done. Once delirium develops, patients are more likely to need posthospitalization skilled care. This study developed an a priori electronic prediction rule using independent risk factors identified in a National Center of Clinical Excellence meta-analysis and validated the ability to predict delirium in 2 cohorts. Retrospective analysis followed by prospective validation. Tertiary VA Hospital in New England. A total of 27,625 medical records of hospitalized patients and 246 prospectively enrolled patients admitted to the hospital. The electronic delirium risk prediction rule was created using data obtained from the patient electronic medical record (EMR). The primary outcome, delirium, was identified 2 ways: (1) from the EMR (retrospective cohort) and (2) clinical assessment on enrollment and daily thereafter (prospective participants). We assessed discrimination of the delirium prediction rule with the C-statistic. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and discharge to rehabilitation. Retrospectively, delirium was identified in 8% of medical records (n = 2343); prospectively, delirium during hospitalization was present in 26% of participants (n = 64). In the retrospective cohort, medical record delirium was identified in 2%, 3%, 11%, and 38% of the low, intermediate, high, and very high-risk groups, respectively (C-statistic = 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.82). Prospectively, the electronic prediction rule identified delirium in 15%, 18%, 31%, and 55% of these groups (C-statistic = 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Compared with low-risk patients, those at high- or very high delirium risk had increased length of stay (5.7 ± 5.6 vs 3.7 ± 2.7 days; P = .001) and higher rates of discharge to rehabilitation (8.9% vs 20.8%; P = .02). Automatic calculation of delirium risk using an EMR algorithm identifies patients at

  18. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M; Browne, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs ( n = 98), race betting ( n = 291) or sports betting ( n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months ( n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for

  19. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerilee Hing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1 determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2 compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98, race betting (n = 291 or sports betting (n = 181 as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively, using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk

  20. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (EU) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the development of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in EEE impelled a

  1. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.

  2. Spirometry, questionnaire and electronic medical record based COPD in a population survey: Comparing prevalence, level of agreement and associations with potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; Krop, Esmeralda; Aalders, Bernadette; Rooijackers, Jos; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Dijk, Christel E; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schellevis, François; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2017-01-01

    COPD-diagnosis is confirmed by post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry. However, epidemiological studies often rely on pre-BD spirometry, self-reports, or medical records. This population-based study aims to determine COPD-prevalence based on four different operational definitions and their level of agreement, and to compare associations between COPD-definitions and risk factors. COPD-prevalence in 1,793 adults from the general Dutch population (aged 18-70 years) was assessed based on self-reported data, Electronic Medical Records (EMR), and post-BD spirometry: using the FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal (LLN) and GOLD fixed cut-off (FEV1/FVC spirometry as a reference, sensitivity was calculated for self-reported and EMR-based COPD. Associations between COPD and known risk factors were assessed with logistic regression. Data were collected as part of the cross-sectional VGO study (Livestock Farming and Neighboring Residents' Health Study). The highest prevalence was found based on spirometry (GOLD: 10.9%, LLN: 5.9%), followed by self-report (4.6%) and EMR (2.9%). Self-reported or EMR-based COPD identified less than 30% of all COPD-cases based on spirometry. The direction of association between known risk factors and COPD was similar across the four definitions, however, magnitude and significance varied. Especially indicators of allergy were more strongly associated with self-reported COPD compared to the other definitions. COPD-prevalence varied depending on the used definition. A substantial number of subjects with spirometry-based COPD cannot be identified with questionnaires or medical records which can cause underestimation of COPD-prevalence. The influence of the different COPD-definitions on associations with known risk factors was limited.

  3. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  5. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A. Lucero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders, New Zealand (Māori, and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for Māori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors.

  6. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in preprofessional dancers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sarah J; Whittaker, Jackie L; Emery, Carolyn A

    2016-08-01

    Preprofessional dancers partake in rigorous training and have high injury prevalence. Attempts to identify risk factors for dance injuries have focused on a diversity of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. To identify and evaluate the evidence examining risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in preprofessional ballet and modern dancers. Fifteen electronic databases were systematically searched to October 2015. Studies selected met a priori inclusion criteria and investigated musculoskeletal injury risk factors in preprofessional (elite adolescent, student, young adult) ballet and modern dancers. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality and level of evidence using the Downs and Black (DB) criteria and a modified Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine 2009 model, respectively. Of 1364 potentially relevant studies, 47 were included and scored. Inconsistent injury definition and methodology precluded meta-analysis. The most common modifiable risk factors investigated were anthropometrics (ie, body mass index, adiposity), joint range of motion (ie, lower extremity), dance exposure (ie, years training, exposure hours) and age. The median DB score across studies was 8/33 (range 2-16). The majority of studies were classified as level 3 evidence and few considered risk factor inter-relationships. There is some level 2 evidence that previous injury and poor psychological coping skills are associated with increased injury risk. Because of the lack of high-quality studies, consensus regarding risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in preprofessional dancers remains difficult. There is a need for injury definition consensus and high-quality prospective studies examining the multifactorial relationship between risk factors and injury in preprofessional dance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. PREVENTION OF OCULAR MORBIDITY AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS BY PREVALENCE ASSESSMENT OF ASTHENOPIA AND ITS RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To determine the prevalence of asthenopia and to identify modifiable risk factors in medical students. Therefore, as to provide with necessory instruction and precaution to reduce the occurrence of the ocular morbidity. METHODS A cross sectional observational study was conducted amongst 200 medical students who are using smart phone, laptop and computer to determine the relationship between asthenopia and related risk factors. Data were based on demographic features, type and duration of electronic items used and asthenopic symptoms was collected by self-administered questionnaire. The data was compiled and entered into excel sheet and analyzed by using appropriate statistical test. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20. RESULTS We found out of96% students, 51.56% had moderate asthenopic symptoms. Most of the students had more than one asthenopic symptoms, in which headache (56.77% was found to be the most common symptom followed by eye strain (50.52%, blurring of vision (40.62% and redness (23.95%. Those who were using electronic devices for4-10 hours, had more moderate to severe asthenopic symptoms about 85%. The ocular morbidity was found to be more among the smartphone users followed by laptops. There was association between ocular symptoms and type of electronic devices (χ2= 14.6, p < 0.006 and duration (χ2= 25.6, p<0.001 of its use. CONCLUSION With this study we can identify the modifiable risk factors and excess use of electronic devices, therefore we can guide the students to limit the risk factors so that we can reduce the ocular morbidity

  8. Risk factors for chronic and recurrent otitis media-a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Min; Zhang, Jin; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Yanfei; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors associated with chronic otitis media (COM) and recurrent otitis media (ROM) have been investigated in previous studies. The objective of this study was to integrate the findings and determine the possible risk factors for COM/ROM based on our meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang database) from 1964 to Dec 2012, as well as a manual search of references of articles, was performed. A total of 2971 articles were searched, and 198 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; 24 studies were eligible for this meta-analysis. Regarding risk factors for COM/ROM, there were two to nine different studies from which the odds ratios (ORs) could be pooled. The presence of allergy or atopy increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64; P = 0.001). An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) significantly increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 6.59; 95% CI, 3.13-13.89; Pmedia (AOM)/ROM increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 11.13; 95% CI, 1.06-116.44; P = 0.04). Passive smoke significantly increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.89 P = 0.04). Low social status appeared to be a risk factor for COM/ROM (OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.11-13.15; P = 0.03). Our meta-analysis identified reliable conclusions that allergy/atopy, URTI, snoring, previous history of AOM/ROM, Second-hand smoke and low social status are important risk factors for COM/ROM. Other unidentified risk factors need to be identified in further studies with critical criteria.

  9. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Risk factors for chronic and recurrent otitis media-a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available Risk factors associated with chronic otitis media (COM and recurrent otitis media (ROM have been investigated in previous studies. The objective of this study was to integrate the findings and determine the possible risk factors for COM/ROM based on our meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang database from 1964 to Dec 2012, as well as a manual search of references of articles, was performed. A total of 2971 articles were searched, and 198 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; 24 studies were eligible for this meta-analysis. Regarding risk factors for COM/ROM, there were two to nine different studies from which the odds ratios (ORs could be pooled. The presence of allergy or atopy increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.64; P = 0.001. An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI significantly increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 6.59; 95% CI, 3.13-13.89; P<0.00001. Snoring appeared to be a significant risk factor for COM/ROM (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.78-2.16; P<0.00001. A patient history of acute otitis media (AOM/ROM increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 11.13; 95% CI, 1.06-116.44; P = 0.04. Passive smoke significantly increased the risk of COM/ROM (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.89 P = 0.04. Low social status appeared to be a risk factor for COM/ROM (OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.11-13.15; P = 0.03. Our meta-analysis identified reliable conclusions that allergy/atopy, URTI, snoring, previous history of AOM/ROM, Second-hand smoke and low social status are important risk factors for COM/ROM. Other unidentified risk factors need to be identified in further studies with critical criteria.

  11. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: What electronic medical records tell us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Catalán-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the Catalan population attended at primary care centers. About two thirds of individuals with hypertension or DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low.

  12. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  13. Serious Suicide Attempts: Systematic Review of Psychological Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yari Gvion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOne of the main obstacles in studying suicide risk factors is the difference between cases in which the individual died by suicide and those in which the individual engaged in suicidal behavior. A promising strategy that overcomes this obstacle is the study of survivors of serious suicide attempt (SSA, i.e., an attempt that would have been lethal had it not been for the provision of rapid and effective emergency treatment. Serious suicide attempters are epidemiologically very much like those who died by suicide, and thus may serve as valid proxies for studying suicides. This paper aims to define the specific risk factors for SSAs by conducting a qualitative data synthesis of existing studies.MethodsFollowing Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we conducted a systematic search of the literature in PubMed, ProQuest, and Psychlit electronic research-literature databases. Search terms were “serious” “OR” “near lethal,” combined with the Boolean “AND” operator with “suicide*.” In addition, we performed a manual search on Google Scholar for further studies not yet identified.ResultsThe preliminary search identified 683 citations. A total of 39 research reports that met the predefined criteria were analyzed. Mental pain, communication difficulties, decision-making impulsivity, and aggression, as well as several demographic variables, were found to be major risk factors for SSAs.LimitationsWe found a variability of definitions for SSA that hamper the ability to draw a model for the risk factors and processes that facilitate it. Moreover, the role of suicide intent and planning in SSA is still unclear. Further studies should aim to clarify and refine the concepts and measures of SSA, thereby enabling more specific and concrete modeling of the psychological element in its formation.ConclusionSSA is a distinguishable phenomenon that needs to be addressed specifically within the scope

  14. An empirical analysis on the adoption of electronic banking in the financial institutes using structural, behavioral and contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines contextual, structural and organizational factors, which can facilitate or slow down adoption of innovation in Electronic Banking in the financial Institutions. Three-dimensional model co-structure, co-behavioral, contextual (3C is used in this research. This schema is a logical model in the categories of models and many of concepts, events and organizational phenomena can be examined. Structural factors including type of the organization of institution, work distribution, preparing mobilization of resources and equipment and risk of decision-making sophistication influence on adoption of Electronic Banking. There are four contextual factors, which contribute in adoption of Electronic Banking including goals, strategies, culture and common norms. The five Behavioral Factors, which affect on electronic banking are connections and relations, skills and personal characters of employees, education, job satisfaction and banking work process. By studying the mentioned factors, we have realized that contextual factors plays important role on adoption of electronic Banking by employee and the behavioral and structural factors have minor impacts. The mentioned proposals are methods, which facilitate the adoption of electronic banking in the country.

  15. A cohort study of possible risk factors for over-reporting of antihypertensive adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mei-Ling Ting

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of poor medicinal adherence is difficult because direct observation of medication use is usually impractical. Up to 50% of individuals on chronic therapies may not be taking their medication as prescribed. This study is one of the first to explore possible risk factors for over-reporting of antihypertensive adherence using electronic medication monitoring. Methods The adherence of 286 individuals on single-drug antihypertensive therapy in a large managed care organization was electronically monitored for approximately three months. Questionnaires on socioeconomic background, adherence to therapy, health beliefs, and social support before and after adherence monitoring were completed. Over-reporting of antihypertensive adherence was assessed by comparing the self-reported frequency of noncompliance with that determined from electronic dosing records. Risk factors for over-reporting were identified by contingency table analysis and step-wise logistic regression. Results Although only 21% of participants acknowledged missing doses on one or more days per week, electronic monitoring documented nonadherence at this or a higher level in 42% of participants. The following variables were associated with over-reporting: >1 versus 1 daily dose (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.50–4.41; p = .0006, lower perceived health risk from nonadherence (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.10–1.64; p = .0035, and annual household income of $30,000 (OR = 2.64; 95% CI = 1.13–6.18; p = .025. Conclusions Over-reporting of adherence may be affected by factors related to dosing frequency, health beliefs and socioeconomic status. This topic deserves further investigation in other patient populations to elucidate possible underlying behavioral explanations.

  16. Critical Success Factors for Electronic Commerce in Chinese Electronic Information Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Critical success factors (CSF) for electronic commerce (EC) are important for enterprises.This research discusses both assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success to help Chinese enterprises to achieve successful EC implementations. On the basis of literature review and experts survey, the research suggests some assessment indicators and impact factors for EC success. A hypothesis is proposed that leadership, strategy, management, organization, technology, customers,and suppliers factors would affect EC success. Furthermore, the research conducts an empirical study on the Chinese Electronic Information Industry to verify the hypothesis. Using factor analysis and regression analysis, the research finds out several critical factors--leadership, strategy, and organization--and critical sub-factors, such as leadership belief and organization management. These findings indicate the usefulness of this research model, especially for Chinese enterprises.

  17. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still ... it. Treatment can delay complications that increase the risk of stroke. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Seek help. ...

  18. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  19. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  20. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Batacan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk.

  1. Synthesizing Risk from Summary Evidence Across Multiple Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Colditz, Graham A; Steele, Russell J

    2018-07-01

    Although meta-analyses provide summary effect estimates that help advise patient care, patients often want to compare their overall health to the general population. The Harvard Cancer Risk Index was published in 2004 and uses risk ratio estimates and prevalence estimates from original studies across many risk factors to provide an answer to this question. However, the published version of the formula only uses dichotomous risk factors and its derivation was not provided. The objective of this brief report was to provide the derivation of a more general form of the equation that allows the incorporation of risk factors with three or more levels.

  2. [Review of risks factors in childhood for schizophrenia and severe mental disorders in adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigue, Jordi; Tizón, Jorge L

    2014-01-01

    To provide scientific evidence, using a literature review on psychosocial risk factors in mental health, that a high exposure to psychosocial stress situations in childhood increases the risk of mental disorders in adulthood,. A literature review up to December 2011 in the electronic databases from Medline, Universitat de Barcelona, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. The keywords used were: childhood, prenatal, vulnerability, risk, abuse, neglect, child mental disorder, schizophrenia, and prevention. Inclusion criteria for the studies reviewed: 1) designed to investigate childhood risk factors; 2) Comparative studies with persons without risk factors; 3) Studies with sufficient statistical significance; 4) Studies with "n" participants equal to o more than 30 persons. There are a group of easily identifiable mental health risk factors in childhood that can help in the prevention of mental disorders in the adulthood. They can be grouped into four categories: A) Pregnancy, birth and perinatal problems; B) Poor interpersonal relations with parents; C) Adverse life events in the first two years of life; D) Cognitive deficits in primary school, and social isolation during school years. There are life events that may increase the possibilities of suffering some kind of Psychopathology. It is necessary to consider those events as Risk Factors for Mental Health. The accumulation of these Risk Factors increases vulnerability to Mental Disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving prediction of fall risk among nursing home residents using electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marier, Allison; Olsho, Lauren E W; Rhodes, William; Spector, William D

    2016-03-01

    Falls are physically and financially costly, but may be preventable with targeted intervention. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) is one potential source of information on fall risk factors among nursing home residents, but its limited breadth and relatively infrequent updates may limit its practical utility. Richer, more frequently updated data from electronic medical records (EMRs) may improve ability to identify individuals at highest risk for falls. The authors applied a repeated events survival model to analyze MDS 3.0 and EMR data for 5129 residents in 13 nursing homes within a single large California chain that uses a centralized EMR system from a leading vendor. Estimated regression parameters were used to project resident fall probability. The authors examined the proportion of observed falls within each projected fall risk decile to assess improvements in predictive power from including EMR data. In a model incorporating fall risk factors from the MDS only, 28.6% of observed falls occurred among residents in the highest projected risk decile. In an alternative specification incorporating more frequently updated measures for the same risk factors from the EMR data, 32.3% of observed falls occurred among residents in the highest projected risk decile, a 13% increase over the base MDS-only specification. Incorporating EMR data improves ability to identify those at highest risk for falls relative to prediction using MDS data alone. These improvements stem chiefly from the greater frequency with which EMR data are updated, with minimal additional gains from availability of additional risk factor variables. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Cardiovascular risk-factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioe, Patricia A; Crawford, Sybil L; Stein, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in noninfected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk [F(1, 117) = 0.13, p > .05]. Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly but significantly correlated; r (126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk-factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ePORT, NASA's Computer Database Program for System Safety Risk Management Oversight (Electronic Project Online Risk Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    ePORT (electronic Project Online Risk Tool) provides a systematic approach to using an electronic database program to manage a program/project risk management processes. This presentation will briefly cover the standard risk management procedures, then thoroughly cover NASA's Risk Management tool called ePORT. This electronic Project Online Risk Tool (ePORT) is a web-based risk management program that provides a common framework to capture and manage risks, independent of a programs/projects size and budget. It is used to thoroughly cover the risk management paradigm providing standardized evaluation criterion for common management reporting, ePORT improves Product Line, Center and Corporate Management insight, simplifies program/project manager reporting, and maintains an archive of data for historical reference.

  6. Equivalence of online and clinician administration of a patellar tendinopathy risk factor and severity questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, S; Morrissey, D; Valle, X

    2015-01-01

    The VISA-P is a questionnaire for assessing the severity of patellar tendinopathy (PT). Our study aim was to evaluate the equivalence of self-administration of the VISA-P online with the addition of risk factor questions to develop a tool suitable for high-volume remote use. A crossover study...... for risk factor questions was excellent at 0.89 (CI: 0.84-0.93) with no mean difference (P = 1.00). The online questionnaire enables equivalent collection of VISA-P data and risk factor information and may well improve further with the suggested modifications to the instructions for questions 7 and 8....... There is potential to use this questionnaire electronically to generate large databases in future research....

  7. Safer electronic health records safety assurance factors for EHR resilience

    CERN Document Server

    Sittig, Dean F

    2015-01-01

    This important volume provide a one-stop resource on the SAFER Guides along with the guides themselves and information on their use, development, and evaluation. The Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, developed by the editors of this book, identify recommended practices to optimize the safety and safe use of electronic health records (EHRs). These guides are designed to help organizations self-assess the safety and effectiveness of their EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and change their cultures and practices to mitigate risks.This book pr

  8. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  9. Quantifying cardiometabolic risk using modifiable non-self-reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-08-01

    Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non-self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut-off points for risk categories. We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14-year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender-specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non-self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10-year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012-2013. HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit chi-square=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk on the basis of modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual's commitment to prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  11. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  12. Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durec Tamara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (MA is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents (≤ 18 years who used MA to those who did not. One reviewer extracted the data and a second checked for completeness and accuracy. For discrete risk factors, odds ratios (OR were calculated and when appropriate, a pooled OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated. For continuous risk factors, mean difference and 95% CI were calculated and when appropriate, a weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% CI was calculated. Results were presented separately by comparison group: low-risk (no previous drug abuse and high-risk children (reported previous drug abuse or were recruited from a juvenile detention center. Results Twelve studies were included. Among low-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: history of heroin/opiate use (OR = 29.3; 95% CI: 9.8–87.8, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, risky sexual behavior (OR = 2.79; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.46 and some psychiatric disorders. History of alcohol use and smoking were also significantly associated with MA use. Among high-risk youth, factors associated with MA use were: family history of crime (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2–3.3, family history of drug use (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.8–7.9, family history of alcohol abuse (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.8–5.6, and psychiatric treatment (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 3.6–12.9. Female sex was also significantly associated with MA use. Conclusion Among low-risk youth, a history of engaging in a variety of risky behaviors was significantly associated

  13. New risk factors for atherosclerosis and patient risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Nierman, Melchior C.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Duriez, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the ways in which the traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including standard lipid (eg, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and nonlipid (eg, hypertension) risk factors, interact to initiate

  14. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that keep inclusion criteria. Some variables were used:age, sex, risk factors and number of ill persons, according to the month. Some patients of masculine sex prevailed (61,9%, group of ages between 15-29 and 45-59 years (27,7%, patients treated since october to december (53,7%, the direct and indirect contact with animals (46,2 %. The risk factors cassually associated to human leptospirosis turned to be: the masculine sex, the contac with animals, the occupational exposition and the inmersion on sources of sweet water.

  15. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  17. Risk factor for febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the childhood. According to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, they have been defined as seizures provoked by high temperature in children aged between 6 months and 5 years, without previous history of afebrile seizures, intracranial infections and other possible causes of seizures. Seizures can be typical and atypical, according to the characteristics. Pathogenesis of this disorder has not been clarified yet, and it is believed to be a combination of genetic factors, high body temperature and brain maturation. The risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures are: age in which seizures appeared for the first time, epilepsy in the first degree relative, febrile seizures in the first degree relative, frequent diseases with fever and low body temperature on the beginning of seizures. The frequency of recurrent seizures The risk for occurrence of epilepsy in children with simple seizures is about 1-1.5%, which is slightly higher compared to general population, while it increases to 4-15% in patients with complex seizures. However, there is no evidence that therapy prevents occurrence of epilepsy. When the prevention of recurrent seizures is considered, it is necessary to separate simple from complex seizures. The aim of this paper was to analyze the most important risk factors for febrile seizures, and to evaluate their impact on occurrence of recurrent seizures. Our study included 125 children with febrile seizures, aged from 6 months to 5 years. The presence of febrile seizures and epilepsy in the first degree relative has been noted in 22% of children. Typical febrile seizures were observed in 76% of cases, and atypical in 24%. Most patients had only one seizure (73.6%. Children, who had seizure earlier in life, had more frequent recurrences. Both risk factors were present in 25% of patients, while 68% of patients had only one risk factor. For the children with febrile disease

  18. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Albers, Lucia; Straube, Andreas; Gerstl, Lucia; Blum, Bernhard; Langhagen, Thyra; Jahn, Klaus; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Landgraf, Mirjam N

    2017-01-01

    To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies. The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking. Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively. Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  19. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  20. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Erik P; Mazziotti, David A

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.

  1. Positive semidefinite tensor factorizations of the two-electron integral matrix for low-scaling ab initio electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A., E-mail: damazz@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Tensor factorization of the 2-electron integral matrix is a well-known technique for reducing the computational scaling of ab initio electronic structure methods toward that of Hartree-Fock and density functional theories. The simplest factorization that maintains the positive semidefinite character of the 2-electron integral matrix is the Cholesky factorization. In this paper, we introduce a family of positive semidefinite factorizations that generalize the Cholesky factorization. Using an implementation of the factorization within the parametric 2-RDM method [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)], we study several inorganic molecules, alkane chains, and potential energy curves and find that this generalized factorization retains the accuracy and size extensivity of the Cholesky factorization, even in the presence of multi-reference correlation. The generalized family of positive semidefinite factorizations has potential applications to low-scaling ab initio electronic structure methods that treat electron correlation with a computational cost approaching that of the Hartree-Fock method or density functional theory.

  2. Work-related risk factors for specific shoulder disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Foresti, Chiara; Daams, Joost G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review and metaanalysis is to examine which work-related risk factors are associated with specific soft tissue shoulder disorders. We searched the electronic databases of Medline and Embase for articles published between 2009 and 24 March 2016 and included the

  3. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipp M Filippopulos

    Full Text Available To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies.The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking.Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively.Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  4. Single-stage unity power factor based electronic ballast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the design, modeling, analysis and implementation of unity power factor (UPF) based electronic ballast for a fluorescent lamp (FL). The proposed electronic ballast uses a boost AC–DC converter as a power factor corrector (PFC) to improve the power quality at the input ac mains. In this singlestage ...

  5. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  6. Population-Attributable Risk Proportion of Clinical Risk Factors for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Natalie J; Golmakani, Marzieh K; Miglioretti, Diana L; Sprague, Brian L; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-09-01

    Many established breast cancer risk factors are used in clinical risk prediction models, although the proportion of breast cancers explained by these factors is unknown. To determine the population-attributable risk proportion (PARP) for breast cancer associated with clinical breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Case-control study with 1:10 matching on age, year of risk factor assessment, and Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registry. Risk factor data were collected prospectively from January 1, 1996, through October 31, 2012, from BCSC community-based breast imaging facilities. A total of 18 437 women with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ were enrolled as cases and matched to 184 309 women without breast cancer, with a total of 58 146 premenopausal and 144 600 postmenopausal women enrolled in the study. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density (heterogeneously or extremely dense vs scattered fibroglandular densities), first-degree family history of breast cancer, body mass index (>25 vs 18.5-25), history of benign breast biopsy, and nulliparity or age at first birth (≥30 years vs breast cancer. Of the 18 437 women with breast cancer, the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (3.7) years among premenopausal women and 61.7 (7.2) years among the postmenopausal women. Overall, 4747 (89.8%) premenopausal and 12 502 (95.1%) postmenopausal women with breast cancer had at least 1 breast cancer risk factor. The combined PARP of all risk factors was 52.7% (95% CI, 49.1%-56.3%) among premenopausal women and 54.7% (95% CI, 46.5%-54.7%) among postmenopausal women. Breast density was the most prevalent risk factor for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and had the largest effect on the PARP; 39.3% (95% CI, 36.6%-42.0%) of premenopausal and 26.2% (95% CI, 24.4%-28.0%) of postmenopausal breast cancers could potentially be averted if all women with heterogeneously or extremely dense

  7. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  8. Risk factors for acute care hospital readmission in older persons in Western countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Kyndi; Meyer, Gabriele; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    related to socio-demographics, health characteristics and clinical and organizational factors related to the care pathway. TYPES OF STUDIES: The current review considered analytical and descriptive epidemiological study designs that evaluated risk factors for acute care hospital readmission. OUTCOMES......: The outcome was readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge. SEARCH STRATEGY: A three-step search was utilized to find published and unpublished studies in English, French, German, Norwegian, Swedish or Danish. Five electronic databases were searched from 2004 to 2013, followed...... summary and metasynthesis of the quantitative findings was conducted. RESULTS: Based on a review of nine studies from ten Western countries, we found several significant risk factors pertaining to readmission to an acute care hospital within one month of discharge in persons aged 65 years and over...

  9. Biopsychosocial risk factors of persistent fatigue after acute infection: A systematic review to inform interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Katrin; Hudson, Joanna L; Rojczyk, Philine; Little, Paul; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2017-08-01

    Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating symptom, preceded by an acute infectious episode in some patients. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors for the development of persistent fatigue after an acute infection, to develop an evidence-based working model of post-infectious fatigue. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE) were searched, from inception to March 2016, for studies which investigated biopsychosocial risk factors of on-going fatigue after an acute infection. Inclusion criteria were: prospective design; biological, psychological or social risk factors; standardised measure of post-infectious fatigue (self-report scales or clinical diagnosis). Studies were excluded if the sample had a pre-existing medical condition, infection was conceptualised as 'vaccination' or they were intervention trials. A narrative synthesis was performed. Eighty-one full texts were screened, of which seventeen were included in the review. Over half included glandular fever populations. Other infections included dengue fever, 'general'/'viral' and Q-fever. Risk factors were summarised under biological, social, behavioural, cognitive and emotional subthemes. Patients' cognitive and behavioural responses to the acute illness, and pre-infection or baseline distress and fatigue were the most consistent risk factors for post-infectious fatigue. An empirical summary model is provided, highlighting the risk factors most consistently associated with persistent fatigue. The components of the model, the possible interaction of risk factors and implications for understanding the fatigue trajectory and informing preventative treatments are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Electron fluence correction factors for various materials in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, M.; Blois, F. de; Podgorsak, E.B.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Relative to solid water, electron fluence correction factors at the depth of dose maximum in bone, lung, aluminum, and copper for nominal electron beam energies of 9 MeV and 15 MeV of the Clinac 18 accelerator have been determined experimentally and by Monte Carlo calculation. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure depth doses in these materials. The measured relative dose at d max in the various materials versus that of solid water, when irradiated with the same number of monitor units, has been used to calculate the ratio of electron fluence for the various materials to that of solid water. The beams of the Clinac 18 were fully characterized using the EGS4/BEAM system. EGSnrc with the relativistic spin option turned on was used to optimize the primary electron energy at the exit window, and to calculate depth doses in the five phantom materials using the optimized phase-space data. Normalizing all depth doses to the dose maximum in solid water stopping power ratio corrected, measured depth doses and calculated depth doses differ by less than ±1% at the depth of dose maximum and by less than 4% elsewhere. Monte Carlo calculated ratios of doses in each material to dose in LiF were used to convert the TLD measurements at the dose maximum into dose at the center of the TLD in the phantom material. Fluence perturbation correction factors for a LiF TLD at the depth of dose maximum deduced from these calculations amount to less than 1% for 0.15 mm thick TLDs in low Z materials and are between 1% and 3% for TLDs in Al and Cu phantoms. Electron fluence ratios of the studied materials relative to solid water vary between 0.83±0.01 and 1.55±0.02 for materials varying in density from 0.27 g/cm3 (lung) to 8.96 g/cm3 (Cu). The difference in electron fluence ratios derived from measurements and calculations ranges from -1.6% to +0.2% at 9 MeV and from -1.9% to +0.2% at 15 MeV and is not significant at the 1σ level. Excluding the data for Cu, electron fluence

  11. The Risk of Electronic Audit and its Impact on The Quality Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Jabbar Yousif

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The auditing profession faces a challenge referred to as information technology ,Information technology has set the profession of auditing in constant challenge because it has made the world an open - limited system through communication technology . The importance of this research stems from the need to identify the nature of the  risks of electronic auditing  after turned  from manual checking to electronic auditing due to developments in technologies  in all sectors.  The risk of electronic auditing  the risk of information technology infrastructure and the risks of applications and other  related to communication processes, several conclusions have been reached, implementation of programs with goods specifications in the electronic auditing  process will lead to safety of work and  reduce the risk of electronic auditing . The research highlights these  risks and their impact on the quality of auditing .                                  

