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Sample records for risk derives primarily

  1. Risk and Derivative Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Osaki

    2007-01-01

    We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.

  2. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  3. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  4. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  5. Social Media Use and its Association with Sexual Risk and Parental Monitoring among a Primarily Hispanic Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie

    2017-08-01

    In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  7. Risk Management and Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRisk management is crucial for optimal portfolio management. One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance is the expansion of financial derivatives. The purpose of this special issue on “Risk Management and Financial Derivatives” is to highlight some areas in which novel

  8. Building Footprints, Primarily residential, at risk buildings such as hospitals, nursing homes, etc for use in Emergency Management Hazard Mitigation planning., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Carroll County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Building Footprints dataset current as of 2010. Primarily residential, at risk buildings such as hospitals, nursing homes, etc for use in Emergency Management Hazard...

  9. Nocturnal activity by the primarily diurnal Central American agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) in relation to environmental conditions, resource abundance and predation risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, T.D.; Kays, R.W.; Jansen, P.A.; Aliaga-Rosse, E.; Wikelski, M.

    2009-01-01

    An animal's fitness is in part based on its ability to manage the inherent risks (foraging costs, predation, exposure to disease) with the benefits (resource gain, access to mates, social interactions) of activity (Abrams 1991, Altizer et al. 2003, Lima & Bednekoff 1999, Rubenstein & Hohmann

  10. Disentangling the effects of serotonin on risk perception: S-carriers of 5-HTTLPR are primarily concerned with the magnitude of the outcomes, not the uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millroth, Philip; Juslin, Peter; Eriksson, Elias; Agren, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Serotonin signaling is vital for reward processing, and hence, also for decision-making. The serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been connected to decision making, suggesting that short-allele carriers (s) are more risk averse than long-allele homozygotes (ll). However, previous research has not identified if this occurs because s-carriers (i) are more sensitive to the uncertainty of the outcomes or (ii) are more sensitive to the magnitude of the outcomes. This issue was disentangled using a willingness-to-pay task, where the participants evaluated prospects involving certain gains, uncertain gains, and ambiguous gains. The results clearly favored the hypothesis that s-carriers react more to the magnitude of the outcomes. Self-reported measures of everyday risk-taking behavior also favored this hypothesis. We discuss how these results are in line with recent research on the serotonergic impact on reward processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Weather derivatives: Business hedge instrument from weather risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s, a new financial market was developed - a market for weather derivatives, so that the risk managers could hedge their exposure to weather risk. After a rather slow start, the weather derivatives market had started to grow rapidly. Risk managers could no longer blame poor financial results on the weather. Weather risk could now be removed by hedging procedure. This paper will explain briefly what the weather derivatives are and will point out at some of the motives for use of derivatives. Thereafter we will look at the history of the weather risk market, how the weather derivatives market has developed in recent years and also who are the current and potential players in the weather derivatives market.

  12. Decision principles derived from risk measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, M.J.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that a distinction exists between risk measures and decision principles. Though both are functionals assigning a real number to a random variable, we think there is a hierarchy between the two concepts. Risk measures operate on the first "level", quantifying the risk in the

  13. Actuarial risk measures for financial derivative pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, M.J.; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present an axiomatic characterization of price measures that are superadditive and comonotonic additive for normally distributed random variables. The price representation derived involves a probability measure transform that is closely related to the Esscher transform, and we call it the

  14. 76 FR 3697 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 39 Risk Management Requirements for... RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity... (Participant and Product Eligibility), D (Risk Management), E (Settlement Procedures), F (Treatment of Funds...

  15. Interest Rate Risk Management and the Use of Derivative Securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Diana PĂUN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate the utility of derivative financial instruments for the management of interest rate risk that is faced by banks and financial institutions, and to provide an efficient flow of monitoring and control thereof. Banking institutions can now use a combination of balance sheet and off balance sheet measures, i.e. gap method, of interest rate risk management, in order to control exposure of short-term rates and derivatives to control the residual interest rate exposures. The result of the study shows that banks can achieve better diversification and risk management using derivatives.

  16. The Network of Counterparty Risk: Analysing Correlations in OTC Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanumyan, Vahan; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Counterparty risk denotes the risk that a party defaults in a bilateral contract. This risk not only depends on the two parties involved, but also on the risk from various other contracts each of these parties holds. In rather informal markets, such as the OTC (over-the-counter) derivative market, institutions only report their aggregated quarterly risk exposure, but no details about their counterparties. Hence, little is known about the diversification of counterparty risk. In this paper, we reconstruct the weighted and time-dependent network of counterparty risk in the OTC derivatives market of the United States between 1998 and 2012. To proxy unknown bilateral exposures, we first study the co-occurrence patterns of institutions based on their quarterly activity and ranking in the official report. The network obtained this way is further analysed by a weighted k-core decomposition, to reveal a core-periphery structure. This allows us to compare the activity-based ranking with a topology-based ranking, to identify the most important institutions and their mutual dependencies. We also analyse correlations in these activities, to show strong similarities in the behavior of the core institutions. Our analysis clearly demonstrates the clustering of counterparty risk in a small set of about a dozen US banks. This not only increases the default risk of the central institutions, but also the default risk of peripheral institutions which have contracts with the central ones. Hence, all institutions indirectly have to bear (part of) the counterparty risk of all others, which needs to be better reflected in the price of OTC derivatives.

  17. Risk-neutral valuation of real estate derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bragt, D.; Francke, M.K.; Singor, S.N.; Pelsser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of residential real estate as both an asset class for investors and as a source of "housing services" for individual home owners, as well as the relatively high volatility in house prices, markets for derivative instruments to hedge these risks have been slow to develop. The

  18. MANAGING THE USE OF DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS FOR PORTFOLIO RISK PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Antoaneta RĂDOI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The priority in portfolio management is a good risk assessment and management. Of great importance is the margin that an asset portfolio guarantor must use with specific expertise in certain areas of market temporal inefficiency in order to improve its management performance. The relevant validity of the financial market and the emphasis laid on risk management carried along the development of financial instruments tailored to risk management. New derivative financial instruments have revolutionized the methods of portfolio management, of corporate treasury management, of banking management and, more generally, all financial strategies.

  19. Spatially-Aggregated Temperature Derivatives: Agricultural Risk Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new form of weather derivative contract, namely the climatic zone-based growth degree-day (GDD contract, is introduced. The objective is to increase the risk management efficiency in the agricultural sector of China and to reduce the model dimension of multi-regional temperature-based weather derivatives pricing. Since the proposed contract serves as a risk management tool for all of the cities in the same climatic zone, we compare the risk hedging power between the climatic zone-based and the city-based GDD contracts. As a result, we find that the differences between the two types of temperature-based weather contracts are maintained within a certain range.

  20. Human risk relationships derived from epidemiology and laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Proven techniques are needed for incorporating the results of laboratory toxicology studies into human risk assessments. Two sample calculations of lung cancer risk factors for inhaled radioactive particles and diesel engine exhaust are given here to illustrate a toxicology information matrix approach. This approach combines the results of epidemiology and laboratory animal studies of the substance or agent of principal concern, along with similar information on other surrogate substances. Beyond the estimates of lung cancer risk factors derived by using this approach, an additional advantage is gained by having estimates of uncertainty that can be obtained by incorporating all available toxicology information into the analysis. This approach is recommended for both risk assessment and in designing follow-on toxicology studies to improve preliminary assessments for new potentially harmful agents entering our environment

  1. An Optimization of the Risk Management using Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu ŞONTEA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a process that can be used in financial risk management by resolving problems of minimizing the risk measure (VaR using derivatives products, bonds and options. This optimization problem was formulated in the hedging situation of a portfolio formed by an active and a put option on this active, respectively a bond and an option on this bond. In the first optimization problem we will obtain the coverage ratio of the optimal price for the excertion of the option which is in fact the relative cost of the option’s value. In the second optimization problem we obtained optimal exercise price for a put option which is to support a bond.

  2. Quantifying Correlation Uncertainty Risk in Credit Derivatives Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Turfus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple but practical methodology for the quantification of correlation risk in the context of credit derivatives pricing and credit valuation adjustment (CVA, where the correlation between rates and credit is often uncertain or unmodelled. We take the rates model to be Hull–White (normal and the credit model to be Black–Karasinski (lognormal. We summarise recent work furnishing highly accurate analytic pricing formulae for credit default swaps (CDS including with defaultable Libor flows, extending this to the situation where they are capped and/or floored. We also consider the pricing of contingent CDS with an interest rate swap underlying. We derive therefrom explicit expressions showing how the dependence of model prices on the uncertain parameter(s can be captured in analytic formulae that are readily amenable to computation without recourse to Monte Carlo or lattice-based computation. In so doing, we crucially take into account the impact on model calibration of the uncertain (or unmodelled parameters.

  3. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    Full Text Available On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10 in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection.

  4. Essays on energy derivatives pricing and financial risk management =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaleno, Mara Teresa da Silva

    This thesis consists of an introductory chapter (essay I) and five more empirical essays on electricity markets and CO2 spot price behaviour, derivatives pricing analysis and hedging. Essay I presents the structure of the thesis and electricity markets functioning and characteristics, as well as the type of products traded, to be analyzed on the following essays. In the second essay we conduct an empirical study on co-movements in electricity markets resorting to wavelet analysis, discussing long-term dynamics and markets integration. Essay three is about hedging performance and multiscale relationships in the German electricity spot and futures markets, also using wavelet analysis. We concentrate the investigation on the relationship between coherence evolution and hedge ratio analysis, on a time-frequency-scale approach, between spot and futures which conditions the effectiveness of the hedging strategy. Essays four, five and six are interrelated between them and with the other two previous essays given the nature of the commodity analyzed, CO2 emission allowances, traded in electricity markets. Relationships between electricity prices, primary energy fuel prices and carbon dioxide permits are analyzed on essay four. The efficiency of the European market for allowances is examined taking into account markets heterogeneity. Essay five analyzes stylized statistical properties of the recent traded asset CO2 emission allowances, for spot and futures returns, examining also the relation linking convenience yield and risk premium, for the German European Energy Exchange (EEX) between October 2005 and October 2009. The study was conducted through empirical estimations of CO2 allowances risk premium, convenience yield, and their relation. Future prices from an ex-post perspective are examined to show evidence for significant negative risk premium, or else a positive forward premium. Finally, essay six analyzes emission allowances futures hedging effectiveness, providing

  5. Financial risk and derivatives a special issue of the geneva papers on risk and insurance theory

    CERN Document Server

    Subrahmanyam, Marti

    1996-01-01

    Financial Risk and Derivatives provides an excellent illustration of the links that have developed in recent years between the theory of finance on one hand and insurance economics and actuarial science on the other. Advances in contingent claims analysis and developments in the academic and practical literature dealing with the management of financial risks reflect the close relationships between insurance and innovations in finance. The book represents an overview of the present state of the art in theoretical research dealing with financial issues of significance for insurance science. It will hopefully provide an impetus to further developments in applied insurance research.

  6. Derivative pricing with liquidity risk : Theory and evidence from the credit default swap market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, J.J.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    We derive an equilibrium asset pricing model incorporating liquidity risk, derivatives, and short-selling due to hedging of nontraded risk. We show that illiquid assets can have lower expected returns if the short-sellers have more wealth, lower risk aversion, or shorter horizon. The pricing of

  7. 76 FR 16587 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for... other things, would implement DCO Core Principle D (Risk Management) and would establish a related... framework to reduce risk, increase transparency, and promote market integrity within the financial system...

  8. Podocytes Degrade Endocytosed Albumin Primarily in Lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M.; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, palbumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic

  9. Podocytes degrade endocytosed albumin primarily in lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, plysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic potential in slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis by enhancing the ability of podocytes to process and degrade albumin.

  10. RISK MANAGEMENT WITH FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIAN NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial risk management has rapidly evolved over the past two decades and has become an indispensable function in many institutions from different area of activities. In the last two decades, as the financial markets have become more and more mature, an increasing number of firms from emerging economies have chosen to use derivatives to hedge financial risks. As a result, risk management with financial derivatives has attracted much attention recently, becoming an important topic in the financial literature. However, we know little about the use of financial derivatives by firms from emerging economies and about the effect of these instruments on firms’ risk and value. The aim of the paper is to provide new insights into the use of financial derivatives for hedging purpose by non-financial firms from emerging markets. We analyzed risk management practices on a sample of 68 non-financial firms listed at Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE over a long time frame (2001 to 2011. We found that Romanian non-financial firms from our sample are exposed mainly to commodity price risk, currency risk, interest rate risk, and liquidity risk. More than half of the firms in our sample (55.88% publish in their annual reports the goal of risk management process. Our results show that 10.29% of non-financial firms in our sample use financial derivatives to hedge their currency, interest rate or commodity price risks. We also found that the volatility caused by the global financial crisis determined many firms to use financial derivatives over the period 2007-2011. Nevertheless, the use of financial derivatives by Romanian non-financial firms is low relative to values registered for other emerging economies. The most important factors that hindered the use of financial derivatives have been the low liquidity of exchange derivatives markets, high hedging costs, and the lack of risk management expertise. The traditional approach of managing risks individually is

  11. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  12. 76 FR 16588 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of... Register of January 20, 2011, regarding Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations...

  13. Derivative pricing with liquidity risk: Theory and evidence from the credit default swap market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; de Jong, F.; Driessen, J.

    2008-01-01

    We derive a theoretical asset-pricing model for derivative contracts that allows for expected liquidity and liquidity risk, and estimate this model for the market of credit default swaps (CDS). Our model extends the LCAPM of Acharya and Pedersen (2005) to a setting with derivative instruments and

  14. Using Derivatives to Hedge Interest Rate Risk: A Student Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jeff; Flagg, Donald

    2014-01-01

    In a world of fluctuating asset prices, many firms find the need to hedge in order to avoid or reduce losses. From a gold miner selling gold derivatives to airlines buying oil futures to protect against rising fuel costs, hedging is common practice across many different industries. In this paper, we provide students with a simplified example of a…

  15. Deriving forest fire ignition risk with biogeochemical process modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, C S; Hasenauer, H

    2014-05-01

    Climate impacts the growth of trees and also affects disturbance regimes such as wildfire frequency. The European Alps have warmed considerably over the past half-century, but incomplete records make it difficult to definitively link alpine wildfire to climate change. Complicating this is the influence of forest composition and fuel loading on fire ignition risk, which is not considered by purely meteorological risk indices. Biogeochemical forest growth models track several variables that may be used as proxies for fire ignition risk. This study assesses the usefulness of the ecophysiological model BIOME-BGC's 'soil water' and 'labile litter carbon' variables in predicting fire ignition. A brief application case examines historic fire occurrence trends over pre-defined regions of Austria from 1960 to 2008. Results show that summer fire ignition risk is largely a function of low soil moisture, while winter fire ignitions are linked to the mass of volatile litter and atmospheric dryness.

  16. Deriving forest fire ignition risk with biogeochemical process modelling☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, C.S.; Hasenauer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Climate impacts the growth of trees and also affects disturbance regimes such as wildfire frequency. The European Alps have warmed considerably over the past half-century, but incomplete records make it difficult to definitively link alpine wildfire to climate change. Complicating this is the influence of forest composition and fuel loading on fire ignition risk, which is not considered by purely meteorological risk indices. Biogeochemical forest growth models track several variables that may be used as proxies for fire ignition risk. This study assesses the usefulness of the ecophysiological model BIOME-BGC's ‘soil water’ and ‘labile litter carbon’ variables in predicting fire ignition. A brief application case examines historic fire occurrence trends over pre-defined regions of Austria from 1960 to 2008. Results show that summer fire ignition risk is largely a function of low soil moisture, while winter fire ignitions are linked to the mass of volatile litter and atmospheric dryness. PMID:26109905

  17. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  18. Relative radiological risks derived from different TENORM wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, B.; Teng, I. L.; Muhammad samudi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (Malaysia), and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y -1 permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77 x 10 -3 risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19 x 10 -3 risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory

  19. Estimating Risk and Return Combinations for New Derivatives Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bona

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Active funds are typically managed by placing bets against a well defined passive bench-mark. In this context, when examining the launching of a new actively managed fund with a target expected excess rate of return relative to the benchmark equal to µ, asset managers face the problem of estimating the risk σ of excess rates of return. This estimate is critical to examine whether the product is commercially feasible and to define risk limits for the manager, if the product is launched. This paper proceeds to examine the solution to this problem assuming an especial form of the binomial model, in the context of the market timing structure advanced by Merton (1981. The paper shows that two variables are relevant for the solution of the proposed problem. The first, and the most relevant, is the skill level of the manager. A ore skilled manager is able to operate a less risky product with the same target excess rate of return µ. The second relevant variable is the trade-off between risk and return determined by existing investment opportunities in the market. The smaller the increases in risk exposure required to obtain an increase in excess returns, the less risky the product will be After solving the problem under specific assumptions, the paper proceeds to test empirically their validity using a representative sample of hedge funds in the Brazilian market. The empirical results strongly support the validity of the required assumptions.

  20. Machine learning derived risk prediction of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiran; Wei, Zhi; Keating, Brendan J; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2016-01-20

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex psychiatric disease with a moderate to strong genetic contribution. In addition to conventional genome wide association (GWA) studies, researchers have been using machine learning methods in conjunction with genomic data to predict risk of diseases in which genetics play an important role. In this study, we collected whole genome genotyping data on 3940 AN cases and 9266 controls from the Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa (GCAN), the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3), Price Foundation Collaborative Group and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), and applied machine learning methods for predicting AN disease risk. The prediction performance is measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), indicating how well the model distinguishes cases from unaffected control subjects. Logistic regression model with the lasso penalty technique generated an AUC of 0.693, while Support Vector Machines and Gradient Boosted Trees reached AUC's of 0.691 and 0.623, respectively. Using different sample sizes, our results suggest that larger datasets are required to optimize the machine learning models and achieve higher AUC values. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess AN risk based on genome wide genotype level data. Future integration of genomic, environmental and family-based information is likely to improve the AN risk evaluation process, eventually benefitting AN patients and families in the clinical setting.

  1. Theory of Financial Risk and Derivative Pricing - 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    2003-12-01

    Foreword; Preface; 1. Probability theory: basic notions; 2. Maximum and addition of random variables; 3. Continuous time limit, Ito calculus and path integrals; 4. Analysis of empirical data; 5. Financial products and financial markets; 6. Statistics of real prices: basic results; 7. Non-linear correlations and volatility fluctuations; 8. Skewness and price-volatility correlations; 9. Cross-correlations; 10. Risk measures; 11. Extreme correlations and variety; 12. Optimal portfolios; 13. Futures and options: fundamental concepts; 14. Options: hedging and residual risk; 15. Options: the role of drift and correlations; 16. Options: the Black and Scholes model; 17. Options: some more specific problems; 18. Options: minimum variance Monte-Carlo; 19. The yield curve; 20. Simple mechanisms for anomalous price statistics; Index of most important symbols; Index.

  2. Risks derived from the industrial uses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A

    1981-01-01

    The industrial uses of ionizing radiation are clasified according to its importance in the surveillance and control of industrial processes, the possibility of modifying properties of materials under irradiation and the liberation and transformation of nuclear and desintegration energy into other useful forms. Within that framework, the industrial uses of radiation in Spain are presented together with an indication of the amount and classification of responsible operating personal. The basic concepts of risk and benefit are analyzed to show that the public perception of nuclear risk is greater that the real one. To bring both together, it is important to show a good operating experience and to develop a complete and precise set of rules and regulations. The situation in Spain on this later concept is presented in some detail.

  3. Application of Derivatives Market for Controlling Risks of Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuolė Drazdauskienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of raw milk procurement cost level and fluctuation which inhibits strengthening negotiating positions of dairy product fabricants and probability of them staying competitive in the European Union, is examined. Scientific literature that analyzes risks of staple prices is overviewed in the article. The paper provides statistical data representing the situation of Lithuania in contrast with European Union rates. Global usage of prospective transactions and their possible influence on price regulation are analyzed. After examining statistical data and academic literature, conclusions are provided.

  4. The Omitted Factor in Risk Management: Corporate Foreign Debt as an Alternative to Currency Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Empirical surveys on exchange rate risk management in non-financial companies focus on the use of currency derivatives while omitting the use of corporate debt denominated in foreign currency ("foreign debt") even though the latter in risk management terms is identical to one or a series of forward...

  5. The usage of financial derivatives in financial risk management by non- financial companies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Branko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the research results on corporate risk management practices, notably in light of the derivatives use in the large Serbian non-financial companies. The principal aim of this paper is to examine whether Serbian companies employ derivatives to manage risk and to what degree, and to explore the main rationale behind the companies' not employing these instruments, as well as to suggest possible enhancements of risk management practices. Furthermore, we have investigated the key reasons why financial derivatives are very useful for Serbian companies for hedging financial risks. Additionally, this paper provides a comparative overview of the use of derivatives between Serbian companies and the companies in Croatia and Slovenia in order to ascertain whether Serbian companies employ derivatives in order to manage risk to the same degree as their Croatian and Slovenian counterparts. This paper will include findings and provide evidence that FX rate and referent interest rates (such as 1w- 2w repo rate, Beonia and Belibor are markedly volatile, which opens vast possibilities for the use of financial derivatives, given that these financial parameters determine the price of a credit arrangement for companies and the quality of import and export cash flows.

  6. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Pricing Weather Derivatives under Issuer Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Karl Härdle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are contingent claims with payoff based on a pre-specified weather index. Firms exposed to weather risk can transfer it to financial markets via weather derivatives. We develop a utility-based model for pricing baskets of weather derivatives under default risk on the issuer side in over-the-counter markets. In our model, agents maximise the expected utility of their terminal wealth, while they dynamically rebalance their weather portfolios over a finite investment horizon. Using dynamic programming approach, we obtain semi-closed forms for the equilibrium prices of weather derivatives and for the optimal strategies of the agents. We give an example on how to price rainfall derivatives on selected stations in China in the universe of a financial investor and a weather exposed crop insurer.

  7. The use of derivatives in Slovenian non-financial firms: is financial risk already well managed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Berk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research about the financial behaviour of Slovenian firms has documented enterprise risk management as being one of its weakest areas. The goal of this article is to present insights into financial risk management, i.e. into the extent of the use of derivatives in the largest Slovenian firms and the related practices. The resultsare confronted with the same types of characteristics of US and German firms (although being much larger revealed in comparable studies. These firms provide relevant benchmarks for assessing the development gap since they operate in more advanced financial environments and are therefore expected to have much morerefined approaches to the use of derivatives than Slovenian firms. A survey points to the much smaller extent of the use of derivatives by Slovenian firms. There is a substantial gap, especially in the area of risk management policies (e.g. documentation, reporting, counterparty risk, valuation etc..

  8. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A risk... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal risk management...

  9. Effectiveness of Weather Derivatives as a Risk Management Tool in Food Retail: The Case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Štulec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-catastrophic weather risk is gaining importance as climate change becomes more pronounced and economic crisis forces companies to strengthen their cost control. Recent literature proposes weather derivatives as flexible weather risk mitigating tools. Only a handful of studies analysed the feasibility of weather derivatives in industries other than agriculture and energy. The purpose of this paper is to review available weather risk management solutions in retail, present weather derivatives as non-catastrophic weather risk management tools, empirically demonstrate the process of designing weather derivatives and assess their effectiveness as risk mitigating tools in retail. Empirical analysis is performed on beverage sales in 60 large food stores in Croatia, and performance of monthly temperature put options during the summer season is examined. For weather sensitivity analysis of sales, the method of panel regression was used. Results show that weather has a statistically significant effect on beverage sales and that weather derivatives prove to be effective in beverage sales uncertainty reduction. Their effectiveness differs between covered periods and cities.

  10. Conference Innovations in Derivatives Market : Fixed Income Modeling, Valuation Adjustments, Risk Management, and Regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grbac, Zorana; Scherer, Matthias; Zagst, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents 20 peer-reviewed chapters on current aspects of derivatives markets and derivative pricing. The contributions, written by leading researchers in the field as well as experienced authors from the financial industry, present the state of the art in: • Modeling counterparty credit risk: credit valuation adjustment, debit valuation adjustment, funding valuation adjustment, and wrong way risk. • Pricing and hedging in fixed-income markets and multi-curve interest-rate modeling. • Recent developments concerning contingent convertible bonds, the measuring of basis spreads, and the modeling of implied correlations. The recent financial crisis has cast tremendous doubts on the classical view on derivative pricing. Now, counterparty credit risk and liquidity issues are integral aspects of a prudent valuation procedure and the reference interest rates are represented by a multitude of curves according to their different periods and maturities. A panel discussion included in the book (featuring D...

  11. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: An introduction to the mathematics and practicalities of market trading and risk management for financial derivatives, the course will focus on examples from the short-term and long term Foreign Exchange (FX) and Interest Rate (IR) derivatives markets. Topics: - Government Bonds and IR Curves - Stochastic FX, Black-Scholes Vanilla FX Options and Martingales - Risk Management and Market Trading for Vanilla FX Options, Market Implied Volatility, Valuation and Risk Management, Market Trading Strategies - Stochastic IR Curves and Implied Volatility, IR Derivatives - Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR Vanilla Foreign Exchange (FX) Options - $ Government Bonds, Interest Rate (IR) Curves, Continuous IR - Domestic ($) and Foreign (Yen) Government Bonds, IR curves - Stochastic Spot FX, Forward FX: Ito processes for $ and Yen Investors - Black-Scholes Vanilla FX Options, Connection to Heat/Diffusion Equation - Stochastic Differential Equations with Mart...

  12. Using financial derivatives to hedge against currency risk : British large and medium-sized firms

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, My

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, as a growing number of firms strive to conduct their business at international market place, currency risk has increasingly raised concern among financial mangers due to its substantial impact on companies’ financial results. Financial derivative instruments (Forward, Futures, Options, Swaps) are utilized as efficient hedging mechanisms against such an exchange rate exposure. The main objective of this study is to examine whether derivatives play a primary role in mitigating an adve...

  13. Weather derivatives or how an energy company can hedge its weather risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahghighi, A.; Carpentier, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed overview of weather derivatives and explains where this new class of financial products falls. The emergence of weather derivatives came about as a response to a need in the energy sector to hedge this sector's weather risks. This article focuses on the nature of these financial contracts, what they include and how they are priced. This article concludes by stating that energy companies in Europe can no longer afford to remain exposed to weather risks in an increasingly privatized and competitive market

  14. Computational methods in the pricing and risk management of modern financial derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Hans-Peter

    1999-09-01

    In the last 20 years modern finance has developed into a complex mathematically challenging field. Very complicated risks exist in financial markets which need very advanced methods to measure and/or model them. The financial instruments invented by the market participants to trade these risk, the so called derivatives are usually even more complicated than the risks themselves and also sometimes generate new riks. Topics like random walks, stochastic differential equations, martingale measures, time series analysis, implied correlations, etc. are of common use in the field. This is why more and more people with a science background, such as physicists, mathematicians, or computer scientists, are entering the field of finance. The measurement and management of all theses risks is the key to the continuing success of banks. This talk gives insight into today's common methods of modern market risk management such as variance-covariance, historical simulation, Monte Carlo, “Greek” ratios, etc., including the statistical concepts on which they are based. Derivatives are at the same time the main reason for and the most effective means of conducting risk management. As such, they stand at the beginning and end of risk management. The valuation of derivatives and structured financial instruments is therefore the prerequisite, the condition sine qua non, for all risk management. This talk introduces some of the important valuation methods used in modern derivatives pricing such as present value, Black-Scholes, binomial trees, Monte Carlo, etc. In summary this talk highlights an area outside physics where there is a lot of interesting work to do, especially for physicists. Or as one of our consultants said: The fascinating thing about this job is that Arthur Andersen hired me not ALTHOUGH I am a physicist but BECAUSE I am a physicist.

  15. Derivation of endogenous equivalent values to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for an endogenous carcinogen: Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Hays, S M

    2017-12-01

    An approach is presented for ethylene oxide (EO) to derive endogenous equivalent (EE) values, which are endogenous levels normally found within the body expressed in terms of exogenous exposures. EE values can be used to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for chemicals such as EO that have both endogenous and exogenous exposure pathways. EE values were derived using a meta-analysis of data from the published literature characterizing the distribution for an EO biomarker of exposure, hemoglobin N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-valine (HEV), in unexposed populations. These levels are compared to the those reported in exposed populations (smokers, workers). Correlation between the biomarker of exposure and external exposures of EO were applied to this distribution to determine corresponding EE values, which range from 0.13 to 6.9 ppb for EO in air. These values are orders of magnitude higher than risk-based concentration values derived for EO using default methods, and are provided as a pragmatic, data-driven alternative approach to managing the potential risks from exogenous exposures to EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Corporate interest rate risk management with derivatives in Australia: empirical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Ferreira Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial and insurance theories explain that large widely-held corporations manage corporate risks if doing so is costective to reduce frictional costs such as taxes, agency costs and financial distress costs. A large number of previous empirical studies, most in the U.S., have tested the hypotheses underlying corporate risk management with financial derivative instruments. In order to quantify corporate hedge demand, most previous studies have used the ratio of principal notional amount of derivatives to company size, although they recognize that company size is not an appropriate proxy for financial risk. This paper analyzes the interest-rate-risk hedge demand by Australian companies, measured through the ratio of principal notional amount of interest rate derivatives to interest-rate-riskbearing liabilities. Modern panel data methods are used, with two panel data sets from 1998 to 2003 (1102 and 465 observations, respectively. Detailed information about interest-rate-risk exposures was available after manual data collection from financial annual reports, which was only possible due to specific reporting requirements in Australian accounting standards. Regarding the analysis of the extent of hedge, our measurement of interest-rate-risk exposures generates some significant results di erent from those found in previous studies. For example, this study shows that total leverage (total debt ratio is not significantly important to interest-rate-risk hedge demand and that, instead, this demand is related to the specific risk exposure in the interest bearing part of the firms liabilities. This study finds significant relations of interest-rate-risk hedge to company size, floating-interest-rate debt ratio, annual log returns, and company industry type (utilities and non-banking financial institutions.

  17. Guidance document on the derivation of maximum permissible risk levels for human intake of soil contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a basic step-to-step description of the procedure followed in the derivation of the human-toxicological Maximum Permissible Risk (MPR ; in Dutch: Maximum Toelaatbaar Risico, MTR) for soil contaminants. In recent years this method has been applied for a large number of compounds

  18. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Predicts Mortality Risk in Older Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K.S.; Mortensen, E.L.; Avlund, K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that low circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a secretory member of the neurotrophin family that has a protective role in neurodegeneration and stress responses and a regulatory role in metabolism, predicts risk of all-cause mortality in 85-year...

  19. A suggested approach for deriving risk criteria in radiation protection and land use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.F.; Corran, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    In radiation protection, tolerability has been determined by setting a limit on the dose received recognizing that there is an unavoidable background level of radiation to which we are all exposed. This dose is sometimes associated with a cancer fatality coefficient to convert the dose to a probability of fatality, but it is recognised that fatality is not immediate but arises (if at all) many years after the exposure. In other hazardous industry, tolerability is based on satisfying annual fatality risk limits for the number of immediate fatalities. These limits vary with the type of land use proposed. This raises the questions of how such risks should be compared and, in particular, whether there is a basis for common risk measures to be derived. Unless this can be done, inappropriate comparisons will continue to be made. In this paper, a method is suggested for deriving measures of risk to individuals and to communities, both for activities involving radiation exposure and for accidents with other hazardous materials. The method is based on taking account of the difference between continuing releases and accidental transient releases. It is argued that the continuous releases, the lifetime risk is the most appropriate parameter both for radiation and hazardous material exposure. For accident situations both individual and societal risk curves can be drawn which take account of the difference between acute and latent fatalities. Some problems associated with societal risk curves are discussed and suggestions for their use given. 11 refs., 3 figs

  20. Towards a realistic estimation for the risk to the public derived from a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, D; Diaz de la Cruz, F.

    1985-01-01

    The controversy arised during the last decade around civil uses of nuclear energy has been focalized, principally, in its questionability as energetic resource, basing on the safety aspects and consequently on the risk magnitude associated with a nuclear accident, from which could arise significative releases of radioactivity to the environment. The reactor safety studies developed in the last decade overestimated, in some orders of magnitude, the radiological consequences, and therefore the nuclear risk derived from the operation of such installations. In this moment, after the lessons learned from Three Mile Island accident and the studies and researches, starting afterwards, it is considered suitable to develop a comparison of the above mentioned risk which allows an approach between its real value and that one derived from social perception.

  1. Towards a realistic estimation for the risk to the public derived from a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, D.; Diaz de la Cruz, F.

    1985-01-01

    The controversy arised during the last decade around civil uses of nuclear energy has been focalized, principally, in its questionability as energetic resource, basing on the safety aspects and consequently on the risk magnitude associated with a nuclear accident, from which could arise significative releases of radioactivity to the environment. The reactor safety studies developed in the last decade overestimated, in some orders of magnitude, the radiological consequences, and therefore the nuclear risk derived from the operation of such installations. In this moment, after the lessons learned from Three Mile Island accident and the studies and researches, starting afterwards, it is considered suitable to develop a comparison of the above mentioned risk which allows an approach between its real value and that one derived from social perception. (author)

  2. Recurrent epistaxis: predicting risk of 30-day readmission, derivation and validation of RHINO-ooze score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, A; Paul, C; Kuo, R; Lamyman, A; Martinez-Devesa, P; Hettige, R

    2017-06-01

    To derive and validate a predictive scoring tool (RHINO-ooze score) with good sensitivity and specificity in identifying patients with epistaxis at high risk of 30 day readmission and to enable risk stratification for possible definitive intervention. Using medical databases, we searched for factors influencing recurrent epistaxis. The information ascertained together with our analysis of retrospective data on patients admitted with epistaxis between October 2013 and September 2014, was used as the derivation cohort to develop the predictive scoring model (RHINO-ooze score). The tool was validated by performing statistical analysis on the validation cohort of patients admitted with epistaxis between October 2014 and October 2015. Multiple linear regressions with backwards elimination was used to derive the predictive model. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity were calculated. 834 admissions were encountered within the study period. Using the derivative cohort (n= 302) the RHINO-ooze score with a maximum score of 8 from five variables (Recent admission, Haemorrhage point unidentified, Increasing age over 70, posterior Nasal packing, Oral anticoagulant) was developed. The RHINO-ooze score had a chi-square value of 99.72 with a significance level of smaller than 0.0001 and hence an overall good model fit. Comparison between the derivative and validation groups revealed similar rates of 30-day readmission between the cohorts. The sensitivity and specificity of predicting 30-day readmission in high risk patients with recurrent epistaxis (RHINO-ooze score equal/larger than 6) was 81% and 84%, respectively. The RHINO-ooze scoring tool demonstrates good specificity and sensitivity in predicting the risk of 30 day readmission in patients with epistaxis and can be used as an adjunct to clinical decision making with regards to timing of operative intervention in order to reduce readmission rates.

  3. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Yew

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities. (author)

  4. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities

  5. Risk Management of Interest Rate Derivative Portfolios: A Stochastic Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kiriakopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we formulate the Risk Management Control problem in the interest rate area as a constrained stochastic portfolio optimization problem. The utility that we use can be any continuous function and based on the viscosity theory, the unique solution of the problem is guaranteed. The numerical approximation scheme is presented and applied using a single factor interest rate model. It is shown how the whole methodology works in practice, with the implementation of the algorithm for a specific interest rate portfolio. The recent financial crisis showed that risk management of derivatives portfolios especially in the interest rate market is crucial for the stability of the financial system. Modern Value at Risk (VAR and Conditional Value at Risk (CVAR techniques, although very useful and easy to understand, fail to grasp the need for on-line controlling and monitoring of derivatives portfolio. The portfolios should be designed in a way that risk and return be quantified and controlled in every possible state of the world. We hope that this methodology contributes towards this direction.

  6. Expert elicitation for deriving input data for probabilistic risk assessment of shipwrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landquist, H; Norrman, J; Lindhe, A; Norberg, T; Hassellöv, I-M; Lindgren, J F; Rosén, L

    2017-12-15

    The necessity of having a process in place for adequate risk assessment of shipwrecks that pose a threat to the marine environment is today internationally acknowledged. However, retrieving the desired data for such a risk assessment can prove challenging. One means of addressing this problem is to make use of experts' knowledge and experience. The purpose of this paper is therefore to present and analyse data for risk assessment of shipwrecks derived by expert elicitation. The main outcome is the experts' estimations of (i) the generic probability of an opening in a shipwreck due to the occurrence of a number of activities and (ii) estimations of the degree to which site-specific and wreck-specific indicators affect the probability of opening. Results show that the derived information is applicable in probabilistic shipwreck risk assessment and that the VRAKA framework now contains needed information for integrating generic and site-specific information using Bayesian updating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predators or prey? Spatio-temporal discrimination of human-derived risk by brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiz, Andrés; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Delibes, Miguel; Swenson, Jon E

    2011-05-01

    Prey usually adjust anti-predator behavior to subtle variations in perceived risk. However, it is not clear whether adult large carnivores that are virtually free of natural predation adjust their behavior to subtle variations in human-derived risk, even when living in human-dominated landscapes. As a model, we studied resting-site selection by a large carnivore, the brown bear (Ursus arctos), under different spatial and temporal levels of human activity. We quantified horizontal and canopy cover at 440 bear beds and 439 random sites at different distances from human settlements, seasons, and times of the day. We hypothesized that beds would be more concealed than random sites and that beds would be more concealed in relation to human-derived risk. Although human densities in Scandinavia are the lowest within bear ranges in Western Europe, we found an effect of human activity; bears chose beds with higher horizontal and canopy cover during the day (0700-1900 hours), especially when resting closer to human settlements, than at night (2200-0600 hours). In summer/fall (the berry season), with more intensive and dispersed human activity, including hunting, bears rested further from human settlements during the day than in spring (pre-berry season). Additionally, day beds in the summer/fall were the most concealed. Large carnivores often avoid humans at a landscape scale, but total avoidance in human-dominated areas is not possible. Apparently, bears adjust their behavior to avoid human encounters, which resembles the way prey avoid their predators. Bears responded to fine-scale variations in human-derived risk, both on a seasonal and a daily basis.