  12. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  13. Cost-effectiveness of electronic training in domestic violence risk assessment: ODARA 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke

    2015-03-01

    The need for domestic violence training has increased with the development of evidence-based risk assessment tools, which must be scored correctly for valid application. Emerging research indicates that training in domestic violence risk assessment can increase scoring accuracy, but despite the increasing popularity of electronic training, it is not yet known whether it can be an effective method of risk assessment training. In the present study, 87 assessors from various professions had training in the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment either face-to-face or using an electronic training program. The two conditions were equally effective, as measured by performance on a post-training skill acquisition test. Completion rates were 100% for face-to-face and 86% for electronic training, an improvement over a previously evaluated manual-only condition. The estimated per-trainee cost of electronic training was one third that of face-to-face training and expected to decrease. More rigorous evaluations of electronic training for risk assessment are recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Proposing a Model to present Factors which Affect e-SCM Risk and their Impacts on Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali rajabzadeh ghatari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Companies strive to improve market share, grow corporate profit, and gain strategic advantage. In order to achieve these goals, supply chain competency must be placed at the heart of a company’s business model. Using e-Commerce and information and communication technologies (ICT in today’s changing demands of business has made organizations more responsive and flexible. E-Commerce and Internet have changed the nature of supply chains and re-defined how customers obtain wisdom of products, services, selection, purchasing and using them. Advent of ICT and new business environment has caused emerge of electronic supply chains. This research has proposed a model for presenting factors which affect electronic supply chain’s risk; besides the influence of the risk on financial and non-financial organization’s performance indicators. Studying the influence of the risk on organization’s performance is conducted in a sample of electronic and telecommunication companies. In order to measure these relationships, using correlation and structural equation modeling (SEM techniques proposed that electronic supply chain risk identification and management have significant impact on organization’s performance improvement.

  15. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Mi Jung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-12-27

    Background : Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods : Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results : The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions : These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among First Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Krishna Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Detection of cardiovascular risk in young age is important to motivate them to modify life styles and seek health care early to lower the chances of acquiring cardiovascular disease in later age. This study was done to assess cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted throughout September and October 2017 in which all first year medical students from a medical college were assessed for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Participants’ demography, family history of illness, anthropometric measurements, and blood reports of lipid profile and fasting glucose were acquired. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS-21. Result: There were 99 participants; 55 males and 44 females. One or more risk factors were present in 87 (87.9% participants. Moreover, 67.7% (n = 67 participants had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common (n = 55, 55.6% risk factor followed by elevated triacylglycerol (n = 47, 47.5% and family history of hypertension (n = 45, 45.5%. There was no significant difference in presence of various risk factors between genders. Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first year medical students. Majority of them had more than one risk factors. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most common risk factor. The risk factors were comparable in males and females.

  17. [Risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rombo, C A; Velasco-Lavín, M R; Nieto-Caldelas, A

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare risk factors of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between two group: group A, newborns with the disease and group B, newborns with other diseases different from NEC, in order to know if these risk factors are more frequent or not in the first group. We assessed the clinical records of all the patients hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and Neonatology Service of the La Raza General Hospital between 1987 and 1991 with the diagnosis of NEC. They were compared with 65 clinical records chosen at random of patients hospitalized in the same Unit with other diagnosis at the same time, and who were discharged by improvement or deceased. In all of them were look for known risk factors for NEC generally accepted such as: prematurity, neonatal asphyxia, poliglobulia, cyanotic congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, respiratory distress syndrome, catheterization of umbilical vessels, early feeding of elevated formula increases, exchange exchange transfusion, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, infection, etc. Just 25 records of the possible 50 with the diagnosis of NEC full filled inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant difference in weight, sex, mortality and known risk factors of NEC between both groups. Were concluded that NEC is a disease of unknown etiology that should be studied more thoroughly. The known risk factors must be avoided because the patient susceptibility probably play an important role.

  18. Modelling impulsive factors for electronics and restaurant coupons’ e-store display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariningsih, P. K.; Nainggolan, M.; Sandy, I. A.

    2018-04-01

    In many times, the increment of e-store visitors does not followed by sales increment. Most purchases through e-commerce are impulsive buying, however only small amount of study is available to understand impulsive factors of e-store display. This paper suggests a preliminary concept on understanding the impulsive factors in Electronics and Restaurant Coupons e-store display, which are two among few popular group products sold through e-commerce. By conducting literature study and survey, 31 attributes were identified as impulsive factors in electronics e-store display and 20 attributes were identified as impulsive factors for restaurant coupon e-store. The attributes were then grouped into comprehensive impulsive factors by factor analysis. Each group of impulsive attributes were generated into 3 factors. Accessibility Factors and Trust Factors appeared for each group products. The other factors are Internal Factors for electronics e-store and Marketing factors for restaurant coupons e-store. Structural Equation Model of the impulsive factors was developed for each type of e-store, which stated the covariance between Trust Factors and Accessibility Factors. Based on preliminary model, Internal Factor and Trust Factor are influencing impulsive buying in electronics store. Special factor for electronics e-store is Internal Factor, while for restaurant coupons e-store is Marketing Factor.

  19. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Magalhães Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. Method: an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. Results: altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. Conclusions: risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation.

  20. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  1. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  2. A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; Van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-02-01

    There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk.

  3. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jung Rho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138, belief self-control (1.034, anxiety (1.086, pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105, money spent on gaming (1.005, weekday game time (1.081, offline community meeting attendance (2.060, and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors; Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Risk Factors for Internet Gaming Disorder: Psychological Factors and Internet Gaming Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Taek-Ho; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding the risk factors associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is important to predict and diagnose the condition. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors that predict IGD based on psychological factors and Internet gaming characteristics; Methods: Online surveys were conducted between 26 November and 26 December 2014. There were 3568 Korean Internet game users among a total of 5003 respondents. We identified 481 IGD gamers and 3087 normal Internet gamers, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify significant risk factors for IGD; Results: The following eight risk factors were found to be significantly associated with IGD: functional and dysfunctional impulsivity (odds ratio: 1.138), belief self-control (1.034), anxiety (1.086), pursuit of desired appetitive goals (1.105), money spent on gaming (1.005), weekday game time (1.081), offline community meeting attendance (2.060), and game community membership (1.393; p < 0.05 for all eight risk factors); Conclusions: These risk factors allow for the prediction and diagnosis of IGD. In the future, these risk factors could also be used to inform clinical services for IGD diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29280953

  5. Integrated methodology for production related risk management of vehicle electronics (IMPROVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, Stefan Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This scientific work is designated to provide an innovative and integrated conceptional approach to improve the assembly quality of automotive electronics. This is achieved by the reduction and elimination of production related risks of automotive electronics and the implementation of a sustainable solution process. The focus is the development and implementation of an integrated technical risk management approach for automotive electronics throughout the vehicle life cycle and the vehicle pr...

  6. Differential impact of some risk factors on trochanteric and cervical hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Sari; Gurevich, Alexander; Sagiv, Shaul; Guller, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the potential distinct risk factors associated with trochanteric and cervical hip fractures. Elderly patients aged 65 years and older (n = 1161) were admitted to the orthopedic department with hip fractures during the years 2006-2011. Demographic and clinical data, as well as routine blood tests, were retrieved from the patient electronic medical records. Approximately 58% of patients had trochanteric fractures and 42% had cervical fractures. Women were more likely to have trochanteric fractures than men (P = 0.002). Female sex, frailty, falls, diabetes and subnormal calcium, as well as subnormal hemoglobin levels, were significant risk factors for trochanteric fractures (OR 1.39, P = 0.0202, OR 1.36, P = 0.0166, OR 1.49, P = 0.0015, OR 1.33, P = 0.0343, OR 0.68, P = 0.0054, OR 0.70, P = 0.0036, respectively). Patients with Parkinson's disease were at a lower risk for trochanteric fractures (OR 0.6, P = 0.007). As there are some differences between risk factors for trochanteric and cervical hip fractures, there is a need for further studies in order to understand the etiology of fractures and to be able to carry out effective preventive efforts. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  8. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  10. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  11. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD...

  12. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  13. Assessment of risk factors for noncommunicable disease risk factors among men of working age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Vasilyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the investigation of some modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and poor explored as well of non-convectional diseases among men of working age.Subjects and methods. Seven thousand thirty five men in age of 18 to 60 years were examined. History data included age, gender, nationality,high blood pressure (BP episodes, antihypertensive drugs taking in case of arterial hypertension, smoking. Instrumental examination included BP measurement when seated after 5 minutes of the rest with mean BP calculation. Total cholesterol and creatinine in blood, clearance of creatinine calculation by Cockcroft–Gault formula, microalbuminuria were assayed; depression level was estimated by Beck score. With purpose to analyze the risk factors structure all examined subjects were divided into three groups according to SCORE scale.Results. Cholesterol level analysis revealed the increasing of parameter in 41.7 % of examined patients (n = 307. Microalbuminuria was revealed in 13.8 % (n = 102 of men, and 19.3 % of them (n = 80 had increased blood pressure. Some levels of depression were revealed in 42.5 % (n = 312, among them the arterial hypertension was observed in 62,5 % (n = 195. The group with low and moderate cardiovascular risk consisted of 594 persons (80.8 %. High cardiovascular risk was determined in 15.2 % men of working age (n = 112. Very high cardiovascular risk was revealed in 3.9 % (n = 29 of responders.Conclusion. Increasing of traditional risk factors rate is associated with increasing of additional risk factors. Received data are widening the perception about risk factors structure in population. Particularly the question about renal filtration function role, depressive syndrome, trophologic insufficiency is raised. Consideration of those in prophylaxis system consideration requires a specific education of general practitioners.

  14. An Internet-based survey of risk factors for surgical gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, Marko; Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Battaglia, Carmelo L; Otto, Cynthia M

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a large number of privately owned dogs across a wide geographic area. Internet-based, cross-sectional study. 2,551 privately owned dogs. A questionnaire addressed dog-specific, management, environmental, and personality-associated risk factors for GDV in dogs. Respondents were recruited through the posting of the electronic link to the questionnaire on websites for dog owners; the information was also disseminated at meetings of dog owners and via newsletters, e-mail lists for dog owners and breeders, owner-oriented dog publications, and e-mails forwarded by participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were being fed dry kibble, anxiety, residence in the United Kingdom, being born in the 1990s, being a family pet, and spending at least 5 hours a day with the owner. Factors associated with a decreased risk of GDV were playing with other dogs and running the fence after meals, fish and egg dietary supplements, and spending equal time indoors and outdoors. A significant interaction between sex and neuter status was observed, with sexually intact females having the highest risk for GDV. In dogs with a high risk of GDV, regular moderate daily and postprandial activity appeared to be beneficial. Feeding only commercial dry dog food may not be the best choice for dogs at risk; however, supplements with fish or eggs may reduced this risk. The effect of neuter status on GDV risk requires further characterization.

  15. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  16. Review on pen-and-paper-based observational methods for assessing ergonomic risk factors of computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohd Nasrull Abdol; Mohamad, Siti Shafika

    2017-01-01

    Computer works are associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). There are several methods have been developed to assess computer work risk factor related to MSDs. This review aims to give an overview of current techniques available for pen-and-paper-based observational methods in assessing ergonomic risk factors of computer work. We searched an electronic database for materials from 1992 until 2015. The selected methods were focused on computer work, pen-and-paper observational methods, office risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders. This review was developed to assess the risk factors, reliability and validity of pen-and-paper observational method associated with computer work. Two evaluators independently carried out this review. Seven observational methods used to assess exposure to office risk factor for work-related musculoskeletal disorders were identified. The risk factors involved in current techniques of pen and paper based observational tools were postures, office components, force and repetition. From the seven methods, only five methods had been tested for reliability. They were proven to be reliable and were rated as moderate to good. For the validity testing, from seven methods only four methods were tested and the results are moderate. Many observational tools already exist, but no single tool appears to cover all of the risk factors including working posture, office component, force, repetition and office environment at office workstations and computer work. Although the most important factor in developing tool is proper validation of exposure assessment techniques, the existing observational method did not test reliability and validity. Futhermore, this review could provide the researchers with ways on how to improve the pen-and-paper-based observational method for assessing ergonomic risk factors of computer work.

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  18. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...... augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  19. Hypoxic training: Clinical benefits on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Justin; Climstein, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of hypoxic training on the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. Literature review. An electronic search encompassing five databases (PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus) was conducted. A total of 2138 articles were retrieved. After excluding non-relevant articles, duplications and outcomes not related to cardiometabolic risk factors, 25 articles were chosen for review. Body weight and body composition were reported to be significantly improved when hypoxic training (≥1700 m) was used in conjunction with exercise regimes, at least three times a week, however extreme altitudes (>5000 m) resulted in a loss of fat-free muscle mass. Fasting blood glucose levels generally improved over time (≥21 days) at moderate levels of altitude (1500 m-3000 m), although reductions in blood glucose tolerance were observed when subjects were exposed to extreme hypoxia (>4000 m). Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels improved as much as 26 mmHg and 13 mmHg respectively, with hypoxic training (1285 m-2650 m) in medicated, stable hypertensive subjects. Effects of hypoxic training when used in combination with exercise training on cholesterol levels were mixed. While there were improvements in total cholesterol (-4.2% to -30%) and low-density lipoprotein (-2.6% to -14.3%) reported as a result of hypoxic training, available evidence does not substantiate hypoxic training for the improvement of high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. In conclusion, hypoxic training may be used as an adjunct treatment to modify some cardiometabolic risk factors. Measurement of hypoxic load may be used to individualize and ascertain appropriate levels of hypoxic training. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  1. Physical risk factors for neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, Geertje A M; Van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    To identify physical risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. Based on methodological quality and study design, 4 levels of evidence were defined to establish the strength of evidence for the relationship between risk factors and neck pain. Altogether, 22

  2. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  3. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  4. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  5. Risk factors affecting survival in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, L; Cardo, M L; Martínez-Dolz, L; García-Palomar, C; Rueda, J; Zorio, E; Arnau, M A; Osa, A; Palencia, M

    2005-11-01

    Certain cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) patients. The sum of various risk factors may have a large cumulative negative effect, leading to a substantially worse prognosis and the need to consider whether HT is contraindicated. The objective of this study was to determine whether the risk factors usually available prior to HT result in an excess mortality in our setting that contraindicates transplantation. Consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from November 1987 to January 2004 were included. Heart-lung transplants, retransplants, and pediatric transplants were excluded. Of the 384 patients, 89% were men. Mean age was 52 years (range, 12 to 67). Underlying disease included ischemic heart disease (52%), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (36%), valvular disease (8%), and other (4%). Variables considered risk factors were obesity (BMI >25), dyslipidemia, hypertension, prior thoracic surgery, diabetes, and history of ischemic heart disease. Survival curves by number of risk factors using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank for comparison of curves. Overall patient survival at 1, 5, 10, and 13 years was 76%, 68%, 54%, and 47%, respectively. Survival at 10 years, if fewer than two risk factors were present, was 69%; 59% if two or three factors were present; and 37% if more than three associated risk factors were present (P = .04). The presence of certain risk factors in patients undergoing HT resulted in lower survival rates. The combination of various risk factors clearly worsened outcomes. However, we do not believe this should be an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  6. Risk factors for recurrence, complications and mortality in Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Nour Abou Chakra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI can lead to complications, recurrence, and death. Numerous studies have assessed risk factors for these unfavourable outcomes, but systematic reviews or meta-analyses published so far were limited in scope or in quality. METHODS: A systematic review was completed according to PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search in five databases was performed. Studies published until October 2013 were included if risk factors for at least one CDI outcome were assessed with multivariate analyses. RESULTS: 68 studies were included: 24 assessed risk factors for recurrence, 18 for complicated CDI, 8 for treatment failure, and 30 for mortality. Most studies accounted for mortality in the definition of complicated CDI. Important variables were inconsistently reported, such as previous episodes and use of antibiotics. Substantial heterogeneity and methodological limitations were noted, mainly in the sample size, the definition of the outcomes and periods of follow-up, precluding a meta-analysis. Older age, use of antibiotics after diagnosis, use of proton pump inhibitors, and strain type were the most frequent risk factors for recurrence. Older age, leucocytosis, renal failure and co-morbidities were frequent risk factors for complicated CDI. When considered alone, mortality was associated with age, co-morbidities, hypo-albuminemia, leucocytosis, acute renal failure, and infection with ribotype 027. CONCLUSION: Laboratory parameters currently used in European and American guidelines to define patients at risk of a complicated CDI are adequate. Strategies for the management of CDI should be tailored according to the age of the patient, biological markers of severity, and underlying co-morbidities.

  7. Measurement of electron blockage factors for mamma scars; Medida de los factores de bloque de electrones para cicatrices de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Fraguela, E; Suero Rodrigo, M A

    2011-07-01

    Pencil Beam algorithm XiO CMS scheduler uses the applicator factor, instead of blocking factor in the calculation of monitor units (MU) shaped electron fields. This feature makes the algorithm for calculating an input field the same dose in the beam axis than it would if it were not blocked. It should, therefore, to correct the UM that provides the planner by a factor. The blocks used in electron treatment of the surgical mamma cancers often have a narrow elongated shape following the contour of the scar. Such openings have difficulty measuring the blocking factor with plane-parallel chambers recommended by national and international protocols (eg PTW Roos 34 001) as being so narrow that sometimes the camera is not completely irradiated. In this paper, we study the possibility of using a PTW 30010 Farmer cylindrical chamber for measuring the blocking factor of such openings.

  8. Sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Takafumi; Ando, Akira; Asanuma, Tohru; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Yoshida, Goichiro; Miyazawa, Taiki; Ebine, Naoyuki; Takeda, Satoko; Omi, Naomi; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Takeda, Fumi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify sleep disorder risk factors among student athletes, this study examined the relationship between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders. Student athletes (N = 906; male: 70.1%; average age: 19.1 ± 0.8 years) in five university sports departments from four Japanese regions were targeted for analysis. Survey items were attributes (age, gender, and body mass index), sleep disorders (recorded through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), lifestyle habits (bedtime, wake-up time, smoking, drinking alcohol, meals, part-time jobs, and use of electronics after lights out), competition activities (activity contents and competition stressors), and psychological distress (recorded through the K6 scale). The relation between lifestyle habits, competition activities, psychological distress, and sleep disorders was explored using logistic regression analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis with attributes as adjustment variables showed that "bedtime," "wake-up time," "psychological distress," "part-time jobs," "smartphone/cellphone use after lights out," "morning practices," and "motivation loss stressors," were risk factors that were independently related to sleep disorders. Sleep disorders among student athletes are related to lifestyle habits such as late bedtime, early wake-up time, late night part-time jobs, and use of smartphones/cellphones after lights out; psychological distress; and competition activities such as morning practices and motivation loss stressors related to competition. Therefore, this study suggests the importance of improving these lifestyle habits, mental health, and competition activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  10. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  11. Risk factors for violence in psychosis: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of 110 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Witt

    Full Text Available Previous reviews on risk and protective factors for violence in psychosis have produced contrasting findings. There is therefore a need to clarify the direction and strength of association of risk and protective factors for violent outcomes in individuals with psychosis.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 6 electronic databases (CINAHL, EBSCO, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, PUBMED and Google Scholar. Studies were identified that reported factors associated with violence in adults diagnosed, using DSM or ICD criteria, with schizophrenia and other psychoses. We considered non-English language studies and dissertations. Risk and protective factors were meta-analysed if reported in three or more primary studies. Meta-regression examined sources of heterogeneity. A novel meta-epidemiological approach was used to group similar risk factors into one of 10 domains. Sub-group analyses were then used to investigate whether risk domains differed for studies reporting severe violence (rather than aggression or hostility and studies based in inpatient (rather than outpatient settings.There were 110 eligible studies reporting on 45,533 individuals, 8,439 (18.5% of whom were violent. A total of 39,995 (87.8% were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 209 (0.4% were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and 5,329 (11.8% were diagnosed with other psychoses. Dynamic (or modifiable risk factors included hostile behaviour, recent drug misuse, non-adherence with psychological therapies (p values<0.001, higher poor impulse control scores, recent substance misuse, recent alcohol misuse (p values<0.01, and non-adherence with medication (p value <0.05. We also examined a number of static factors, the strongest of which were criminal history factors. When restricting outcomes to severe violence, these associations did not change materially. In studies investigating inpatient violence, associations differed in strength but not direction.Certain dynamic risk

  12. Perceptions of risk factors for road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Smith, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of risk factors for road traffic accidents. Some of these require education of drivers and a first step in this process is to assess perceptions of these risk factors to determine the current level of awareness. An online survey examined risk perception with the focus being on driver behavior, risk taking and fatigue. The results showed that drivers’ perceptions of the risk from being fatigued was lower than the perceived risk from the other factors.

  13. Perceived quality, perceived risk and customer trust affecting customer loyalty of environmentally friendly electronics products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalinthorn Marakanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, industrial business competition causes producers to be aware of quality, price, and variety in developing new products to meet the consumers' needs. This research reviewed the literature on green marketing and proposes a new conceptual framework of customer loyalty. It uses four constructs—perceived quality, perceived risk, customer trust, and customer loyalty—in the context of environmentally friendly electronics products in Thailand. This research employed an empirical study using the questionnaire survey method to verify the hypotheses. Data were obtained from 420 consumers who bought and used environmentally friendly electronic products, particularly mobile phones, computers, and laptops using a purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The results showed that perceived risk and customer trust had a direct effect on customer loyalty while perceived quality had an indirect effect on customer loyalty via customer trust. Furthermore, perceived quality had direct effects on perceived risk and customer trust. The results from the final SEM model were used to confirm the proposed relationships among the variables.

  14. Analysis of risk factors and risk assessment for ischemic stroke recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-ying LONG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To screen the risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke and to assess the risk of recurrence. Methods Essen Stroke Risk Score (ESRS was used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in 176 patients with ischemic stroke (96 cases of first onset and 80 cases of recurrence. Univariate and multivariate stepwise Logistic regression analysis was used to screen risk factors for recurrence of ischemic stroke.  Results There were significant differences between first onset group and recurrence group on age, the proportion of > 75 years old, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, peripheral angiopathy, transient ischemic attack (TIA or ischemic stroke, drinking and ESRS score (P < 0.05, for all. First onset group included one case of ESRS 0 (1.04%, 8 cases of 1 (8.33%, 39 cases of 2 (40.63%, 44 cases of 3 (45.83%, 4 cases of 4 (4.17%. Recurrence group included 2 cases of ESRS 3 (2.50%, 20 cases of 4 (25% , 37 cases of 5 (46.25% , 18 cases of 6 (22.50% , 3 cases of 7 (3.75% . There was significant difference between 2 groups (Z = -11.376, P = 0.000. Logistic regression analysis showed ESRS > 3 score was independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke (OR = 31.324, 95%CI: 3.934-249.430; P = 0.001.  Conclusions ESRS > 3 score is the independent risk factor for recurrence of ischemic stroke. It is important to strengthen risk assessment of recurrence of ischemic stroke. To screen and control risk factors is the key to secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.011

  15. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural......-born children, we observed 1193 cases of isolated CHC (0.062/1000) born children. First-borns had an increased risk of isolated CHC compared to later-borns (1.32 95% CI 1.17 to 1.49) (0.72/1000 born children). First trimester exposure to maternal use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly...

  16. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  17. Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, risk factors and risk perception of tuberculosis infection among medical students and healthcare workers in Johannesburg, South Africa. A van Rie, K McCarthy, L Scott, A Dow, WDF Venter, WS Stevens ...

  18. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    , and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion...... and exclusion criteria to determine temporality between changes in sleep and the outcomes. RESULTS: While we did not find consistent effects of onset of short or long sleep, we found onset of disturbed sleep to predict subsequent risk of hypertension (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and dyslipidemia (HR...

  19. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  20. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  1. Legal Risk Associated with Electronic Funds Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulah, Samahir

    2014-01-01

    The past thirty years have seen rapid advances in the technological component of banking services and as a consequence new legal issues have come to the fore, especially with regard to Electronic Fund Transfers (EFTs) which are now used to transfer money around the world, and have made fund transactions between payers and payees easier, faster and more secure. The method involves risks for both banks and customers, due to the possibility of unauthorized payments risks, credit and insolvency p...

  2. Gambling Risk Groups are Not All the Same: Risk Factors Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Li, En; Vitartas, Peter

    2018-03-20

    Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers. Thus it is essential to understand the risk factors for each level of gambling-related problems (low risk, moderate risk, problem) separately. The present study used a large sample (N = 1813) to compare each gambling risk group to non-problem gamblers, first using bivariate and then multivariate statistical techniques. A range of demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness variables were included as possible risk factors. The results indicated that some variables, such as gambling expenditure, number of accounts with different operators, number of different types of promotions used and impulsiveness were significantly higher for all risk groups, while others such as some normative factors, age, gender and particular sports betting variables only applied to those with the highest level of gambling-related problems. The results generally supported findings from previous literature for problem gamblers, and extended these findings to low risk and moderate risk groups. In the future, where statistical power allows, risk factors should be assessed separately for all levels of gambling problems.

  3. [Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J; Galliot, A-M; Durand-Roger, J; Leboyer, M; Llorca, P-M; Schürhoff, F; Szöke, A

    2013-02-01

    Evidence of variations in schizophrenia incidence rates has been found in genetically homogenous populations, depending on changes within time or space of certain environmental characteristics. The consideration of the impact of environmental risk factors in etiopathogenic studies has put the environment in the forefront of research regarding psychotic illnesses. Various environmental factors such as urbanicity, migration, cannabis, childhood traumas, infectious agents, obstetrical complications and psychosocial factors have been associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia. These risk factors can be biological, physical, psychological as well as social and may operate at different times in an individual's life (fetal period, childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Whilst some of these factors act on an individual level, others act on a populational level, modulating the individual risk. These factors can have a direct action on the development of schizophrenia, or on the other hand act as markers for directly implicated factors that have not yet been identified. This article summarizes the current knowledge on this subject. An extensive literature search was conducted via the search engine Pubmed. Eight risk factors were selected and developed in the following paper: urbanicity (or living in an urban area), cannabis, migration (and ethnic density), obstetrical complications, seasonality of birth, infectious agents (and inflammatory responses), socio-demographic factors and childhood traumas. For each of these factors, we provide information on the importance of the risk, the vulnerability period, hypotheses made on the possible mechanisms behind the factors and the level of proof the current research offers (good, medium, or insufficient) according to the amount, type, quality and concordance of the studies at hand. Some factors, such as cannabis, are "unique" in their influence on the development of schizophrenia since it labels only one risk factor

  4. Simplifying the audit of risk factor recording and control: A report from an international study in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Cooney, Marie Therese; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Vaartjes, Ilonca; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Sutter, Johan; Reiner, Željko; Prescott, Eva; Faggiano, Pompilio; Vanuzzo, Diego; AlFaleh, Hussam; Menown, Ian Ba; Gait, Dan; Posogova, Nana; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Zhao, Dong; Zuo, Huijuan; Grobbee, Diederick E; Graham, Ian M

    2016-07-01

    To simplify the assessment of the recording and control of coronary heart disease risk factors in different countries and regions. The SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) is an international clinical audit. Data on consecutive patients with established coronary heart disease from countries in Europe, Asia and the Middle East were collected on a one-page collection sheet or electronically during routine clinic visits. Information on demographics, diagnostic category, risk factors, physical and laboratory measurements, and medications were included and key variables summarized in a Cardiovascular Health Index Score. Coronary heart disease patients (N = 10,186; 29% women) were enrolled from 79 centres in 11 countries. Recording of risk factors varied considerably: smoking was recorded in over 98% of subjects, while about 20% lacked data on laboratory measurements relevant to cardiovascular disease risk. Sixteen per cent of participants reported smoking, 29% were obese, and 46% had abdominal obesity. Sixty per cent of participants had blood pressure control of risk factors with substantial variation between countries, calling for development and implementation of clinical standards of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  5. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A.; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    factors supported by high epidemiological credibility. Methods: We searched the Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases up to 7 October 2016 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies that assessed associations between putative environmental risk factors and BD......Objectives: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...... met the inclusion criteria (seven meta-analyses and nine qualitative systematic reviews). Fifty-one unique environmental risk factors for BD were evaluated. Six meta-analyses investigated associations with a risk factor for BD. Only irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) emerged as a risk factor for BD...