  8. Fracture risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) compared with fracture risk derived from population fracture rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Swedish version of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)) without bone mass density (BMD) in a Danish population to examine the possibility of applying this version to Danish women. METHODS: From the Danish National Register of social security numbers, we...

  9. Proarrhythmia risk prediction using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Daiju; Kitaguchi, Takashi; Ishimura, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Tomohiko; Yamanishi, Atsuhiro; Saji, Daisuke; Takahashi, Etsushi; Oguchi, Masao; Moriyama, Yuta; Maeda, Sanae; Miyamoto, Kaori; Morimura, Kaoru; Ohnaka, Hiroki; Tashibu, Hiroyuki; Sekino, Yuko; Miyamoto, Norimasa; Kanda, Yasunari

    2018-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are expected to become a useful tool for proarrhythmia risk prediction in the non-clinical drug development phase. Several features including electrophysiological properties, ion channel expression profile and drug responses were investigated using commercially available hiPSC-CMs, such as iCell-CMs and Cor.4U-CMs. Although drug-induced arrhythmia has been extensively examined by microelectrode array (MEA) assays in iCell-CMs, it has not been fully understood an availability of Cor.4U-CMs for proarrhythmia risk. Here, we evaluated the predictivity of proarrhythmia risk using Cor.4U-CMs. MEA assay revealed linear regression between inter-spike interval and field potential duration (FPD). The hERG inhibitor E-4031 induced reverse-use dependent FPD prolongation. We next evaluated the proarrhythmia risk prediction by a two-dimensional map, which we have previously proposed. We determined the relative torsade de pointes risk score, based on the extent of FPD with Fridericia's correction (FPDcF) change and early afterdepolarization occurrence, and calculated the margins normalized to free effective therapeutic plasma concentrations. The drugs were classified into three risk groups using the two-dimensional map. This risk-categorization system showed high concordance with the torsadogenic information obtained by a public database CredibleMeds. Taken together, these results indicate that Cor.4U-CMs can be used for drug-induced proarrhythmia risk prediction. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  11. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Roh, Myung Sub

    2013-01-01

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors

  12. The development of stochastic process modeling through risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    There are so many different factors to consider when constructing a nuclear power plant successfully from planning to decommissioning. According to PMBOK, all projects have nine domains from a holistic project management perspective. They are equally important to all projects, however, this study focuses mostly on the processes required to manage timely completion of the project and conduct risk management. The overall objective of this study is to let you know what the risk analysis derived from scheduling of NPP project is, and understand how to implement the stochastic process modeling through risk management. Building the Nuclear Power Plant is required a great deal of time and fundamental knowledge related to all engineering. That means that integrated project scheduling management with so many activities is necessary and very important. Simulation techniques for scheduling of NPP project using Open Plan program, Crystal Ball program, and Minitab program can be useful tools for designing optimal schedule planning. Thus far, Open Plan and Monte Carlo programs have been used to calculate the critical path for scheduling network analysis. And also, Minitab program has been applied to monitor the scheduling risk. This approach to stochastic modeling through risk analysis of project activities is very useful for optimizing the schedules of activities using Critical Path Method and managing the scheduling control of NPP project. This study has shown new approach to optimal scheduling of NPP project, however, this does not consider the characteristic of activities according to the NPP site conditions. Hence, this study needs more research considering those factors.

  13. Transmission of viral hepatitis by blood and blood derivatives: current risks, past heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, D

    2002-11-01

    For more than 40 years in the history of transfusion medicine, transmission of viral hepatitis from infected donors to recipients has been a frequent and serious adverse effect of the administration of blood components and plasma derivatives. This epidemic is now over, at least in developed and resource-rich countries. Hence, the attention of clinicians and investigators now focuses mainly on the measures to reduce the residual risk, on the possible emergence of novel or undiscovered agents causing post-transfusion hepatitis, and on the long-term outcome of patients who became infected more than ten years ago. The present article reviews these issues.

  14. THE EFFECT OF DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON BANK RISKS, RELEVANCE AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATION: EVIDENCE FROM BANKS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Kornel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a continuously changing business environment accounting data have to provide useful information in order to achieve relevant and faithful representation in financial statements. Since global markets have changed radically, growing international trade means the horizons of investors and borrowers have now become global, which has increased the level of their risks. Concerning international trade and investment, one of the most important risks is uncertainty about future foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Changes in financial markets have increased the use of derivative instruments (such as forwards, futures, swaps, and options to hedge risk exposure worldwide, while the related accounting standards have not kept pace with those changes. Because of the complexity and variety of these instruments, reporting on derivatives faces many difficulties, since a different framework and different accounting concepts are required to present useful financial information. For these reasons the growing use of derivative financial instruments and the challenges of the global financial system have intensified and sharpened debates about whether derivative instruments increase or decrease the risk of banks, affecting faithful representation based on their financial statements and decision usefulness of the reported information. This study aims to describe the transformation of accounting concepts and its effect on fair value accounting for derivative financial instruments in the information economy. The research question of the paper is whether the advantages of fair value accounting exceed the disadvantages, especially in the case of derivatives, in reducing the uncertainty and risk associated with financial reporting. Based on this question, the purpose of the empirical research is to assess the level of different risks which banks operating in Hungary face when using derivative financial instruments and to investigate how and to what extent

  15. Amazonian Amphibian Diversity Is Primarily Derived from Late Miocene Andean Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Juan C; Coloma, Luis A; Summers, Kyle; Caldwell, Janalee P; Ree, Richard; Cannatella, David C

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropics contains half of remaining rainforests and Earth's largest reservoir of amphibian biodiversity. However, determinants of Neotropical biodiversity (i.e., vicariance, dispersals, extinctions, and radiations) earlier than the Quaternary are largely unstudied. Using a novel method of ancestral area reconstruction and relaxed Bayesian clock analyses, we reconstructed the biogeography of the poison frog clade (Dendrobatidae). We rejected an Amazonian center-of-origin in favor of a complex connectivity model expanding over the Neotropics. We inferred 14 dispersals into and 18 out of Amazonia to adjacent regions; the Andes were the major source of dispersals into Amazonia. We found three episodes of lineage dispersal with two interleaved periods of vicariant events between South and Central America. During the late Miocene, Amazonian, and Central American-Chocoan lineages significantly increased their diversity compared to the Andean and Guianan-Venezuelan-Brazilian Shield counterparts. Significant percentage of dendrobatid diversity in Amazonia and Chocó resulted from repeated immigrations, with radiations at Venezuelan Highlands, and Guiana Shield have undergone extended in situ diversification at near constant rate since the Oligocene. The effects of Miocene paleogeographic events on Neotropical diversification dynamics provided the framework under which Quaternary patterns of endemism evolved. PMID:19278298

  16. The Derivatives as Financial Risk Management Instruments: The Case of Croatian and Slovenian Non-financial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Miloš Sprčić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses financial risk management practices and derivative usage in large Croatian and Slovenian non-financial companies and explores if the decision to use derivatives as risk management instruments in the analysed companies is a function of several firm’s characteristics that have been proven as relevant in making financial risk management decisions. On the basis of the research results it can be concluded that forwards and swaps are by far the most important derivative instruments in both countries. Futures as representatives of standardised derivatives together with structured derivatives are more important in the Slovenian than in the Croatian companies, while exchange-traded and OTC options are unimportant means of financial risk management in both countries. A comparative analysis conducted to explore differences between risk management practices in Slovenian and Croatian companies has shown evidence that Slovenian companies use all types of derivatives, especially structured derivatives, more intensively than Croatian companies. The survey has revealed that the explored hedging rationales have little predictive power in explaining financial risk management decisions both in Croatian and Slovenian companies. The decision to use derivatives in Croatian non-financial companies is related only to the investment expenditures-to-assets ratio which controls for costly external financing hypothesis, while the decision to use derivatives in Slovenian companies is dependent only on the size of the company. It can be argued that the characteristics of the Croatian and Slovenian firms could be found in other South-eastern European countries and that findings of this research may act as a baseline from which to generalise. Therefore, the survey results analysed in this paper also suggest a broader comparison across countries in the region. The advantage of this work is that it provides an impetus for further research to move beyond the

  17. Focus on Chronic Exposure for Deriving Drinking Water Guidance Underestimates Potential Risk to Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Goeden

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH developed new risk assessment methods for deriving human health-based water guidance (HBG that incorporated the assessment of multiple exposure durations and life stages. The methodology is based on US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations for protecting children’s health (US EPA 2002. Over the last 10 years, the MDH has derived multiple duration (e.g., short-term, subchronic, and chronic water guidance for over 60 chemicals. This effort involved derivation of multiple duration reference doses (RfDs and selection of corresponding water intake rates (e.g., infant, child, and lifetime. As expected, RfDs typically decreased with increasing exposure duration. However, the corresponding HBG frequently did not decrease with increasing duration. For more than half of the chemicals, the shorter duration HBG was lower than chronic HBG value. Conventional wisdom has been that chronic-based values will be the most conservative and will therefore be protective of less than chronic exposures. However, the MDH’s experience highlights the importance of evaluating short-term exposures. For many chemicals, elevated intake rates early in life, coupled with short-term RfDs, resulted in the lowest HBG. Drinking water criteria based on chronic assessments may not be protective of short-term exposures in highly exposed populations such as formula-fed infants.

  18. [Risk factors associated with bacterial growth in derivative systems from cerebrospinal liquid in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Vargas-Lares, José; Andrade-Aguilera, Angélica Rocío; Díaz-Peña, Rafael; Barrera de León, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    To determine risk factors associated with bacterial growth in systems derived from cerebrospinal fluid in pediatric patients. Case and controls study from January to December 2012, in patients aged <16 years who were carriers of hydrocephalus and who required placement or replacement of derivative system. Cases were considered as children with cultures with bacterial growth and controls with negative bacterial growth. Inferential statistics with Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests. Association of risk with odds ratio. We reviewed 746 registries, cases n=99 (13%) and controls n=647 (87%). Masculine gender 58 (57%) vs. feminine gender 297 (46%) (p=0.530). Age of cases: median, five months and controls, one year (p=0.02). Median weight, 7 vs. 10 kg (p=0.634). Surgical interventions: median n=2 (range, 1-8) vs. n=1 (range, 1-7). Infection rate, 13.2%. Main etiology ductal stenosis, n=29 (29%) vs. n=50 (23%) (p=0.530). Non-communicating, n=50 (51%) vs. 396 (61%) (p=0.456). Predominant microorganisms: enterobacteria, pseudomonas, and enterococcus. Non-use of iodized dressing OR=2.6 (range, 1.8-4.3), use of connector OR=6.8 (range, 1.9-24.0), System replacement OR=2.0 (range, 1.3-3.1), assistant without surgical facemask OR=9.7 (range, 2.3-42.0). Being a breastfeeding infant, of low weight, non-application of iodized dressing, use of connector, previous derivation, and lack of adherence to aseptic technique were all factors associated with ependymitis.

  19. Diet index-based and empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M; Muscat, Joshua E; Harper, Gregory; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi; Ryczak, Karen; Escobar, Gladys; Mauger, David T; Hartman, Terryl J

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have derived patterns by measuring compliance with preestablished dietary guidance or empirical methods, such as principal components analysis (PCA). Our objective was to examine colorectal cancer risk associated with patterns identified by both methods. The study included 431 incident colorectal cancer cases (225 men, 206 women) and 726 healthy controls (330 men, 396 women) participating in a population-based, case-control study. PCA identified sex-specific dietary patterns and the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05) assessed adherence to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. A fruits and vegetables pattern and a meat, potatoes, and refined grains pattern were identified among men and women; a third pattern (alcohol and sweetened beverages) was identified in men. The fruits and vegetables pattern was inversely associated with risk among men [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.21-0.69 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile] and women (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.19-0.65). The meat, potatoes, and refined grains pattern was positively associated with risk in women (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.08-4.50) and there was a suggestion of a positive association among men (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 0.84-2.90; P-trend = 0.070). Men and women with greater HEI-05 scores had a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99; OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.24-0.77, respectively). Following the Dietary Guidelines or a dietary pattern lower in meat, potatoes, high fat, and refined foods and higher in fruits and vegetables may reduce colorectal cancer risk.

  20. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  1. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  2. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  3. An assessment of the geographical risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Lamoureux, Christine; Molodecky, Natalie A; Lyons, Hil; Grassly, Nicholas C; Tallis, Graham

    2017-05-26

    The international spread of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks continues to threaten eradication of poliomyelitis and in 2014 a public health emergency of international concern was declared. Here we describe a risk scoring system that has been used to assess country-level risks of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks, to inform prioritisation of mass vaccination planning, and describe the change in risk from 2014 to 2016. The methods were also used to assess the risk of emergence of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks. Potential explanatory variables were tested against the reported outbreaks of wild poliomyelitis since 2003 using multivariable regression analysis. The regression analysis was translated to a risk score and used to classify countries as Low, Medium, Medium High and High risk, based on the predictive ability of the score. Indicators of population immunity, population displacement and diarrhoeal disease were associated with an increased risk of both wild and vaccine-derived outbreaks. High migration from countries with wild cases was associated with wild outbreaks. High birth numbers were associated with an increased risk of vaccine-derived outbreaks. Use of the scoring system is a transparent and rapid approach to assess country risk of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks. Since 2008 there has been a steep reduction in the number of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks and the reduction in countries classified as High and Medium High risk has reflected this. The risk of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks has varied geographically. These findings highlight that many countries remain susceptible to poliomyelitis outbreaks and maintenance or improvement in routine immunisation is vital.

  4. Insurance against weather risk : use of heating degree-days from non-local stations for weather derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weather derivatives enable policy-holders to safeguard themselves against extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness and the efficiency of the risk transfer is determined by the spatial risk basis, which is the stochastic dependency of the local weather outcome being insured and the outcome of

  5. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  6. Safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived and egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccines in 3 to children and adolescents at risk of influenza-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; de Martino, Maurizio; Lopez, Jose Garcia-Sicilia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Villani, Alberto; Moreno-Perez, David; Hernández, María Méndez; Aldeán, Javier Álvarez; Mateen, Ahmed Abdul; Enweonye, Igwebuike; de Rooij, Richard; Chandra, Richa

    2016-08-01

    This descriptive, non-comparative, phase III study evaluated the safety and tolerability of cell culture-derived (TIVc) and egg-derived (TIV) seasonal influenza vaccines in children at risk of influenza-related complications. Four hundred and thirty subjects were randomized 2:1 to TIVc or TIV. Subjects aged 3 to vaccinated, n=89) or two doses (if not previously vaccinated, n=124) of the study vaccines; the 9 to vaccination; safety was monitored for 6 months. After any vaccination, the most frequently reported solicited local adverse event (AE) was tenderness/pain (TIVc 44%, 66%, 53% and TIV 56%, 51%, 65% in the age groups 3 to vaccine-related serious AEs were noted. New onset of chronic disease was reported in ≤1% of subjects. TIVc and TIV had acceptable tolerability and similar safety profiles in at-risk children (NCT01998477). Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder risk and brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Xian-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates neuronal survival, growth differentiation, and synapse formation, is known to be associated with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the molecular mechanism for those mental disorders remains unknown. Studies have shown that BDNF is associated with PTSD risk and exaggerated startle reaction (a major arousal manifestation of PTSD) in United States military service members who were deployed during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The frequency of the Met/Met in BDNF gene was greater among those with PTSD than those without PTSD. Among individuals who experienced fewer lifetime stressful events, the Met carriers have significantly higher total and startle scores on the PTSD Checklist than the Val/Val carriers. In addition, subjects with PTSD showed higher levels of BDNF in their peripheral blood plasma than the non-probable-PTSD controls. Increased BDNF levels and startle response were observed in both blood plasma and brain hippocampus by inescapable tail shock in rats. In this paper, we reviewed these data to discuss BDNF as a potential biomarker for PTSD risk and its possible roles in the onset of PTSD. PMID:27014593

  8. Evaluation of self-combustion risk in tire derived aggregate fills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marcos; San Martin, Ignacio; Olivella, Sebastian; Saaltink, Maarten W

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight tire derived aggregate (TDA) fills are a proven recycling outlet for waste tires, requiring relatively low cost waste processing and being competitively priced against other lightweight fill alternatives. However its value has been marred as several TDA fills have self-combusted during the early applications of this technique. An empirical review of these cases led to prescriptive guidelines from the ASTM aimed at avoiding this problem. This approach has been successful in avoiding further incidents of self-combustion. However, at present there remains no rational method available to quantify self-combustion risk in TDA fills. This means that it is not clear which aspects of the ASTM guidelines are essential and which are accessory. This hinders the practical use of TDA fills despite their inherent advantages as lightweight fill. Here a quantitative approach to self-combustion risk evaluation is developed and illustrated with a parametric analysis of an embankment case. This is later particularized to model a reported field self-combustion case. The approach is based on the available experimental observations and incorporates well-tested methodological (ISO corrosion evaluation) and theoretical tools (finite element analysis of coupled heat and mass flow). The results obtained offer clear insights into the critical aspects of the problem, allowing already some meaningful recommendations for guideline revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tsunami prevention and mitigation necessities and options derived from tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Steinmetz, T.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    information and other GIS products will be presented. The focus of the products is on the one hand to provide relevant risk assessment products as decision support to issue a tsunami warning within the early warning stage. On the other hand the maps and GIS products shall provide relevant information to enable local decision makers to act adequately concerning their local risks. It is shown that effective prevention and mitigation measures can be designed based on risk assessment results and information especially when used pro-active and beforehand a disaster strikes. The conducted hazard assessment provides the probability of an area to be affected by a tsunami threat divided into two ranked impact zones. The two divided impact zones directly relate to tsunami warning levels issued by the Early Warning Center and consequently enable the local decision maker to base their planning (e.g. evacuation) accordingly. Within the tsunami hazard assessment several hundred pre-computed tsunami scenarios are analysed. This is combined with statistical analysis of historical event data. Probabilities of tsunami occurrence considering probabilities of different earthquake magnitudes, occurrences of specific wave heights at coast and spatial inundation probability are computed. Hazard assessment is then combined with a comprehensive vulnerability assessment. Here deficits in e.g. people's ability to receive and understand a tsunami warning and deficits in their ability to respond adequately (evacuate on time) are quantified and are visualized for the respective coastal areas. Hereby socio-economic properties (determining peoples ability to understand a warning and to react) are combined with environmental conditions (land cover, slope, population density) to calculate the time needed to evacuate (reach a tsunami safe area derived through the hazard assessment). This is implemented using a newly developed GIS cost-distance weighting approach. For example, the amount of people affected in a

  10. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  11. Differential reconstructed gene interaction networks for deriving toxicity threshold in chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Maxwell, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Nan; Perkins, Edward J; Zhang, Chaoyang; Gong, Ping

    2013-01-01

    . Findings from this proof-of-concept study suggest that our approach has a great potential in providing a novel and sensitive tool for threshold setting in chemical risk assessment. In future work, we plan to analyze more time-series datasets with a full spectrum of concentrations and sufficient replications per treatment. The pathway alteration-derived thresholds will also be compared with those derived from apical endpoints such as cell growth rate.