  6. Prioritizing the client trust factors in electronic banking using analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein vazifedust

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper prioritizes the trust factors among electronic banking clients of an Iranian bank named Parsian Bank. The study first analyzes and reviews the literature and interviews with experts of electronic banking and academicians and determines client trust as the most important factor for development of electronic banking. The study also determines different factors associated with trust, which includes individual factors, banking factors and infrastructural factors. The sample populations consist of 25 experts who are academicians, managers and bank officers, clients of electronic banking. The necessary data was collected through conducting interviews and questionnaires and they are analyzed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The research findings indicate that the attitudinal factors, telecommunication infrastructure and cultural factors were the most influential factors accordingly and the customer orientation and ease of access were the least influential factors.

  7. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  8. Risk Factors for 30-Day Readmission in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Max A; Rodeghier, Mark; Sanger, Maureen; Byrd, Jeannie; McClain, Brandi; Covert, Brittany; Roberts, Dionna O; Wilkerson, Karina; DeBaun, Michael R; Kassim, Adetola A

    2017-05-01

    Readmission to the hospital within 30 days is a measure of quality care; however, only few modifiable risk factors for 30-day readmission in adults with sickle cell disease are known. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of adults with sickle cell disease at a tertiary care center, to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for 30-day readmission due to vasoocclusive pain episodes. A total of 88 patients ≥18 years of age were followed for 3.5 years between 2010 and 2013, for 158 first admissions for vasoocclusive pain episodes. Of these, those subsequently readmitted (cases) or not readmitted (controls) within 30 days of their index admissions were identified. Seven risk factors were included in a multivariable model to predict readmission: age, sex, hemoglobin phenotype, median oxygen saturation level, listing of primary care provider, type of health insurance, and number of hospitalized vasoocclusive pain episodes in the prior year. Mean age at admission was 31.7 (18-59) years; median time to readmission was 11 days (interquartile range 20 days). Absence of a primary care provider listed in the electronic medical record (odds ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.91; P = .030) and the number of vasoocclusive pain episodes requiring hospitalization in the prior year were significant risk factors for 30-day readmission (odds ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.44; P readmission rate in adults with sickle cell disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vehicle rollover risk and electronic stability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, P A; Marshall, T; Griffin, R; Purcell, M; McGwin, G; Rue, L W

    2008-06-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems were developed to reduce motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) caused by loss of control. Introduced in Europe in 1995 and in the USA in 1996, ESC is designed to improve vehicle lateral stability by electronically detecting and automatically assisting drivers in unfavorable situations. To examine the relationship between vehicle rollover risk and presence of ESC using a large national database of MVCs. A retrospective cohort study for the period 1995 through 2006 was carried out using data obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. All passenger cars and sport utility vehicles (SUVs)/vans of model year 1996 and later were eligible. Vehicle ESC (unavailable, optional, standard) was determined on the basis of make, model, and model year. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated to compare rollover risk by vehicle ESC group. For all crashes, vehicles equipped with standard ESC had decreased risk of rollover (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.77) compared with vehicles with ESC unavailable. The association was consistent for single-vehicle MVCs (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.82); passenger cars had decreased rollover risk (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.12), but SUVs/vans had a more dramatically decreased risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). This study supports previous results showing ESC to be effective in reducing the risk of rollover. ESC is more effective in SUVs/vans for rollovers related to single-vehicle MVCs.

  10. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  11. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  12. Measurement of electron blockage factors for mamma scars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Fraguela, E.; Suero Rodrigo, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Pencil Beam algorithm XiO CMS scheduler uses the applicator factor, instead of blocking factor in the calculation of monitor units (MU) shaped electron fields. This feature makes the algorithm for calculating an input field the same dose in the beam axis than it would if it were not blocked. It should, therefore, to correct the UM that provides the planner by a factor. The blocks used in electron treatment of the surgical mamma cancers often have a narrow elongated shape following the contour of the scar. Such openings have difficulty measuring the blocking factor with plane-parallel chambers recommended by national and international protocols (eg PTW Roos 34 001) as being so narrow that sometimes the camera is not completely irradiated. In this paper, we study the possibility of using a PTW 30010 Farmer cylindrical chamber for measuring the blocking factor of such openings.

  13. The g-factor of the bound electron in hydrogenic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the g-factor of the electron bound in an atomic ion. A single hydrogenic ion ( 12 C 5+ ) is stored in a Penning trap. The electronic spin state of the ion is monitored via the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect in a quantum non-demolition measurement. Quantum jumps between the two spin states (spin up and spin down) are induced by a microwave field at the spin precession frequency of the bound electron. The g-factor of the bound electron is obtained by varying the microwave frequency and counting the number of spin flips for a fixed time interval. Applications of the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect include high-accuracy tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED), the measurement of the atomic mass of the electron, the determination of the fine structure constant α, and the measurement of nuclear g-factors

  14. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-01-01

    Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to sta...

  15. Risk factors in neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinay; Magon, Rakesh; Mishra, B P; Sidhu, G B S; Mahajan, Ranjiv

    2003-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an uncommon but potentially serious idiosyncratic response to neuroleptic antipsychotics. It usually affects young males, but the risk has been seen to increase with certain factors including the administration practices of antipsychotic neuroleptics in these individuals. Even though no predictors for NMS are yet known, this article highlights the findings on certain risk factors as seen from a series of fifteen patients who developed NMS. Cautious use of neuroleptics in those at risk, early recognition and institution of immediate management is important.

  16. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  17. Electronic Publishing in Science: Changes and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Otto

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet and the guidance of the World Wide Web Consortium focuses on scientific communication and electronic publishing. Considers the speed of communicating and disseminating information; quality issues; cost; library subscriptions; publishers; and risks and concerns, including the role of editors and reviewers or referees.…

  18. A Regularized Deep Learning Approach for Clinical Risk Prediction of Acute Coronary Syndrome Using Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhengxing; Dong, Wei; Duan, Huilong; Liu, Jiquan

    2018-05-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), as a common and severe cardiovascular disease, is a leading cause of death and the principal cause of serious long-term disability globally. Clinical risk prediction of ACS is important for early intervention and treatment. Existing ACS risk scoring models are based mainly on a small set of hand-picked risk factors and often dichotomize predictive variables to simplify the score calculation. This study develops a regularized stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE) model to stratify clinical risks of ACS patients from a large volume of electronic health records (EHR). To capture characteristics of patients at similar risk levels, and preserve the discriminating information across different risk levels, two constraints are added on SDAE to make the reconstructed feature representations contain more risk information of patients, which contribute to a better clinical risk prediction result. We validate our approach on a real clinical dataset consisting of 3464 ACS patient samples. The performance of our approach for predicting ACS risk remains robust and reaches 0.868 and 0.73 in terms of both AUC and accuracy, respectively. The obtained results show that the proposed approach achieves a competitive performance compared to state-of-the-art models in dealing with the clinical risk prediction problem. In addition, our approach can extract informative risk factors of ACS via a reconstructive learning strategy. Some of these extracted risk factors are not only consistent with existing medical domain knowledge, but also contain suggestive hypotheses that could be validated by further investigations in the medical domain.

  19. Dynamic Multi-Factor Credit Risk Model with Fat-Tailed Factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gapko, Petr; Šmíd, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2012), s. 125-140 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : credit risk * probability of default * loss given default * credit loss * credit loss distribution * Basel II Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/smid-dynamic multi-factor credit risk model with fat-tailed factors.pdf

  20. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  1. Risk factors for new onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; Lu, Tian-Fei; Hua, Xiang-Wei; Dai, Hui-Juan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Xia, Qiang

    2015-05-28

    To determine the risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. We electronically searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 to December 2013 to identify relevant studies reporting risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. Discrepancies were resolved in consultation with a third reviewer. All statistical analyses were performed with the RevMan5.0 software (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using either a fixed effects or a random effects model, based on the presence (I (2) 50%) of significant heterogeneity. Twenty studies with 4580 patients were included in the meta-analysis, all of which were retrospective. The meta-analysis identified the following significant risk factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 1.92-3.72); a family history of diabetes (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.09-2.63, P diabetes (OR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.63; P = 0.02); use of tacrolimus (OR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.03-1.76; P = 0.03) and body mass index (BMI)(WMD = 1.19, 95%CI: 0.69-1.68, P diabetes, male gender, tacrolimus and BMI are risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation.

  2. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at Electronic Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meents, Selmar; Tan, Yao-Hua; Verhagen, Tibert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer oriented e-business models today. In this paper we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace. Typical for electronic

  3. Occupation as a risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilhartz, Terry D; Bilhartz, Patty

    2013-02-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality and have been rising in incidence. Little is known about the effects of worker classifications on HDP. This large-scale study examines associations between occupational classifications and HDP. We examined 385,537 Texas Electronic Registrar Birth Registration 2005 birth certificates. Maternal occupations were coded using the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). Crude and adjusted risks for HDP among working women within occupational groupings were analyzed and compared with risks of nonemployed women. The risk of developing HDP varies across SOC occupational classifications. After controlling for known confounders, women employed in business, management, and the legal and social services, teaching, counseling, and healthcare professions are at higher risk for developing HDP than women employed in support industries, such as food preparation, housekeeping, cosmetic and personal care services, or nonemployed women. Women employed in computer, engineering, architectural, and scientific occupations also carry greater risks, although these increased risks do not affect women of normal weight. Worker classification is an independent risk factor for HDP. Additional work must be done to examine the complex interactions among individual maternal genetics, biology, and physical and mental abilities and how they affect adverse health outcomes. Examining job stressors may shed light on these occupational variations and their potential HDP associations. Strategies to mitigate job stressors in the workplace should be considered.

  4. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  5. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  6. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  7. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  8. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  9. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this project was to perform an initial evaluation of reported post-flight back pain and injury cases to relevant spaceflight risk factors in United States astronauts that have completed an ISS mission. METHODS All US astronauts who completed an ISS mission between Expeditions (EXP) 1 and 41 (2000-2015) were included in this evaluation. Forty-five astronauts (36 males and 9 females) completed 50 ISS missions during the study time period, as 5 astronauts completed 2 ISS missions. Researchers queried medical records of the 45 astronauts for occurrences of back pain and injury. A case was defined as any reported event of back pain or injury to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or coccyx spine regions. Data sources for the cases included the Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record; Astronaut Strength, Conditioning and Rehabilitation electronic documentation; the Private Medical Conference tool; and the Space Medicine Operations Team records. Post-flight cases were classified as an early case if reported within 45 days of landing (R + 45) or a late case if reported from R + 46 to R + 365 days after landing (R + 1y). Risk factors in the astronaut population for back pain include age, sex, prior military service, and prior history of back pain. Additionally, spaceflight specific risk factors such as type of landing vehicle and onboard exercise countermeasures were included to evaluate their

  10. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  11. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pdefinition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Paramagnetic form factors from itinerant electron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, J.F.; Liu, S.H.; Liu, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic neutron scattering experiments performed over the past two decades have provided accurate information about the magnetic form factors of paramagnetic transition metals. These measurements have traditionally been analyzed in terms of an atomic-like theory. There are, however, some cases where this procedure does not work, and there remains the overall conceptual problem of using an atomistic theory for systems where the unpaired-spin electrons are itinerant. We have recently developed computer codes for efficiently evaluating the induced magnetic form factors of fcc and bcc itinerant electron paramagnets. Results for the orbital and spin contributions have been obtained for Cr, Nb, V, Mo, Pd, and Rh based on local density bands. By using calculated spin enhancement parameters, we find reasonable agreement between theory and neutron form factor data. In addition, these zero parameter calculations yield predictions for the bulk susceptibility on an absolute scale which are in reasonable agreement with experiment in all treated cases except palladium

  13. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p differences between AUCs). Similar improvements were observed for models predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk

  14. Identification of risk factors for moral distress in nurses: basis for the development of a new assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rafaela; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida

    2016-12-01

    This article proposes to identify risk factors for moral distress from the literature, validate them through expert analysis and provide the basis for a new tool to assess the risk of moral distress among nurses. Moral distress is related to the psychological, emotional and physiological aspects of nursing. It arises from constraints caused by various circumstances and can lead to significant negative consequences. A scoping review and validation through expert analysis were used. The research question guiding this study was as follows: What is known about risk factors for moral distress in nursing? The research was conducted using multiple sources including electronic databases and lists of references from relevant literature. The final sample consisted of 38 studies. A validation analysis was conducted by experts during December 2014 and June 2015. To exclude a risk factor item, at least 80% of the experts had to agree with the exclusion. In total, 53 risk factors for moral distress were identified, reviewed by the experts and grouped to form a new instrument that may help to identify risk for moral distress and to address its consequences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  16. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  18. Electronic Health Record-Enabled Big-Data Approaches to Nephrotoxin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Scott M

    2018-06-09

    Nephrotoxin-associated acute kidney injury (NTx-AKI) has become one of the most common causes of AKI among hospitalized adults and children; across acute and intensive care populations, exposure to nephrotoxins accounts for 15-25% of AKI. Although some interventions have shown promise in observational studies, no treatments currently exist for NTx-AKI once it occurs. Thus, nearly all effective strategies are aimed at prevention. The primary obstacle to prevention is risk prediction and the determination of which patients are more likely to develop NTx-AKI when exposed to medications with nephrotoxic potential. Historically, traditional statistical modeling has been applied to previously recognized clinical risk factors to identify predictors of NTx-AKI. However, increased electronic health record adoption and the evolution of "big-data" approaches to predictive analytics may offer a unique opportunity to prevent NTx-AKI events. This article describes prior and current approaches to NTx-AKI prediction and offers three novel use cases for electronic health record-enabled NTx-AKI forecasting and risk profiling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Factors for Depression : Differential Across Age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; van der Mast, Roos C; Schoevers, Robert A; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of well-established risk factors for depression differs across the lifespan. Risk factors may be more strongly associated with depression at ages when occurrence, and therefore expectance, is relatively low ("on-time off-time" hypothesis). This large-scale study examined

  20. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  1. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  2. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  3. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these ... with age, gender or haematological test. ... A meta-analysis of prospective studies on ..... The marked difference may be because monthly .... and dyslipidemia among patients taking first-line,.

  4. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele Burger

    CV risk profile of the group according to the risk score system developed by the ... an individual has about CVD, and the possible risk factors contributing to the .... levels in the lowest tertile of CVD knowledge versus the highest tertile of CVD ..... CV risk factors and health behavior counseling, much can be done to prevent ...

  5. Epidemiology of glaucoma in sub-saharan Africa: prevalence, incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  6. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  7. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy

  8. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  9. Cognitive risk factors of electronic and combustible cigarette use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Murphy, Cara M; Colby, Suzanne M; Janssen, Tim; Rogers, Michelle L; Jackson, Kristina M

    2018-07-01

    Cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking has been demonstrated to predict future cigarette initiation in adolescents. Examining this construct prior to tobacco product initiation may provide useful information on the differential risk of individuals initiating cigarette vs. e-cigarette products. Additionally, examining how susceptibility and tobacco product use relate to perceived harm cognitions will increase understanding of risk predisposition among adolescents. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of middle school students (n = 1023; age = 12.1, 52.2% female, 72.1% white) in the Northeastern U.S. Likelihood of e-cigarette and cigarette ever-use in high school was examined as a function of a validated index of cigarette smoking susceptibility among tobacco naïve students in middle school. Prospective associations between cognitive susceptibility to smoking and subsequent perceived harm of e-cigarettes (assessed in high school), and cross-sectional associations between concurrent tobacco product ever-use status and perceived harm of e-cigarettes were examined. Adolescents classified as susceptible to cigarette smoking in middle school were more likely to initiate use of cigarettes (OR = 2.53) and e-cigarettes (OR = 1.95) as compared to adolescents classified as non-susceptible; cigarette smoking susceptibility did not differentially predict use of one product over the other. Adolescents endorsing e-cigarette use, reported significantly less perceived harm associated with e-cigarettes vs. cigarettes, while those who endorsed cigarette only or dual use did not. Our data indicate that cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking may index a broad risk factor for using either cigarettes or e-cigarettes in the future, and is prospectively associated with perceived harm of e-cigarette use. Overall, those who used any tobacco product perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful when compared to abstainers. Individual facets of perceived harm

  10. Identifying primary care patients at risk for future diabetes and cardiovascular disease using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrader Peter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD is possible but identification of at-risk patients for targeting interventions is a challenge in primary care. Methods We analyzed electronic health record (EHR data for 122,715 patients from 12 primary care practices. We defined patients with risk factor clustering using metabolic syndrome (MetS characteristics defined by NCEP-ATPIII criteria; if missing, we used surrogate characteristics, and validated this approach by directly measuring risk factors in a subset of 154 patients. For subjects with at least 3 of 5 MetS criteria measured at baseline (2003-2004, we defined 3 categories: No MetS (0 criteria; At-risk-for MetS (1-2 criteria; and MetS (≥ 3 criteria. We examined new diabetes and CHD incidence, and resource utilization over the subsequent 3-year period (2005-2007 using age-sex-adjusted regression models to compare outcomes by MetS category. Results After excluding patients with diabetes/CHD at baseline, 78,293 patients were eligible for analysis. EHR-defined MetS had 73% sensitivity and 91% specificity for directly measured MetS. Diabetes incidence was 1.4% in No MetS; 4.0% in At-risk-for MetS; and 11.0% in MetS (p MetS vs No MetS = 6.86 [6.06-7.76]; CHD incidence was 3.2%, 5.3%, and 6.4% respectively (p Conclusion Risk factor clustering in EHR data identifies primary care patients at increased risk for new diabetes, CHD and higher resource utilization.

  11. Review on risk factors related to lower back disorders at workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.

  12. [Hepatitis caused by virus C. Risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garassini, M E; Pulgar, Y; Alvarado, M; Garassini, M A

    1995-01-01

    To establish the risk factors to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied 120 patients divided in 2 groups: A first group of 40 patients with HCV infection, 24 (60%) with past medical history of blood transfusion, 14 (35%) of them also had hemodialysis and 3 Kidney transplant. 10 patients (25%) had mayor surgery without transfusion, 3 had frequent visits to the dentist and 3 month baby whose mother was HCV positive. In 4 patients we found no risk factors. A second group of 80 patients who visit our clinic for the first time, 2 were found positive for HCV (1.6%). 13 of them had blood transfusion, one was HCV+ (OR: 5.5, P = 0.73). 41 had history of mayor surgery, one HCV+ (OR: 0.95, P = 1.000). The risk factors related to HCV infection in our population were blood transfusion, hemodialysis and mayor surgery. The use of EV drugs, tatoos, sexual behavior, interfamiliar or vertical transmission were not risk factor in our population.

  13. The urban risk and migration risk factors for schizophrenia: are cats the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2014-11-01

    Being born in and/or raised in an urban area is a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. Migrating from countries such as Jamaica or Morocco to countries such as England or the Netherlands is also a proven risk factor for developing schizophrenia. The transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts to children is reviewed and proposed as a partial explanation for both of these risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of classic risk factors and prothrombotic factor gene mutations in ischemic stroke risk development in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanc, Visnja; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vukasovic, Ines; Solter, Vesna V; Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja B

    2014-03-01

    In young individuals, a genetically predisposing hypercoagulability and classic modifying risk factors can act synergistically on the ischemic stroke risk development. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of classic vascular risk factors and polymorphisms of the G20210A coagulation factor II (prothrombin), Arg506Glu coagulation factor V Leiden, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and the impact of these gene mutations and classic vascular risk factors on the overall stroke risk in individuals aged 55 years or younger. The study included 155 stroke patients aged 55 years or younger and 150 control subjects. Stroke prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were assessed for the following parameters: G20210A prothrombin, Arg506Glu factor V Leiden, C677T MTHFR, and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms; total number of study polymorphisms in a particular subject (genetic sum); and classic vascular risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension (P stroke patients. The following parameters were found to act as independent risk factors for ischemic stroke: decreased HDL cholesterol level (P ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Nazarpoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust among costumers of Day bank in KhoramAbad city. A sample of 150 people was selected based on stratified random sampling. Questionnaires were used for the investigation. Results indicate that technology-based factors, user-based factors, and trust had negative relationships with perceived risk types including financial, functional, personal, and private. Moreover, trust including trust in system and trust in bank had a positive relationship with tendency to use and real application of electronic banking.

  16. Monte Carlo based electron treatment planning and cutout output factor calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Ellis

    Electron radiotherapy (RT) offers a number of advantages over photons. The high surface dose, combined with a rapid dose fall-off beyond the target volume presents a net increase in tumor control probability and decreases the normal tissue complication for superficial tumors. Electron treatments are normally delivered clinically without previously calculated dose distributions due to the complexity of the electron transport involved and greater error in planning accuracy. This research uses Monte Carlo (MC) methods to model clinical electron beams in order to accurately calculate electron beam dose distributions in patients as well as calculate cutout output factors, reducing the need for a clinical measurement. The present work is incorporated into a research MC calculation system: McGill Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MMCTP) system. Measurements of PDDs, profiles and output factors in addition to 2D GAFCHROMICRTM EBT2 film measurements in heterogeneous phantoms were obtained to commission the electron beam model. The use of MC for electron TP will provide more accurate treatments and yield greater knowledge of the electron dose distribution within the patient. The calculation of output factors could invoke a clinical time saving of up to 1 hour per patient.

  17. Risk Factors Influencing Construction Procurement Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan Dahiru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significance index score for the most important risk factors limiting the procurement performance of the projects. A self administered questionnaire was employed to the construction industry professionals for responses. A total of 78 questionnaires were distributed to these professionals (architects, quantity surveyors, engineers, and contractors but 62 were returned and analyzed using influential index and later ranked in order of importance. Results of the analysis indicate a disparity in terms of ranking of the factors influencing construction procurement performance. Corruption related risk, conflict of interest, ineffective project technical feasibility, and lack of commitment to transparency were found to be the most significant factors limiting construction procurement performance. Communication barriers and unconfidential tender evaluation process were found to be the low weighted risk factors. The findings can serve as a supportive mechanism for risks management in public construction procurement management. Therefore, construction procurement personnel at all levels of government may find this study relevant, while improving construction procurement performance in the country. It is recommended that construction procurement system should be focused on risks related to corruption, conflict of interest, and effective technical feasibility for improving the overall project performance.

  18. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  19. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  20. INTRA-ABDOMINAL HYPERTENSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP, also referred to as intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, affects organ function in critically ill patients. The prevalence of IAH is between 32% - 65% in intensive care units. Normal IAP is ≈ 5–7 mmHg. According to WSACS definition, IAH = IAP ≥12 mmHg and is divided into 4 grades. They are Grade I (12-15 mmHg, Grade II (16-20 mmHg, Grade III (21-25 mmHg, Grade IV (>25 mmHg. Transvesical measurement of IAP currently is the most popular technique. Several systems with or without the need for electronic equipment are available that allow IAP measurement. The aim is to study the incidence of IAH in critically ill patients, to assess the risk factors for development of IAH, to study the role of IAH as a risk factor for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, to assess the role of IAH as a risk factor for increased (Intensive Care Unit ICU mortality. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This is a prospective observational study. Study period was six months. The study included 52 patients admitted to Medical ICU in Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION There was a very high incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill patients. IAH was significantly associated with risk factors like sepsis, mechanical ventilation, pancreatitis, capillary leak, ascites, cumulative fluid balance and cirrhosis. IAH is an independent risk factor for development of acute kidney injury. IAH is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients.

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, David T; Fillit, Howard

    2006-04-15

    The role of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment has been the subject of a significant number of publications but has not achieved widespread recognition among many physicians and educated laymen. It is apparent that the active treatment of certain of these cardiovascular disease risk factors is accompanied by a reduced risk for cognitive impairment. Patients with hypertension who are treated experience fewer cardiovascular disease events as well as less cognitive impairment than similar untreated patients. Patients who exercise may present with less cognitive impairment, and obesity may increase the risk for cognitive impairment. Lipid abnormalities and genetic markers are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Autopsy studies have demonstrated a correlation between elevated levels of cholesterol and amyloid deposition in the brain. Research has demonstrated a relation between atherosclerotic obstruction lesions in the circle of Willis and dementia. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. A number of nonpharmacologic factors have a role in reducing the risk for cognitive impairment. Antioxidants, fatty acids, and micronutrients may have a role, and diets rich in fruits and vegetables and other dietary approaches may improve the outlook for patients considered at risk for cognitive impairment.

  2. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  3. Trends in nutritional intakes and nutrition-related cardiovascular disease risk factors in Lebanon: the need for immediate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah A; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Helou, Khalil; Adra, Nada; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    To examine the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and their association with dietary variables in the Lebanese population while reviewing secular trends in the population's nutritional intakes and nutrition-related CVD risk factors. Data on CVD risk factors and food consumption patterns in Lebanon were collected from scholarly papers, including individual studies and systematic review articles. Electronic databases were searched using combinations of key terms. The prevalence of obesity in Lebanon followed an alarming increasing trend over time, paralleled by an escalation in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Food consumption surveys illustrate an increasing trend in energy intake and the proportion of energy derived from fat and animal products, with a concomitant decrease in carbohydrates and cereals intakes. The shift towards an atherogenic diet coupled with the alarming increase in nutrition-related cardiovascular risk factors suggest that the Lebanese population is at an increased risk for CVDs. This should alert to the importance of formulating multicomponent intervention strategies at both the individual and population levels to halt the progression of nutrition-related diseases in the country, while highlighting the need for immediate public health efforts to promote the adoption of healthy dietary habits.

  4. [Analysis of risk factors associated with professional drivers’ work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, Maja; Hołowko, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    Professional driver is an occupation associated with high health risk. The factors which increase the risk of developing lifestyle diseases are closely related to working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk factors which are associated with professional drivers’ lifestyle. The material consisted of 23 articles from PubMed.gov. Risk factors related to drivers’ work have a signiicant impact on their health.

  5. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the

  7. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Kinoshita

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DCM and cardiac sarcoidosis were identified as risk factors for amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Risk factors for amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism included higher baseline TSH level and lower baseline free T4 level, suggesting that subclinical hypothyroidism may be a potential risk factor for the development of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism.