  12. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  13. Derivation of a No-Significant-Risk-Level (NSRL) for diethanolamine (DEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingxuan; Amacher, David E; Whittaker, Margaret H

    2014-02-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) has been listed on the State of California's Proposition 65 List. This listing is based in part on tumors reported in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year dermal carcinogenicity study in mice which found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in B6C3F₁ mice based on increased incidences of liver neoplasms in both sexes, and increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms in males. Although considerable controversy exists on the relevance of the NTP study to humans, industries are obligated to comply with the Proposition 65 labeling requirement and drinking water discharge prohibition, unless they are able to demonstrate that DEA levels in their products are below a specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL). The State of California has not published an NSRL for DEA. In this article, a NSRL of 5.6 μg/day and a life-stage-adjusted NSRL(adj) of 1.4 μg/day are derived from the NTP carcinogenicity study using a benchmark dose modeling method based on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female mice, in accordance with the guidelines of California EPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Derivation of Accident-Specific Material-at-Risk Equivalency Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason P. Andrus; Dr. Chad L. Pope

    2012-05-01

    A novel method for calculating material at risk (MAR) dose equivalency developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) now allows for increased utilization of dose equivalency for facility MAR control. This method involves near-real time accounting for the use of accident and material specific release and transport. It utilizes all information from the committed effective dose equation and the five factor source term equation to derive dose equivalency factors which can be used to establish an overall facility or process MAR limit. The equivalency factors allow different nuclide spectrums to be compared for their respective dose consequences by relating them to a specific quantity of an identified reference nuclide. The ability to compare spectrums to a reference limit ensures that MAR limits are in fact bounding instead of attempting to establish a representative or bounding spectrum which may lead to unintended or unanalyzed configurations. This methodology is then coupled with a near real time material tracking system which allows for accurate and timely material composition information and corresponding MAR equivalency values. The development of this approach was driven by the complex nature of processing operations in some INL facilities. This type of approach is ideally suited for facilities and processes where the composition of the MAR and possible release mechanisms change frequently but in well defined fashions and in a batch-type nature.

  15. Understanding PSA and its derivatives in prediction of tumor volume: Addressing health disparities in prostate cancer risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinea, Felix M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Epstein, Jonathan I; Kwon, Deukwoo; Smith, Paul Taylor; Pollack, Alan; Cote, Richard J; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2017-03-28

    To address health disparities in risk stratification of U.S. Hispanic/Latino men by characterizing influences of prostate weight, body mass index, and race/ethnicity on the correlation of PSA derivatives with Gleason score 6 (Grade Group 1) tumor volume in a diverse cohort. Using published PSA density and PSA mass density cutoff values, men with higher body mass indices and prostate weights were less likely to have a tumor volume PSA derivatives when predicting for tumor volume. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, area under the curve values for all PSA derivatives varied across race/ethnicity with lower optimal cutoff values for Hispanic/Latino (PSA=2.79, PSA density=0.06, PSA mass=0.37, PSA mass density=0.011) and Non-Hispanic Black (PSA=3.75, PSA density=0.07, PSA mass=0.46, PSA mass density=0.008) compared to Non-Hispanic White men (PSA=4.20, PSA density=0.11 PSA mass=0.53, PSA mass density=0.014). We retrospectively analyzed 589 patients with low-risk prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Pre-operative PSA, patient height, body weight, and prostate weight were used to calculate all PSA derivatives. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for each PSA derivative per racial/ethnic group to establish optimal cutoff values predicting for tumor volume ≥0.5 cm3. Increasing prostate weight and body mass index negatively influence PSA derivatives for predicting tumor volume. PSA derivatives' ability to predict tumor volume varies significantly across race/ethnicity. Hispanic/Latino and Non-Hispanic Black men have lower optimal cutoff values for all PSA derivatives, which may impact risk assessment for prostate cancer.

  16. 77 FR 5416 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... manage derivatives. First, an FCU would need to demonstrate relevant IRR exposure. One of the motivations... in ANPR I, the Board is considering whether to limit the types of derivatives instruments that some... considers it appropriate to limit the types of derivatives that an FCU may transact to interest rate...

  17. 76 FR 37030 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ..., with certain exceptions, are financial derivatives such as futures, options, interest rate swaps and... to evaluate any hedge transaction using derivatives must include the ability to capture all options... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset...

  18. Strategic supply risk : Exploring the risks deriving from a buying firm being of low importance for its suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichenbachs, Mauricio; Schiele, Holger; Hoffmann, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This paper merges two important concepts: preferred customer and supply risk. As not all customers are of the same strategic importance to a supplier, some customers are treated preferentially. Strategic supply risk describes the risk for buyers of not being a preferred customer. This qualitative

  19. Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Methods Included in the study were 2,543 polyp patients [(1,881 with adenomas, and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratios (ORs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results High intake of red meat and processed meat (P-trend meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P-trend ≤ 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. Furthermore, the positive association with red-meat intake and heterocyclic amine exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than single adenoma and serrated than non-serrated adenomas. Conclusion This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor. PMID:21803984

  20. Emergence of Commodity Derivatives as Defensive Instrument in Portfolio Risk Hedging: A Case of Indian Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shelly

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines whether commodity derivatives can be used as an alternative investment asset in India where commodity markets are at emerging state and provides the same diversification benefit as they provide in developed commodity markets. In India only commodity futures are prevalent so various commodity indices representing various sectors has been used in the study. Diversification aspect of commodity derivatives has been tested initially by using correlation analysis. Compounded Daily Growth rate and Relative Standard deviation has been used as a measure of calculating risk and return of daily data of SENSEX, BOND and four Commodity Indices (MCX Comdex, MCX AGRI, MCX Metal, MCX Energy. Markowitz Efficient Frontier theory has been used to calculate portfolio risk return and Sharpe risk adjusted ratio has been used to evaluate the various portfolios. Optimal portfolio has been obtained for the combination of equity, bond and commodity and overall results of the study indicate that an investor who is risk averse will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Energy whereas an investor who gets utility by taking more risk for more returns will prefer to invest in combination of SENSEX, BOND & MCX Metal. Investor having inclination towards moderate risk return would tend to invest in MCX AGRI along with SENSEX and BOND.

  1. 78 FR 49663 - Enhanced Risk Management Standards for Systemically Important Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Enhanced Risk Management...'') is adopting final regulations to implement enhanced risk management standards for systemically..., strengthen the risk management practices of DCOs, and increase overall confidence in the financial system by...

  2. Deriving Biomonitoring Equivalents for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers for public health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka; Ball, Nicholas; Hays, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Glycol ethers are a widely used class of solvents that may lead to both workplace and general population exposures. Biomonitoring studies are available that have quantified glycol ethers or their metabolites in blood and/or urine amongst exposed populations. These biomonitoring levels indicate exposures to the glycol ethers, but do not by themselves indicate a health hazard risk. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) have been created to provide the ability to interpret human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. The BE is defined as the concentration of a chemical or metabolite in a biological fluid (blood or urine) that is consistent with exposures at a regulatory derived safe exposure limit, such as a tolerable daily intake (TDI). In this exercise, we derived BEs for general population exposures for selected E- and P-series glycol ethers based on their respective derived no effect levels (DNELs). Selected DNELs have been derived as part of respective Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Regulation of Chemicals (REACh) regulation dossiers in the EU. The BEs derived here are unique in the sense that they are the first BEs derived for urinary excretion of compounds following inhalation exposures. The urinary mass excretion fractions (Fue) of the acetic acid metabolites for the E-series GEs range from approximately 0.2 to 0.7. The Fues for the excretion of the parent P-series GEs range from approximately 0.1 to 0.2, with the exception of propylene glycol methyl ether and its acetate (Fue = 0.004). Despite the narrow range of Fues, the BEs exhibit a larger range, resulting from the larger range in DNELs across GEs. The BEs derived here can be used to interpret human biomonitoring data for inhalation exposures to GEs amongst the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The Surgical Mortality Probability Model: derivation and validation of a simple risk prediction rule for noncardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Laurent G; Lustik, Stewart J; Hannan, Edward L; Osler, Turner M; Mukamel, Dana B; Qian, Feng; Dick, Andrew W

    2012-04-01

    To develop a 30-day mortality risk index for noncardiac surgery that can be used to communicate risk information to patients and guide clinical management at the "point-of-care," and that can be used by surgeons and hospitals to internally audit their quality of care. Clinicians rely on the Revised Cardiac Risk Index to quantify the risk of cardiac complications in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Because mortality from noncardiac causes accounts for many perioperative deaths, there is also a need for a simple bedside risk index to predict 30-day all-cause mortality after noncardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort study of 298,772 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery during 2005 to 2007 using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. The 9-point S-MPM (Surgical Mortality Probability Model) 30-day mortality risk index was derived empirically and includes three risk factors: ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status, emergency status, and surgery risk class. Patients with ASA physical status I, II, III, IV or V were assigned either 0, 2, 4, 5, or 6 points, respectively; intermediate- or high-risk procedures were assigned 1 or 2 points, respectively; and emergency procedures were assigned 1 point. Patients with risk scores less than 5 had a predicted risk of mortality less than 0.50%, whereas patients with a risk score of 5 to 6 had a risk of mortality between 1.5% and 4.0%. Patients with a risk score greater than 6 had risk of mortality more than 10%. S-MPM exhibited excellent discrimination (C statistic, 0.897) and acceptable calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic 13.0, P = 0.023) in the validation data set. Thirty-day mortality after noncardiac surgery can be accurately predicted using a simple and accurate risk score based on information readily available at the bedside. This risk index may play a useful role in facilitating shared decision making, developing and implementing risk

  4. Credit securitization and credit derivatives: Financial instruments and the credit risk management of middle market commercial loan portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Sabine; Burghof, Hans-Peter; Rudolph, Bernd

    1998-01-01

    Banks increasingly recognize the need to measure and manage the credit risk of their loans on a portfolio basis. We address the subportfolio "middle market". Due to their specific lending policy for this market segment it is an important task for banks to systematically identify regional and industrial credit concentrations and reduce the detected concentrations through diversification. In recent years, the development of markets for credit securitization and credit derivatives has provided n...

  5. The structural coherence of clinically derived dynamic indicators of reoffending risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipse, Martien W. G.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van den Brink, Wim; van der Staak, Cees P. F.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Forensic psychiatrists aim to reduce the risk of reoffending through treatment. With few exceptions, research evidence tends to favour risk assessment aids reliant on fixed historical rather than clinical data, but transparency in the making of clinical judgements is lacking. AIMS: To

  6. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process

  7. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  8. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  9. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    IR and Long Term FX Derivatives - Stochastic Martingales for IR Curves - Implied Volatility Along the IR Curve - IR Libor Bonds - Vanilla IR Options: Caplets, Floorlets - Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR - $-Yen Bermudan Power Reverse Duals

  10. The derivation and application of a risk related value for saving a statistical life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.; Butler, G.G.; Mcglynn, G.

    2004-01-01

    A risk related value of spend for saving a statistical life (VSSSL) is proposed for cost-benefit studies across the power generation sector, and the nuclear industry in particular. An upper bound on VSSSL is set based on the UK government standard of around pound 1 M or, in particular circumstances, pound 2 M and the observation that excessive spend (probably of the order of more than pound 5 M per statistical life) will actually cost lives. Above a risk of 10 -3 a -1 it is assumed that VSSSL approaches maximum sustainable value around pound 2 M, whereas below a risk of 10 -9 a -1 the value of further risk reduction approaches zero. At risks around 10 -6 a -1 it is proposed that an appropriate VSSL lies in the range pound 0.25 M to pound 1 M. With respect to radiological protection, it is suggested that where collective doses are dominated by average individual doses no more than a few μSv, the detriment arising from a man-Sv can be valued at about pound 15 k to pound 60 k. It is further suggested that for individual dose contributions below 0.01 μSv (representing a risk equivalent to less than 10 -9 ) a low residual VSSSL should be applied in cost-benefit analyses based on collective dose exposures. (author)

  11. 17 CFR 240.15c3-1f - Optional market and credit risk requirements for OTC derivatives dealers (Appendix F to 17 CFR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... charges for market and credit risk pursuant to this Appendix F in lieu of computing securities haircuts...)(2)(vi). Credit Risk (d) The capital charge for credit risk arising from an OTC derivatives dealer's... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional market and credit...

  12. A study on current risk assessments and guidelines on the use of food animal products derived from cloned animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-10-01

    The author widely surveyed and analyzed the food safety issues, ethical issues, permits, and approval of animal products from animals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer worldwide. As a result of a 2-year survey, the author found that there is no evidence that meat and milk derived from cloned animals or their progeny pose a risk to food safety in terms of genotoxicity, adverse reproductive effects, or allergic reactions. Most countries have not approved meat and milk derived from cloned animals, and their progeny are entering the food supply. To establish the guidelines, the author suggests four principles of safety assessment for meat and milk derived from cloned animals. The four main principles for safety assessment are similarities of chemical composition, adverse reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and allergic reactions under the influence of meat and milk from cloned animals and noncloned counterparts. This principle means that meat and milk derived from a cloned animal are safe if there are no differences in the four safety assessments of meat and milk between cloned animal's progeny and noncloned counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation risk index for pediatric CT. A patient-derived metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Tian, Xiaoyu; Paul Segars, W.; Frush, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a benefit in characterizing radiation-induced cancer risk in pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT: a singular metric that represents the whole-body radiation burden while also accounting for age, gender and organ sensitivity. To compute an index of radiation risk for pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT. Using a protocol approved by our institutional review board, 42 pediatric patients (age: 0-16 years, weight: 2-80 kg) were modeled into virtual whole-body anatomical models. Organ doses were estimated for clinical chest and abdominopelvic CT examinations of the patients using validated Monte Carlo simulations of two major scanner models. Using age-, size- and gender-specific organ risk coefficients, the values were converted to normalized effective dose (by dose length product) (denoted as the k factor) and a normalized risk index (denoted as the q factor). An analysis was performed to determine how these factors are correlated with patient age and size for both males and females to provide a strategy to better characterize individualized risk. The k factor was found to be exponentially correlated with the average patient diameter. For both genders, the q factor also exhibited an exponential relationship with both the average patient diameter and with patient age. For both factors, the differences between the scanner models were less than 8%. The study defines a whole-body radiation risk index for chest and abdominopelvic CT imaging, that incorporates individual estimated organ dose values, organ radiation sensitivity, patient size, exposure age and patient gender. This indexing metrology enables the assessment and potential improvement of chest and abdominopelvic CT performance through surveillance of practice dose profiles across patients and may afford improved informed communication. (orig.)

  14. Radiation risk index for pediatric CT. A patient-derived metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, Ehsan [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Tian, Xiaoyu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States); Paul Segars, W. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Frush, Donald P. [Duke University Medical Center, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-12-15

    There is a benefit in characterizing radiation-induced cancer risk in pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT: a singular metric that represents the whole-body radiation burden while also accounting for age, gender and organ sensitivity. To compute an index of radiation risk for pediatric chest and abdominopelvic CT. Using a protocol approved by our institutional review board, 42 pediatric patients (age: 0-16 years, weight: 2-80 kg) were modeled into virtual whole-body anatomical models. Organ doses were estimated for clinical chest and abdominopelvic CT examinations of the patients using validated Monte Carlo simulations of two major scanner models. Using age-, size- and gender-specific organ risk coefficients, the values were converted to normalized effective dose (by dose length product) (denoted as the k factor) and a normalized risk index (denoted as the q factor). An analysis was performed to determine how these factors are correlated with patient age and size for both males and females to provide a strategy to better characterize individualized risk. The k factor was found to be exponentially correlated with the average patient diameter. For both genders, the q factor also exhibited an exponential relationship with both the average patient diameter and with patient age. For both factors, the differences between the scanner models were less than 8%. The study defines a whole-body radiation risk index for chest and abdominopelvic CT imaging, that incorporates individual estimated organ dose values, organ radiation sensitivity, patient size, exposure age and patient gender. This indexing metrology enables the assessment and potential improvement of chest and abdominopelvic CT performance through surveillance of practice dose profiles across patients and may afford improved informed communication. (orig.)

  15. A novel phthalimide derivative, TC11, has preclinical effects on high-risk myeloma cells and osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Matsushita

    Full Text Available Despite the recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, MM patients with high-risk cytogenetic changes such as t(4;14 translocation or deletion of chromosome 17 still have extremely poor prognoses. With the goal of helping these high-risk MM patients, we previously developed a novel phthalimide derivative, TC11. Here we report the further characterization of TC11 including anti-myeloma effects in vitro and in vivo, a pharmacokinetic study in mice, and anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Intraperitoneal injections of TC11 significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in human myeloma-bearing SCID mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that TC11 induced apoptosis of MM cells in vivo. In the pharmacokinetic analyses, the Cmax was 2.1 μM at 1 h after the injection of TC11, with 1.2 h as the half-life. TC11 significantly inhibited the differentiation and function of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts in mouse osteoclast cultures using M-CSF and RANKL. We also revealed that TC11 induced the apoptosis of myeloma cells accompanied by α-tubulin fragmentation. In addition, TC11 and lenalidomide, another phthalimide derivative, directly bound to nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, whose role in MM is unknown. Thus, through multiple molecular interactions, TC11 is a potentially effective drug for high-risk MM patients with bone lesions. The present results suggest the possibility of the further development of novel thalidomide derivatives by drug designing.