  8. Electron form factors of deformable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskii, V.K.; Isupov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Using the smallness of the deformation parameter of the nucleus, we obtain simple explicit expressions for the form factors of electroexcitation of the low-lying rotation-vibration states of light, deformable, even-even nuclei. The expressions satisfactorily describe the experimental data on the excitation of collective nuclear states by the inelastic scattering of fast electrons

  9. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  10. Fall risk factors in community-dwelling elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bergland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common and serious problem for older adults. Approximately one-third of older communitydwelling people fall at least once a year. The main purpose of this paper is to present risk factors for fall in older people living at home. The databases used for identifying documentation of risk factors are Cinahl, Eric, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Medline, Psycinfo and dissertation. Many psychosocial and medical conditions and impairment of sensorimotor function, balance and gait have been shown in large epidemiological studies to be strongly associated with falls. Several of the risk factors are interrelated. The intrinsic-extrinsic distinction seem to be an oversimplification. A better understanding of falls is usually obtained when examining the person in association with the environmental factors. Advanced age, history of falls, ADL limitations, impaired gait and mobility, visual impairment, reduced sensation, muscular weakness, poor reaction time, impaired cognition, diseases as stroke, use of psychoactive medication and use of many medications are risk factors shown to be strongly associated with falls. This means recommendation of multifactorial fall risk assessment must incorporate a range of physiological and mental tests in addition to assessing balance and gait as well as taking multiple chronic diseases and medications into account. These finding underscore the importance of multidimensional fall intervention with special focus on modifiable risk factors

  11. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus postpartum breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Golen, Toni H; Gold, Howard S; Yassa, David S; Baldini, Linda M; Wright, Sharon B

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) breast abscesses are a complication of the postpartum period. Risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscesses are poorly defined, and literature is conflicting. Whether risk factors for methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) infections differ is unknown. We describe novel risk factors associated with postpartum breast abscesses and the changing epidemiology of this infection. We conducted a cohort study with a nested case-control study (n = 216) involving all patients with culture-confirmed SA breast abscess among >30 000 deliveries at our academic tertiary care center from 2003 through 2010. Data were collected from hospital databases and through abstraction from medical records. All SA cases were compared with both nested controls and full cohort controls. A subanalysis was completed to determine whether risk factors for MSSA and MRSA breast abscess differ. Univariate analysis was completed using Student's t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and analysis of variance, as appropriate. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression was used to determine final adjusted results for both the case-control and the cohort analyses. Fifty-four cases of culture-confirmed abscess were identified: 30 MRSA and 24 MSSA. Risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscess in multivariable analysis include in-hospital identification of a mother having difficulty breastfeeding (odds ratio, 5.00) and being a mother employed outside the home (odds ratio, 2.74). Risk factors did not differ between patients who developed MRSA and MSSA infections. MRSA is an increasingly important pathogen in postpartum women; risk factors for postpartum SA breast abscess have not changed with the advent of community-associated MRSA.

  12. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M.; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E.; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma. PMID:23741130

  14. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  15. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    of these are pathogen-specific, while some are shared between different bacteria. METHODS: We searched the database PubMed to identify host risk factors for bacterial meningitis caused by the pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b, because they are three most common...... causative bacteria beyond the neonatal period. RESULTS: We describe a number of risk factors; including socioeconomic factors, age, genetic variation of the host and underlying medical conditions associated with increased susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections in both children and adults....... CONCLUSIONS: As conjugated vaccines are available for these infections, it is of utmost importance to identify high risk patients to be able to prevent invasive disease....

  16. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  17. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  18. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  19. Applications of factor analysis to electron and ion beam surface techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Factor analysis, a mathematical technique for extracting chemical information from matrices of data, is used to enhance Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), core level electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) in studies of interfaces, thin films, and surfaces. Several examples of factor analysis enhancement of chemical bonding variations in thin films and at interfaces studied with AES and SIMS are presented. Factor analysis is also shown to be of great benefit in quantifying electron and ion beam doses required to induce surface damage. Finally, examples are presented of the use of factor analysis to reconstruct elemental profiles when peaks of interest overlap each other during the course of depth profile analysis. (author)

  20. [Pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium after elective ambulatory surgery: etiology, risk factors and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gololobov, Alik; Todris, Liat; Berman, Yakov; Rosenberg-Gilad, Zipi; Schlaeffer, Pnina; Kenett, Ron; Ben-Jacob, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-04-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a common problem among children and adults recovering from general anesthesia after surgery. Its symptoms include psychomotor agitation, hallucinations, and aggressive behavior. The phenomenon, which is most probably an adverse effect of general anesthesia agents, harms the recovery process and endangers the physical safety of patients and their health. Ranging between 10% and 80%, the exact prevalence of ED is unknown, and the risk factors of the phenomenon are unclear. The aim of the current retrospective study was to determine the prevalence rate of ED in 3947 children recovering from general anesthesia after short elective ambulatory surgery, and to map the influence of various risk factors on this phenomenon. Data were collected using electronic medical records. ED severity was assessed using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale. Results showed the prevalence of ED among children. ED was significantly correlated with patients' age, type of surgery and premedication. ED was not correlated with severity of pain, type of anesthesia or with patients' sex.

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  2. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, A.W.; Khan, R.A.A.T.; Ayub, M.; Husnain, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

  3. Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faisal, A W; Khan, R A.A.T. [General Physician Minir Hospital, Sargodha (Pakistan); Ayub, M [Munir Hospital, Sargodha (Pakistan); Husnain, S S [Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

  4. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  5. Epidemiology and risk factors HTLV virus infection in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  6. Risk factors for tornado injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, M; Lybarger, J A; Parsons, J E; MacCormack, J N; Freeman, J I

    1990-12-01

    Tornadoes in North and South Carolina on 28 March 1984 caused 252 people to be injured seriously enough to require hospitalization and 59 to be killed. To evaluate risk factors, we gathered information on 238 (94%) of those hospitalized and 46 (78%) of those killed. Those hospitalized or deceased had statistically significantly more deep cuts, concussions, unconsciousness and broken bones than those with them at the time of the tornado who were not hospitalized or killed. People living in mobile homes were more likely to be hospitalized or die than people occupying conventional houses. Other risk factors for hospitalization or death included advanced age (60+ years), no physical protection (not having been covered with a blanket or other object), having been struck by broken window glass or other falling objects, home lifted off its foundation, collapsed ceiling or floor, or walls blown away. More awareness of the tornado risk before it strikes and better adherence to tornado protection guidelines could reduce injuries and deaths in the future.

  7. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  8. Risk Factor and Comorbidity of Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.

  9. The readmission risk flag: using the electronic health record to automatically identify patients at risk for 30-day readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Charles A; VanZandbergen, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Hanish, Asaf; Leas, Brian; French, Benjamin; Hanson, C William; Behta, Maryam; Umscheid, Craig A

    2013-12-01

    Identification of patients at high risk for readmission is a crucial step toward improving care and reducing readmissions. The adoption of electronic health records (EHR) may prove important to strategies designed to risk stratify patients and introduce targeted interventions. To develop and implement an automated prediction model integrated into our health system's EHR that identifies on admission patients at high risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. Retrospective and prospective cohort. Healthcare system consisting of 3 hospitals. All adult patients admitted from August 2009 to September 2012. An automated readmission risk flag integrated into the EHR. Thirty-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned healthcare system readmissions. Using retrospective data, a single risk factor, ≥ 2 inpatient admissions in the past 12 months, was found to have the best balance of sensitivity (40%), positive predictive value (31%), and proportion of patients flagged (18%), with a C statistic of 0.62. Sensitivity (39%), positive predictive value (30%), proportion of patients flagged (18%), and C statistic (0.61) during the 12-month period after implementation of the risk flag were similar. There was no evidence for an effect of the intervention on 30-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned readmission rates in the 12-month period after implementation. An automated prediction model was effectively integrated into an existing EHR and identified patients on admission who were at risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for mast cell tumours in dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Stephanie Jw; Marlow, Stephanie; Church, David B; English, Kate; McGreevy, Paul D; Stell, Anneliese J; Thomson, Peter C; O'Neill, Dan G; Brodbelt, David C

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell tumour (MCT) appears to be a frequent tumour type in dogs, though there is little published in relation to its frequency in dogs in the UK. The current study aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for MCTs in dogs attending English primary-care veterinary practices. Electronic patient records from practices participating in the VetCompass animal surveillance project between July 2007 and June 2013 were searched for MCT diagnosis. Various search terms and standard diagnostic terms (VeNom codes) identified records containing MCT diagnoses, which were evaluated against clinical criteria for inclusion to the study. MCT prevalence for the entire dataset and specific breed types were calculated. Descriptive statistics characterised MCT cases and multivariable logistic regression methods evaluated risk factors for association with MCT (P Border Collie, West Highland White Terrier, Springer Spaniel and Cocker Spaniel had reduced odds of MCT diagnosis compared with crossbred dogs. No association was found between MCT diagnosis and sex. This study highlights a clinically significant prevalence of MCT and identifies specific breed types with predisposition to MCT, potentially aiding veterinarian awareness and facilitating diagnosis.

  11. [Vaginal disbacteriosis--social and sexual risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health.

  12. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.

  13. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  14. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.

  15. Psychosocial and environmental risk factors associated with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo, Paula Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment

  16. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Martine; Kellum, John A; Gibney, R T Noel; Lieberthal, Wilfred; Tumlin, James; Mehta, Ravindra

    2005-12-01

    Our purpose is to discuss established risk factors in the development of acute renal failure and briefly overview clinical markers and preventive measures. Findings from the literature support the role of older age, diabetes, underlying renal insufficiency, and heart failure as predisposing factors for acute renal failure. Diabetics with baseline renal insufficiency represent the highest risk subgroup. An association between sepsis, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure is clear. Liver failure, rhabdomyolysis, and open-heart surgery (especially valve replacement) are clinical conditions potentially leading to acute renal failure. Increasing evidence shows that intraabdominal hypertension may contribute to the development of acute renal failure. Radiocontrast and antimicrobial agents are the most common causes of nephrotoxic acute renal failure. In terms of prevention, avoiding nephrotoxins when possible is certainly desirable; fluid therapy is an effective prevention measure in certain clinical circumstances. Supporting cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, and renal perfusion pressure are indicated to reduce the risk for acute renal failure. Nonionic, isoosmolar intravenous contrast should be used in high-risk patients. Although urine output and serum creatinine lack sensitivity and specificity in acute renal failure, they remain the most used parameters in clinical practice. There are identified risk factors of acute renal failure. Because acute renal failure is associated with a worsening outcome, particularly if occurring in critical illness and if severe enough to require renal replacement therapy, preventive measures should be part of appropriate management.

  17. Risk Factors for Post-stroke Depression: A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke not only impacts patients physically but also economically. Post-stroke depression (PSD, as a common complication of stroke, always obstructs the process of stroke rehabilitation. Accordingly, defining the risk factors associated with PSD has extraordinary importance. Although there have been many studies investigating the risk factors for PSD, the results are inconsistent.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the risk factors for PSD by evidence-based medicine.Data sources: A systematic and comprehensive database search was performed of PubMed, Medline, CENTRAL, EMBASE.com, the Cochrane library and Web of Science for Literature, covering publications from January 1, 1998 to November 19, 2016.Study Selection: Studies on risk factors for PSD were identified, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The risk of bias tool, described in the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0, was used to assess the quality of each study. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software.Results: Thirty-six studies were included for review. A history of mental illness was the highest ranking modifiable risk factor; other risk factors for PSD were female gender, age (<70 years, neuroticism, family history, severity of stroke, and level of handicap. Social support was a protective factor for PSD.Conclusion: There are many factors that have effects on PSD. The severity of stroke is an important factor in the occurrence of PSD. Mental history is a possible predictor of PSD. Prevention of PSD requires social and family participation.

  18. Risk factor analysis for metaplastic gastritis in Koreans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soonami Choi; Yun Jeong Lim; Sue Kyung Park

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a retrospective study to determine the risk factors for development of metaplastic gastritis in Korean population.METHODS: The database of 113449 subjects who underwent a gastroscopy for the purpose of a regular check-up at center for health promotion, Samsung medical center during 5 years was collected and retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 5847 subjects who had endoscopically diagnosed as a metaplastic gastritis or 10076 normal as well as answered to questionnaire were included for present study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups; Group Ⅰ, normal and Group Ⅱ, metaplastic gastritis. Age, gender, Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) seropositivity, body mass index (BMI),family history of cancer, smoking, alcohol consumption,total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating) were retrieved from questionnaire or electronic medical record and compared between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ.RESULTS: The prevalence of group Ⅱ was 11%(13578/113449) increasing its prevalence with age(P= 0.000). But, there was no significant association between 2 groups in BMI, family history of cancer,alcohol consumption, total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating). Old age (P=0.000), male gender (P=0.000),H pylori seropositivity (P= 0.010) and current smoker (P= 0.000) were significantly more common in group Ⅱ at multiple logistic regression model.CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that old age, male gender,Hpyloriseropositivity and smoking were risk factors for metaplastic gastritis, precancerous lesion of gastric cancer.

  19. Polo pony injuries: player-owner reported risk, perception, mitigation and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inness, C M; Morgan, K L

    2015-07-01

    Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is unique in merging human skill and balance with animal agility and performance in a contact sport. These modern-day 'centaurs' offer medical, dental and veterinary scientists an unrivalled, if quirky, opportunity to collaborate. Collection of epidemiological data on injuries to UK polo riders and ponies is the first step. To measure the reported risk and risk factors for injuries to UK polo ponies, their perception and mitigation by player-owners. A retrospective cohort design and telephone interviews were used. Data on equine injuries, preseason training and risk perception were collected from a random sample of player-owners using a structured questionnaire. Injuries were defined as requiring veterinary treatment. Frequencies were represented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk factors for injuries were identified by univariable and multivariable analyses. The cumulative incidence of player-owner-reported injury was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4-12.7). Tendon injuries were most common (4.3%; 95% CI 2.9-5.7), followed by wounds and splints. The only risk factor was stabling all season (odds ratio 4.79; 95% CI 1.46-15.73). Tendon injuries were perceived as the major risk and hard ground the most important risk factor. Risk mitigation practices were bandaging before exercise (45.7%; 95% CI 34.8-56.5), checking tendons (84.0%; 95% CI 76.0-91.9), cold hosing (40.7%; 95% CI 30.0-51.4), bandaging (38.3%; 95% CI 27.7-48.9) and using clays and coolants after exercise (24.7%; 15.3-34.1). Cuts and wounds were considered most frequent by only 2.5% (95% CI 0.0-3.6) of players but were the second most common injury, accounting for 21.6% of veterinary treatments. Splints accounted for 12.5% of injuries. The risk of injury to polo ponies is similar to that in the general horse population; musculoskeletal injuries, particularly tendon injuries, are most common, followed by wounds and splints. The association between stabling and

  20. Risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is an important cause of brain injury in premature neonates. Current study tries to define associated risk factors of IVH in preterm neonates in Aliasghar Children Hospital during 2008 to 2011. In this study, the risk factors have been evaluated in premature neonates with IVH, who had at least one brain sonography since their admission in NICU. A total of 63 premature neonates with IVH were assessed. Mean gestational age was 29.81 (24-34 weeks and mean birth weight was 1290.83±382.96 gr. Other risk factors such as sex, mode of delivery, history of using infertility drugs, maternal disease, maternal hypertension and preeclampsia, lumbar puncture, ventilator therapy and pneumothorax were considered. Because no absolute treatment for IVH is available, identifying risk factors is important in prevention and management of IVH.

  1. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...... program. METHODS: Prospectively collected data of a consecutive series of Dutch CRC patients undergoing colorectal surgery were analyzed. Modifiable risk factors were correlated to the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) and compared within two groups: none or mild complications (CCI ... complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...

  2. Atrial fibrillation and bleeding complication - risk factors and risk marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithardt, G.; Ravens, U.; Kirchhof, P.; van Gelder, I. C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is closely linked to risk factors like hypertension and heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and valvular heart disease. These factors partly overlap with those which determine the progression of atrial fibrillation and the incidence of

  3. Risk factors and the occurrence of cerebral palsy in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Handryastuti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of cerebral palsy (CP has increased due to better survival rates of high-risk babies. Early detection and time to the occurrence of CP in the first year of life is important in order to provide early intervention. Objectives To determine the proportion of CP in high-risk babies, the time to the occurrence of CP in the first year, and assess possible associations between risk factors of CP and time to the occurrence of CP. Methods A prospective cohort study was done on 150 high-risk babies up to the age of 12 months. We obtained history of motor ability and assessed primitive reflexes and postural reactions of subjects at the ages of 4 and 6 months. The diagnosis of CP was established at 6 and 12 months of age. Results The proportion of CP was 26% at 6 months and 24% at 12 months of age. Significant risk factors associated with CP at 6 and 12 months of age were cerebral ultrasound abnormalities, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and intracranial hemorrhage. In 88.7% of subjects with CP, CP was detected in the first 6 months. Mean age at the occurrence of CP was 9.99 months (95%CI 9.46 to 10.53. Risk factors that significantly affected the time to the occurrence of CP by survival analysis were ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusions Cerebral palsy can be detected as early as the first 6 months of life. Cerebral ultrasound abnormalities and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are the risk factors associated with CP.

  4. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  5. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  6. Risk assessment of integrated electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Bjarni Thor; Sigurdardottir, Gudlaug; Stefansson, Stefan Orri

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the security concerns related to Electronic Health Records (EHR) both in registration of data and integration of systems. A description of the current state of EHR systems in Iceland is provided, along with the Ministry of Health's future vision and plans. New legislation provides the opportunity for increased integration of EHRs and further collaboration between institutions. Integration of systems, along with greater availability and access to EHR data, requires increased security awareness since additional risks are introduced. The paper describes the core principles of information security as it applies to EHR systems and data. The concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and traceability are introduced and described. The paper discusses the legal requirements and importance of performing risk assessment for EHR data. Risk assessment methodology according to the ISO/IEC 27001 information security standard is described with examples on how it is applied to EHR systems.

  7. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima; Maria Amélia Sayeg Campos Porto; Arnaldo Prata Barbosa; Antonio José Ledo Alves da Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetri...

  8. Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, Charlotte P.M.; Pereboom, Marieke; van Stralen, Karlijn; Berger, Florine A.; van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Kuijper, Aaf F.M.; van der Hoeven, Ruud T M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Becker, Matthijs L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Prolongation of the QTc interval may result in Torsade de Pointes, a ventricular arrhythmia. Numerous risk factors for QTc interval prolongation have been described, including the use of certain drugs. In clinical practice, there is much debate about the management of the risks involved. In

  9. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among adults in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-12-01

    This report provides the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Syria, where such data are still scarce. A population-based household survey was conducted in Aleppo (population >2.5 million), involving 1,168 subjects ≥25 years old (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information about socio-demographics, personal behavior, and other CVD risk factors was collected. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of clinical risk factors of CVD (ClinRFs) was 45.6% for hypertension, 43.2% for obesity, 21.9% for hypercholesterolemia and 15.6% for diabetes. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors (BehRFs) was 82.3% for physical inactivity, 39.0% for smoking, and 33.4% for unhealthy diet. All ClinRFs increased with age, while gender was associated only with obesity and smoking. Education was associated with obesity and diabetes (P Syria have some of the world's highest prevalence of CVD risk factors. Unhealthy behaviors and social norms unfavorable to women may explain some of such risk profiles.

  10. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  11. Risk assessment of girls: are there any sex differences in risk factors for reoffending and in risk profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Deković, M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Langewouters, F.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  12. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  14. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoutová, J.; Janáčková, P.; Šerý, Omar; Zeman, T.; Ambrož, P.; Kovalová, M.; Vařechová, K.; Hosák, L.; Jiřík, V.; Janout, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-8 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA MZd NT14504 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : schizophrenia * risk factors * epidemiology Subject RIV: FQ - Public Health Care, Social Medicine Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  15. [Risk factors for post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dois, Angelina; Uribe, Claudia; Villarroel, Luis; Contreras, Aixa

    2012-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a public health problem with high prevalence in Chile. Many factors are associated with PPD. To analyze the factors associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (SD) in women with low obstetric risk. Cross-sectional analytical study on a sample of 105 postpartum women with low obstetric risk assessed by the Edinburgh Depression Scale at the eighth week postpartum. A 37% prevalence of depressive symptoms was found. Univariate analysis showed that the perception of family functioning, overcrowding and number of siblings, were significantly associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. A multiple regression model only accepted family functioning as a predictor of depression. Perception of family functioning was the only variable that explained in part the presence of depressive symptoms in women with low obstetric risk.

  16. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...

  17. Distribution of risk factors among children with febrile convulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximal risk factors are male gender, age < 2 years, 2nd birth order and positive family nd history. The social status of families is a distal risk factor. The second year of life and 2 birth order are the strongest predisposing factors to the development of FC. Key words: Febrile convulsions, Risk factors, Benin City, Nigeria ...

  18. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  19. Media Violence and Other Aggression Risk Factors in Seven Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis

    2017-07-01

    Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draheim, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

  1. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor

  2. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  3. The "polyenviromic risk score": Aggregating environmental risk factors predicts conversion to psychosis in familial high-risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Shah, Jai L; Tandon, Neeraj; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2017-03-01

    Young relatives of individuals with schizophrenia (i.e. youth at familial high-risk, FHR) are at increased risk of developing psychotic disorders, and show higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, cognitive and neurobiological abnormalities than non-relatives. It is not known whether overall exposure to environmental risk factors increases risk of conversion to psychosis in FHR subjects. Subjects consisted of a pilot longitudinal sample of 83 young FHR subjects. As a proof of principle, we examined whether an aggregate score of exposure to environmental risk factors, which we term a 'polyenviromic risk score' (PERS), could predict conversion to psychosis. The PERS combines known environmental risk factors including cannabis use, urbanicity, season of birth, paternal age, obstetric and perinatal complications, and various types of childhood adversity, each weighted by its odds ratio for association with psychosis in the literature. A higher PERS was significantly associated with conversion to psychosis in young, familial high-risk subjects (OR=1.97, p=0.009). A model combining the PERS and clinical predictors had a sensitivity of 27% and specificity of 96%. An aggregate index of environmental risk may help predict conversion to psychosis in FHR subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, James; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchant, Kristin; McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl; Seuntjens, Jan

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9-20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%-0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%-0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, kecal, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM's TG-51 protocol. General agreement between the relative

  6. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  8. Prioritisation of Risk Factors Impacting on Construction Contractors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consideration for risk factors impacting on cash flow forecasts has been identified as a key issue affecting contractors‟ cash flow management. ... ranks), to arrive at sixteen major risk factors that are responsible for the variation between contractors‟ cash out forecasts and the actual expenditure during project execution.

  9. Is isomerism a risk factor for intestinal volvulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landisch, Rachel M; Loomba, Rohit S; Salazar, Jose H; Buelow, Matthew W; Frommelt, Michele; Anderson, Robert H; Wagner, Amy J

    2018-03-06

    Isomerism, or heterotaxy syndrome, affects many organ systems anatomically and functionally. Intestinal malrotation is common in patients with isomerism. Despite a low reported risk of volvulus, some physicians perform routine screening and prophylactic Ladd procedures on asymptomatic patients with isomerism who are found to have intestinal malrotation. The primary aim of this study was to determine if isomerism is an independent risk factor for volvulus. Kid's Inpatient Database data from 1997 to 2012 was utilized for this study. Characteristics of admissions with and without isomerism were compared with a particular focus on intestinal malrotation, volvulus, and Ladd procedure. A logistic regression was conducted to determine independent risk factors for volvulus with respect to isomerism. 15,962,403 inpatient admissions were included in the analysis, of which 7970 (0.05%) patients had isomerism, and 6 patients (0.1%) developed volvulus. Isomerism was associated with a 52-fold increase in the odds of intestinal malrotation by univariate analysis. Of 251 with isomerism and intestinal malrotation, only 2.4% experienced volvulus. Logistic regression demonstrated that isomerism was not an independent risk factor for volvulus. Isomerism is associated with an increased risk of intestinal malrotation but is not an independent risk factor for volvulus. Prognosis study. Level III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  11. Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease: environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campdelacreu, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update and summarise available evidence on environmental risk factors that have been associated with risk of Parkinson disease (PD) or Alzheimer disease (AD) and discuss their potential mechanisms. Evidence consistently suggests that a higher risk of PD is associated with pesticides and that a higher risk of AD is associated with pesticides, hypertension and high cholesterol levels in middle age, hyperhomocysteinaemia, smoking, traumatic brain injury and depression. There is weak evidence suggesting that higher risk of PD is associated with high milk consumption in men, high iron intake, chronic anaemia and traumatic brain injury. Weak evidence also suggests that a higher risk of AD is associated with high aluminium intake through drinking water, excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields from electrical grids, DM and hyperinsulinaemia, obesity in middle age, excessive alcohol consumption and chronic anaemia. Evidence consistently suggests that a lower risk of PD is associated with hyperuricaemia, tobacco and coffee use, while a lower risk of AD is associated with moderate alcohol consumption, physical exercise, perimenopausal hormone replacement therapy and good cognitive reserve. Weak evidence suggests that lower risk of PD is associated with increased vitamin E intake, alcohol, tea, NSAIDs, and vigorous physical exercise, and that lower risk of AD is associated with the Mediterranean diet, coffee and habitual NSAID consumption. Several environmental factors contribute significantly to risk of PD and AD. Some may already be active in the early stages of life, and some may interact with other genetic factors. Population-based strategies to modify such factors could potentially result in fewer cases of PD or AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular disorders risk factors in different industries of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders of cardiovascular system can cause disability or death, screening is necessary specially in workers who maybe had risk factors. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, genetic, exposure to chemicals, fumes, solvents, coldness are non occupational and occupational risk factors. Objective was comparison of cardiovascular disorders risk factors between workers in different industries of Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, workers of automobile, food industries and light works had been selected and cardiovascular disorders risk factors had been gathered then data analyzed in SPSS with one-way ANOVA, Chi-2 and multi nominal logistic regression with P < 0.05. Results: 875 workers had been participated in the study, all of the cardiovascular disorders risk factors were in the normal range. Mean of high density lipoprotein (HDL in food industry workers was 63.83 ± 17.42 mg/dl and it was protective, but in workers who work in automobile industry was 38.97 ± 11.08 mg/dl and the lowest, Also hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were more prominent in this industry and after regression with P < 0.05, the differences were significant. Conclusions: Screening of cardiovascular disorders risk factors were important and helpful in industries specially automobile industry, that might be preventive method for these disorders in the future.

  13. Interventions to tackle malnutrition and its risk factors in children living in slums: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Sophie; Griffiths, Paula; Bogin, Barry; Madise, Nyovani

    2017-02-01

    Children living in slums are at high risk of being malnourished. There are no published reviews on existing interventions promoting better nutrition for children living in slums and the risk factors for children's malnutrition. Improved understanding of the risk factors for malnutrition in slums communities and the impact of interventions on children's health can provide guidance to practitioners and decision-makers. The present review is designed to provide this information. The search included 30 electronic bibliographic databases and relevant eligible studies published up to December 2013. The search located 1512 citations. Full text relevance screening was conducted on 226 studies and on abstracts for 16 studies. The final 58 unique studies included 22 on interventions and 38 on risk. All of the interventions were nutrition-specific, with nutritional intervention being the most dominant type. Seventy-three per cent of the interventions were assessed effective. The findings stressed the gaps in knowledge in terms of quality assessment and programmatic recommendations to identify children who are the most at risk of malnutrition to appropriately target interventions. Finally, the review helped to inform a systematic review (Cochrane Systematic review protocol 2015) that will examine the impact of interventions on outcome measures.

  14. An empirical investigation on ranking financial risk factors using AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper determines and ranks financial risk factors in Iranian corporations, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP. The present research includes one main question and four sub- questions. Its universe population includes managers, production and financial personnel of great corporations activating in Tehran Stock Exchange, who were selected to explain importance and weight of economic risks indices. The source of great corporations recognition is the Companies Registration Organization in Tehran Province, and according to this, there are 120 corporations. The results have indicated that financing risk maintains the highest priority followed by credit risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk and exchange risk. In terms of different risks associated with financing risk, risk of profit per share has been the number one priority followed by the risk of divisional profit per share, the risk of recessionary or boom and the risk of increasing partial pay profit rate. In terms of credit risk, the risk of loan has been number one priority followed by the risk of inability of loan payment and interest payment. Liquidity risk is another risk factor where demand has been the most important factor followed by rules and regulations and inflation risk. In terms of inflation, producers price risk has been the most important factor followed by consumer price risk, gross domestic product and producers price risk. Finally, in terms of different factors influencing exchange risk, export related issues are considered as the most important factors.

  15. Gout: a review of non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Lindsey A.; Kim, Seoyoung C.

    2014-01-01

    Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid within the joints. Gout affects millions worldwide and has an increasing prevalence. Recent research has been carried out to better qualify and quantify the risk factors predisposing individuals to gout. These can largely be broken into non-modifiable risk factors such as sex, age, race, and genetics, and modifiable risk factors such as diet and lifestyle. Increasing knowledge of factors predisposing certain individuals to gout could potentially lead to improved preventive practices. This review summarizes the non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors associated with development of gout. PMID:25437279

  16. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in obese individual in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Risk factor modification can reduce clinical events and premature death in people with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as in those who are at high cardiovascular risk due to one or more risk factors. Obesity, a common nutritional disorder in industrialized countries is associated with an ...

  17. Physical risk factors for developing non-specific neck pain in office workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Deokhoon; Zoe, Michaleff; Johnston, Venerina; O'Leary, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    Identifying risk factors associated with the development of work-related neck pain in office workers is necessary to facilitate the development of prevention strategies that aim to minimise this prevalent and costly health problem. The aim of this systematic review is to identify individual worker (e.g., lifestyle activity, muscular strength, and posture) and workplace (e.g., ergonomics and work environment) physical factors associated with the development of non-specific neck pain in office workers. Studies from 1980 to 2016 were identified by an electronic search of Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psychlnfo and Proquest databases. Two authors independently screened search results, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias using the epidemiological appraisal instrument (EAI). A random effect model was used to estimate the risk of physical factors for neck pain. Twenty papers described the findings of ten prospective cohort studies and two randomized controlled trials. Low satisfaction with the workplace environment (pooled RR 1.28; CI 1.07-1.55), keyboard position close to the body [pooled RR 1.46; (CI 1.07-1.99)], low work task variation [RR 1.27; CI (1.08-1.50)] and self-perceived medium/high muscular tension (pooled RR 2.75/1.82; CI 1.60 /1.14-4.72/2.90) were found to be risk factors for the development of neck pain. This review found evidence for a few number of physical risk factors for the development of neck pain, however, there was also either limited or conflicting factors. Recommendations for future studies evaluating risk factors are reported and how these may contribute to the prevention of neck pain in office workers.

  18. Sex differences in risk factors for subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghoon Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH in Korean adults and identify the risk factors for the occurrence of SCH by sex. Design and methods: This study used data from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, which comprises a health interview survey, a health examination survey and a nutrition survey. To examine SCH, the reference range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH was defined using both the range provided by the test kit manufacturer (SCH-M and a population-based range (SCH-P. We investigated the prevalence of SCH and its risk factors by sex using both reference ranges. Results: The prevalence of SCH in Koreans according to SCH-M (0.35–5.5 μIU/mL was 5.6%, and 3.3% with SCH-P (0.62–6.68 μIU/mL. For men, smoking significantly reduced the incidence of SCH, positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb significantly increased the risk of SCH, and in an adjusted model, the risk of SCH in all quartiles increased as the urine iodine creatinine ratio (UICR quartile increased. For women, positive TPOAb was confirmed as a risk factor for SCH, as was the highest UICR quartile. Furthermore, the odds ratio for SCH in urban vs rural residence was 1.78. Conclusions: The prevalence rates of SCH were similar to those reported in the literature and previously known risk factors were confirmed using both TSH reference ranges. The notable findings from this study are that the increased risk of SCH with increased iodine intake was more marked in men than in women and that residential area may be a risk factor for SCH in women.

  19. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....

  20. blood transfusion requirement during caesarean delivery: risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predisposing to increased risk for blood transfusion identified from previous ... This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for blood transfusion during anaesthesia for caesarean section. ... study which could fall into either of the following conditions: satisfactory post- operative clinical status up to 48 hours ...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage inpatients in a tertiary care hospital's chest clinic in Turkey. ... of the participants and risk factors for carriage. Fisher's exact test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A P < 0.05 ...

  2. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  3. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  4. Cardiovascular disease risk factors: a childhood perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Pradeep A; Roy, Ambuj; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide including in developing countries like India. Indians are known to be predisposed to CVD, which occur almost a decade earlier in them. Though these diseases manifest in the middle age and beyond, it is now clear that the roots of CVD lie in childhood and adolescence. Many of the conventional risk factors of CVD such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity have their beginnings in childhood and then track overtime. It is thus important to screen and identify these risk factors early and treat them to prevent onset of CVD. Similarly community based strategies to prevent onset of these risk factors is imperative to tackle this burgeoning public health crisis especially in countries like ours with limited resources.

  5. The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and CV Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Benziger, Catherine P.; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Howe, Laura D.; Checkley, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Casas, Juan P.; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; Málaga, Germán; Miranda, J. Jaime; Montori, Víctor M.; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Diette, Gregory B.; Gilman, Robert H.; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera, María; Wise, Robert A.; Checkley, William; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Sacksteder, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Variations in the distribution of cardiovascular disease and risk factors by socioeconomic status (SES) have been described in affluent societies, yet a better understanding of these patterns is needed for most low- and middle-income countries. Objective This study sought to describe the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and SES using monthly family income, educational attainment, and assets index, in 4 Peruvian sites. Methods Baseline data from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of participants, ages ≥35 years, from 4 Peruvian sites (CRONICAS Cohort Study, 2010) were used. The SES indicators considered were monthly family income (n = 3,220), educational attainment (n = 3,598), and assets index (n = 3,601). Behavioral risk factors included current tobacco use, alcohol drinking, physical activity, daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and no control of salt intake. Cardiometabolic risk factors included obesity, elevated waist circumference, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. Results In the overall population, 41.6% reported a monthly family income education. Important differences were noted between the socioeconomic indicators: for example, higher income and higher scores on an asset index were associated with greater risk of obesity, whereas higher levels of education were associated with lower risk of obesity. In contrast, higher SES according to all 3 indicators was associated with higher levels of triglycerides. Conclusions The association between SES and cardiometabolic risk factors varies depending on the SES indicator used. These results highlight the need to contextualize risk factors by socioeconomic groups in Latin American settings. PMID:27102029

  6. Risk Factors for Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Emily; Marcotte, Michael; Mehlman, Charles; Lippert, William; Huang, Bin; Paulson, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations. The odds of BPBI were 2.5 times higher when oxytocin was used and 3.7 times higher when tachysystole occurred. The odds of BPBI injury are increased when tachysystole and oxytocin occur during the mother’s labor. Logistic regression identified a higher risk for BPBI when more than three of the following variables (>30 lbs gained during the pregnancy, stage 2 labor >61.5 min, mother’s age >26.4 years, tachysystole, or fetal malpresentation) were present in any combination. PMID:29596309

  7. Risk Factors for Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Louden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations. The odds of BPBI were 2.5 times higher when oxytocin was used and 3.7 times higher when tachysystole occurred. The odds of BPBI injury are increased when tachysystole and oxytocin occur during the mother’s labor. Logistic regression identified a higher risk for BPBI when more than three of the following variables (>30 lbs gained during the pregnancy, stage 2 labor >61.5 min, mother’s age >26.4 years, tachysystole, or fetal malpresentation were present in any combination.

  8. Risk Factors for Opioid-Use Disorder and Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lynn R

    2017-11-01

    Opioid analgesics are recognized as a legitimate medical therapy for selected patients with severe chronic pain that does not respond to other therapies. However, opioids are associated with risks for patients and society that include misuse, abuse, diversion, addiction, and overdose deaths. Therapeutic success depends on proper candidate selection, assessment before administering opioid therapy, and close monitoring throughout the course of treatment. Risk assessment and prevention include knowledge of patient factors that may contribute to misuse, abuse, addiction, suicide, and respiratory depression. Risk factors for opioid misuse or addiction include past or current substance abuse, untreated psychiatric disorders, younger age, and social or family environments that encourage misuse. Opioid mortality prevalence is higher in people who are middle aged and have substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidities. Suicides are probably undercounted or frequently misclassified in reports of opioid-related poisoning deaths. Greater understanding and better assessment are needed of the risk associated with suicide risk in patients with pain. Clinical tools and an evolving evidence base are available to assist clinicians with identifying patients whose risk factors put them at risk for adverse outcomes with opioids.

  9. Identifying risk factors for first-episode neck pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rebecca; Wiest, Colin; Clark, Kelly; Cook, Chad; Horn, Maggie

    2018-02-01

    Neck pain affects 15.1% of the United States' general population every 3 months, and ranks fourth in global disability. Because of the tendency for neck pain to become a chronic issue, it is important to identify risk factors that could encourage prevention and early diagnosis. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify risk factors for a first episode of neck pain. Three databases were searched with key words such as "neck pain" and "first incidence." Risk factors from the resulting articles were reported as either a physical or psychosocial risk factor and ranked by the strength of their odds/risk/hazard ratio: empowering leadership, high perceived social climate, leisure physical activity, and cervical extensor endurance. Most risk factors found for neck pain were related to psychosocial characteristics, rather than physical characteristics. A number of these risk factors were mediating factors, suggesting that a prevention-based program may be useful in modifying the existence of the risk factors before the occurrence of neck pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for presbycusis in a socio-economic middle-class sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cláudia Simônica de; Castro Júnior, Ney de; Larsson, Erkki Juhani; Ching, Ting Hui

    2009-01-01

    Presbycusis, or the aging ear, involves mainly the inner ear and the cochlear nerve, causing sensorineural hearing loss. Risk factors include systemic diseases and poor habits that cause inner ear damage and lead to presbycusis. Correct identification of these risk factors is relevant for prevention. To evaluate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of presbycusis in a sample aged over 40 years. A retrospective case series. medical records of 625 patients were evaluated. Presbycusis was identified using pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and impedance testing of all patients. The prevalence of presbycusis was 36.1%; the mean age was 50.5 years ranging from 40 to 86 years; 85.5% were male and 14.5% werf female. Age, the male gender, diabetes mellitus, and hereditary hearing loss were identified as risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases, smoking and consumption of alcohol were not confirmed as risk factors, although these have often been mentioned as risk factors for presbycusis. Notwithstanding the idea that presbycusis has multiple risk factors, this study identified few risk factors for this disease.

  11. The Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Graft Outcome Disparities in African American Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; Hunt, Kelly J; Fominaya, Cory E; Payne, Elizabeth H; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Srinivas, Titte R; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    Although outcome inequalities for non-Hispanic Black (NHB) kidney transplant recipients are well documented, there is paucity in data assessing the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on this disparity in kidney transplantation. This was a longitudinal study of a national cohort of veteran kidney recipients transplanted between Jan 2001 and Dec 2007. Data included baseline characteristics acquired through the USRDS linked to detailed clinical follow up information acquired through the VA electronic health records. Analyses were conducted using sequential multivariable modeling (Cox regression), incorporating blocks of variables into iterative nested models; 3,139 patients were included (2,095 NHW [66.7%] and 1,044 NHBs [33.3%]). NHBs had a higher prevalence of hypertension (100% vs. 99%, ptransplant diabetes (59% vs. 53%, pAdherence to medications used to manage CVD risk was significantly lower in NHBs. In the fully adjusted models, the independent risk of graft loss in NHBs was substantially reduced (unadjusted HR 2.00 vs. adjusted HR 1.49). CVD risk factors and control reduced the influence of NHB race by 9–18%. Similar trends were noted for mortality and estimates were robust across in sensitivity analyses. These results demonstrate that NHB kidney transplant recipients have significantly higher rates of CVD risk factors and reduced CVD risk control. These issues are likely partly related to medication non-adherence and meaningfully contribute to racial disparities for graft outcomes. PMID:27402921

  12. Risk factors which cause senile cataract evolvement: outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Bragin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Examination of natural ageing processes including those caused by multiple external factors has been attracting re-searchers' attention over the last years. Senile cataract is a multi-factor disease. Expenditure on cataract surgery remain one of the greatest expenses items in public health care. Age is a basic factor which causes senile cataract. Morbidity with cataract doubles each 10 years of life. This outline considers some literature sources which describe research results on influence exerted on cataract evolvement by such risk factors as age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol intake, pancreatic diabetes, intake of certain medications, a number of environmental factors including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. mane of these factors are shown to increase or reduce senile cataract risk; there are conflicting data on certain factors. The outline also contains quantitative characteristics of cataract risks which are given via odds relation and evolve due to age parameters impacts, alcohol intake, ionizing radiation, etc. The authors also state that still there is no answer to the question whether dose-effect relationship for cataract evolvement is a threshold or non-threshold.

  13. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Barnard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption, as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption, or as part of a broader dietary pattern.

  14. Risk factors and direct medical cost of early versus late unplanned readmissions among diabetes patients at a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne; Chen, Cynthia; Tan, Chuen Seng; Tai, E Shyong; Khoo, Eric Y H; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2018-02-20

    To examine the risk factors and direct medical costs associated with early (≤30 days) versus late (31-180 days) unplanned readmissions among patients with type 2 diabetes in Singapore. Risk factors and associated costs among diabetes patients were investigated using electronic medical records from a local tertiary care hospital from 2010 to 2012. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with early and late unplanned readmissions while a generalized linear model was used to estimate the direct medical cost. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. A total of 1729 diabetes patients had unplanned readmissions within 180 days of an index discharge. Length of index stay (a marker of acute illness burden) was one of the risk factors associated with early unplanned readmission while patient behavior-related factors, like diabetes-related medication adherence, were associated with late unplanned readmission. Adjusted mean cost of index admission was higher among patients with unplanned readmission. Sensitivity analysis yielded similar results. Existing routinely captured data can be used to develop prediction models that flag high risk patients during their index admission, potentially helping to support clinical decisions and prevent such readmissions.

  15. The role of exogenous risk factors of antituberculosis treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnic, Evelina; Ustian, Aurelia; Pop, Carmen Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Moldova reports the highest incidence of tuberculosis and the lowest treatment success rate among European region countries. In most of the patients the antituberculosis treatment failure is correlated with social risk factors (low socio-economical state, epidemiological danger characteristics) and biological factors (young age, male sex, physiological conditions, associated diseases). Clinical factors (advanced forms of tuberculosis, chronic evolution, immune disturbances), therapeutic factors (treatment errors and interruptions, individualized regimens) and administrative factors (drug interruption in supply, suboptimal treatment quality) prevail in regions with defficient in health care delivery. The association of risk factors has a higher impact than the severity of one risk factor. The risk factor assessment is very important before initiation of the treatment, for establishing the plan of risk reduction measures for increasing the success rate. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of exogenous risk factors on antituberculosis treatment failure. The study was conducted on 201 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment failure and 105 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who successfully finished the antituberculosis treatment. Selected cases were investigated according national standards. The treatment failure occurred in patients belonging to socially disadvantaged groups, patients with harmful habits (alcohol abuse, drug use, active smoking), patients from infectious clusters. Migration, homelessness and detention releasing imperil the quality of treatment, thus predisposing to the treatment failure. Social, educational support and the substitutive therapy and withdrawal techniques (tobacco, alcohol, psycho-active substances) must be implemented in the high risk groups in order to diminish the risk of treatment failure and to increase the treatment success rate. The study of exogenous risk factors in vulnerable groups

  16. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS HTLV VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  18. A review of the risk factors for lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.

  19. Predictive risk factors for moderate to severe hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Macedo de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe predictive factors for severity of neonataljaundice in newborn infants treated at the University Neonatal Clinic,highlighting maternal, obstetric and neonatal factors. Methods: Acohort retrospective study by means of review of medical charts todefine risk factors associated with moderate and severe jaundice.The cohort consisted of newborns diagnosed with indirect neonatalhyperbilirubinemia and submitted to phototherapy. Risk was classifiedas maternal, prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors; risk estimationwas based on the odds ratio (95% confidence interval; a bi-variantmultivariate regression logistic analysis was applied to variables forp < 0.1. Results: Of 818 babies born during the studied period, 94(11% had jaundice prior to hospital discharge. Phototherapy was usedon 69 (73% patients. Predictive factors for severity were multiparity;prolonged rupture of membranes, dystocia, cephalohematoma, a lowApgar score, prematurity and small-for-date babies. Following birth,breastfeeding, sepsis, Rh incompatibility, and jaundice presentingbefore the third day of life were associated with an increased risk ofhyperbilirubinemia and the need for therapy. Conclusion: Other thanthose characteristics that are singly associated with phototherapy,we concluded that multiparity, presumed neonatal asphyxia, low birthweight and infection are the main predictive factors leading to moderateand severe jaundice in newborn infants in our neonatal unit.

  20. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  1. Superficial fungal infection: prevalence and risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the factors which were significantly associated with the risk of acquisition of dermatophytic infections include age of the child, past history of similar lesion, over-crowding in the home, normal sweat pattern and badly smelling socks among others. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that several risk factors are ...

  2. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Cushman, Mary; Næss, Inger Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much controversy surrounds the association of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline cardiovascular disease risk...... factors and validated VTE events. Definitions were harmonized across studies. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were modeled categorically and continuously using restricted cubic splines. Estimates were obtained for overall VTE, provoked VTE (ie, VTE occurring in the presence of 1 or more...

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Paul Anthikkat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems, housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas, and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children are discussed.

  4. Gender differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Y; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2010-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), traditionally considered a male disease, is also a major threat to women. This review article addresses independent risk factors for CHD that are specific for women as well as non-gender-specific risk factors and how their effects differ between men and women. Although polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women is associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile, current evidence regarding future risk of CHD is conflicting. Preeclampsia is consistently associated with higher risk of CHD later in life. Menopause is associated with an increased risk of CHD, and the earlier the onset of menopause, the larger the risk. Existing data on postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) was inconclusive with regard to possible protection when HT is initiated close to menopause in young peri- or postmenopausal women. Evidence on use of low-dose oral contraceptives strongly suggests no increased risk of CHD. Although levels of physical inactivity are similar for men and women, the higher prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in older women portends a greater risk in women than in men. Additionally, risk factors like smoking, hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels have greater impact in women than in men. This review indicates that acknowledgement of non-gender-specific risk factors in addition to those that are unique to women would help optimize diagnosis, treatment and earlier prevention of CHD in women. Further research is needed to ascertain if incorporating these gender-specific risks into a clinically used risk stratification model would change outcome in women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors and predictors of dementia and cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper

    the most prevalent dementia type, is the only cause of death among the top 10 killers in the United States that cannot be prevented, cured, or even delayed. The knowledge of risk and protective factors is therefore especially important for the development of prevention strategies, as prevention by risk...... factor intervention, is considered the key to a better control of the epidemic. Women outlive men on average, however they have poorer health status. Moreover, women have an elevated risk of dementia. This clearly justifies an increased focus on dementia specifically for women. In the development of new......, are required to ensure that the new drugs are tested on the right patients at the right time. The aims of this thesis were: i) to identify risk factors for all cause and differential dementia diagnoses, ii) to identify risk factors associated with progression from normal cognition to dementia within the follow...

  6. Early childhood risk factors for rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben

    2017-01-01

    the risk factors for non-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children finding family history of atopic diseases and gender to be of importance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors in early life for rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Methods......Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis is a global health problem and one of the most common chronic conditions in children. Development of rhinoconjunctivitis depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Many studies have investigated rhinoconjunctivitis, but only few studies have evaluated...... between early-life risk factors and the development of rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence. Results: Follow-up rate at 14-years was 66.2%. The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 32.8%. Family history of atopic diseases (aOR 2.25), atopic dermatitis (aOR 3.24), food...

  7. [Risk factors for tardive movement disorders in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenback, D E; Bakker, P R; van Harten, P N

    2015-01-01

    Tardive movement disorders are common among patients with schizophrenia. Risk factors for movement disorders are of the utmost importance in the context of preventive strategies. To achieve clearer classification of movement disorders in schizophrenia, to identify the risk factors involved and thereby develop strategies to prevent movement disorders. We searched PubMed for prospective studies which had been performed in homogeneous target populations with schizophrenia and which contained well-defined definitions of the movement disorders. From these we selected studies in which risk factors were repeatedly identified. Tardive dyskinesia is well documented. Risk factors for developing tardive dyskinesia are use of antipsychotics, particularly those belonging to the first generation, 'not belonging to the Caucasian race', early extrapyramidal symptoms and older age. So far, there is very little conclusive evidence regarding the genetics of tardive movement disorders. With regard to tardive dyskinesia, not belonging to the Caucasian race and old age are two risk factors that can be quickly determined for the purpose of prevention. In this case it leads to the choice of medication with a low D2 affinity. Furthermore, it is advisable, after commencing treatment with an antipsychotic drug, to evaluate on a regular basis if the patient is showing (early) signs of TD. If TD does occur, there is a choice between medication with a low D-2 affinity or clozapine.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  9. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  10. Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infection After Living-donor Liver Transplantation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kensuke; Funaki, Takanori; Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Fukuda, Akinari; Vaida, Florin; Ito, Kenta; Miyairi, Isao; Saitoh, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative bloodstream infection (BSI) is the most important determinant of recipient morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Children who underwent LT are at the highest risk of developing BSI because of the significant surgical intervention, use of multiple devices, and administration of immunosuppressive agents. However, information regarding the risk factors for BSI in children after LT is limited. We retrospectively reviewed 210 children who underwent living-donor LT at the largest pediatric LT center in Japan. Patients' characteristics, blood culture results and clinical outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for BSI. Among the 210 LT recipients, 53 (25%) recipients experienced 86 episodes of BSI during the observational period. The source of the BSI was identified only in 38%: catheter-related BSI (27%) peritonitis (7%), urinary tract infection (2%), pneumonia (1%) and infectious endocarditis (1%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that body weight (P = 0.03), volume of blood loss during LT (P 24 months), blood loss and pediatric end-stage liver disease/model for end-stage liver disease versus positive CMV antigenemia. The volume of blood loss, postoperative CMV antigenemia positivity and body weight were associated with the development of BSI after LT in pediatric living-donor recipients. To identify the age-specific predictors of BSI in children who underwent LT, age-specific analyses are crucial.

  11. Cancer risk factors in Korean news media: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Shim, Minsun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

  12. Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Amhara National ... risk factors of MDR-TB patients in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. ... strict adherence to directly observed therapy, appropriate management of TB ...

  13. Risk factors for surgical site infections following clean orthopaedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for surgical site infections following clean orthopaedic operations. ... the host and environmental risk factors for surgical site infections following clean ... Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who satisfied the inclusion ...

  14. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  15. From Risk factors to health resources in medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Hanne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2000-01-01

    autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis......autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis...

  16. Strong compound-risk factors: efficient discovery through emerging patterns and contrast sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyan; Yang, Qiang

    2007-09-01

    Odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) (risk ratio), and absolute risk reduction (ARR) (risk difference) are biostatistics measurements that are widely used for identifying significant risk factors in dichotomous groups of subjects. In the past, they have often been used to assess simple risk factors. In this paper, we introduce the concept of compound-risk factors to broaden the applicability of these statistical tests for assessing factor interplays. We observe that compound-risk factors with a high risk ratio or a big risk difference have an one-to-one correspondence to strong emerging patterns or strong contrast sets-two types of patterns that have been extensively studied in the data mining field. Such a relationship has been unknown to researchers in the past, and efficient algorithms for discovering strong compound-risk factors have been lacking. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework and a new algorithm that unify the discovery of compound-risk factors that have a strong OR, risk ratio, or a risk difference. Our method guarantees that all patterns meeting a certain test threshold can be efficiently discovered. Our contribution thus represents the first of its kind in linking the risk ratios and ORs to pattern mining algorithms, making it possible to find compound-risk factors in large-scale data sets. In addition, we show that using compound-risk factors can improve classification accuracy in probabilistic learning algorithms on several disease data sets, because these compound-risk factors capture the interdependency between important data attributes.

  17. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  18. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions

    OpenAIRE

    Nefiodov, A. V.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron $g$ factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron $g$ factor in highly charged ions.

  19. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefiodov, A V; Plunien, G; Soff, G

    2002-08-19

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron g factor in highly charged ions.

  20. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig

    2010-01-01

    pronounced in fat and unfit children based on the association with CRP levels. The association between fitness and fatness variables, insulin resistance, and clustered risk could be caused by other mechanisms related to these exposures. The role of IL-6 remains unclear.......The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross......-sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...

  1. Vascular Risk Factors and Clinical Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Y. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contributions of vascular risk factors to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA are not known.Methods: We studied 319 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3, and 6 and repeatedly measured clinical severity using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA for 2 years. Vascular risk factors were summarized by CHA2DS2-VASc scores as the vascular risk factor index. We employed regression models to study the effects of vascular risk factors on ataxia onset and progression after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. Our secondary analyses took hyperlipidemia into account.Results: Nearly 60% of SCA participants were at low vascular risks with CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, and 31% scored 2 or greater. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores were not associated with either earlier onset or faster progression of ataxia. These findings were not altered after accounting for hyperlipidemia. Discussion: Vascular risks are not common in SCAs and are not associated with earlier onset or faster ataxia progression.

  2. On the use of sibling recurrence risks to select environmental factors liable to interact with genetic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazma, Rémi; Bonaïti-Pellié, Catherine; Norris, Jill M; Génin, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions are likely to be involved in the susceptibility to multifactorial diseases but are difficult to detect. Available methods usually concentrate on some particular genetic and environmental factors. In this paper, we propose a new method to determine whether a given exposure is susceptible to interact with unknown genetic factors. Rather than focusing on a specific genetic factor, the degree of familial aggregation is used as a surrogate for genetic factors. A test comparing the recurrence risks in sibs according to the exposure of indexes is proposed and its power is studied for varying values of model parameters. The Exposed versus Unexposed Recurrence Analysis (EURECA) is valuable for common diseases with moderate familial aggregation, only when the role of exposure has been clearly outlined. Interestingly, accounting for a sibling correlation for the exposure increases the power of EURECA. An application on a sample ascertained through one index affected with type 2 diabetes is presented where gene-environment interactions involving obesity and physical inactivity are investigated. Association of obesity with type 2 diabetes is clearly evidenced and a potential interaction involving this factor is suggested in Hispanics (P=0.045), whereas a clear gene-environment interaction is evidenced involving physical inactivity only in non-Hispanic whites (P=0.028). The proposed method might be of particular interest before genetic studies to help determine the environmental risk factors that will need to be accounted for to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors and to select the most appropriate samples to genotype.

  3. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  4. [Chronic kidney disease in Primary Health Care: prevalence and associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador González, Betlem; Rodríguez Pascual, Mercedes; Ruipérez Guijarro, Laura; Ferré González, Antonia; Cunillera Puertolas, Oriol; Rodríguez Latre, Luisa M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in subjects over 60 years of age, as well as its staging by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional observational study. Primary Health Care. Patients≥60 years of age who were seen in 40 Primary Health Care centres with serum creatinine measured in a central laboratory between January 1 and December 31, 2010. kidney transplant, home care. Social-demographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases established according to electronic clinical records. Serum creatinine was measured using standardised Jaffe kinetic method, and GFR estimated with MDRD-4-IDMS and CKD-EPI. A total of 97,665 subjects (57.3% women, median age 70.0 years [Q1: 65.0, Q3: 77.0]). GFR-MDRD prevalence<60=15.1% (16.6% in women, 13.2% in men; P<.001) and increased with age. Multivariate analysis showed a positive association between GFR-MDRD<60 and age (OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.70 to 1.77), hypertension (OR=2.18; 95% CI 2.08 to 2.30), heart failure (OR=2.03; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.25), atrial fibrillation (OR=1.57; 95% CI 1.41 to 1.76), ischaemic heart disease (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.50), peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.57), dyslipidaemia (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.33), diabetes (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.34), and stroke (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.25). The GFR-CKD-EPI model showed an increase in OR with age and male sex, that became significant as a chronic kidney disease risk factor. Chronic kidney disease has considerable prevalence in subjects≥60 years seen in Primary Health Care, more in women, and increasing with age. Hypertension, more than diabetes, was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Assessment of Girls : Are There Any Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Re-offending and in Risk Profiles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Dekovic, Maja; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Langewouters, Femke E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate sex differences in risk factors for re-offending and (b) to provide a risk assessment model for girls. The data of 1,396 adolescents who committed a criminal offense were examined. Both generic and sex-specific risk factors for re-offending were found.

  6. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  8. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares Fernandez, Tomasa Maria; Correa Lozano, Zoila; Ibarra Fernandez de la Vega, Enrique Jose; Bonet Gorbea Mariano

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  9. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  10. Low bone density risk is higher in exercising women with multiple triad risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jenna C; Nattiv, Aurelia; Barrack, Michelle T; Williams, Nancy I; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The cumulative effect of the female athlete triad (Triad) risk factors on the likelihood of low bone mineral density (BMD) in exercising women is unclear. This study aimed to determine the risk of low BMD in exercising women with multiple Triad risk factors. We retrospectively examined cross-sectional data from 437 exercising women (mean ± SD age of 18.0 ± 3.5 yr, weighed 57.5 ± 7.1 kg with 24.5% ± 6.1% body fat) obtained at baseline from 4 prospective cohort studies examining Triad risk factors. Questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographic characteristics, self-reported eating attitudes/behaviors, menstrual function, sport/activity participation, and medication use. Height and body weight were measured. BMD was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as z-scores of exercising women. Further research should be conducted to develop a user-friendly algorithm integrating these indicators of risk for low BMD in exercising women (particularly factors associated with low BMI/body weight, menstrual dysfunction, lean sport/activity participation, and elevated dietary restraint).

  11. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  12. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  13. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  14. Risk Factors for Hip Fracture in Japanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamashita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for hip fracture in Japanese older populations are understudied compared with Western countries arguably due to the relatively lower prevalence rates in Japan. Nationally representative data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging were analyzed using logistic regression to examine possible risk factors of hip fractures, separately for older women (n = 2,859 and older men (n = 2,108. Results showed that older Japanese women with difficulty bending their knees (OR = 1.9, with diabetes (OR = 1.7 times, and/or with more activity of daily living limitations (OR = 1.1 had higher risks of hip fracture. Older Japanese men with difficulty bending their knees (OR = 2.6, who use more external prescription drugs (OR = 1.9, and with cancer (OR = 2.0 times had higher risks of hip fracture. Further considerations of gender- and culture-specific factors along with the identified risk factors may provide insights into future intervention programs for hip fracture in Japanese older populations.