  16. Empirically derived dietary patterns and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, Ellen M; Schairer, Catherine; Flood, Andrew; He, Jian-Ping; Khattree, Ravindra; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2005-12-01

    Inconsistent associations have been reported between diet and breast cancer. We prospectively examined the association between dietary patterns and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a US-wide cohort study. Data were analyzed from 40 559 women who completed a self-administered 61-item Block food-frequency questionnaire in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, 1987-1998; 1868 of those women developed breast cancer. Dietary patterns were defined by using principal components factor analysis. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess breast cancer risk. Three major dietary patterns emerged: vegetable-fish/poultry-fruit, beef/pork-starch, and traditional southern. The vegetable-fish/poultry-fruit pattern was associated with higher education than were the other patterns, but was similar in nutrient intake to the traditional southern pattern. After adjustment for confounders, there was no significant association between the vegetable-fish/poultry-fruit and beef/pork-starch patterns and breast cancer. The traditional southern pattern, however, was associated with a nonsignificantly reduced breast cancer risk among all cases (in situ and invasive) that was significant for invasive breast cancer (relative hazard = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.65, 0.95; P for trend = 0.003). This diet was also associated with a reduced risk in women without a family history of breast cancer (P = 0.05), who were underweight or normal weight [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) dressing intake, and possibly cabbage. The traditional southern diet or its components are associated with a reduced risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

  17. Differential reconstructed gene interaction networks for deriving toxicity threshold in chemical risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yi; Maxwell, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Nan; Perkins, Edward J; Zhang, Chaoyang; Gong, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathway alterations reflected as changes in gene expression regulation and gene interaction can result from cellular exposure to toxicants. Such information is often used to elucidate toxicological modes of action. From a risk assessment perspective, alterations in biological pathways are a rich resource for setting toxicant thresholds, which may be more sensitive and mechanism-informed than traditional toxicity endpoints. Here we developed a novel differential networks (DNs) appro...

  18. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk derived from exposure to organic solvents: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rêgo Marco Antônio V.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL has increased around the world during the last decades. Apart from the role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the development of NHL, exposure to chemical agents like phenoxyacetic pesticides, hair dyes, metal fumes and organic solvents are suspected to be involved. The present review evaluates the results of studies that directly or indirectly searched for an association between solvent exposure and NHL. The selected studies comprised those published from 1979 to 1997, designed to investigate risk factors for NHL, whether specifically looking for solvent exposure or for general risks in which solvent exposure could be included. In 25 of the 45 reviewed studies (55.5%, fifty-four statistically significant associations between NHL and solvent exposure related occupations or industries were reported. Statistical significance was more frequently shown in studies where solvent exposure was more accurately defined. In eighteen of such studies, 13 (72.2% defined or suggested organic solvents as possible risk factors for NHL.

  19. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk derived from exposure to organic solvents: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio V. Rêgo

    Full Text Available The rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL has increased around the world during the last decades. Apart from the role of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the development of NHL, exposure to chemical agents like phenoxyacetic pesticides, hair dyes, metal fumes and organic solvents are suspected to be involved. The present review evaluates the results of studies that directly or indirectly searched for an association between solvent exposure and NHL. The selected studies comprised those published from 1979 to 1997, designed to investigate risk factors for NHL, whether specifically looking for solvent exposure or for general risks in which solvent exposure could be included. In 25 of the 45 reviewed studies (55.5%, fifty-four statistically significant associations between NHL and solvent exposure related occupations or industries were reported. Statistical significance was more frequently shown in studies where solvent exposure was more accurately defined. In eighteen of such studies, 13 (72.2% defined or suggested organic solvents as possible risk factors for NHL.

  20. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  1. Comprehensive screening for immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus: an essential oral poliovirus vaccine cessation risk management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, R J; Thompson, K M

    2017-01-01

    If the world can successfully control all outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus that may occur soon after global oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, then immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) from rare and mostly asymptomatic long-term excretors (defined as ⩾6 months of excretion) will become the main source of potential poliovirus outbreaks for as long as iVDPV excretion continues. Using existing models of global iVDPV prevalence and global long-term poliovirus risk management, we explore the implications of uncertainties related to iVDPV risks, including the ability to identify asymptomatic iVDPV excretors to treat with polio antiviral drugs (PAVDs) and the transmissibility of iVDPVs. The expected benefits of expanded screening to identify and treat long-term iVDPV excretors with PAVDs range from US$0.7 to 1.5 billion with the identification of 25-90% of asymptomatic long-term iVDPV excretors, respectively. However, these estimates depend strongly on assumptions about the transmissibility of iVDPVs and model inputs affecting the global iVDPV prevalence. For example, the expected benefits may decrease to as low as US$260 million with the identification of 90% of asymptomatic iVDPV excretors if iVDPVs behave and transmit like partially reverted viruses instead of fully reverted viruses. Comprehensive screening for iVDPVs will reduce uncertainties and maximize the expected benefits of PAVD use.

  2. Limitations and problems in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the problems in determining the cancer risk of low-level radiation from studies of exposed groups are reviewed and applied to the study of Hanford workers by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale. Problems considered are statistical limitations, variation of cancer rates with geography and race, the ''healthy worker effect,'' calendar year and age variation of cancer mortality, choosing from long lists, use of proportional mortality rates, cigarette smoking-cancer correlations, use of averages to represent data distributions, ignoring other data, and correlations between radiation exposure and other factors that may cause cancer. The current status of studies of the Hanford workers is reviewed

  3. Mechanism of immune tolerance induced by donor derived immature dendritic cells in rat high-risk corneal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of immature dendritic cells (imDCs on immune tolerance in rat penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in high-risk eyes and to investigate the mechanism of immune hyporesponsiveness induced by donor-derived imDCs. METHODS: Seventy-five SD rats (recipient and 39 Wistar rats (donor were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, imDC and mature dendritic cell (mDC group respectively. Using a model of orthotopic corneal transplantation in which allografts were placed in neovascularized high-risk eyes of recipient rat. Corneal neovascularization was induced by alkaline burn in the central cornea of recipient rat. Recipients in imDC group or mDC group were injected donor bone marrow-derived imDCs or mDCs of 1×106 respectively 1 week before corneal transplantation via tail vein. Control rat received the same volume of PBS. In each group, 16 recipients were kept for determination of survival time and other 9 recipients were executed on day 3, 7 and 14 after transplantation. Cornea was harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and acute rejection evaluation, Western blot was used to detect the expression level of Foxp3. RESULTS: The mean survival time of imDC group was significantly longer than that of control and mDC groups (all P<0.05. The expression level of Foxp3 on CD4+CD25+T cells of imDC group (2.24±0.18 was significantly higher than that in the control (1.68±0.09 and mDC groups (1.46±0.13 (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Donor-derived imDC is an effective treatment in inducing immune hyporesponsiveness in rat PKP. The mechanism of immune tolerance induced by imDC might be inhibit T lymphocytes responsiveness by regulatory T cells.

  4. Spatial distribution, temporal variation and risks of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in urban surface water in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenhui; Gao, Lihong; Shi, Yali; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 13 target compounds, including eight parabens, four chlorinated parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), were detected in surface water samples at 35 sampling sites in the Beijing River system, China. The surface water samples were collected from the main rivers and lakes in the urban area monthly from July 2013 to June 2014 (except the frozen period). Laboratory analyses revealed that parabens were ubiquitous in the surface water of Beijing. PHBA was the predominant compound in the surface water samples, with the average concentration of 239 ng L −1 , followed by the total amount of chlorinated parabens (average 50.1 ng/L) and parabens (average 44.3 ng/L). It is noteworthy that octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in the surface water. Significant difference was observed for paraben concentrations from different sampling sites, and the highest level of parabens was found in the Xiaotaihou River, which was mainly due to the untreated sewage discharge. Seasonal variation of target compounds in the urban surface water was also studied, and parabens exhibited a different temporal variation from chlorinated derivatives. A combination of factors including high residual chlorine level and water temperature as well as intense ultraviolet radiation might enhance the persistence of chlorinated parabens in chlorinated water during the wet season. Risk assessment showed that parabens and their chlorinated derivatives are not likely to produce biological effects on aquatic ecosystems at current levels in the surface water of Beijing. - Highlights: • Parabens and chlorinated parabens are ubiquitous in surface water in Beijing. • Octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in surface water. • Untreated sewage discharge was the main source of parabens in river. • Parabens exhibited a different seasonal variation from chlorinated derivatives. • The risks of target compounds are negligible at environmentally

  5. Spatial distribution, temporal variation and risks of parabens and their chlorinated derivatives in urban surface water in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenhui; Gao, Lihong [School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shi, Yali; Wang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu, Jiemin, E-mail: liujm@ustb.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Cai, Yaqi, E-mail: caiyaqi@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 13 target compounds, including eight parabens, four chlorinated parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), were detected in surface water samples at 35 sampling sites in the Beijing River system, China. The surface water samples were collected from the main rivers and lakes in the urban area monthly from July 2013 to June 2014 (except the frozen period). Laboratory analyses revealed that parabens were ubiquitous in the surface water of Beijing. PHBA was the predominant compound in the surface water samples, with the average concentration of 239 ng L{sup −1}, followed by the total amount of chlorinated parabens (average 50.1 ng/L) and parabens (average 44.3 ng/L). It is noteworthy that octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in the surface water. Significant difference was observed for paraben concentrations from different sampling sites, and the highest level of parabens was found in the Xiaotaihou River, which was mainly due to the untreated sewage discharge. Seasonal variation of target compounds in the urban surface water was also studied, and parabens exhibited a different temporal variation from chlorinated derivatives. A combination of factors including high residual chlorine level and water temperature as well as intense ultraviolet radiation might enhance the persistence of chlorinated parabens in chlorinated water during the wet season. Risk assessment showed that parabens and their chlorinated derivatives are not likely to produce biological effects on aquatic ecosystems at current levels in the surface water of Beijing. - Highlights: • Parabens and chlorinated parabens are ubiquitous in surface water in Beijing. • Octylparaben with longer chain was firstly detected in surface water. • Untreated sewage discharge was the main source of parabens in river. • Parabens exhibited a different seasonal variation from chlorinated derivatives. • The risks of target compounds are negligible at

  6. Nutrient-derived dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Correa, Pelayo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the role of nutrients and bioactive related substances in colorectal cancer, we conducted a case-control in Uruguay, which is the country with the highest production of beef in the world. Six hundred and eleven (611) cases afflicted with colorectal cancer and 1,362 controls drawn from the same hospitals in the same time period were analyzed through unconditional multiple logistic regression. This base population was submitted to a principal components factor analysis and three factors were retained. They were labeled as the meat-based, plant-based, and carbohydrates patterns. They were rotated using orthogonal varimax method. The highest risk was positively associated with the meat-based pattern (OR for the highest quartile versus the lowest one 1.63, 95 % CI 1.22-2.18, P value for trend = 0.001), whereas the plant-based pattern was strongly protective (OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.45-0.81, P value for trend pattern was only positively associated with colon cancer risk (OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09). The meat-based pattern was rich in saturated fat, animal protein, cholesterol, and phosphorus, nutrients originated in red meat. Since herocyclic amines are formed in the well-done red meat through the action of amino acids and creatine, it is suggestive that this pattern could be an important etiologic agent for colorectal cancer.

  7. Host cell proteins in biotechnology-derived products: A risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zafra, Christina L Zuch; Quarmby, Valerie; Francissen, Kathleen; Vanderlaan, Martin; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith

    2015-11-01

    To manufacture biotechnology products, mammalian or bacterial cells are engineered for the production of recombinant therapeutic human proteins including monoclonal antibodies. Host cells synthesize an entire repertoire of proteins which are essential for their own function and survival. Biotechnology manufacturing processes are designed to produce recombinant therapeutics with a very high degree of purity. While there is typically a low residual level of host cell protein in the final drug product, under some circumstances a host cell protein(s) may copurify with the therapeutic protein and, if it is not detected and removed, it may become an unintended component of the final product. The purpose of this article is to enumerate and discuss factors to be considered in an assessment of risk of residual host cell protein(s) detected and identified in the drug product. The consideration of these factors and their relative ranking will lead to an overall risk assessment that informs decision-making around how to control the levels of host cell proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Organic amendments derived from a pharmaceutical by-product: benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Giovanni; Cucina, Mirko; Zadra, Claudia; Pezzolla, Daniela; Sordi, Simone; Carla Marcotullio, Maria; Curini, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The application of organic amendments to soils, such as sewage sludge, anaerobic digestate and compost is considered a tool for improving soil fertility and enhancing C stocks. The addition of these different organic materials allows a good supply of nutrients for plants but also contributes to C sequestration, affects the microbial activity and the transformation of soil organic matter (SOM). Moreover, the addition of organic amendment has gained importance as a source of CO2 emissions and then as a cause of the "Global Warming". Therefore, it is important to investigate the factors controlling the SOM mineralization in order to improve the soil C sequestration and decreasing at the same time CO2 emissions. Moreover, the quality of organic matter added to the soil will play an important role in these dynamics. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of the application to an arable soil of different organic materials derived from a pharmaceutical by-product which results from the fermentative biomass after the separation of the lipopolypeptidic antibiotic produced. A microcosm soil experiment was carried out using three different materials: a sewage sludge derived from the stabilization process of the by-product, a digestate obtained from the anaerobic treatment of the by-product and a compost produced by the aerobic treatment of the same digestate. To achieve this aim, the short-term variations of CO2 emissions, enzymatic soil activities (Dehydrogenase total activity and Fluoresceine diacetate hydrolysis), SOM quantity and quality were studied. In addition, process-related residues of antibiotic and decanoic acid (a precursor added during the fermentation) were analyzed on the organic materials to assess their possible presence. Through these analyses it was possible to state that the application to the soil of sewage sludge and anaerobic digestate may have a strong influence on the short-term variations of the

  9. Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatem Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS in disease surveys and reporting is becoming increasingly routine, enabling a better understanding of spatial epidemiology and the improvement of surveillance and control strategies. In turn, the greater availability of spatially referenced epidemiological data is driving the rapid expansion of disease mapping and spatial modeling methods, which are becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated, with rigorous handling of uncertainties. This expansion has, however, not been matched by advancements in the development of spatial datasets of human population distribution that accompany disease maps or spatial models. Where risks are heterogeneous across population groups or space or dependent on transmission between individuals, spatial data on human population distributions and demographic structures are required to estimate infectious disease risks, burdens, and dynamics. The disease impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and speed of spread varies substantially with demographic profiles, so that identifying the most exposed or affected populations becomes a key aspect of planning and targeting interventions. Subnational breakdowns of population counts by age and sex are routinely collected during national censuses and maintained in finer detail within microcensus data. Moreover, demographic and health surveys continue to collect representative and contemporary samples from clusters of communities in low-income countries where census data may be less detailed and not collected regularly. Together, these freely available datasets form a rich resource for quantifying and understanding the spatial variations in the sizes and distributions of those most at risk of disease in low income regions, yet at present, they remain unconnected data scattered across national statistical offices and websites. In this paper we discuss the deficiencies of existing

  10. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Risk Estimate Tool (PREsTo) Predicts Outcomes in PSC: A Derivation & Validation Study Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, John E; Vesterhus, Mette; McCauley, Bryan M; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Schlicht, Erik M; Juran, Brian D; Gossard, Andrea A; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Gores, Gregory J; Karlsen, Tom H; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2018-05-09

    Improved methods are needed to risk stratify and predict outcomes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Therefore, we sought to derive and validate a new prediction model and compare its performance to existing surrogate markers. The model was derived using 509 subjects from a multicenter North American cohort and validated in an international multicenter cohort (n=278). Gradient boosting, a machine based learning technique, was used to create the model. The endpoint was hepatic decompensation (ascites, variceal hemorrhage or encephalopathy). Subjects with advanced PSC or cholangiocarcinoma at baseline were excluded. The PSC risk estimate tool (PREsTo) consists of 9 variables: bilirubin, albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) times the upper limit of normal (ULN), platelets, AST, hemoglobin, sodium, patient age and the number of years since PSC was diagnosed. Validation in an independent cohort confirms PREsTo accurately predicts decompensation (C statistic 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95) and performed well compared to MELD score (C statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.84), Mayo PSC risk score (C statistic 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.92) and SAP statistic 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.73). PREsTo continued to be accurate among individuals with a bilirubin statistic 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.96) and when the score was re-applied at a later course in the disease (C statistic 0.82, 95% CI 0.64-0.95). PREsTo accurately predicts hepatic decompensation in PSC and exceeds the performance among other widely available, noninvasive prognostic scoring systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. A quantitative risk assessment of exposure to adventitious agents in a cell culture-derived subunit influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2008-06-19

    A risk-assessment model has demonstrated the ability of a new cell culture-based vaccine manufacturing process to reduce the level of any adventitious agent to a million-fold below infectious levels. The cell culture-derived subunit influenza vaccine (OPTAFLU), Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics) is produced using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to propagate seasonal viral strains, as an alternative to embryonated chicken-eggs. As only a limited range of mammalian viruses can grow in MDCK cells, similar to embryonated eggs, MDCK cells can act as an effective filter for a wide range of adventitious agents that might be introduced during vaccine production. However, the introduction of an alternative cell substrate (for example, MDCK cells) into a vaccine manufacturing process requires thorough investigations to assess the potential for adventitious agent risk in the final product, in the unlikely event that contamination should occur. The risk assessment takes into account the entire manufacturing process, from initial influenza virus isolation, through to blending of the trivalent subunit vaccine and worst-case residual titres for the final vaccine formulation have been calculated for >20 viruses or virus families. Maximum residual titres for all viruses tested were in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-16) infectious units per vaccine dose. Thus, the new cell culture-based vaccine manufacturing process can reduce any adventitious agent to a level that is unable to cause infection.

  12. Risk assessment derived from migrants identified in several adhesives commonly used in food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canellas, E; Vera, P; Nerín, C

    2015-01-01

    Adhesives are used to manufacture multilayer materials, where their components pass through the layers and migrate to the food. Nine different adhesives (acrylic, vinyl and hotmelt) and their migration in 21 laminates for future use as market samples have been evaluated and risk assessment has been carried out. A total of 75 volatiles and non volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most of the compounds migrated below their specific migration limit (SML), lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and values recommended by Cramer. Six compounds classified as high toxicity class III according to Cramer classification, migrated over their SML and exposure values recommended by Cramer, when they were applied in the full area of the packaging. Nevertheless, these adhesives fulfill the threshold in the real application as they are applied in a small area of the packaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Botha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.