  15. Risk factors of neurosensory disturbance following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolayan, Albraa Badr; Leung, Yiu Yan

    2014-01-01

    To report the incidence of objective and subjective neurosensory disturbance (NSD) after orthognathic surgery in a major orthognathic centre in Hong Kong, and to investigate the risk factors that contributed to the incidence of NSD after orthognathic surgery. A retrospective cross-sectional study on NSD after orthognathic surgery in a local major orthognathic centre. Patients who had bimaxillary orthognathic surgery reviewed at post-operative 6 months, 12 months or 24 months were recruited to undergo neurosensory tests with subjective and 3 objective assessments. Possible risk factors of NSD including subjects' age and gender, surgical procedures and surgeons' experience were analyzed. 238 patients with 476 sides were recruited. The incidences of subjective NSD after maxillary procedures were 16.2%, 13% and 9.8% at post-operative 6 months, 12 months and 24 months, respectively; the incidences of subjective NSD after mandibular procedures were 35.4%, 36.6% and 34.6% at post-operative 6 months, 12 months and 24 months, respectively. Increased age was found to be a significant risk factor of NSD after orthognathic surgery at short term (at 6 months and 12 months) but not at 24 months. SSO has a significantly higher risk of NSD when compared to VSSO. SSO in combination with anterior mandibular surgery has a higher risk of NSD when compared to VSSO in combination with anterior mandibular surgery or anterior mandibular surgery alone. Gender of patients and surgeons' experience were not found to be risk factors of NSD after orthognathic surgery. The incidence of NSD after maxillary and mandibular orthognathic procedures at post-operative 6 months, 12 months and 24 months was reported. Increased age was identified as a risk factor of short term post-operative NSD but not in long term (24 months or more). Specific mandibular procedures were related to higher incidence of NSD after orthognathic surgery.

  16. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  17. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, James, E-mail: james.renaud@mail.mcgill.ca; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Sarfehnia, Arman [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Marchant, Kristin [Allan Blair Cancer Centre, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Regina, Saskatchewan S4T 7T1, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A1 (Canada); McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. Methods: A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Results: The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9–20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%–0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%–0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, k{sub ecal}, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM’s TG-51 protocol

  18. Electronic Cigarette using in Surabaya’s Personal Vaporizer Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apsari Damayanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette is devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. The number of electronic cigarette users is increasing. Data showed an Indonesia electronic cigarette user in 2010 to 2011 is 0,5%. This research was observasional decriptive study and used cross sectional design. This research was conducted to 31 Surabaya’s Personal Vaporizer members. The dependent variable in this study was electronic cigarette using, while independent variable were the knowledge, accessibility and family factor. Data were analyzed by prevalens ratio. The result showed that using of electronic cigarette mostly suffered by respondent age 26 to 35 years old was equal to 54,8%, male (96,8% and educational level was senior high school to university (100%, occupation was employee (71%, had a smoking history (93,6%, and using electronic cigarette for smoking cessation (80,6%. The analyzed with prevalens ratio showed that right knowlegde about electronic cigarette was a protective factor to being using electronic cigarette (PR=0,89, accessibility ≤ Rp 100.000 was a risk to being using electronic cigarette, and family was a protective factor to being using electronic cigarette (PR=0,95. From all variable which were studied, only accessibility that a risk factor with electronic cigarette using. Therefore, education about electronic cigarette haved to do and controlling toward electronic cigarette user needed to do.   Keywords : electronic cigarette, accessibility, community, knowledge, behavior

  19. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  20. Factors Influencing Consumer-Perceived Risk in E-Commerce Transactions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, electronic commerce has become one of the fastest growing markets in China and it is still growing at a dramatic speed. E-commerce introduces a convenient way for consumers to do shopping. During the online transaction processes, different types of risks are perceived by consumers due to the uncontrollable aspects of the Internet. The facets of perceived risk include social risk, financial risk, performance risk, psychological risk, privacy risk and time risk. This resea...

  1. Voice disorders in teachers: occupational risk factors and psycho-emotional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houtte, Evelyne; Claeys, Sofie; Wuyts, Floris; van Lierde, Kristiane

    2012-10-01

    Teaching is a high-risk occupation for developing voice disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate previously described vocal risk factors as well as to identify new risk factors related to both the personal life of the teacher (fluid intake, voice-demanding activities, family history of voice disorders, and children at home) and to environmental factors (temperature changes, chalk use, presence of curtains, carpet, or air-conditioning, acoustics in the classroom, and noise in and outside the classroom). The study group comprised 994 teachers (response rate 46.6%). All participants completed a questionnaire. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 51.2% (509/994) of the teachers presented with voice disorders. Women reported more voice disorders compared to men (56.4% versus 40.4%, P history of voice disorders (P = 0.005), temperature changes in the classroom (P = 0.017), the number of pupils per classroom (P = 0.001), and noise level inside the classroom (P = 0.001). Teachers with voice disorders presented a higher level of psychological distress (P < 0.001) compared to teachers without voice problems. Voice disorders are frequent among teachers, especially in female teachers. The results of this study emphasize that multiple factors are involved in the development of voice disorders.

  2. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  3. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors...

  4. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in prolonged fever ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ifiable risk factors for the infection in humans in post conflict Northern Uganda. Methods: The .... models. Goodness of fit for the final model was assessed using Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test. Results .... Quantifying risk factors.

  6. Incidence and risk factors of neonatal thrombocytopenia: a pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kusumasari

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 12.2%. Significant risk factor of mother that caused thrombocytopenia was pre-eclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:31-7].

  7. The Structural Characterisation of Risk in the R&D Process of Functional Raw Materials for Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Chikamori, Yoji; Nasu, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    The electronic materials and electronics device industries remain important to Japan in spite of the general decline of the Japanese electronics industry. There is risk and uncertainty when developing functional materials in the electronics industry. However, studies examining the uncertainty and risk variables in the development of functional materials are scarce. This study examines incremental research and development (R&D) developed for raw functional materials for electronics. Our analys...

  8. Risk factors for exclusive e-cigarette use and dual e-cigarette use and tobacco use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Williams, Rebecca J; Pagano, Ian; Sargent, James D

    2015-01-01

    To describe electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cigarette use among adolescents and determine whether established risk factors for smoking discriminate user categories. School-based survey of 1941 high school students (mean age 14.6 years) in Hawaii; data collected in 2013. The survey assessed e-cigarette use and cigarette use, alcohol and marijuana use, and psychosocial risk and protective variables (eg, parental support, academic involvement, smoking expectancies, peer smoking, sensation seeking). Analysis of variance and multinomial regression examined variation in risk and protective variables across the following categories of ever-use: e-cigarette only, cigarette only, dual use (use of both products), and nonuser (never used either product). Prevalence for the categories was 17% (e-cigarettes only), 12% (dual use), 3% (cigarettes only), and 68% (nonusers). Dual users and cigarette-only users were highest on risk status (elevated on risk factors and lower on protective factors) compared with other groups. E-cigarette only users were higher on risk status than nonusers but lower than dual users. E-cigarette only users and dual users more often perceived e-cigarettes as healthier than cigarettes compared with nonusers. This study reports a US adolescent sample with one of the largest prevalence rates of e-cigarette only use in the existing literature. Dual use also had a substantial prevalence. The fact that e-cigarette only users were intermediate in risk status between nonusers and dual users raises the possibility that e-cigarettes are recruiting medium-risk adolescents, who otherwise would be less susceptible to tobacco product use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  10. Heart health risk factors in Punjabi early teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mary John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is experiencing an epidemiological health transition characterized by rapid decline in nutritional and parasitic diseases (pre-transitional diseases with an alarming rise in cardiovascular diseases, mainly coronary heart disease and stroke (post-transitional diseases. Many of these risk factors manifesting themselves as diseases in adults can be found during adolescence. Aims: To determine the prevalence of risk factors of heart disease among urban high-school students aged 13-15 yrs in Ludhiana city. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 330 high school-going early teens aged 13-15 years using a pretested questionnaire. Details regarding food habits, physical activity, and family history were collected along with anthropometric measures and blood pressure recordings. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analysed using frequencies and proportion. Chi-square was the test of significance. Results: The prevalence of at least one risk factor in the population was 48.5%. Family history with prevalence of at least one coronary artery disease risk factor was of 27.4%, diabetic parents 12.2%, hypertension 17.6%, and heart disease was 1.8%. Physical inactivity as a risk factor showed an overall prevalence of 73%. Nearly 50% of the students consumed some junk food every day. Only 18.2% consume 3-5 servings of fruits per day, 11.2% do not take any fruits at all. Prevalence of overweight was 11.2% and 4.6% of them were obese. Hypertension was seen in 20.1% of subjects. Conclusions: The present generation of early teens are at high risk of future cardiovascular disease and schools and society need to address these issues urgently.

  11. Analysis of risk factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezević, Sanja; Stojanović, Nadezda; Oros, Ana; Savić, Dragana; Simović, Aleksandra; Knezević, Jasmina

    2011-01-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease that occurs most frequently in very small and very sick preterm infants, and it has been identified as the major cause of childhood blindness. The aim of this study was to evaluate ROP incidence and risk factors associated with varying degrees of illness. The study was conducted at the Centre for Neonatology, Paediatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia, in the period from June 2006 to December 2008. Ophthalmologic screening was performed in all children with body weight lower than 2000 g or gestational age lower than 36 weeks. We analyzed eighteen postnatal and six perinatal risk factors and the group correlations for each of the risk factors. Out of 317 children that were screened, 56 (17.7%) developed a mild form of ROP, while 68 (21.5%) developed a severe form. Univariate analysis revealed a large number of statistically significant risk factors for the development of ROP, especially the severe form. Multivariate logistical analysis further separated two independent risk factors: small birth weight (p = 0.001) and damage of central nervous system (p = 0.01). Independent risk factors for transition from mild to severe forms of ROP were identified as: small birth weight (p = 0.05) and perinatal risk factors (p = 0.02). Small birth weight and central nervous system damage were risk factors for the development of ROP, perinatal risk factors were identified as significant for transition from mild to severe form of ROP.

  12. Mental vulnerability--a risk factor for ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Jørgensen, Torben; Birket-Smith, Morten

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine whether mental vulnerability is a risk factor for the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) after adjustment for well-established risk factors. METHODS: In three prospective cohort studies in Copenhagen County, Denmark, we recorded the level...... of mental vulnerability and possible risk factors to IHD at baseline. For follow-up, the sample was linked to relevant registries to identify all cases of fatal and nonfatal IHD. The relationship between mental vulnerability and IHD was examined using both Kaplan-Meir and Cox proportional hazard models...... adjusting for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: Mental vulnerability was significantly associated with the risk for IHD (medium mental vulnerability: hazard ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.91; and high mental vulnerability: hazard ratio 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.46-2.88), after...

  13. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…

  14. Decreasing prevalence of no known major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Mississippi adults, Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Mississippi. However, the prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults and the change of prevalence in the past 9 years have not been described. We assess changes in prevalence of no known CVD risk factors during 2001 and 2009. Methods Prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity were investigated. Survey respondents who reported having none of these factors were defined as having no known CVD risk factors. Differences in prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were determined using t-test analysis. Results Overall, age-standardized prevalence of having no known CVD risk factors significantly decreased from 17.3% in 2001 to 14.5% in 2009 (p = 0.0091. The age-standardized prevalence of no known CVD risk factors were significantly lower in 2009 than in 2001 among blacks (8.9% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.008; males (13.5% vs. 17.9%, p = 0.0073; individuals with a college degree (25.2%, vs. 30.8%, p = 0.0483; and those with an annual household income of $20,000–$34,999 (11.6% vs. 16.9%, p = 0.0147; and $35,000–$49,999 (15.2% vs. 23.3%, p = 0.0135. Conclusion The prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 with observed differences by race, age group, sex, and annual household income.

  15. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  16. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark....... DESIGN: A retrospective, register-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. METHODS: The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration...

  17. Clinical Symptoms and Risk Factors in Cerebral Microangiopathy Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okroglic, S.; Widmann, C.N.; Urbach, H.; Scheltens, P.; Heneka, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated

  18. Pharmacological undertreatment of coronary risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis have increased prevalence of coronary risk factors and limited recent results have suggested that these risk factors are undertreated in patients with psoriasis. This may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases observed in patients with psoriasis....

  19. Behavior Risk Factors Among Russian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.

  20. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  1. Factors that impact nurses' use of electronic mail (e-mail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J A; Pakieser, R A

    1999-01-01

    As electronic applications are used increasingly in healthcare, nurses are being challenged to adopt them. Electronic mail (e-mail) is an electronic tool with general as well as healthcare uses. E-mail use may be an opportunity to learn a tool that requires skills similar to those used in other applications. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators that impact nurses' use of e-mail in the workplace. Data for this study were gathered using focus group methodology. Content analysis identified and labeled factors into seven major categories. Specific factors identified were generally consistent with those previously described in the literature as affecting use of computers in general. However, there were several additional factors identified that were not reported in other previous studies: lack of face-to-face communication, individual writing skills, recency of any educational experience, volume of mail received, password integrity, and technical support. Findings from this study provide information for any individual involved in introducing or updating an e-mail system in a healthcare environment.

  2. Absorptive form factors for high-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, D.M.; King, Q.A.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal diffuse scattering contribution to the absorptive potential in high-energy electron diffraction is calculated in the form of an absorptive contribution to the atomic form factor. To do this, the Einstein model of lattice vibrations is used, with isotropic Debye-Waller factors. The absorptive form factors are calculated as a function of scattering vector s and temperature factor M on a grid which enables polynomial interpolation of the results to be accurate to better than 2% for much of the ranges 0≤Ms 2 ≤6 and 0≤M≤2 A 2 . The computed values, together with an interpolation routine, have been incorporated into a Fortran subroutine which calculates both the real and absorptive form factors for 54 atomic species. (orig.)

  3. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Constance A; Browne, Edmund Nii Laryea; Spangenberg, Kathryn; Moyer, Cheryl; Kolbilla, David; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire to inquire about risk factors and perception of risk of cervical cancer. Specific risk factors that were explored included early coitarche, multiple sexual partners, polygamous relationships, history of smoking, and having a current partner who had multiple sexual partners. Sixty-one per cent of women reported that they had no personal risk for cervical cancer. 27% of respondents were in polygamous relationships, and of those, more than half didn't think they were at an increased risk of cervical cancer. 2 women had a total of ≥ 5 sexual partners in their lifetime and neither believed they were at any risk for cervical cancer. 23% said their current partner had had at least 2 sexual partners in his lifetime, and of those, (61%) thought they were at no risk for cervical cancer. 46% of respondents reported not having any of the risk factors listed in the study. 23% of respondents reported having one risk factor while 21% had two risk factors and 11% had three or more risk factors. Women's perception of personal risk for cervical cancer is lower than their actual risk based on the five behavioural risk factors assessed and a lack of knowledge of the personal factors for the disease. This project was supported by NIH Research Training Grant #R25 TW009345 funded by the Fogarty International Centre, in partnership with several NIH Institutes (NIMH, NIGMS, NHLBI, OAR and OWH).

  4. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En XU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, obesity, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, alcoholism, metabolic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc. Meanwhile, hypertension is the most important one in the above-mentioned risk factors. It would effectively reduce or postpone the onset of cerebrovascular diseases through proper intervention and management on those risk factors. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.006

  5. Risk Factors to Growth Retardation in Major Thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Uda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing in the life span of patients with major thalassemia should be followed by increased quality of life. There are factors which can affect growth retardation in these patients. The aim of this study was to find out the risk factors for growth retardation in patients with major thalassemia. An analytical study with cross-sectional design was conducted at Pediatric Thalassemia Clinics of Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, in June to July 2006. The subjects of this study were patients with major thalassemia. Inclusion criteria’s were age under 14 years old, had no chronic diseases like tuberculosis, cerebral palsy with complete medical records. Risk factors were the timing of diagnosis, initial and dose of deferoxamine, volume of transfused blood, mean pretransfusion hemoglobin level, family income, and age. Antropometric measurement indices were used to assess the growth which expressed in Z score. Growth evaluated based on height/age (H/A and growth retardation if H/A <-2 SD. Risk factors for growth retardation were analyzed separately using chi-square test and odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Then they were analyzed simultaneously with logistic regression method. Subjects consisted of 152 patients with major thalassemia. Seventy three thalassemia patients were stunted. Analysis showed that age (OR: 5.42, 95% CI:2.32–12.65, p <0.001, dosage of deferoxamine (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 1.29–12.41, p: 0.016, and family income (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06–5.06, p: 0.036 were risks factors for growth retardation. Conclusion, risk factors for growth retardation in major thalassemia are age, dosage of deferoxamine, and family income.

  6. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  7. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  8. Fall risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P; Hildebrand, K

    2000-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.

  9. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors Prospectively Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder: Taking Stock and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Byrd, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify signs that harbinger onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Advancement in this area is required to refine developmental theories, discover etiological mechanisms, improve early detection, and achieve our ultimate goal of prevention. Though many studies have supported a wide range of factors that increase subsequent risk for BPD, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that examine and integrate these findings. To address this limitation, we conducted a systematic review to summarize and synthesize the current literature. Electronic databases were systematically searched for prospective, longitudinal studies that examined risk factors of subsequent BPD outcomes (features, symptoms, diagnosis) resulting in a total of 39 studies, reflecting 24 unique samples. Though increased risk for BPD was reliably attributed to multiple factors within social, family, maltreatment, and child domains, the most striking limitation of this research is its lack of disorder-specific findings Additional limitations, including notable heterogeneity in sampling methodology, symptom assessment methodology, and developmental timing of assessments, are discussed in terms of how close are we to pinpointing who is most at risk and why in an attempt to provide a roadmap for future research. PMID:27709988

  10. A systematic review of risk factors prospectively associated with borderline personality disorder: Taking stock and moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Lazarus, Sophie A; Byrd, Amy L

    2016-10-01

    There is an urgent need to identify signs that harbinger onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Advancement in this area is required to refine developmental theories, discover etiological mechanisms, improve early detection, and achieve our ultimate goal of prevention. Though many studies have supported a wide range of factors that increase subsequent risk for BPD, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that examine and integrate these findings. To address this limitation, we conducted a systematic review to summarize and synthesize the current literature. Electronic databases were systematically searched for prospective, longitudinal studies that examined risk factors of subsequent BPD outcomes (features, symptoms, diagnosis), resulting in a total of 39 studies, reflecting 24 unique samples. Though increased risk for BPD was reliably attributed to multiple factors within social, family, maltreatment, and child domains, the most striking limitation of this research is its lack of disorder-specific findings. Additional limitations, including notable heterogeneity in sampling methodology, symptom assessment methodology, and developmental timing of assessments, are discussed in terms of how close we are to pinpointing who is most at risk and why in an attempt to provide a roadmap for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low......- and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same methodology provide empirical evidence of social inequality in oral health across countries...... and across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental...

  12. Risk factors for miscarriage from a prevention perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Andersen, Per Kragh; Strandberg-Larsen, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors for miscarriage and to estimate the preventable proportion of miscarriages that could be attributed to these. DESIGN: Nationwide observational follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: Ninety-one thousand four hundred and twenty seven pregnancies...... included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. METHODS: Information on potentially modifiable risk factors before and during pregnancy was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews and linkage with Danish registers, ensuring almost complete follow-up of pregnancy...... outcome. Modifiable risk factors for miscarriage were identified by multiple Cox regression analysis, which provided the background for our estimations of population attributable fractions. In all, 88 373 pregnancies had full information on all covariates and were included in this analysis. MAIN OUTCOME...

  13. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis ... pathogenesis and risk factors which predispose to the .... of subjects in both 9roups fell within the 15 - 85th percentiles. .... findings are in any way influenced by anatomical posture changes ...

  14. What does my patient's coronary artery calcium score mean? Combining information from the coronary artery calcium score with information from conventional risk factors to estimate coronary heart disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pletcher Mark J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to produce post-test risk estimates, and to determine whether the score may add clinically useful information. Methods We measured the independent cross-sectional associations between conventional cardiac risk factors and the CAC score among asymptomatic persons referred for non-contrast electron beam computed tomography. Using the resulting multivariable models and published CAC score-specific relative risk estimates, we estimated post-test coronary heart disease risk in a number of different scenarios. Results Among 9341 asymptomatic study participants (age 35–88 years, 40% female, we found that conventional coronary heart disease risk factors including age, male sex, self-reported hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were independent predictors of the CAC score, and we used the resulting multivariable models for predicting post-test risk in a variety of scenarios. Our models predicted, for example, that a 60-year-old non-smoking non-diabetic women with hypertension and high cholesterol would have a 47% chance of having a CAC score of zero, reducing her 10-year risk estimate from 15% (per Framingham to 6–9%; if her score were over 100, however (a 17% chance, her risk estimate would be markedly higher (25–51% in 10 years. In low risk scenarios, the CAC score is very likely to be zero or low, and unlikely to change management. Conclusion Combining information from the CAC score with information from conventional risk factors can change assessment of coronary heart disease risk to an extent that may be clinically important, especially when the pre-test 10-year risk estimate is intermediate. The attached spreadsheet makes these calculations easy.

  15. ART attrition and risk factors among Option B+ patients in Haiti: A retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health endorsed the "Option B+" strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and achieve HIV epidemic control. The objective of this paper is to assess and identify risk factors for attrition from the national ART program among Option B+ patients in the 12 months after ART initiation.This retrospective cohort study included patients newly initiating ART from October 2012-August 2013 at 68 ART sites covering 45% of all newly enrolled ART patients in all regions of Haiti.With data from electronic medical records, we carried out descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy-related correlates of ART attrition, and used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks in a multivariable model.There were 2,166 Option B+ patients who initiated ART, of whom 1,023 were not retained by 12 months (47.2%. One quarter (25.3% dropped out within 3 months of ART initiation. Protective factors included older age, more advanced HIV disease progression, and any adherence counseling prior to ART initiation, while risk factors included starting ART late in gestation, starting ART within 7 days of HIV testing, and using an atypical ART regimen.Our study demonstrates early ART attrition among Option B+ patients and contributes evidence on the characteristics of women who are most at risk of attrition in Haiti. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted strategies to support retention among Option B+ patients.

  16. Risk analysis-based food safety policy: scientific factors versus socio-cultural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, P.; Knapen, van F.; Brom, F.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in risk management and the need to incorporate these factors in a standard, internationally recognized (wto) framework. This was achieved by analysing the relevance of these factors in 3 cases
    The purpose of

  17. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  18. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  19. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  20. A meta-analysis of risk factors for combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xue

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Combat-Related PTSD among Military Personnel and Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Kang, Peng; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex and chronic disorder caused by exposure to a traumatic event, is a common psychological result of current military operations. It causes substantial distress and interferes with personal and social functioning. Consequently, identifying the risk factors that make military personnel and veterans more likely to experience PTSD is of academic, clinical, and social importance. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) were used to search for observational studies (cross-sectional, retrospective, and cohort studies) about PTSD after deployment to combat areas. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted by two of the authors independently. Thirty-two articles were included in this study. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed. The prevalence of combat-related PTSD ranged from 1.09% to 34.84%. A total of 18 significant predictors of PTSD among military personnel and veterans were found. Risk factors stemming from before the trauma include female gender, ethnic minority status, low education, non-officer ranks, army service, combat specialization, high numbers of deployments, longer cumulative length of deployments, more adverse life events, prior trauma exposure, and prior psychological problems. Various aspects of the trauma period also constituted risk factors. These include increased combat exposure, discharging a weapon, witnessing someone being wounded or killed, severe trauma, and deployment-related stressors. Lastly, lack of post-deployment support during the post-trauma period also increased the risk of PTSD. The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for combat-related PTSD in military personnel and veterans. More research is needed to determine how these variables interact and how to best protect against susceptibility to PTSD. PMID

  2. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...

  3. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  4. Risk factors for fever and sepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aso Omer Rashid

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: DM, staghorn stones, degree of hydronephrosis, duration of the operation and number of tracts are risk factors for post PCNL fever, while number of stones, intraoperative blood loss, duration of the operation and residual stones are risk factors for post PCNL sepsis.

  5. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Key words: Diabetes mellitus, gestation, risk factors, Sudan. INTRODUCTION. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a universal risk factor for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.[1] Low gestational age, neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome are frequent complications of GDM and ...

  6. Simplifying the audit of risk factor recording and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Min; Cooney, Marie Therese; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To simplify the assessment of the recording and control of coronary heart disease risk factors in different countries and regions. DESIGN: The SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) is an international clinical audit. METHODS: Data on consecutive patients with established coronary heart disease...

  7. Risk factors of recurrent hamstring injuries: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. de Visser (H.); M. Reijman (Max); M.P. Heijboer (Rien); P.K. Bos (Koen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Although recurrent hamstring injury is a frequent problem with a significant impact on athletes, data on factors determining the risk for a recurrent hamstring injury are scarce. Objective To systematically review the literature and provide an overview of risk factors for

  8. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sallé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR, the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR. Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02. Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p < 0.01. This is the first empirical risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Keywords: Horse, Nematode, Anthelmintic resistance, Strongyle, Cyathostomin

  9. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  10. Analysis of risk factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a multifactorial disease that occurs most frequently in very small and very sick preterm infants, and it has been identified as the major cause of childhood blindness. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate ROP incidence and risk factors associated with varying degrees of illness. Methods. The study was conducted at the Centre for Neonatology, Paediatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia, in the period from June 2006 to December 2008. Ophthalmologic screening was performed in all children with body weight lower than 2000 g or gestational age lower than 36 weeks. We analyzed eighteen postnatal and six perinatal risk factors and the group correlations for each of the risk factors. Results. Out of 317 children that were screened, 56 (17.7% developed a mild form of ROP, while 68 (21.5% developed a severe form. Univariate analysis revealed a large number of statistically significant risk factors for the development of ROP, especially the severe form. Multivariate logistical analysis further separated two independent risk factors: small birth weight (p=0.001 and damage of central nervous system (p=0.01. Independent risk factors for transition from mild to severe forms of ROP were identified as: small birth weight (p=0.05 and perinatal risk factors (p=0.02. Conclusion. Small birth weight and central nervous system damage were risk factors for the development of ROP, perinatal risk factors were identified as significant for transition from mild to severe form of ROP.

  11. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) in children and ... had none of the risk factors while 272(30.9%) had at least one risk factor. Using the American Diabetes Association criteria for identification of those at risk for ...

  12. Primary Hyperaldosteronism As A Risk Factor For Recurrent Nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekamol Tantisattamo

    2012-06-01

    Hyperaldosteronism can cause hypercalciuria, phosphaturia, and hypocitraturia, all of which are risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Additionally, hyperaldosteronism and deoxycorticosterone mediated hypertension have been associated with hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Our case augments earlier literature suggesting increased risk for nephrolithiasis in patients with hyperaldosteronism and suggests that hyperaldosteronism should be considered as a risk factor for patient with nephrolithiasis. It remains unclear if both primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism increase the relative risk for nephrolithiasis and the role of aldosterone receptor antagonist therapy for recurrent nephrolithiasis associated with hyperaldosteronism.

  13. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Karim Tourkmani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases, incomplete medical notes (5 cases and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases. We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS: Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P0.05 between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05, although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION: After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.

  14. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis.......A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...

  15. The risk factors of acute attack of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiei Sohrab

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: Many people suffer from vertigo. Its origin in 85% of cases is otological while in 15% is central etiology. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is the most common cause of the true vertigo. In this research we evaluated the risk factors of acute attack of BPPV. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 322 patients, presenting with BPPV. Diagnosis was confirmed by history and Dix-Hallpike manoeuvre. The underling risk factors documented carefully. Data analyzed by SPSS and K.square test. Results: Number of 321 patients (including 201 females and 120 males with BPPV included in our study. Their average age was 41. They showed symptoms for 1 month to 15 years (mean 8 months. Emotional stress was positive in 34% and trauma was the only risk factor in 8.12% patients. Ear surgery and prolonged journey were respectively the main risk factors in 7.2 and 12.8% of patients. Conclusion: The confirmed risk factors of acute attack of BPPV were as trauma, major surgery and ear surgery especially stapedotomy, vestibular  neuronitis and prolonged bedrestriction. Meniere was not considered as risk factor. In our study the psychological conflict was the major risk factor for BPPV. Other new risk factors which introduced for first time included; sleep disorder, fatigue, professional sport, starving and prolonged journey.

  16. Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Bangladesh: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sal-sabil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the most significant public health challenge in developing countries. The risk factors for diabetes are poorly understood among the Bangladeshi population. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. A systematic review was performed. Studies describing the risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh published between 1994 to 2014 were included and summarized. Of the 35 studies identified, we included 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was higher among females compared to males. Fourteen common risk factors for diabetes in Bangladesh were identified, namely increased age, obesity, waist- hip ratio, social class, hypertension, family history, sedentary life style among others. The p otential risk factors differed by urban-rural areas and by gender. Several risk factors contribute to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Our reviews suggest "metabolically-disadvantageous" body composition of more abdominal and visceral fat in Bangladeshi adults might cause higher diabetes risk at a lower BMI compared to Western population. Preventive strategies targeting to control risk factors for diabetes is a priority public health issue and should be considered for early intervention by clinicians and policy makers.

  17. Risk factors for burnout among caregivers working in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelman, Nadia; Mazars, Thierry; Levy, Antonin

    2018-01-01

    (i) To assess the level of burnout in nursing home caregivers within a unique healthcare network in France and (ii) to evaluate potential risk factors in this population. Burnout syndrome occurs frequently among nursing home caregivers and has strong detrimental effects on the quality of health care for residents. We used an observational survey to study burnout in nursing home caregivers. The survey was used to quantify burnout level (Maslach Burnout Inventory) and potential risk factors and was implemented from October 2013-April 2014. A logistic regression was used to explore the association between burnout and its risk factors. Three hundred and sixty questionnaires were delivered to caregivers in 14 nursing homes within a unique healthcare network. The response rate was 37% (132/360), and 124/132 (94%) surveys were analysed. Caregiver burnout rate was 40% (49/124). Median age was 41 years (range, 20-70) and most caregivers were female. The most common profession (n = 54; 44%) was nurse caregiver and 90% (n = 112) had an antecedent of bullying by a resident. Risk factors identified were as follows: the presence of institutional protocols (death announcement [OR: 3.7] and pain assessment [OR: 2.8]), working in a profit-making establishment (OR: 2.6) and the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 6.2). Factors most negatively associated with burnout included: practising pastimes (OR: 0.4) and working as a nurse (OR: 0.3). The only significant risk factor in the multivariate analysis was the antecedent of bullying by a resident (OR: 5.3). Several specific risk factors for burnout in nursing home caregivers were identified. In high-risk populations of healthcare professionals, screening and management of risk factors is crucial for preventing burnout. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Risk Factors and In-Hospital Outcomes following Tracheostomy in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Smith, P Brian; Quek, M Bin Huey; Laughon, Matthew M; Clark, Reese H; Hornik, Christoph P

    2016-06-01

    To describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and in-hospital outcomes of tracheostomy in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. We analyzed electronic medical records from 348 neonatal intensive care units for the period 1997 to 2012, and evaluated the associations among infant demographics, diagnoses, and pretracheostomy cardiopulmonary support with in-hospital mortality. We also determined the trends in use of infant tracheostomy over time. We identified 885 of 887 910 infants (0.1%) who underwent tracheostomy at a median postnatal age of 72 days (IQR, 27-119 days) and a median postmenstrual age of 42 weeks (IQR, 39-46 weeks). The most common diagnoses associated with tracheostomy were bronchopulmonary dysplasia (396 of 885; 45%), other upper airway anomalies (202 of 885; 23%), and laryngeal anomalies (115 of 885; 13%). In-hospital mortality after tracheostomy was 14% (125 of 885). On adjusted analysis, near-term gestational age (GA), small for GA status, pulmonary diagnoses, number of days of forced fraction of inspired oxygen >0.4, and inotropic support before tracheostomy were associated with increased in-hospital mortality. The proportion of infants requiring tracheostomy increased from 0.01% in 1997 to 0.1% in 2005 (P Tracheostomy is not commonly performed in hospitalized infants, but the associated mortality is high. Risk factors for increased in-hospital mortality after tracheostomy include near-term GA, small for GA status, and pulmonary diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  20. Risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessler, Bodil; Bock, David; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this was to assess potential risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery in a national cohort. METHODS: All patients, who had undergone a resection of a large bowel segment with an anastomosis between 2008 and 2011, were identified in the Swedish Colon Cancer...... Registry. Patient factors, socioeconomic factors, surgical factors, and medication and hospital data were combined to evaluate risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence. RESULTS: The prevalence of anastomotic dehiscence was 4.3 % (497/11 565). Male sex, ASA classification III-IV, prescribed medications...

  1. Psychosocial risk factors and personality disorders in outpatient cardiology setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2015-01-01

    Psychological risk factors and personality disorders comorbidities are more frequent than psychological risk factors only or personality disorders only in outpatient cardiology setting without cardiovascular diseases.

  2. The association between preoperative clinical risk factors and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yoshan Moodley

    Therefore, it is important to determine what risk factors are associated with ... Background: Current surgical management of carotid artery disease includes carotid endarterectomy (CEA). In-hospital ... medical records relating to clinical risk factors in patients, preinduction BP measurements, and in-hospital strokes and death,.

  3. Awareness of risk factors for loneliness among third agers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.C.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Fokkema, T.

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of risk factors for loneliness is a prerequisite for preventive action. Many risk factors for loneliness have been identified. This paper focuses on two: poor health and widowhood. Preventive action by developing a satisfying social network requires time and effort and thus seems

  4. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    In-Fun Li; Yvonne Hsiung; Hui-Fen Hsing; Mei-Yu Lee; Te-Hsin Chang; Ming-Yuan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a vital issue in geriatric research, risk factors for falls were concluded to be multifactorial, and prevention has been mostly aimed at decreasing situational and environmental risks that cause and aggravate fall-related injuries, particularly within the institutions. While knowledge is limited about older patients' intrinsic determinants, the purpose of this study was to explore elderly Taiwanese's intrinsic risk factors associated with severe fall-related injuries. Method...

  5. [Injuries in France: trends and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F

    2013-06-01

    Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury

  6. Individual and Parental Risk Factors for Sexual Exploitation Among High-Risk Youth in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Culbreth, Rachel; Wilson, Rebecca; Armistead, Lisa; Kasirye, Rogers; Swahn, Monica H

    2018-04-01

    This study examined risk factors to determine associations with commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) in a convenience sample of adolescents living in the slums in Kampala, Uganda. Individual-level factors included demographic, adverse experiences (ever living on the streets; victim of dating violence, parental abuse, or rape), and behavioral risk (social media, alcohol use, age at first intercourse). Parental-risk factors included parent alcohol use and approval attitudes toward youth sex. Analyses included those who self-reported sexually active adolescents ( n = 593) of whom 39% reported CSEC history. CSEC was significantly associated with being female (odds ratio [ OR] = 6.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [4.22, 11.12]), living on the streets ( OR = 2.68; 95% CI = [1.65, 4.36]), using social media ( OR = 1.48; 95% CI = [0.94, 2.35]), being a victim of physical dating violence ( OR = 1.74; 95% CI = [1.08, 2.80]), and ever being raped ( OR = 4.03; 95% CI = [2.51, 6.47]). Further analyses suggested differential risk associates among females and males. This study contributes to our knowledge of risk factors for CSEC among adolescents living in high-risk circumstances in low-resource countries and suggests that preventive efforts should prioritize adolescents with a history of living on the streets who engage in social media, use alcohol, and have a history of trauma.

  7. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  8. Risk factors of neurosensory disturbance following orthognathic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albraa Badr Alolayan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To report the incidence of objective and subjective neurosensory disturbance (NSD after orthognathic surgery in a major orthognathic centre in Hong Kong, and to investigate the risk factors that contributed to the incidence of NSD after orthognathic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study on NSD after orthognathic surgery in a local major orthognathic centre. Patients who had bimaxillary orthognathic surgery reviewed at post-operative 6 months, 12 months or 24 months were recruited to undergo neurosensory tests with subjective and 3 objective assessments. Possible risk factors of NSD including subjects' age and gender, surgical procedures and surgeons' experience were analyzed. RESULTS: 238 patients with 476 sides were recruited. The incidences of subjective NSD after maxillary procedures were 16.2%, 13% and 9.8% at post-operative 6 months, 12 months and 24 months, respectively; the incidences of subjective NSD after mandibular procedures were 35.4%, 36.6% and 34.6% at post-operative 6 months, 12 months and 24 months, respectively. Increased age was found to be a significant risk factor of NSD after orthognathic surgery at short term (at 6 months and 12 months but not at 24 months. SSO has a significantly higher risk of NSD when compared to VSSO. SSO in combination with anterior mandibular surgery has a higher risk of NSD when compared to VSSO in combination with anterior mandibular surgery or anterior mandibular surgery alone. Gender of patients and surgeons' experience were not found to be risk factors of NSD after orthognathic surgery. CONCLUSION: The incidence of NSD after maxillary and mandibular orthognathic procedures at post-operative 6 months, 12 months and 24 months was reported. Increased age was identified as a risk factor of short term post-operative NSD but not in long term (24 months or more. Specific mandibular procedures were related to higher incidence of NSD after orthognathic surgery.

  9. RISK FACTORS OF DELAYS OF CHILD PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Kaganova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research targeted studying risk factors for delays physical development of children (n = 70 aged 7–11 years. Control group was comprised of 30 children of normal height of the same age. Physical development was evaluated by centile method using regional and international standards, studying data of life and disease anamnesis, family anamnesis, living conditions. Children had their thyroid glands studied ultrasonically. Blood levels of calcium, phosphor, magnesium, ferrum, zinc were identified by photometry method for some children in both groups. Correlation analysis makes it possible to state risk factors of children dwarfism: low educational status of parents, child height figures at the age of 1 and 3 years, calcium and phosphor blood levels, as well as thyroid hypo plasy.Key words: dwarfism, children, risk factors, calcium deficit.

  10. Transthoracic needle biopsy: factors effecting risk of pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topal, Ugur; Ediz, Buelent

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the factors that could effect the risk of pneumothorax in patients undergoing transthoracic biopsy. Material and methods: variables that could increase the risk of pneumothorax were evaluated in 453 CT-guided transthoracic biopsies. Factors were evaluated in two groups: (1) lesion related (presence of emphysema around the lesion, lesion depth, cavitation, presence of fissure/atelectasis and pleural tag in the needle trajectory); and (2) procedure related (biopsy type, needle size, number of passages, level of experience of the operator). All variables were analysed by χ 2 test and multivariate logistic regression statistics. Results: pneumothorax was developed in 85 (18.8%) out of 453 procedures. A chest tube was inserted in ten (11.7%) of them. Variables that were significantly associated with an increased risk of pneumothorax were depth of the lesion (P<0.001) and severity of the emphysema (P<0.01). Conclusion: the length of the lung parenchyma traversed during the biopsy is the predominant risk factor for pneumothorax in patients undergoing CT-guided transthoracic biopsy. The risk of pneumothorax was also increased with the severity of the emphysema around the lesion

  11. [Risk factors for Parkinson disease: an epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Duarte; Garrett, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains in a certain part unknown. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are sometimes considered to be putative contributors to its origin. Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the possible role of environmental risk factors present during adult life or aging, once pure genetic forms of PD are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible environmental and familial risk factors for PD. We performed a hospital based case-control study using 88 PD patients with neurologist confirmed diagnostic, and 176 sex, age, and residence similar controls. Several possible risk factors were evaluated related to life style, past history, family history, occupational history and other exposures to potential neurotoxin agents. Statistical differences, using a 95% confidence interval, were observed in positive family history of PD (p = 0,002), occupation category (p = 0,001), rural living (p = 0,037), living/working near a industry (p = 0,017), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and in-secticides (p coffee consumption (p = 0,036) and tea consumption (p = 0,001). Sex and age adjusted logistic regression showed as potential risk factors, a positive family history of PD (odds ratio [OR] = 9,996; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,19-45,597), blue collar occupations (OR = 3,967; 95% CI = 1,670-9,426), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and insecticides (OR = 2,619 ; 95% CI = 1,170-5,862). An inverse relationship was found between tea consumption and the risk of PD (OR = 0,356; 95% CI = 0,174-0,727). The results of the study show that both familial and environmental factors may contribute to the development of PD. Like other studies suggest, PD is of unknown, but presumably multifactorial etiology.

  12. Epidemiology and risk factors of lower limb fractures (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Grygorieva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents current data about the risk factors of main lower limb fractures (LLFs of different localization (femur, tibia and foot. It has been shown that the most studies examine epidemiology and risk factors for hip fractures, but information about the risk factors for other LLFs is insufficient and controversial. It has been demonstrated that in addition to factors of age and sex, the road traffic accidents, sports, inadequate physical activity, injuries, falls and previous fractures play the important role in the development of LLFs. Also some diseases (systemic osteoporosis, large joints osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, epilepsy, alcoholism, parkinsonism, cancer, obesity and cataract can influence the LLFs risk. Administration of some drugs, in particular, hypnotic and sedative, as well as antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and glucocorticoids, is the additional risk factor for LLFs. Almost all types of fractures in women are associated with low bone mineral density, which is more defined at femoral neck than at spine or peripheral skeleton, but part of fractures associated with osteoporosis is small and ranges from 10 to 44 %. The assessment of risk factors should necessarily be carried out in routine clinical practice in patients with LLFs, since it affects not only their incidence, but also the prognosis of treatment of these patients.

  13. Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women's artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Hume, Patria A

    2012-09-01

    Targeted injury prevention strategies, based on biomechanical analyses, have the potential to help reduce the incidence and severity of gymnastics injuries. This review outlines the potential benefits of biomechanics research to contribute to injury prevention strategies for women's artistic gymnastics by identification of mechanisms of injury and quantification of the effects of injury risk factors. One hundred and twenty-three articles were retained for review after searching electronic databases using key words, including 'gymnastic', 'biomech*', and 'inj*', and delimiting by language and relevance to the paper aim. Impact load can be measured biomechanically by the use of instrumented equipment (e.g. beatboard), instrumentation on the gymnast (accelerometers), or by landings on force plates. We need further information on injury mechanisms and risk factors in gymnastics and practical methods of monitoring training loads. We have not yet shown, beyond a theoretical approach, how biomechanical analysis of gymnastics can help reduce injury risk through injury prevention interventions. Given the high magnitude of impact load, both acute and accumulative, coaches should monitor impact loads per training session, taking into consideration training quality and quantity such as the control of rotation and the height from which the landings are executed.

  14. Maternal sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors of antepartum fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, M A; Sultana, N; Chowdhury, S; Azim, E

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the sociodemographic profile and to identify the risk factors of ante-partum fetal death which occurs after the age of viability of fetus. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Obstetrics department of Ad-din Women Medical College Hospital during the period of June, 2009 to July, 2010. A total of 14,015 pregnant patients were admitted in the study place after the age of viability, which was taken as 28 weeks of gestation for our facilities. Eighty-three (0.59%) of them were identified as intrauterine fetal death. Assessment of maternal sociodemographic characteristics and maternal-fetal risk factors were evaluated with a semi structured questionnaire pretested. Majority (81.92%, n=68) of the patients were below 30 years of age, 78.31% belonged to middle socioeconomic group. Almost 58% women had education below SSC level and 28.91% took regular antenatal checkup. About 61.45% patients were multigravida. Most (59.04%) ante-partum deaths were identified below 32 weeks of pregnancy. Out of 83 patients, maternal risk factors were identified in 41(49.59%) cases where fetal risk factors were found in 16(19.27%) cases; no risk factors could be determined in rests. Hypertension (48.78%), diabetes (21.95%), hyperpyrexia (17.3%), abruptio placentae (4.88%) and UTI (7.36%) were identified as maternal factors; and congenital anomaly (37.5%), Rh incompatibility (37.5%), multiple pregnancy (12.5%) and post-maturity (12.5%) were the fetal risk factors. Here, proximal biological risk factors are most important in ante-partum fetal deaths. More investigations and facilities are needed to explain the causes of antepartum deaths.

  15. Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...

  16. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  17. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  18. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...

  19. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  20. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  1. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality: The role of shared family factors and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, M K R; Ariansen, I; Mortensen, L H; Davey Smith, G; Næss, Ø

    2016-12-01

    To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study, the National Educational Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. The study population consisted of participants with at least one full sibling among the health survey participants ( n=271,310). Data were available on CVD risk factors, including weight, height, blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking. The hazards ratio (HR) of CVD mortality was 3.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-3.96) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The HRs were little altered in the within-sibship analyses. Adjusted for risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality in the cohort analyses was 2.05 (CI 1.77-2.37) in the lowest educational group relative to the highest. The respective HR in the within-sibship analyses was 2.46 (CI 1.48-2.24). Using a sibling design, we did not find that the association between education and CVD mortality was confounded by early life factors shared by siblings, but it was explained to a large extent by CVD risk factors. These results suggest that reducing levels of CVD risk factors could have the greatest effect on mortality in less well-educated people.

  2. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial

  3. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W E; van Poppel, M N; Bongers, P M; Koes, B W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of observational studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial

  4. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Q. Li

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the most common and yet one of the most preventable causes of death in the world. Rapid urbanization in South Africa is accompanied by rapid changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure that increase the burden of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors, modifiable or nonmodifiable, exist that increases a person’s chances of developing cardiovascular disease. Though some knowledge is available about the prevalence of the risk factors in South Africa, no information is available regarding the community of Ga-Rankuwa. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease amongst the working-age people (18-40 years in Ga-Rankuwa community. A quantitative survey was done and the sample was selected from zone 1,2,4, and 16 of Ga-Rankuwa from July 2005 to October 2005. The sampling method was census sampling (n=604. The data-gathering was self-report using a structured questionnaire as well as physical measurement. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated that risk factors, specifically obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, were very prevalent in Ga-Rankuwa community. Different distributions of risk factors exist in the various sex and age groups. This finding again emphasises the importance of not developing health interventions with a single focus, for example hypertension or obesity. The risk factors are interwoven and affect each other. It is important to initiate a comprehensive health project to lower the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community.

  5. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to

  6. Shoulder Dystocia: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, Joseph G

    2016-12-01

    Shoulder dystocia complicates ∼1% of vaginal births. Although fetal macrosomia and maternal diabetes are risk factors for shoulder dystocia, for the most part its occurrence remains largely unpredictable and unpreventable.

  7. Risk factor management: antiatherogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Sandri, Marcus; Schuler, Gerhard; Teupser, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Despite the advances in interventional techniques, the management of stable atherosclerosis remains the domain of optimal guideline-oriented therapy. Recent studies on the effects of aggressive lipid lowering on atheroma volume changes using intravascular ultrasound indicate that it is possible to achieve atherosclerosis regression by reaching low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels less than 75 mg/dl. The pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular (CV) event observed with aggressive lipid lowering. As a second important strategy to prevent disease progression, lifestyle changes with regular physical exercise are capable of halting the atherosclerotic process and reducing angina symptoms and CV events. Optimal medical therapy, a healthy lifestyle with regular physical exercise, and coronary interventions are not mutually exclusive treatment strategies. Over the last few decades, both have proved to be effective in significantly reducing the CV mortality in the Western world. However, risk factor modification contributed to at least half the effect in the reduction of CV mortality. This figure provides an estimate of what could be achieved if we were to take risk factor modification more seriously - especially in the acute care setting. The knowledge is there: today we have a better understanding on how to stop progression and even induce regression of atherosclerosis. Much research still needs to be done and will be done. In the meantime, however, our primary focus should lie in implementing what is already known. In addition, it is essential not just to treat CV risk factors, but also to treat them to achieve the target values as set by the guidelines of European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the score, the lower workers' satisfaction related to the area investigated. The results indicated that noise was common in the working environment (66%. Most workers (54.7% pointed out that the work was too hard and that it required attention and reasoning (85.7%. The workers emphasized the lack of training for working in mining (59.3% and few of them regarded the maintenance of the workplace as a component to prevent lumbago (32.3%. Risk of accidents was pointed out as the factor that needed increased attention in daily work (56.6%. All occupational risks were mentioned, including physical and chemical risks. There was significant correlation between age and occupational risks, indicating that the greater the age, the greater the perception of harmful agents (ρ = -0.23; p < 0.01. In the end, it was observed that, to a greater or lesser degree, all workers perceived ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks in informal mining. Length of service and age were the features that interfered significantly with the understanding of those factors and occupational risks.

  9. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  10. Prediction of Febrile Neutropenia after Chemotherapy Based on Pretreatment Risk Factors among Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roen, Ashley; Daugaard, Gedske; Brown, Peter; Sengeløv, Henrik; Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Helleberg, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication to chemotherapy associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. Reliable prediction of individual risk based on pretreatment risk factors allows for stratification of preventive interventions. We aimed to develop such a risk stratification model to predict FN in the 30 days after initiation of chemotherapy. Methods We included consecutive treatment-naïve patients with solid cancers and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas at Copenhagen University Hospital, 2010–2015. Data were obtained from the PERSIMUNE repository of electronic health records. FN was defined as neutrophils ≤0.5 × 10E9/L ​at the time of either a blood culture sample or death. Time from initiation of chemotherapy to FN was analyzed using Fine-Gray models with death as a competing event. Risk factors investigated were: age, sex, body surface area, haemoglobin, albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and chemotherapy drugs. Parameter estimates were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The scores were grouped into four: low, intermediate, high and very high risk. Results Among 8,585 patients, 467 experienced FN, incidence rate/30 person-days 0.05 (95% CI, 0.05–0.06). Age (1 point if > 65 years), albumin (1 point if 2) and chemotherapy (range -5 to 6 points/drug) predicted FN. Median score at inclusion was 2 points (range –5 to 9). The cumulative incidence and the incidence rates and hazard ratios of FN are shown in Figure 1 and Table 1, respectively. Conclusion We developed a risk score to predict FN the first month after initiation of chemotherapy. The score is easy to use and provides good differentiation of risk groups; the score needs independent validation before routine use. Disclosures All authors: No reported disclosures.

  11. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Furubayashi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone.

  12. Risk Factors for and Management of MPN-Associated Bleeding and Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karlyn

    2017-10-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are characterized by both thrombotic and bleeding complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the risk factors associated with bleeding and thrombosis in MPN, as well as to review prevention strategies and management of these complications. Well-described risk factors for thrombotic complications include older age and history of prior thrombosis, along with traditional cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic risk factors. More recently, JAK2 V617F mutation has been found to carry an increased risk of thrombotic complications, whereas CALR has a lower risk than JAK2 mutation. Factors associated with an increased risk of bleeding in MPN include a prior history of bleeding, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and primary myelofibrosis. Recent findings suggest that thrombocytosis carries a higher risk of bleeding than thrombosis in MPN, and aspirin may exacerbate this risk of bleeding, particularly in CALR-mutated ET. Much of the management of MPN focuses on predicting risk of bleeding and thrombosis and initiating prophylaxis to prevent complications in those at high risk of thrombosis. Emerging evidence suggests that sub-populations may have bleeding risk that outweighs thrombotic risk, particularly in setting of antiplatelet therapy. Future work is needed to better characterize this balance. At present, a thorough assessment of the risks of bleeding and thrombosis should be undertaken for each patient, and herein, we review risk factors for and management of these complications.

  13. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension is a major health concern in developed and developing countries. Its prevalence is high in Nigeria and accounts for a great percentage of hospital visits and admissions. Hypertension is a chief risk factor for cardiovascular events. Independent risks factors, some of which are implicated in the ...

  14. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  15. The only way is up: Risk factors, protective factors, and compensation in dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    van Viersen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that affects approximately 4-7% of primary school children and around 12% of secondary school students. Over the years, knowledge about identification, diagnosis, and intervention of dyslexia has become more advanced. Recent models of developmental disorders assume that dyslexia results from a complex interplay between risk and protective factors. However, research has so far mainly focused on risk factors for dyslexia. Important issues still exist r...

  16. Risk factors for fishermen's health and safety in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Kastania, Anastasia N; Riza, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background: This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first occupational health study in Greek fishing. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the risks for health and safety in Greek fisheries workers by exploring their health status and the health risk factors present in their occupational...... injury, of which half caused more than one day absence, while 14% had a near drowning experience. The health risks factors studied include excessive weight, cardiovascular incidents and dermatological, musculoskeletal, respiratory, hearing, stress, and anxiety problems. The occupational health risk...... factors include alcohol, fatty food consumption, smoking, and lack of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health effects observed are causally related to diet, smoking, and exercise, which in turn relate to the specific working conditions and culture in small-scale fishing that need to be taken...

  17. Documentation of body mass index and control of associated risk factors in a large primary care network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Richard W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI will be a reportable health measure in the United States (US through implementation of Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS guidelines. We evaluated current documentation of BMI, and documentation and control of associated risk factors by BMI category, based on electronic health records from a 12-clinic primary care network. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 79,947 active network patients greater than 18 years of age seen between 7/05 - 12/06. We defined BMI category as normal weight (NW, 18-24.9 kg/m2, overweight (OW, 25-29.9, and obese (OB, ≥ 30. We measured documentation (yes/no and control (above/below of the following three risk factors: blood pressure (BP ≤130/≤85 mmHg, low-density lipoprotein (LDL ≤130 mg/dL (3.367 mmol/L, and fasting glucose Results BMI was documented in 48,376 patients (61%, range 34-94%, distributed as 30% OB, 34% OW, and 36% NW. Documentation of all three risk factors was higher in obesity (OB = 58%, OW = 54%, NW = 41%, p for trend Conclusions In a large primary care network BMI documentation has been incomplete and for patients with BMI measured, risk factor control has been poorer in obese patients compared with NW, even in those with obesity and CVD or diabetes. Better knowledge of BMI could provide an opportunity for improved quality in obesity care.

  18. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  19. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  20. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  2. Application of principal component and factor analyses in electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuda, R.; Balcerowska, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fundamentals of two methods, taken from multivariate analysis and known as principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), are presented. Both methods are well known in chemometrics. Since 1979, when application of the methods to electron spectroscopy was reported for the first time, they became to be more and more popular in different branches of electron spectroscopy. The paper presents examples of standard applications of the method of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Advantages one can take from application of the methods, their potentialities as well as their limitations are pointed out. (author)

  3. Risk Factors for Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand: A Systematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Kamsa-ard, Supot; Luvira, Vor; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2018-03-27

    Background and objective: Cholangiocarcinoma remains a serious public health concern in Thailand. While many of the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in western countries are well-recognized, it remains unclear whether they are the same in Thailand. We set out to investigate the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. Methods: Starting March 4, 2016, we reviewed studies found using pre-specified keywords on SCOPUS, Pro Quest Science Direct, PubMed, and online public access catalog of Khon Kaen University. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the studied Risk of Bias. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools were used to assess the quality of included studies. The risk effects of factors were estimated as a pooled adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. The heterogeneity of results was considered using the I-square, Tau-square and Chi-square statistics. Results: A strong association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel. There was only a mild association found between eating nitrite-containing foods, fresh vegetables, education, smoking behavior, and sex. No association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and eating fermented fish (Pla-ra), northeastern Thai or Chinese sausage, sticky rice, meat, chewing betel nut, or eating fruit. There were two protective factors including fresh vegetables consumption and education attainment. Conclusion: There are unique risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand, including age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. The risk factors for impulsivity-related falls among hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marisa; Harrison, Barbara; Lewis, Doresea

    2012-01-01

    Falls among older adults are a common, preventable problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Impulsivity is a known risk factor for older adult falls; however, there is a gap in evidence demonstrating the unique risk factors associated with impulsivity related falls (IRF). The research explored the association between seven fall risk factors and impulsivity related falls in hospitalized older adults in a community hospital. This retrospective descriptive study analyzed the association between seven fall risk factors and IRF in hospitalized older adults. The sample (N = 233) included patients age 65 years and older who had a documented in-patient fall in 2008. Of the falls, 29.7% were classified as IRF. The mean age of patients with IRF was 78 years, with the median day of fall being Day 5 of hospitalization/rehabilitation admission. Logistic regression demonstrated that only inattention and cognitive impairment were significant risk factors for IRF. The incidence of IRF was 29.7%. Our findings also indicate that cognitive impairment and inattention are strongest predictors for IRF among usual risk factors. Early identification of the unique risk factors associated with IRF could improve identification and reduce fall rates among hospitalized older adults. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  5. Risk factors for wound disruption following cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria C; Figueroa, Dana; Biggio, Joseph R; Owen, John; Tita, Alan T N

    2014-08-01

    Risk factors for post-cesarean wound infection, but not disruption, are well-described in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a single-center randomized controlled trial of staple versus suture skin closure in women ≥24 weeks' gestation undergoing cesarean delivery. Wound disruption was defined as subcutaneous skin or fascial dehiscence excluding primary wound infections. Composite wound morbidity (disruption or infection) was examined as a secondary outcome. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, and intrapartum characteristics were evaluated as potential risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 398 randomized patients, 340, including 26 with disruptions (7.6%) met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. After multivariable adjustments, African-American race (aOR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-13.8) and staple - as opposed to suture - wound closure (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.1) remained significant risk factors for disruption; non-significant increases were observed for body mass index ≥30 (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.5), but not for diabetes mellitus (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3-2.9). RESULTS for composite wound morbidity were similar. Skin closure with staples, African-American race, and considering the relatively small sample size, potentially obesity are associated with increased risk of non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption.