  14. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumba, J N; Mosha, F W; Lindsay, S W

    2002-03-01

    Malaria vector Anopheles and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were monitored for 12 months during 1994-95 in villages of Lower Moshi irrigation area (37 degrees 20' E, 3 degrees 21' S; approximately 700 m a.s.l.) south of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquito populations were sampled fortnightly by five methods: human bait collection indoors (18.00-06.00 hours) and outdoors (18.00-24.00 hours); from daytime resting-sites indoors and outdoors; by CDC light-traps over sleepers. Anopheles densities and rates of survival, anthropophily and malaria infection were compared between three villages representing different agro-ecosystems: irrigated sugarcane plantation; smallholder rice irrigation scheme, and savannah with subsistence crops. Respective study villages were Mvuleni (population 2200), Chekereni (population 3200) and Kisangasangeni (population approximately/= 1000), at least 7 km apart. Anopheles arabiensis Patton was found to be the principal malaria vector throughout the study area, with An. funestus Giles sensu lato of secondary importance in the sugarcane and savannah villages. Irrigated sugarcane cultivation resulted in water pooling, but this did not produce more vectors. Anopheles arabiensis densities averaged four-fold higher in the ricefield village, although their human blood-index was significantly less (48%) than in the sugarcane (68%) or savannah (66%) villages, despite similar proportions of humans and cows (ratio 1:1.1-1.4) as the main hosts at all sites. Parous rates, duration of the gonotrophic cycle and survival rates of An. arabiensis were similar in villages of all three agro-ecosystems. The potential risk of malaria, based on measurements of vectorial capacity of An. arabiensis and An.funestus combined, was four-fold higher in the ricefield village than in the sugarcane or savannah villages nearby. However, the more realistic estimate of malaria risk, based on entomological inoculation rates, indicated that exposure to

  15. A functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene variant increases the risk of moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Quek, Jia Min; Lee, Bernett; Au, Bijin; Sio, Yang Yie; Irwanto, Astrid; Schurmann, Claudia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Suri, Bani Kaur; Matta, Sri Anusha; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Esko, Tonu; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Furen; Larbi, Anis; Xu, Xin; Poidinger, Michael; Liu, Jianjun; Chew, Fook Tim; Rotzschke, Olaf; Shi, Li; Wang, De Yun

    2015-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secretory protein that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR), atopic asthma, and eczema, but it is currently unknown whether BDNF polymorphisms influence susceptibility to moderate-to-severe AR. We sought to identify disease associations and the functional effect of BDNF genetic variants in patients with moderate-to-severe AR. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the BDNF gene were selected from the human HapMap Han Chinese from Beijing (CHB) data set, and associations with moderate-to-severe AR were assessed in 2 independent cohorts of Chinese patients (2216 from Shandong province and 1239 living in Singapore). The functional effects of the BDNF genetic variants were determined by using both in vitro and ex vivo assays. The tagging SNP rs10767664 was significantly associated with the risk of moderate-to-severe AR in both Singapore Chinese (P = .0017; odds ratio, 1.324) and Shandong Chinese populations (P = .039; odds ratio, 1.180). The coding nonsynonymous SNP rs6265 was in perfect linkage with rs10767664 and conferred increased BDNF protein secretion by a human cell line in vitro. Subjects bearing the AA genotype of rs10767664 exhibited increased risk of moderate-to-severe AR and displayed increased BDNF protein and total IgE levels in plasma. Using a large-scale expression quantitative trait locus study, we demonstrated that BDNF SNPs are significantly associated with altered BDNF concentrations in peripheral blood. A common genetic variant of the BDNF gene is associated with increased risk of moderate-to-severe AR, and the AA genotype is associated with increased BDNF mRNA levels in peripheral blood. Together, these data indicate that functional BDNF gene variants increase the risk of moderate-to-severe AR. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Some Adipose Derived Hormones in Association with the Risk of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moghtadae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is the most common form of arthritis and is the major cause of pain and disability in the elderly. The relationship between obesity and increased risk of knee osteoarthritis was known for many years. Since then, many studies have shown the relationship between knee osteoarthritis and obesity. Objectives In this study, we tried to evaluate whether compared to weight, the adipose tissue has a stronger correlation with the occurrence of knee osteoarthritis. Methods In a cross-sectional study that was a part of the Fasa knee osteoarthritis registry (FOAS, 131 patients with OA were sex matched with 262 patients in the control group. Serum samples of the patients, the Western Ontario and McMaster universities arthritis index (WOMAC questionnaire and demographic data were collected. Leptin and adiponectin as hormones secreted by the adipose tissue were measured. Results Weight, body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference (WC were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001. The Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L score was significantly higher among the patients (P < 0.001. Pain levels in patients with OA were also significantly higher compared to those in the control group (P < 0.001. Both leptin and adiponectin concentrations were higher in the OA patients. Adiponectin had a negative relationship with BMI in the OA group (r = 0.570, P < 0.001, but leptin had a positive relationship with BMI (r = 0.781, P < 0.001. In the OA group, both adipokines had higher levels in female patients compared to male patients. Conclusions The results of the current study showed that levels of hormones secreted from the adipose tissue, in people with knee OA, were higher compared to the control group, indicating the possible effect of these hormones on the process of osteoarthritis. Finally, we showed that after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, leptin and adiponectin are significantly correlated with the amount of pain

  17. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or hydrous ethanol to produce from raw sugarcane can be modelled as an investment decision in a portfolio decision problem whenever a combination of these products is considered. As to the future price of these commodities, raw sugarcane is considered to be capital that should be invested. Thus, this paper puts forward a decision model which uses concepts from Decision Analysis and Bayesian Risk Analysis that may well assist the process of managing assets in the Brazilian sugarcane industry by considering the financial aspect when compiling a portfolio for planning production.

  18. Psychosis risk screening: Validation of the youth psychosis at-risk questionnaire - brief in a community-derived sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Chocarro, Edurne; Inchausti, Felix; Debbané, Martin; Bobes, Julio

    2017-12-01

    There have been several attempts to identify individuals potentially at high risk for psychotic-spectrum disorders using brief screening measures. However, relatively few studies have tested the psychometric properties of the psychosis screening measures in representative samples of adolescents. The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the prevalence, factorial structure, measurement invariance across gender, and reliability of the Youth Psychosis At-Risk Questionnaire - Brief (YPARQ-B) in a community-derived sample of adolescents. Additionally, the relationship between YPARQ-B, depressive symptoms, psychopathology, stress manifestations, and prosocial skills was analysed. One thousand and twenty students from high schools participated in a cross-sectional survey. The YPARQ-B, the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Student Stress Inventory - Stress Manifestations were used. A total of 85.1% of the total sample self-reported at least one subclinical psychotic experience. We observed a total of 10.9% of adolescents with a cutoff score of ≥11 or 6.8% with a cutoff score of ≥13. The analysis of internal structure of the YPARQ-B yielded an essentially unidimensional structure. The YPARQ-B scores showed measurement invariance across gender. The internal consistency of the YPARQ-B total score was 0.94. Furthermore, self-reported subclinical psychotic experiences were associated with depressive symptoms, emotional and behavioural problems, poor prosocial skills, and stress manifestations. These results would appear to indicate that YPARQ-B is a brief and easy tool to assess self-reported subclinical psychotic experiences in adolescents from the general population. The assessment of these experiences in community settings, and its associations with psychopathology, may help us to enhance the possibility of an early identification of adolescents potentially at risk for psychosis and mental health

  19. Factor Structure of Indices of the Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram with Metabolic Components and Other Cardiovascular Risk Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kawada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study was conducted to clarify the factor structure of indices of the SDPTG in combination with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, to elucidate the significance of the SDPTG among various cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsThe SDPTG was determined in the second forefinger of the left hand in 1,055 male workers (mean age, 44.2±6.4 years. Among 4 waves of SDPTG components, the ratios of the height of the "a" wave to that of the "b" and "d" waves were expressed as b/a and d/a, and used as SDPTG indices for the analysis.ResultsPrincipal axis factoring analysis was conducted using age, SDPTG indices, components of MetS, and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and uric acid. Three factors were extracted, and the SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age as the third factor. Metabolic components and the SDPTG indices were independently categorized. These three factors explained 44.4% of the total variation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age, d/a, serum uric acid, serum CRP, and regular exercise as independent determinants of the risk of MetS. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11, 0.10 (0.01 to 0.73, 1.24 (1.06 to 1.44, 3.59 (2.37 to 5.42, and 0.48 (0.28 to 0.82, respectively.ConclusionThe SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age, and they differed in characteristics from components of MetS or inflammatory markers. In addition, this cross-sectional study also revealed decrease of the d/a as a risk factor for the development of MetS.

  20. Developing a synthetic national population to investigate the impact of different cardiovascular disease risk management strategies: A derivation and validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Josh; Wells, Susan; Marshall, Roger; Exeter, Daniel; Jackson, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Many national cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor management guidelines now recommend that drug treatment decisions should be informed primarily by patients' multi-variable predicted risk of CVD, rather than on the basis of single risk factor thresholds. To investigate the potential impact of treatment guidelines based on CVD risk thresholds at a national level requires individual level data representing the multi-variable CVD risk factor profiles for a country's total adult population. As these data are seldom, if ever, available, we aimed to create a synthetic population, representing the joint CVD risk factor distributions of the adult New Zealand population. A synthetic population of 2,451,278 individuals, representing the actual age, gender, ethnicity and social deprivation composition of people aged 30-84 years who completed the 2013 New Zealand census was generated using Monte Carlo sampling. Each 'synthetic' person was then probabilistically assigned values of the remaining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors required for predicting their CVD risk, based on data from the national census national hospitalisation and drug dispensing databases and a large regional cohort study, using Monte Carlo sampling and multiple imputation. Where possible, the synthetic population CVD risk distributions for each non-demographic risk factor were validated against independent New Zealand data sources. We were able to develop a synthetic national population with realistic multi-variable CVD risk characteristics. The construction of this population is the first step in the development of a micro-simulation model intended to investigate the likely impact of a range of national CVD risk management strategies that will inform CVD risk management guideline updates in New Zealand and elsewhere.

  1. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  2. Derivation of Ecological Protective Concentration using the Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment applicable for Korean Water Environment: (I) Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2012-06-01

    Probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) for deriving ecological protective concentration (EPC) was previously suggested in USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Netherland. This study suggested the EPC of cadmium (Cd) based on the PERA to be suitable to Korean aquatic ecosystem. First, we collected reliable ecotoxicity data from reliable data without restriction and reliable data with restrictions. Next, we sorted the ecotoxicity data based on the site-specific locations, exposure duration, and water hardness. To correct toxicity by the water hardness, EU's hardness corrected algorithm was used with slope factor 0.89 and a benchmark of water hardness 100. EPC was calculated according to statistical extrapolation method (SEM), statistical extrapolation methodAcute to chronic ratio (SEMACR), and assessment factor method (AFM). As a result, aquatic toxicity data of Cd were collected from 43 acute toxicity data (4 Actinopterygill, 29 Branchiopoda, 1 Polychaeta, 2 Bryozoa, 6 Chlorophyceae, 1 Chanophyceae) and 40 chronic toxicity data (2 Actinopterygill, 23 Branchiopoda, 9 Chlorophyceae, 6 Macrophytes). Because toxicity data of Cd belongs to 4 classes in taxonomical classification, acute and chronic EPC (11.07 μg/l and 0.034 μg/l, respectively) was calculated according to SEM technique. These values were included in the range of international EPCs. This study would be useful to establish the ecological standard for the protection of aquatic ecosystem in Korea.

  3. Association of Empirically Derived Dietary Patterns with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Comparison of PCA and RRR Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Sauvageot

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis is used to determine dietary behaviors of a population whereas reduced rank regression is used to construct disease-related dietary patterns. This study aimed to compare both types of DP and theirs associations with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF.Data were derived from the cross sectional NESCAV (Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health study, aiming to describe the cardiovascular health of the Greater region's population (Grand duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia (Belgium, Lorraine (France. 2298 individuals were included for this study and dietary intake was assessed using a 134-item food frequency questionnaire.We found that CVRF-related patterns also reflect eating behaviours of the population. Comparing concordant food groups between both dietary pattern methods, a diet high in fruits, oleaginous and dried fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fats rich in omega 6 and tea and low in fried foods, lean and fatty meat, processed meat, ready meal, soft drink and beer was associated with lower prevalence of CVRF. In the opposite, a pattern characterized by high intakes of fried foods, meat, offal, beer, wine and aperitifs and spirits, and low intakes of cereals, sugar and sweets and soft drinks was associated with higher prevalence of CVRF.In sum, we found that a "Prudent" and "Animal protein and alcohol" patterns were both associated with CVRF and behaviourally meaningful. Moreover, the relationships of those dietary patterns with lifestyle characteristics support the theory that food choices are part of a larger pattern of healthy lifestyle.

  4. Occurrence and risk assessment of population exposed to deoxynivalenol in foods derived from wheat flour in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Milena Veronezi; Pante, Giseli Cristina; Romoli, Jéssica Cristina Zoratto; de Souza, Alexandra Perdigão Maia; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da; Ferreira, Flavio Dias; Feijó, Adriane Lettnin Roll; Moscardi, Salesia Maria Prodócimo; de Paula, Karina Ruaro; Bando, Erika; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Machinski, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important of the trichothecenes in terms of amounts and occurrence in wheat. This compound was shown to be associated with a glomerulonephropathy involving an increase of immunoglobulin A in humans. This study assessed the occurrence of DON in wheat flour and the exposure of Brazilian teenagers, adults and elderly to this mycotoxin due to intake of wheat flour-based products. DON extraction in wheat flour was carried out by solid phase extraction and the quantification was performed by ultra-high proficiency liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. A total of 77.9% of all samples were positive for DON, with concentrations ranging from 73.50 to 2794.63 µg kg -1 . The intake was calculated for the average and 90th percentile of the contamination levels of DON in foods based-wheat for teenagers, adults and elderly in Brazil, and compared with the provisional maximum tolerable daily intakes (PMTDI). Females of all age groups were exposed to DON at higher levels when compared to males in regard of consumption of breads and pastas. Teenagers were the main consumers of foods derived from wheat flour, with maximum probable daily intakes of 1.28 and 1.20 µg kg -1 b.w. day -1 for females and males, respectively. This population is at an increased risk of exposure to DON due to consumption of wheat flour-based foods in Brazil.

  5. La copertura dei rischi finanziari nelle imprese non finanziarie italiane attraverso gli strumenti derivati (The Hedging of Financial Risks Using Derivatives by Italian Non-financial Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Bison

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of derivatives by Italian non-financial firms, in order to analyse existing theories of hedging behaviour, and provides empirical evidence on a potential differentiation of determinants of derivative use over time. Univariate and multivariate analyses show that the determinants of derivative use reveal marked differences when compared in the different years, so they may change over time. In general, we find that the most determinant variable is foreign sales, and analysis therefore suggests the hypothesis that exposure to exchange rate risk is the strongest determinant in derivative use. Interest rate risk exposure seems to be less relevant. Moreover, from 1997, another variable proves determinant, firm size, which suggests that economies of scale could also be a key variable in derivative use. With respect to financial distress cost models, tax and agency cost theories, the results are mixed.           JEL Codes: G11, G31, G32, F31Keywords: Financial Risk, Firm, Hedging        

  6. Analysis of survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily related to renal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitao; Suk-Ouichai, Chalairat; Dong, Wen; Antonio, Elvis Caraballo; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Lane, Brian R; Demirjian, Sevag; Li, Jianbo; Campbell, Steven C

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate predictors of long-term survival for patients with chronic kidney disease primarily due to surgery (CKD-S). Patients with CKD-S have generally good survival that approximates patients who do not have CKD even after renal cancer surgery (RCS), yet there may be heterogeneity within this cohort. From 1997 to 2008, 4 246 patients underwent RCS at our centre. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 9.4 (7.3-11.0) years. New baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was defined as highest GFR between nadir and 6 weeks after RCS. We retrospectively evaluated three cohorts: no-CKD (new baseline GFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ); CKD-S (new baseline GFR of cancer-related survival (NRCRS) for the CKD-S cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed the longitudinal impact of new baseline GFR (45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 vs <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and Cox regression evaluated relative impact of preoperative GFR, new baseline GFR, and relevant demographics/comorbidities. Of the 4 246 patients who underwent RCS, 931 had CKD-S and 1 113 had CKD-M/S, whilst 2 202 had no-CKD even after RCS. Partial/radical nephrectomy (PN/RN) was performed in 54%/46% of the patients, respectively. For CKD-S, 641 patients had a new baseline GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 290 had a new baseline GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly reduced NRCRS for patients with CKD-S with a GFR of <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 compared to those with no-CKD or CKD-S with a GFR of 45-60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (both P ≤ 0.004), and competing risk analysis confirmed this (P < 0.001). Age, gender, heart disease, and new baseline GFR were all associated independently with NRCRS for patients with CKD-S (all P ≤ 0.02). Our data suggest that CKD-S is heterogeneous, and patients with a reduced new baseline GFR have compromised survival, particularly if <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Our findings may have implications regarding choice of PN/RN in patients at risk of developing

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a plasma-derived heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine (CLB). Studies in volunteers at a low risk of infection with hepatitis B virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelie, P. N.; Reesink, H. W.; de Jong-van Manen, S. T.; Dees, P. J.; Reerink-Brongers, E. E.

    1984-01-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of a plasma-derived heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine (CLB) were evaluated in 471 healthy human volunteers, who, both in their occupations and in their private lives, had been at minimal risk of being infected with hepatitis B virus. The first 202 individuals

  8. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  9. Using low-risk factors to generate non-integrated human induced pluripotent stem cells from urine-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linli; Chen, Yuehua; Guan, Chunyan; Zhao, Zhiju; Li, Qiang; Yang, Jianguo; Mo, Jian; Wang, Bin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Xiaohui; Song, Libing; Li, Jun

    2017-11-02

    Because the lack of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) induction system with optimal safety and efficiency limits the application of these cells, development of such a system is important. To create such an induction system, we screened a variety of reprogrammed plasmid combinations and multiple compounds and then verified the system's feasibility using urine cells from different individuals. We also compared large-scale iPSC chromosomal variations and expression of genes associated with genomic stability between this system and the traditional episomal system using karyotype and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. We developed a high-efficiency episomal system, the 6F/BM1-4C system, lacking tumorigenic factors for human urine-derived cell (hUC) reprogramming. This system includes six low-risk factors (6F), Oct4, Glis1, Klf4, Sox2, L-Myc, and the miR-302 cluster. Transfected hUCs were treated with four compounds (4C), inhibitor of lysine-demethylase1, methyl ethyl ketone, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, and histone deacetylase, within a short time period. Comparative analysis revealed significantly decreased chromosomal variation in iPSCs and significantly increased Sirt1 expression compared with iPSCs induced using the traditional episomal system. The 6F/BM1-4C system effectively induces reprogramming of urine cells in samples obtained from different individuals. iPSCs induced using the 6F/BM1-4C system are more stable at the cytogenetic level and have potential value for clinical application.