  6. Quantitative risk analysis offshore-Human and organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espen Skogdalen, Jon; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRAs) are one of the main tools for risk management within the Norwegian and UK oil and gas industry. Much criticism has been given to the limitations related to the QRA-models and that the QRAs do not include human and organizational factors (HOF-factors). Norway and UK offshore legislation and guidelines require that the HOF-factors are included in the QRAs. A study of 15 QRAs shows that the factors are to some extent included, and there are large differences between the QRAs. The QRAs are categorized into four levels according to the findings. Level 1 QRAs do not describe or comment on the HOF-factors at all. Relevant research projects have been conducted to fulfill the requirements of Level 3 analyses. At this level, there is a systematic collection of data related to HOF. The methods are systematic and documented, and the QRAs are adjusted. None of the QRAs fulfill the Level 4 requirements. Level 4 QRAs include the model and describe the HOF-factors as well as explain how the results should be followed up in the overall risk management. Safety audits by regulatory authorities are probably necessary to point out the direction for QRA and speed up the development.

  7. Descriptive epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A

    2013-01-01

    Reliable data on risk factor levels, exposure history, and population distribution can help inform policies and programs for disease prevention and control. With rare exception however, ideal local data on major risk factors and causes of death and disease burden have been scarce in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Basic community surveys in some countries and recent systematic analysis of disease burden attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions of the world provide an opportunity to examine and relate diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors to mortality and burden in SSA. Rising body mass index, especially in women in Southern Africa; and rising systolic blood pressure in East Africa for both sexes, and in West Africa for women are the major cardiometabolic risk factors. Harmful use of alcohol, especially in Southern SSA, tobacco use, and physical inactivity are also important. Improving vital registration and risk factor surveillance remain major challenges. © 2013.

  8. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andressa Magalhães; Tsukamoto, Rosangela; Lopes, Camila Takáo; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo E

    2017-06-05

    to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation. identificar evidências na literatura acerca de possíveis fatores de risco do diagnóstico risco de glicemia instável para pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e compará-los com os fatores de risco descritos pela NANDA International . revisão integrativa norteada pela pergunta: quais são os fatores de risco de glicemia instável em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2? Incluíram-se estudos primários cujos desfechos eram variações nos níveis glicêmicos, publicados em inglês, português ou espanhol no PubMed ou CINAHL entre 2010 e 2015. observou

  9. Risk factors in the internationalization process of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Kubíčková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time characterized by globalizing market, increasing competition, accelerating change and the occurrence of many risks it is necessary for businesses, which want to remain competitive, to be able to respond flexibly to the changes in a timely manner and to identify and manage risks. Companies try to diversify business risks, such as the loss of market share in the domestic market, by entering the foreign markets and participating in international trade. Involvement in the internationalization process cannot be understood only as an opportunity to achieve greater profits and a competitive advantage, it is necessary to consider potential risks accompanying this process, because engaging in the internationalization process may bring the companies many different specific risks. It would be useful for companies to identify the factors of failure resulting from internationalization. Identifying the barriers to internationalization, the main risk factors associated with it and designing their possible prevention or elimination could provide SMEs an impetus to enter foreign markets. Although the risk is a frequently discussed issue in the international discussion, only few studies were strictly focused on risk management in the internationalization process. Risk management is a broad discipline that requires a specific knowledge in practice. However, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises are often unable to identify the potential risks of the internationalization process and therefore are not able to manage the risks. This is due to the fact that SMEs usually do not have managers with a deep knowledge of risk management and, moreover, these managers also often lack experience with foreign markets. Unfortunately, the surveys of SMEs conclude that the poorly predicted risks of entering foreign markets are one of the most common causes of failure of SMEs internationalization process.The main objective of this paper is to identify

  10. ABC Classification of Risk Factors in Production Supply Chains with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification of risk factors in an uncertain environment is part of the risk management problem, which has a critical effect on the competitive advantage of production supply chain. The severities of consequences, their relative importance, and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are defined by risk management team, depending on their experience and the results of good practice. Fuzzy rating of the severities of consequences and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are described by linguistic expressions, which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The risk values, obtained by the materialization of the identified risk factors, are given precisely with the usage of fuzzy algebra rules. The classification criterion is defined as the distance between current risk value and extreme risk values. The proposed model enables determination of the priorities of risk factors. It is illustrated by an example with real-life data from a production supply chain in auto industry.

  11. THE ROLE OF TRUST AND PERCEIVED RISK IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULA DANA LAURA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trust and risk are very important in consumers' electronic commerce purchasing decisions. How do trust and risk affect an Internet consumer's purchasing decision? To answer this question I’ve developed a theoretical framework describing the trust-based decision-making process a consumer uses when making a purchase from a given site. Consumer disposition to trust, reputation, privacy concerns, security concerns, the information quality of the Website, and the company's reputation, have strong effects on Internet consumers' trust in the Website.

  12. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-04-17

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.

  13. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Eckert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and “other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.

  14. Prevalence of some risk factors associated with hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is fast becoming a public health problem and has been associated with certain risk factors that have been found to contribute to the increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Sub Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of some risk factors associated with ...

  15. Risk factors and antibiogram of organisms causing puerperal sepsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Puerperal sepsis is a common pregnancy related complication and is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Sub Saharan Africa. There is paucity of regional data on the antibiogram and risk factors associated with this condition, Aim: To determine the risk factors, aetiological organisms ...

  16. Diagnosis and treatment strategies of thrombophilic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Albayrak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilia is defined as the general name for a group of genetic and acquired situations, arising from defects of hemostasis mechanism and generating tendency to thrombosis. Examples of the acquired risk factors that increase the tendency to thrombosis are venous catheters, sepsis, surgery, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart disease, increased lipoprotein a, old age, antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, hyperviscosity, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, immobility, obesity, major surgery, trauma, burns, malignancy, pregnancy and oral contraceptive usage. Genetic tendency to venous thromboembolism in early ages, even without any known cause, is named as thrombophilia. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations, factor VIII elevation, protein C, protein S and antithrombin deficiency parameters are suggested for evaluation, in patient groups suspected of inherited thrombophilia. Detection of inherited thrombophilic factors in selected patient groups is a guide in developing treatment strategies and in establishing prognosis. Due to the genetic heterogeneities, each society should determine their thrombophilic risk pool. Thus, with the determination of the risk factors, unnecessary assessments will be prevented and a cost-effective approach can be developed.

  17. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lai, Hsiao-Jung; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2011-01-01

    : Suicide is the ninth leading cause of death in adolescents aged 15-19 years in Taiwan. Suicidal ideation is an important predictor of committing suicide among adolescents. : The aim of this study was to examine the important risk factors, the protective factors, and the role of protective factors on the relationship of risk factors to suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents aged 15-19 years. : By adopting a cross-sectional study, senior high school students (n = 577) aged 15-19 years in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. An anonymous self-reported questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, risk factors, protective factors, and suicidal ideation of the sample. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify the important risk and protective factors and the interaction between risk and protective factors on suicidal ideation. : Nearly 18% (n = 101) of the participants reported having suicidal ideation during the past 12 months. Gender (female; odds ratio [OR] = 4.23), life stress (OR = 1.03), depression (OR = 3.44), peer suicidal ideation (OR = 4.15), and bullying victimization (OR = 1.81) were important risk factors of suicidal ideation among the targeted sample. In addition, self-esteem (OR = 0.92) and emotional adaptation (OR = 0.88) were important protective factors of suicidal ideation. Self-esteem and emotional adaptation were not used to moderate the negative effects of life stress, depression, perceived peer suicidal ideation, and bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. The final model explained 40.6% of the total variance in suicidal ideation and correctly predicted 86.1% of participants with suicidal ideation. : Suicidal ideation prevention programs should be targeted to female adolescents. School-based efforts that provide adolescents with self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills training, positive peer norms for life, coping skills for managing stress and depression, and antibullying programs

  18. The quality of risk factor screening during antenatal consultations in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prual, A; Toure, A; Huguet, D; Laurent, Y

    2000-03-01

    A decade after the first International Conference on Safe Motherhood, maternal mortality remains very high in most West African countries, even in capital cities. The detection of high risk pregnancies, known as the risk approach, during antenatal consultations has been the basis of most maternal and child health programmes over the last decade. The effectiveness of antenatal care as a tool to prevent or predict obstetric complications is being questioned more and more. In addition to the scarcity of reliable data about the predictivity of most risk factors, the quality of the screening must be questioned. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency of risk factors among a sample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Niger and to assess the quality of the screening of those risk factors. Overall, 330 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Each woman was examined twice: the first time by a midwife, the second time by one of the authors but without knowledge of the results of the first consultation. Fifty-five percent of pregnant women had at least one risk factor, 31% had more than one. Ninety-one percent of the risk factors were detected at interview. The following risk factors were not systematically searched for by midwives: height (48.5%), blood pressure (43.6%), glycosuria (40.6%), vaginal bleeding (38.2%), oedema (37.3%), parity (17%), age (16%), previous caesarean section (15.2%), previous stillbirth (15.2%) and previous miscarriages (14.8%). This study has shown that, in Niger, the quality of screening for risk factors during antenatal consultation is poor. In the urban settings where this study took place, lack of personnel, lack of equipment, lack of time and poor compliance by women cannot be made responsible for this situation. While screening of these risk factors continues as policy, the quality of screening must be dramatically improved.

  19. Perspective-Taking and Empathy Mitigate Family-of-Origin Risk for Electronic Aggression Perpetration Toward Dating Partners: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Michelle C; Miller, Kelly F; Moss, Ilana K; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-12-01

    Electronic dating aggression among emerging adults is prevalent and has adverse consequences, yet factors that increase or decrease the risk for perpetrating electronic aggression against a romantic partner are understudied. This investigation advances the literature in two novel ways. First, based on intergenerational transmission of violence theories, we tested the link between family-of-origin aggression (FOA) history and electronic aggression toward romantic partners, using a diverse sample of emerging adults. Second, we examined whether perspective-taking and empathy each moderated the association between FOA and electronic dating aggression and explored the moderating role of gender. Participants included 359 undergraduate students (50% female; 42% White) from an urban university. Results indicated that greater FOA during childhood was associated with perpetrating greater electronic aggression against romantic partners. Furthermore, significant interactions indicated that perspective-taking and empathy separately buffered these associations. Youth from aggressive families did not exhibit increased electronic dating perpetration when they had higher perspective-taking or empathy. Males were especially sensitive to the protective effects of perspective-taking. Findings highlight potential points of intervention (i.e., cognitive and affective empathy training) to decrease electronic aggression in romantic relationships and break intergenerational cycles of aggression.

  20. Anesthesiologist- and System-Related Risk Factors for Risk-Adjusted Pediatric Anesthesia-Related Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgleszewski, Steven E; Graham, Dionne A; Hickey, Paul R; Brustowicz, Robert M; Odegard, Kirsten C; Koka, Rahul; Seefelder, Christian; Navedo, Andres T; Randolph, Adrienne G

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric anesthesia-related cardiac arrest (ARCA) is an uncommon but potentially preventable adverse event. Infants and children with more severe underlying disease are at highest risk. We aimed to identify system- and anesthesiologist-related risk factors for ARCA. We analyzed a prospectively collected patient cohort data set of anesthetics administered from 2000 to 2011 to children at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. Pre-procedure systemic disease level was characterized by ASA physical status (ASA-PS). Two reviewers independently reviewed cardiac arrests and categorized their anesthesia relatedness. Factors associated with ARCA in the univariate analyses were identified for reevaluation after adjustment for patient age and ASA-PS. Cardiac arrest occurred in 142 of 276,209 anesthetics (incidence 5.1/10,000 anesthetics); 72 (2.6/10,000 anesthetics) were classified as anesthesia-related. In the univariate analyses, risk of ARCA was much higher in cardiac patients and for anesthesiologists with lower annual caseload and/or fewer annual days delivering anesthetics (all P risk adjustment for ASA-PS ≥ III and age ≤ 6 months, however, the association with lower annual days delivering anesthetics remained (P = 0.03), but the other factors were no longer significant. Case-mix explained most associations between higher risk of pediatric ARCA and anesthesiologist-related variables at our institution, but the association with fewer annual days delivering anesthetics remained. Our findings highlight the need for rigorous adjustment for patient risk factors in anesthesia patient safety studies.

  1. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at electronic marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Meents, S.; Tan, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer-oriented e-business models today. In this paper, we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace (EM). Typical for EM

  2. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  3. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor for heart attack? I've read that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. ... D. Some doctors think it's possible that taking calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart ...

  4. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This studydetermined the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among school-aged children. ... Using logistic regression, the following factors showed significant effect (p<0.05) as predisposing factors to intestinal helminth infections: water treatment, sanitary habits, refuse disposal, parental ...

  5. The association between risk factors and hypertension in perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K W; Rani, F; Chan, T C; Loh, H Y; Ng, C W; Moy, F M

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem in Malaysia. A survey was initiated to examine the association of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for hypertension in Perak, Malaysia. A total of 2025 respondents aged 30 years and above were recruited using a multi-stage sampling method. Hypertension was defined as self-reported hypertension and/or average of two blood pressure readings at single occasion with SBP ≥ 140mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Body mass index (BMI) was defined using the Asian criteria and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to evaluate physical activity. Body weight, height and blood pressure were obtained using standard procedures. Univariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between risk factors and hypertension. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine each significant risk factor on hypertension after adjusted for confounders. In total, 1076 (54.9%) respondents were found to be hypertensive. Significant associations (p diet, respondents who were obese and had positive family history had higher odds for hypertension (OR:2.34; 95% CI:1.84-3.17 and 1.96 (1.59-2.42) respectively. A significant increase (p diet score and smoking were not significantly associated with increased risk for hypertension. In conclusion, modifiable risk factors such as BMI and physical activity are important risk factors to target in reducing the risk for hypertension.

  6. Risk factors for opioid overdose and awareness of overdose risk among veterans prescribed chronic opioids for addiction or pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Christine M; Miller, Shannon C; Tiffany, Elizabeth; Winhusen, Theresa; Winstanley, Erin L; Stein, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Rising overdose fatalities among U.S. veterans suggest veterans taking prescription opioids may be at risk for overdose. However, it is unclear whether veterans prescribed chronic opioids are aware of this risk. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors and determine awareness of risk for opioid overdose in veterans treated with opioids for chronic pain, using veterans treated with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid use disorder as a high-risk comparator group. In the current study, 90 veterans on chronic opioid medication, for either opioid use disorder or pain management, completed a questionnaire assessing risk factors, knowledge, and self-estimate of risk for overdose. Nearly all veterans in both groups had multiple overdose risk factors, although individuals in the pain management group had on average a significantly lower total number of risk factors than did individuals in the opioid use disorder group (5.9 versus 8.5, p opioid overdose risk factors (12.1 versus 13.5, p opioid overdose risk factors. Our results suggest that veterans in both groups underestimated their risk for opioid overdose. Expansion of overdose education to include individuals on chronic opioids for pain management and a shift in educational approaches to overdose prevention may be indicated.

  7. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    , while two of three studies, including both men and women, found direct associations between SSB consumption and stroke; however, the association was significant among women only. All included studies examining vascular risk factors found direct associations between SSB consumption and change in blood...... pressure, blood lipid or blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies generally showed that SSB intake was related to vascular risk factors, whereas associations with vascular events were less consistent. Due to a limited number of published papers, especially regarding vascular events, the strength......OBJECTIVE: A high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to weight gain, obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the influence on CVD risk remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to summarize current evidence for an association between SSB consumption and cardiovascular risk...

  8. An analysis of main factors in electron beam flue gas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xu Guang

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam flue gas purification method is developing very quickly in recent years. Based on the experiment setting for electron beam flue gas purification in Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsinghua University, how the technique factors affect the ratio of desulphurization and denitrogenation are described. Radiation dose (D), temperature (T), humidity (H), pour ammonia quantity (α) and initial concentration of SO 2 (C SO 2 ) and NO x (C NO x ) are main factors influencing flue gas purification. Using the methods of correlation analysis and regression analysis, the primary effect factors are found out and the regression equations are set to optimize the system process, predigest the system structure and to forecast the experimental results. (authors)

  9. Factors That Impact Nurses’ Utilization of Electronic Mail (E-Mail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    of a system but did little to influence behavior. A study by Golden, Beauclair , & Sussman (1992) surveyed 200 electronic mail account holders at an...Aldine Publishing. Golden, P. A., Beauclair , R., & Sussman, L. (1992). Factors affecting electronic mail use. Computers in Human Behavior, 8, 297-311

  10. The effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiometabolic risk factors and anthropometrics parameters: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Chaudhri, Owais; Karimi, Ehsan; Nematy, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is a religious rituals of all healthy adult Muslims. However, there is no clear agreement on the effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular disease. Comorbidities and factors such as age, gender, health status, daily duration of fasting, food intake before and after fasting may impact on a fasting individual's cardiometabolic risk. This review was undertaken to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on: the incidence of cardiovascular disease during the month of Ramadan; the clinical status of patients with stable cardiac disease; and any alterations in cardiometabolic risk profile. A systematic search was undertaken for studies that investigated the impact of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1982 up to 2014. The incidence of acute cardiac illness during Ramadan fasting was similar when compared to non-fasting days. Ramadan fasting is associated with elevations in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and total cholesterol (T-chol). However, the lipid profile of diabetic patients deteriorated significantly during Ramadan fasting. In addition, Ramadan fasting lowers body weight, body fat percentage and BMI (body mass index). However, the relationship between weight reduction and loss of body fat is not studied. The majority of patients with stable cardiac illness can opt for Ramadan fasting safely. However, the long term effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors remains uncertain, and the apparent discordant effects in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus merits further study.

  11. Potential impact of single-risk-factor versus total risk management for the prevention of cardiovascular events in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindjock, Roger; Gedeon, Jude; Mendis, Shanthi; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in Seychelles, a middle-income African country, and compare the cost-effectiveness of single-risk-factor management (treating individuals with arterial blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or total serum cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l) with that of management based on total CV risk (treating individuals with a total CV risk ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). CV risk factor prevalence and a CV risk prediction chart for Africa were used to estimate the 10-year risk of suffering a fatal or non-fatal CV event among individuals aged 40-64 years. These figures were used to compare single-risk-factor management with total risk management in terms of the number of people requiring treatment to avert one CV event and the number of events potentially averted over 10 years. Treatment for patients with high total CV risk (≥ 20%) was assumed to consist of a fixed-dose combination of several drugs (polypill). Cost analyses were limited to medication. A total CV risk of ≥ 10% and ≥ 20% was found among 10.8% and 5.1% of individuals, respectively. With single-risk-factor management, 60% of adults would need to be treated and 157 cardiovascular events per 100000 population would be averted per year, as opposed to 5% of adults and 92 events with total CV risk management. Management based on high total CV risk optimizes the balance between the number requiring treatment and the number of CV events averted. Total CV risk management is much more cost-effective than single-risk-factor management. These findings are relevant for all countries, but especially for those economically and demographically similar to Seychelles.

  12. Predicting Risk of Suicide Attempt Using History of Physical Illnesses From Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Tran, Truyen; Berk, Michael; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2016-01-01

    Background Although physical illnesses, routinely documented in electronic medical records (EMR), have been found to be a contributing factor to suicides, no automated systems use this information to predict suicide risk. Objective The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of physical illnesses on suicide risk, and develop a predictive model that captures this relationship using EMR data. Methods We used history of physical illnesses (except chapter V: Mental and behavioral disorders) from EMR data over different time-periods to build a lookup table that contains the probability of suicide risk for each chapter of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes. The lookup table was then used to predict the probability of suicide risk for any new assessment. Based on the different lengths of history of physical illnesses, we developed six different models to predict suicide risk. We tested the performance of developed models to predict 90-day risk using historical data over differing time-periods ranging from 3 to 48 months. A total of 16,858 assessments from 7399 mental health patients with at least one risk assessment was used for the validation of the developed model. The performance was measured using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results The best predictive results were derived (AUC=0.71) using combined data across all time-periods, which significantly outperformed the clinical baseline derived from routine risk assessment (AUC=0.56). The proposed approach thus shows potential to be incorporated in the broader risk assessment processes used by clinicians. Conclusions This study provides a novel approach to exploit the history of physical illnesses extracted from EMR (ICD-10 codes without chapter V-mental and behavioral disorders) to predict suicide risk, and this model outperforms existing clinical assessments of suicide risk. PMID:27400764

  13. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  14. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Frestada, Daria; Michelsen, Marie Mide

    2016-01-01

    physically active than women while women have healthier dietary habits. Genetic factors also affect cardiovascular risk but no sex differences have been seen. Increased cardiovascular risk attributed to psychosocial distress is similar in men and women, but since women are more prone to psychosocial distress......Background: Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in both sexes in developed countries for decades. In general, men and women share the same cardiovascular risk factors. However, in recent trials including both men and women sexspecific analyses have raised awareness of sex...... differences in cardiovascular risk factors due to both biological and cultural differences. Results: Women experience their first myocardial infarction (MI) 6-10 years later than men and a protective effect of their natural estrogen status prior to menopause has been suggested. Female sex hormones have been...

  15. Risk factors for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Timmer, Antje; Vyberg, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors of carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract in men. METHODS: Newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed patients, 35-70 years old, were interviewed between 1995 and 1997 in Denmark, Sweden, France, Germany and Italy. Population controls were frequency...... for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma in men (odds ratio 2.49; 95% confidence interval 1.32-4.70), particularly for gall bladder tumors (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.85-11.84). For a body mass index [height (m) divided by squared weight (kg)] >30 at age 35 years, an excess risk was observed (odds...... as a strong risk factor for extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma, whereas we did not find any strong lifestyle-associated risk factors. Inconsistent results across studies concerning the association of extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma with overweight and obesity may be explained by the different...

  16. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    . Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...

  17. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  18. Health in police officers: Role of risk factor clusters and police divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habersaat, Stephanie A; Geiger, Ashley M; Abdellaoui, Sid; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-10-01

    Law enforcement is a stressful occupation associated with significant health problems. To date, most studies have focused on one specific factor or one domain of risk factors (e.g., organizational, personal). However, it is more likely that specific combinations of risk factors are differentially health relevant and further, depend on the area of police work. A self-selected group of officers from the criminal, community, and emergency division (N = 84) of a Swiss state police department answered questionnaires assessing personal and organizational risk factors as well as mental and physical health indicators. In general, few differences were observed across divisions in terms of risk factors or health indicators. Cluster analysis of all risk factors established a high-risk and a low-risk cluster with significant links to all mental health outcomes. Risk cluster-by-division interactions revealed that, in the high-risk cluster, Emergency officers reported fewer physical symptoms, while community officers reported more posttraumatic stress symptoms. Criminal officers in the high-risk cluster tended to perceived more stress. Finally, perceived stress did not mediate the relationship between risk clusters and posttraumatic stress symptoms. In summary, our results support the notion that police officers are a heterogeneous population in terms of processes linking risk factors and health indicators. This heterogeneity thereby appeared to be more dependent on personal factors and individuals' perception of their own work conditions than division-specific work environments. Our findings further suggest that stress-reduction interventions that do not target job-relevant sources of stress may only show limited effectiveness in reducing health risks associated with police work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , although not being statistically significant. In conclusion, HIV is a strong risk factor for HPV among men in Tanzania. Additionally, in HIV-positive men a high BMI seems to be associated with a lower risk of HPV. Finally, we observed a tendency toward a lower risk of HPV both among HIV-positive and HIV......The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participants...... were offered HIV testing. Risk factors for HPV (HC2 high-risk and/or low-risk positivity) were assessed using logistic regression with adjustment for age, lifetime number of sexual partners, and HIV status. Altogether, 372 men (20.5%) were HPV-positive. Among men tested for HIV (n = 1,483), the HIV...

  1. FACTORS INLFUENCING THE ADOPTION OF ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ABĂLĂESEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Web-based technologies have been in a continuous state of growth, especially in the last decade, which also brought better and higher Internet speed. This has led to an increased number of opportunities for people to get involved in electronic word of mouth (e-WOM communication. E-WOM is a new means of information sharing, allowing users to be inter-connected constantly, regardless of their time zone. Because of this unique quality, e-WOM has been identified as one of the key factors affecting online sales. However, there is little known about this phenomenon. Even if the literature has approached this topic from various angles, there is still a lot of uncertainty surrounding electronic word of mouth. One of the key research questions is targeted at factors which influence people in actively engaging in creating or receiving e-WOM. With this in mind, this article provides a general overview of the key factors analyzed in the literature, which determine adoption of e-WOM by online consumers.

  2. Risk factors for bunyavirus-associated severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ding

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS is an emerging disease that is caused by a novel bunyavirus, referred to as SFTS virus. During January 2011 to December 2011 we conducted a case-control study in Henan, Hubei and Shandong Provinces of China to determine the risk factors for SFTS.Case-patients were identified in hospitals and reported to provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention while being notified electronically to the National Surveillance System. Controls were randomly selected from a pool of patients admitted to the same hospital ward within one week of the inclusion of the cases. They were matched by age (+/-5 years and gender.A total of 422 patients participated in the study including 134 cases and 288 matched controls. The median age of the cases was 58.8 years, ranging from 47.6 to 70.1 years; 54.5% were male. No differences in demographics were observed between cases and controls; however, farmers were frequent and more common among cases (88.8% than controls (58.7%. In multivariate analysis, the odds for SFTS was 2.4∼4.5 fold higher with patients who reported tick bites or presence of tick in the living area. Other independent risk factors included cat or cattle ownership and reported presence of weeds and shrubs in the working environment.Our findings support the hypothesis that ticks are important vectors of SFTS virus. Further investigations are warranted to understand the detailed modes of transmission of SFTS virus while vector management, education on tick bites prevention and personal hygiene management should be implemented for high-risk groups in high incidence areas.

  3. [Hyperlipidemias as a coronary risk factor in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A; De Tejada, A L; Espinoza, M; Karchmer, S

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the risk factors of the coronariopathy in the newborn. The authors state that the early diagnosis of the risk factors is an important step in the prevention of ateromatous plaques. Some people are now in the investigation of the normal levels of cholesterol and triglicerides in the blood of the umbilical cord. This values seems similar in different places all over the world and have served to establish the possible interrelation between the newborn hiperlipidemia and the coronary risk.

  4. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Wegener, Henrik C.; Mølbak, Kåre

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1–15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously f...

  5. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  6. Risk factors for fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Fourrier, A; Commenges, D; Dartigues, J F

    1998-07-01

    We report the results of a 5-year prospective cohort study of risk factors for fractures, including drinking fluoridated water, in a cohort of 3,216 men and women aged 65 years and older. We studied risk factors for hip fracture and fractures at other locations separately. We found a higher risk of hip fractures for subjects exposed to fluorine concentrations over 0.11 mg per liter but without a dose-effect relation (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25 for a concentration of 0.11-0.25 mg per liter; OR = 2.43 for > or = 0.25 mg per liter]. For higher thresholds (0.7 and 1 mg per liter), however, the OR was less than 1. We found no association between fluorine and non-hip fractures. Non-hip fractures were associated with polymedication rather than with specific drug use, whereas fracture was associated with polymedication and use of anxiolytic and antidepressive drugs. Subjects drinking spirits every day were more likely to have hip fractures. Tobacco consumption increased the risk for non-hip fractures.

  7. [Risk factors for anorexia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Xiao; Lang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Qin-Feng

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors for anorexia in children, and to reduce the prevalence of anorexia in children. A questionnaire survey and a case-control study were used to collect the general information of 150 children with anorexia (case group) and 150 normal children (control group). Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors for anorexia in children. The results of the univariate analysis showed significant differences between the case and control groups in the age in months when supplementary food were added, feeding pattern, whether they liked meat, vegetables and salty food, whether they often took snacks and beverages, whether they liked to play while eating, and whether their parents asked them to eat food on time (Panorexia in children. Liking of meat (OR=0.093) and vegetables (OR=0.272) and eating on time required by parents (OR=0.079) were protective factors against anorexia in children. Timely addition of supplementary food, a proper diet, and development of children's proper eating and living habits can reduce the incidence of anorexia in children.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rodrigues de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and cryptogenic cirrhosis. The greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free radicals, release of inflammatory cytokines and varying degrees of hepatocytic aggression, whose histological expression may vary from steatosis (HS to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The differentiation of these forms is required by the potential risk of progression to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the major risk factors for NAFLD in the context of metabolic syndrome, focusing on underlying mechanisms and prevention. METHOD: PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO data basis analysis was performed to identify studies describing the link between risk