  10. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zembron-Lacny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP and oxidized LDL (oxLDL, in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years and 17 young males (20-24 years participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001. In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL, hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men.

  11. Cardiometabolic Syndrome in People With Spinal Cord Injury/Disease: Guideline-Derived and Nonguideline Risk Components in a Pooled Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Mark S; Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Mendez, Armando J; David, Maya; Ljungberg, Inger H; Tinsley, Emily A; Burns-Drecq, Patricia A; Betancourt, Luisa F; Groah, Suzanne L

    2016-10-01

    To assess cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) risk definitions in spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D). Cross-sectional analysis of a pooled sample. Two SCI/D academic medical and rehabilitation centers. Baseline data from subjects in 7 clinical studies were pooled; not all variables were collected in all studies; therefore, participant numbers varied from 119 to 389. The pooled sample included men (79%) and women (21%) with SCI/D >1 year at spinal cord levels spanning C3-T2 (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] grades A-D). Not applicable. We computed the prevalence of CMS using the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guideline (CMS diagnosis as sum of risks ≥3 method) for the following risk components: overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We compared this prevalence with the risk calculated from 2 routinely used nonguideline CMS risk assessments: (1) key cut scores identifying insulin resistance derived from the homeostatic model 2 (HOMA2) method or quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and (2) a cardioendocrine risk ratio based on an inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP])-adjusted total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, injury level and AIS grade were unrelated to CMS or risk factors. Of the participants, 13% and 32.1% had CMS when using the sum of risks or HOMA2/QUICKI model, respectively. Overweight/obesity and (pre)hypertension were highly prevalent (83% and 62.1%, respectively), with risk for overweight/obesity being significantly associated with CMS diagnosis (sum of risks, χ(2)=10.105; adjusted P=.008). Insulin resistance was significantly associated with CMS when using the HOMA2/QUICKI model (χ(2)2=21.23, adjusted P<.001). Of the subjects, 76.4% were at moderate to high risk from elevated CRP, which was significantly associated with CMS determination (both methods; sum of risks, χ(2

  12. Quantitative risk trends deriving from PSA-based event analyses. Analysis of results from U.S.NRC's accident sequence precursor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    2004-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) has been carrying out the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core damage accident sequences using the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technique. The ASP Program has identified a lot of risk significant events as precursors that occurred at U.S. nuclear power plants. Although the results from the ASP Program include valuable information that could be useful for obtaining and characterizing risk significant insights and for monitoring risk trends in nuclear power industry, there are only a few attempts to determine and develop the trends using the ASP results. The present study examines and discusses quantitative risk trends for the industry level, using two indicators, that is, the occurrence frequency of precursors and the annual core damage probability, deriving from the results of the ASP analysis. It is shown that the core damage risk at U.S. nuclear power plants has been lowered and the likelihood of risk significant events has been remarkably decreasing. As well, the present study demonstrates that two risk indicators used here can provide quantitative information useful for examining and monitoring the risk trends and/or risk characteristics in nuclear power industry. (author)

  13. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  14. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  15. Influence of potassium hydroxide activation on characteristics and environmental risk of heavy metals in chars derived from municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjia; Deng, Hui; Yang, Le; Zhang, Genlin; Li, Yuqi; Ren, Yansen

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the influence of KOH activation on characteristics and environmental risk of heavy metals in chars, sludge was pyrolyzed with varying amount of KOH. The analyzation of characteristics and potential ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals were conducted by surface area analyzer, FTIR, XRD and BCR sequential extraction. The activated chars have higher surface area and lower content of silica compared to those without being activated. The activation of KOH promoted residual fraction of Cd, meanwhile, Zinc, Cr, Ni and Mn were converted to relatively unstable fractions (F2 and F3). The results of risk assessment indicated that the potential ecological risk level of Cd was reduced in activated chars, while risk level of Zn, Cr, Ni and Mn were increased after pyrolysis with KOH activation. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in activated chars was further declined, and the risk level transformed from moderate to low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  17. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    . Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous A136R154R171 display respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected. The genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie is also likely to impact on the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer......The risk of transmission of classical scrapie via the transfer of in vivo derived embryo in ovines was assessed, taking into account the scientific information made available since the last EFSA opinion on this topic (2010) (see http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1429.htm). The potential...... impact of PrP genotype of the embryo and/or of the ram and donor ewe on this risk was also assessed. The new data made available over the last three years further reinforce the view that classical scrapie could be vertically transmitted in sheep. Since the possibility of such vertical transmission...

  18. Earthworm biomass as additional information for risk assessment of heavy metal biomagnification: a case study for dredged sediment-derived soils and polluted floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Samyn, Jurgen; Quataert, Paul; Muys, Bart; Tack, Filip M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of earthworms in the biomagnification of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems is widely recognised. Differences in earthworm biomass between sites is mostly not accounted for in ecological risk assessment. These differences may be large depending on soil properties and pollution status. A survey of earthworm biomass and colonisation rate was carried out on dredged sediment-derived soils (DSDS). Results were compared with observations for the surrounding alluvial plains. Mainly grain size distribution and time since disposal determined earthworm biomass on DSDS, while soil pollution status of the DSDS was of lesser importance. Highest earthworm biomass was observed on sandy loam DSDS disposed at least 40 years ago. - Polluted clayey dredged sediment-derived soils have a relatively low risk for heavy metal biomagnification due to slow earthworm colonisation

  19. Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Hodis, Howard N; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-03-01

    Decreases in endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemic index (RHI) correlated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in recently menopausal women with a low risk cardiovascular profile. Factors linking this association are unknown. Assess, longitudinally, markers of platelet activation and cell-derived, blood-borne microvesicles (MV) in relationship to RHI and CIMT in asymptomatic, low risk menopausal women. RHI by digital pulse tonometry (n = 93), CIMT by ultrasound (n = 113), measures of platelet activation and specific cell-derived, blood-borne MV were evaluated in women throughout the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. CIMT, but not RHI, increased significantly over 4 years. The average change in CIMT correlated significantly with the average follow-up values of MV positive for common leukocyte antigen [CD45; ρ = 0.285 (P = 0.002)] and VCAM-1 [ρ = 0.270 (P = 0.0040)]. Using principal components analysis (PC) on the aggregate set of average follow-up measures, the first derived PC representing numbers of MV positive for markers of vascular endothelium, inflammatory cells (leukocyte and monocytes), pro-coagulant (tissue factor), and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) associated with changes in RHI and CIMT. Changes in RHI associated with another PC defined by measures of platelet activation (dense granular ATP secretion, surface expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors). MV derived from activated endothelial and inflammatory cells, and those expressing cell adhesion and pro-coagulant molecules may reflect early vascular dysfunction in low risk menopausal women. Assays of MV as non-conventional measures to assess cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic women remain to be developed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating nonindigenous species management in a Bayesian networks derived relative risk framework for Padilla Bay, WA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Carlie E; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G

    2015-10-01

    Many coastal regions are encountering issues with the spread of nonindigenous species (NIS). In this study, we conducted a regional risk assessment using a Bayesian network relative risk model (BN-RRM) to analyze multiple vectors of NIS introductions to Padilla Bay, Washington, a National Estuarine Research Reserve. We had 3 objectives in this study. The 1st objective was to determine whether the BN-RRM could be used to calculate risk from NIS introductions for Padilla Bay. Our 2nd objective was to determine which regions and endpoints were at greatest risk from NIS introductions. Our 3rd objective was to incorporate a management option into the model and predict endpoint risk if it were to be implemented. Eradication can occur at different stages of NIS invasions, such as the elimination of these species before being introduced to the habitat or removal of the species after settlement. We incorporated the ballast water treatment management scenario into the model, observed the risk to the endpoints, and compared this risk with the initial risk estimates. The model results indicated that the southern portion of the bay was at greatest risk because of NIS. Changes in community composition, Dungeness crab, and eelgrass were the endpoints most at risk from NIS introductions. The currents node, which controls the exposure of NIS to the bay from the surrounding marine environment, was the parameter that had the greatest influence on risk. The ballast water management scenario displayed an approximate 1% reduction in risk in this Padilla Bay case study. The models we developed provide an adaptable template for decision makers interested in managing NIS in other coastal regions and large bodies of water. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  2. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Lamin A/C mutation affecting primarily the right side of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ollila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LMNA mutations are amongst the most important causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most important cause of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is desmosomal pathology. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of LMNA mutations among Finnish cardiomyopathy patients. We screened 135 unrelated cardiomyopathy patients for LMNA mutations. Because of unusual phenotype, two patients were screened for the known Finnish ARVC-related mutations of desmosomal genes, and their Plakophilin-2b gene was sequenced. Myocardial samples from two patients were examined by immunohistochemical plakoglobin staining and in one case by electron microscopy. We found a new LMNA mutation Phe237Ser in a family of five affected members with a cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart. The phenotype resembles ARVC but does not fulfill the Task Force Criteria. The main clinical manifestations of the mutation were severe tricuspid insufficiency, right ventricular enlargement and failure. Three of the affected patients died of the heart disease, and the two living patients received heart transplants at ages 44 and 47. Electron microscopy showed nuclear blebbing compatible with laminopathy. Immunohisto - chemical analysis did not suggest desmosomal pathology. No desmosomal mutations were found. The Phe237Ser LMNA mutation causes a phenotype different from traditional cardiolaminopathy. Our findings suggest that cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart is not always caused by desmosomal pathology. Our observations highlight the challenges in classifying cardiomyopathies, as there often is significant overlap between the traditional categories.

  4. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  5. Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz Brian W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are a significant problem in the older population. Most falls occur during gait, which is primarily regulated by foot placement. Variability of foot placement has been associated with falls, but these associations are inconsistent and generally for smooth, level flooring. This study investigates the control of foot placement and the associated gait variability in younger and older men and women (N=7/group, total N=28 while walking at three different speeds (slow, preferred, and fast across a control surface with no obstacles and surfaces with multiple (64 small (10cm long ×13mm high visible and hidden obstacles. Results Minimum obstacle distance between the shoe and nearest obstacle during each footfall was greater on the visible obstacles surface for older subjects because some of them chose to actively avoid obstacles. This obstacle avoidance strategy was implemented primarily by modulating step width and to a lesser extent step length as indicated by linear regressions of step width and length variability on minimum obstacle distance. Mean gait speed, step length, step width, and step time did not significantly differ by subject group, flooring surface, or obstacle avoidance strategy. Conclusions Some healthy older subjects choose to actively avoid small obstacles that do not substantially perturb their gait by modulating step width and, to a lesser extent, step length. It is not clear if this obstacle avoidance strategy is appropriate and beneficial or overcautious and maladaptive, as it results in fewer obstacles encountered at a consequence of a less efficient gait pattern that has been shown to indicate increased fall risk. Further research is needed on the appropriateness of strategy selection when the environmental demands and/or task requirements have multiple possible completion strategies with conflicting objectives (i.e. perceived safety vs. efficiency.

  6. Which risk understandings can be derived from the current disharmonized regulation of complementary and alternative medicine in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesener, Solveig; Salamonsen, Anita; Fønnebø, Vinjar

    2018-01-10

    Many European citizens are seeking complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). These treatments are regulated very differently in the EU/EFTA countries. This may demonstrate differences in how risk associated with the use of CAM is perceived. Since most CAM treatments are practiced fairly similarly across Europe, differing risk understandings may influence patient safety for European CAM users. The overall aim of this article is thus to contribute to an overview and awareness of possible differing risk understandings in the field of CAM at a policymaking/structural level in Europe. The study is a re-analysis of data collected in the CAMbrella EU FP7 document and interview study on the regulation of CAM in 39 European countries. The 12 CAM modalities included in the CAMbrella study were ranked with regard to assumed risk potential depending on the number of countries limiting its practice to regulated professions. The 39 countries were ranked according to how many of the included CAM modalities they limit to be practiced by regulated professions. Twelve of 39 countries generally understand the included CAM treatments to represent "high risk", 20 countries "low risk", while the remaining 7 countries understand CAM treatments as carrying "very little or no risk". The CAM modalities seen as carrying a risk high enough to warrant professional regulation in the highest number of countries are chiropractic, acupuncture, massage, homeopathy and osteopathy. The countries understanding most of the CAM modalities in the study as potentially high-risk treatments are with two exceptions (Portugal and Belgium) all concentrated in the southeastern region of Europe. The variation in regulation of CAM may represent a substantial lack of common risk understandings between health policymakers in Europe. We think the discrepancies in regulation are to a considerable degree also based on factors unrelated to patient risk. We argue that it is important for patient safety that policy

  7. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain...... fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were...

  8. The derivation and application of a risk related value of the spend for saving a statistical life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D; Stone, D; Butler, G G; McGlynn, G

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a risk related value of the spend for saving a statistical life (VSSSL) is advanced for use in cost-benefit studies across the power generation sector, and the nuclear industry in particular. For illustrative purposes, a best estimate VSSSL is set based on HSE guidance at Pounds 2 M. Above a risk of 10 -3 y -1 it is assumed that the VSSSL may approach this maximum sustainable value. As the risk reduces so does the VSSSL. At a risk level of 10 -6 y -1 a VSSSL of Pounds 0.5 M is applied. For risks below 10 -9 y -1 the value of further risk reduction approaches zero, although a nominal VSSSL of Pounds 10 k is applied as a pragmatic way forward in this study. The implications of adopting this concept as an aid to decision making in determining the spend on radiological dose reduction measures are illustrated through a worked example with a banded approach to estimating collective dose

  9. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  10. Temporal integration of loudness in listeners with hearing losses of primarily cochlear origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss of primarily cochlear origin affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level for 15 listeners with cochlear impairments and for seven age-matched controls. Three frequencies, usually 0.5, 1, and 4...... of temporal integration—defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones—varied nonmonotonically with level and was largest at moderate levels. No consistent effect of frequency was apparent. The impaired listeners varied widely, but most showed a clear effect of level on the amount...... of temporal integration. Overall, their results appear consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the general properties of their loudness-growth functions and the equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis, which states that the loudness ratio between equal-SPL long and brief tones is the same at all SPLs...

  11. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  12. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  13. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... rate risk. This proposed rule applies to federal credit unions and any federally insured, state... risk to the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund (NCUSIF). \\1\\ A derivative is an instrument... degrees of risk to a credit union. Accordingly, this risk calls for a more robust asset/ liability...

  14. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  15. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P transfection of Sertoli cells.

  16. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  17. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  18. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  19. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had...... developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction...

  20. Diet Quality and Nutrient Intake of Urban Overweight and Obese Primarily African American Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti Vergis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.

  1. City-Level Adult Stroke Prevalence in Relation to Remote Sensing Derived PM2.5 Adjusting for Unhealthy Behaviors and Medical Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC "500 Cities Project" which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the "The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), V1 (1998-2012)" datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  2. CITY-LEVEL ADULT STROKE PREVALENCE IN RELATION TO REMOTE SENSING DERIVED PM2.5 ADJUSTING FOR UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS AND MEDICAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the use of PM2.5 gird derived from remote sensing for assessing the effect of long-term exposure to PM2.5 (ambient air pollution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less on stroke, adjusting for unhealthy behaviors and medical risk factors. Health data was obtained from the newly published CDC “500 Cities Project” which provides city- and census tract-level small area estimates for chronic disease risk factors, and clinical preventive service use for the largest 500 cities in the United States. PM2.5 data was acquired from the “The Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS, MISR and SeaWiFS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, V1 (1998–2012” datasets. Average PM2.5 were calculated for each city using a GIS zonal statistics function. Map data visualization and pattern comparison, univariate linear regression, and a multivariate linear regression model fitted using a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of stroke. Increasing physical activity, reducing smoking and body weight, enough sleeping, controlling diseases such as blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol, may mitigate the effect. PM2.5 grids derived from moderate resolution satellite remote sensing imagery may offer a unique opportunity to fill the data gap due to limited ground monitoring at broader scales. The evidence of raised stroke prevalence risk in high PM2.5 areas would support targeting of policy interventions on such areas to reduce pollution levels and protect human health.

  3. Risk- and cost-benefit analyses of breast screening programs derived from absorbed dose measurements in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuur, C.; Broerse, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Risk- and cost benefit analyses for breast screening programs are being performed, employing the risk-factors for induction of breast cancer from six extensive follow-up studies. For women of the age group above 35 years and for a risk period of 30 years after a 10-year latency period, a factor of extra cases of 20 x 10 -6 mGy -1 can be estimated. Measurements are being performed in Dutch hospitals to determine the mean absorbed tissue dose. These doses vary from 0.6 to 4.4 mGy per radiography. For a dose of 1 mGy per radiograph and yearly screening of women between 35 and 75 years, the risk of radiogenic breast cancer is about 1% of the natural incidence (85,000 per 10 6 women) in this group. A recommended frequency of screening has to be based on medical, social and financial considerations. The gain in woman years and in completely cured women is being estimated for screening with intervals of 12 instead of 24 months. The medical and social benefit is 1,520 years life-time and 69 more cases completely cured per 1,000 breast cancer patients. The financial profit of a completely cured instead of an ultimately fatal cancer can be roughly estimated at 55,000 guilders. In addition the costs per gained woman-year are about 5,000 guilders. In consequence, the extra costs of annual additional rounds of mammographic screening are balanced by the benefit. (Auth.)

  4. Osteosarcoma induction by plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 : the problem of deriving risk estimates for man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneous bone cancer (osteosarcoma) represents only about 0.3% of all human cancers, but is well known to be inducible in humans by internal contamination with radium-226 and radium-224. plutonium-239, americium-241 and neptunium-237 form, or will form, the principal long-lived alpha particle emitting components of high activity waste and burnt-up nuclear fuel elements. These three nuclides deposit extensively in human bone and although, fortunately, no case of a human osteosarcoma induced by any of these nuclides is known, evidence from animal studies suggests that all three are more effective than radium-226 in inducing osteosarcoma. The assumption that the ratio of the risk factors, the number of osteosarcoma expected per 10000 person/animal Gy, for radium-226 and any other bone-seeking alpha-emitter will be independent of animal species has formed the basis of all the important studies of the radiotoxicity of actinide nuclides in experimental animals. The aim of this communication is to review the risk factors which may be calculated from the various animal studies carried out over the last thirty years with plutonium-237, americium-241 and neptunium-237 and to consider the problems which may arise in extrapolating these risk factors to homo sapiens

  5. Derivation and validation of a novel risk score for safe discharge after acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Kathryn; Jairath, Vipul; Uberoi, Raman; Guy, Richard; Ayaru, Lakshmana; Mortensen, Neil; Murphy, Mike F; Collins, Gary S

    2017-09-01

    Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a common reason for emergency hospital admission, and identification of patients at low risk of harm, who are therefore suitable for outpatient investigation, is a clinical and research priority. We aimed to develop and externally validate a simple risk score to identify patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding who could safely avoid hospital admission. We undertook model development with data from the National Comparative Audit of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding from 143 hospitals in the UK in 2015. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to identify predictors of safe discharge, defined as the absence of rebleeding, blood transfusion, therapeutic intervention, 28 day readmission, or death. The model was converted into a simplified risk scoring system and was externally validated in 288 patients admitted with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (184 safely discharged) from two UK hospitals (Charing Cross Hospital, London, and Hammersmith Hospital, London) that had not contributed data to the development cohort. We calculated C statistics for the new model and did a comparative assessment with six previously developed risk scores. Of 2336 prospectively identified admissions in the development cohort, 1599 (68%) were safely discharged. Age, sex, previous admission for lower gastrointestinal bleeding, rectal examination findings, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and haemoglobin concentration strongly discriminated safe discharge in the development cohort (C statistic 0·84, 95% CI 0·82-0·86) and in the validation cohort (0·79, 0·73-0·84). Calibration plots showed the new risk score to have good calibration in the validation cohort. The score was better than the Rockall, Blatchford, Strate, BLEED, AIMS65, and NOBLADS scores in predicting safe discharge. A score of 8 or less predicts a 95% probability of safe discharge. We developed and validated a novel clinical prediction model with good discriminative

  6. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  7. Turkish assessment of SURF (SUrvey of Risk Factor Management) study: Control rates of cardiovascular risk factors derived from databases of 15 different levels of health centers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Oğuz, Aytekin; Balcı, Mustafa Kemal; Temizhan, Ahmet; Güldal Altunoğlu, Esma; Bektaş, Osman; Aslan, Güler; Iyigün, Özgün; Kara, Ahmet; Tanrıverdi Pınar, Handan; Yavuz, Saffet; Tekin, Murat; Ercan, Saffet; Çelik, Selda; Sezgin Meriçliler, Özlem; Bozkurt Çakır, İrem

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to recommendations for secondary prevention and the achievement of treatment targets for the control of risk factors in patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) who were followed-up at various healthcare facilities in Turkey. According to the protocol of the international Survey of Risk Factor Management study, questionnaire forms were completed and demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data of CHD patients who were followed-up at a total of 15 selected primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare centers were recorded. Among a total of 724 CHD patients (69.8% male; mean age: 63.3±10.7 years) included in the study, 18.4% were current smokers, only 19.1% had normal body mass index, and 22.1% had waist circumference below the limit of abdominal obesity. Physical activity was insufficient in 53% of the patients, 47.3% had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol value, 46% had triglyceride level above 150 mg/dL, and 67% had glycated hemoglobin value of 6.5% or above. Of all the patients, 88.1% were using antiplatelet drugs, 71.4% were using beta-blockers, 55.7% were using statins, and 41.9% were using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers. Blood pressure was under control in 56.7% of the hypertensive patients using antihypertensive drugs, and the proportion of diabetic patients who reached glycemic control targets using antidiabetic drugs was 35.9%. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was below 70 mg/dL in 12.2% of the patients using statins. According to the data obtained, among Turkish CHD patients, the control rate of cardiovascular risk factors is low, and implementation of the recommendations regarding lifestyle modification and medication use for secondary prevention in the current guidelines are insufficient.

  8. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute

  9. Low back pain at school: unique risk deriving from unsatisfactory grade in maths and school-type recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erne, Cordula; Elfering, Achim

    2011-12-01

    Psychosocial stress and pain may relate to educational selection. At the end of primary school (International Standard Classification of Education: ISCED level 1) children are recommended for one of three performance-based lower secondary level types of school (ISCED level 2). The study examines the association of educational selection and other risk factors with pain in the upper back (UBP), lower back pain (LBP), peripheral (limb) pain (PP), and abdominal pain (AP). Teacher reports of unsatisfactory grades in mathematics, and official school-type recommendation are included as objective psychosocial risk factors. One hundred and ninety-two schoolchildren, aged between 10 and 13 from 11 classes of 7 schools in Switzerland participated in the cross-sectional study. In logistic regression analysis, predictor variables included age, sex, BMI, participation in sport, physical mobility, weight of satchel, hours of daily TV, video, and computer use, pupils' back pain reported by the mother and father, psychosocial strain, unsatisfactory grade in mathematics, and school-type recommendation. Analysis of pain drawings was highly reliable and revealed high prevalence rates of musculoskeletal pain in the last 4 weeks (UBP 15.3%, LBP 13:8%, PP 33.9%, AP 20.1%). Psychosocial risk factors were uniquely significant predictors of UBP (psychosocial strain), LBP (psychosocial strain, unsatisfactory grade in mathematics, school-type recommendation), and AP (school-type recommendation). In conclusion, selection in terms of educational school system was uniquely associated with LBP in schoolchildren. Stress caused by educational selection should be addressed in primary prevention of musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren.

  10. Occurrence and human health risk of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in a drinking water source for Shanghai, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Duan, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zeng-Sheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceuticals are heavily used to improve human and animal health, resulting in the frequent contamination of aquatic environments with pharmaceutical residues, which has raised considerable concern in recent years. When inadequately removed from drinking water in water treatment plants, pharmaceuticals can have potential toxic effects on human health. This study investigated the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of five pharmaceuticals, including ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KEP), naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DFC), and clofibric acid (CA), in the Huangpu River system (a drinking water source for Shanghai) over a period of almost two years as well as the associated risk to human health for different age groups. All of the targets were ubiquitous in the river water, with levels decreasing in the following order: KEP (mean: 28.6 ng/L)≈IBP (23.3 ng/L)>DFC (13.6 ng/L)≈NPX (12.3 ng/L)>CA (1.6ng/L). The concentrations of all of the investigated compounds were at the low or medium end of the global range. The upstream tributaries contained lower IBP but higher NPX than did the mainstream and downstream tributaries. However, no significant variations were found in the levels of KEP, DFC, or CA at the different sampling sites. Except for CA in the mainstream, significantly higher pharmaceutical levels were observed in the dry season than in the wet season. Overall, a very low risk of the selected pharmaceuticals for human health via drinking water was observed, but future studies are needed to examine the fate and chronic effects of all pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the human health risk of pharmaceuticals in raw drinking water in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    .034) and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026). In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030) and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012). Conclusion: Serum BDNF was positively...... associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal research is warranted to determine the temporal relationship between BDNF and cardiovascular...

  12. [Quality of life and overall survival in high risk patients after radical cystectomy with a simple urinary derivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Macchione, Luciano; Galì, Alessandro; di Benedetto, Antonina; Subba, Enrica; Pappalardo, Rosa; Mucciardi, Massimo; Butticè, Salvatore; Inferrera, Antonino; Magno, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate quality of life (QoL) and overall survival after radical cystectomy with cutaneous ureterostomies for locally advanced bladder cancer in elderly patients with high surgical risk. Fifty eight patients older than 74 years (mean age 80,6±4,3) with locally advanced bladder cancer (group A), underwent radical cystectomy and ureterocutaneous diversion. Patients completed the EORTC QLQC30 before and six months after surgery to assess functional, clinical and QoL outcomes. The same evaluation was carried out in a control group (group B) of 29 patients (mean age 82,3±3,8 years), who had refused cystectomy. Questionnaires were also administered to patients of both groups who survived at least 20 months and 5 years. All patients presented with an ASA score ≥3. Mean hospital stay was 15.1 days (±4.8) in group A and 23.5 days (±4.1) in Group B. No intraoperative complications occurred in group A. Postoperative overall survival evaluated within 6 months in group A was 97% versus 79% in group B (pbladder cancer and high operative risk. Comparison between two groups showed a statistically significant difference for almost all the Qol related parameters and for short and medium term overall survival. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanism-based risk assessment strategy for drug-induced cholestasis using the transcriptional benchmark dose derived by toxicogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taisuke; Ito, Yuichi; Morita, Osamu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Cholestasis is one of the major causes of drug-induced liver injury (DILI), which can result in withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. Early identification of cholestatic drugs is difficult due to the complex mechanisms involved. In order to develop a strategy for mechanism-based risk assessment of cholestatic drugs, we analyzed gene expression data obtained from the livers of rats that had been orally administered with 12 known cholestatic compounds repeatedly for 28 days at three dose levels. Qualitative analyses were performed using two statistical approaches (hierarchical clustering and principle component analysis), in addition to pathway analysis. The transcriptional benchmark dose (tBMD) and tBMD 95% lower limit (tBMDL) were used for quantitative analyses, which revealed three compound sub-groups that produced different types of differential gene expression; these groups of genes were mainly involved in inflammation, cholesterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the tBMDL values for each test compound were in good agreement with the relevant no observed adverse effect level. These results indicate that our novel strategy for drug safety evaluation using mechanism-based classification and tBMDL would facilitate the application of toxicogenomics for risk assessment of cholestatic DILI.

  14. Metabolic Interactions of Purine Derivatives with Human ABC Transporter ABCG2: Genetic Testing to Assess Gout Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa; Aw, Wanping; Kaneko, Kiyoko

    2013-11-04

    In mammals, excess purine nucleosides are removed from the body by breakdown in the liver and excretion from the kidneys. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans. Two-thirds of uric acid in the human body is normally excreted through the kidney, whereas one-third undergoes uricolysis (decomposition of uric acid) in the gut. Elevated serum uric acid levels result in gout and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Recent studies have shown that human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 plays a role of renal excretion of uric acid. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., 421C>A (major) and 376C>T (minor), in the ABCG2 gene result in impaired transport activity, owing to ubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation and truncation of ABCG2, respectively. These genetic polymorphisms are associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Allele frequencies of those SNPs are significantly higher in Asian populations than they are in African and Caucasian populations. A rapid and isothermal genotyping method has been developed to detect the SNP 421C>A, where one drop of peripheral blood is sufficient for the detection. Development of simple genotyping methods would serve to improve prevention and early therapeutic intervention for high-risk individuals in personalized healthcare.

  15. Metabolic Interactions of Purine Derivatives with Human ABC Transporter ABCG2: Genetic Testing to Assess Gout Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoko Kaneko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, excess purine nucleosides are removed from the body by breakdown in the liver and excretion from the kidneys. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans. Two-thirds of uric acid in the human body is normally excreted through the kidney, whereas one-third undergoes uricolysis (decomposition of uric acid in the gut. Elevated serum uric acid levels result in gout and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Recent studies have shown that human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 plays a role of renal excretion of uric acid. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, i.e., 421C>A (major and 376C>T (minor, in the ABCG2 gene result in impaired transport activity, owing to ubiquitination-mediated proteosomal degradation and truncation of ABCG2, respectively. These genetic polymorphisms are associated with hyperuricemia and gout. Allele frequencies of those SNPs are significantly higher in Asian populations than they are in African and Caucasian populations. A rapid and isothermal genotyping method has been developed to detect the SNP 421C>A, where one drop of peripheral blood is sufficient for the detection. Development of simple genotyping methods would serve to improve prevention and early therapeutic intervention for high-risk individuals in personalized healthcare.

  16. Derivation and validation of REASON: a risk score identifying candidates to screen for peripheral arterial disease using ankle brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rafel; Baena-Díez, Jose Miguel; Quesada, Miquel; Solanas, Pascual; Subirana, Isaac; Sala, Joan; Alzamora, Maite; Forès, Rosa; Masiá, Rafel; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Cordón, Ferran; Pera, Guillem; Rigo, Fernando; Martí, Ruth; Ponjoan, Anna; Cerezo, Carlos; Brugada, Ramon; Marrugat, Jaume

    2011-02-01

    The recommendation of screening with ankle brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic individuals is controversial. The aims of the present study were to develop and validate a pre-screening test to select candidates for ABI measurement in the Spanish population 50-79 years old, and to compare its predictive capacity to current Inter-Society Consensus (ISC) screening criteria. Two population-based cross-sectional studies were used to develop (n = 4046) and validate (n = 3285) a regression model to predict ABI guidelines, and similar sensitivity. This resulted in fewer patients screened per diagnosis of ABI < 0.9 (10.6 vs. 8.75) and a lower proportion of the population aged 50-79 years candidate to ABI screening (63.3% vs. 55.0%). This model provides accurate ABI < 0.9 risk estimates for ages 50-79, with a better predictive capacity than that of ISC criteria. Its use could reduce possible harms and unnecessary work-ups of ABI screening as a risk stratification strategy in primary prevention of peripheral vascular disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Homogenous stretching or detachment faulting? Which process is primarily extending the Aegean crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumerics, C.; Ring, U.

    2003-04-01

    In extending orogens like the Aegean Sea of Greece and the Basin-and-Range province of the western United States, knowledge of rates of tectonic processes are important for understanding which process is primarily extending the crust. Platt et al. (1998) proposed that homogeneous stretching of the lithosphere (i.e. vertical ductile thinning associated with a subhorizontal foliation) at rates of 4-5 km Myr-1 is the dominant process that formed the Alboran Sea in the western Mediterranean. The Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean is well-known for its low-angle normal faults (detachments) (Lister et al., 1984; Lister &Forster, 1996) suggesting that detachment faulting may have been the primary agent achieving ~>250 km (McKenzie, 1978) of extension since the Miocene. Ring et al. (2003) provided evidence for a very fast-slipping detachment on the islands of Syros and Tinos in the western Cyclades, which suggests that normal faulting was the dominant tectonic process that formed the Aegean Sea. However, most extensional detachments in the Aegean do not allow to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension and therefore a full evaluation of the significance of vertical ductile thinning is not possible. On the Island of Ikaria in the eastern Aegean Sea, a subhorizontal extensional ductile shear zone is well exposed. We studied this shear zone in detail to quantify the amount of vertical ductile thinning associated with extension. Numerous studies have shown that natural shear zones usually deviate significantly from progressive simple shear and are characterized by pronounced shortening perpendicular to the shear zone. Numerous deformed pegmatitic veins in this shear zone on Ikaria allow the reconstruction of deformation and flow parameters (Passchier, 1990), which are necessary for quantifying the amount of vertical ductile thinning in the shear zone. Furthermore, a flow-path and finite-strain study in a syn-tectonic granite, which

  18. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  19. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  20. A simple signaling rule for variable life-adjusted display derived from an equivalent risk-adjusted CUSUM chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Philipp; Gan, Fah Fatt; Knoth, Sven

    2018-04-17

    The variable life-adjusted display (VLAD) is the first risk-adjusted graphical procedure proposed in the literature for monitoring the performance of a surgeon. It displays the cumulative sum of expected minus observed deaths. It has since become highly popular because the statistic plotted is easy to understand. But it is also easy to misinterpret a surgeon's performance by utilizing the VLAD, potentially leading to grave consequences. The problem of misinterpretation is essentially caused by the variance of the VLAD's statistic that increases with sample size. In order for the VLAD to be truly useful, a simple signaling rule is desperately needed. Various forms of signaling rules have been developed, but they are usually quite complicated. Without signaling rules, making inferences using the VLAD alone is difficult if not misleading. In this paper, we establish an equivalence between a VLAD with V-mask and a risk-adjusted cumulative sum (RA-CUSUM) chart based on the difference between the estimated probability of death and surgical outcome. Average run length analysis based on simulation shows that this particular RA-CUSUM chart has similar performance as compared to the established RA-CUSUM chart based on the log-likelihood ratio statistic obtained by testing the odds ratio of death. We provide a simple design procedure for determining the V-mask parameters based on a resampling approach. Resampling from a real data set ensures that these parameters can be estimated appropriately. Finally, we illustrate the monitoring of a real surgeon's performance using VLAD with V-mask. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. CO2 leakage-induced vegetation decline is primarily driven by decreased soil O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Ma, Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-04-15

    To assess the potential risks of carbon capture and storage (CCS), studies have focused on vegetation decline caused by leaking CO2. Excess soil CO2 caused by leakage can affect soil O2 concentrations and soil pH, but how these two factors affect plant development remains poorly understood. This hinders the selection of appropriate species to mitigate potential negative consequences of CCS. Through pot experiments, we simulated CO2 leakage to examine its effects on soil pH and soil O2 concentrations. We subsequently assessed how maize growth responded to these changes in soil pH and O2. Decreased soil O2 concentrations significantly reduced maize biomass, and explained 69% of the biomass variation under CO2 leakage conditions. In contrast, although leaked CO2 changed soil pH significantly (from 7.32 to 6.75), it remained within the optimum soil pH range for maize growth. This suggests that soil O2 concentration, not soil pH, influences plant growth in these conditions. Therefore, in case of potential CO2 leakage risks, hypoxia-tolerant species should be chosen to improve plant survival, growth, and yield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, Theo C.M.; Wensem, Joke van; Montforts, Mark; Hart, Andy; Aagaard, Alf; Alix, Anne; Boesten, Jos; Bopp, Stephanie K.; Brown, Colin; Capri, Ettore; Forbes, Valery; Köpp, Herbert; Liess, Matthias; Luttik, Robert; Maltby, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching concept for the development of SPGs, which will likely facilitate communication with stakeholders in general and risk managers in particular. It is proposed to develop SPG options for 7 key drivers for ecosystem services (microbes, algae, non target plants (aquatic and terrestrial), aquatic invertebrates, terrestrial non target arthropods including honeybees, terrestrial non-arthropod invertebrates, and vertebrates), covering the ecosystem services that could potentially be affected by the use of pesticides. These SPGs need to be defined in 6 dimensions: biological entity, attribute, magnitude, temporal and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have a protection status in legislation, protection may be at the individual level. To protect the provisioning and supporting services provided by microbes it may be sufficient to protect them at the functional group level. To protect biodiversity impacts need to be assessed at least at the scale of the watershed/landscape. - Research highlights: ► How to define specific protection goals (SPGs) for environmental risk assessment? ► The process uses the ecosystem services (ES

  3. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  4. Cancer risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils determined using bioassay-derived levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Christine L; Long, Alexandra S; Lambert, Iain B; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats; White, Paul A

    2015-02-03

    Here we evaluate the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) posed by 10 PAH-contaminated soils using (i) the currently advocated, targeted chemical-specific approach that assumes dose additivity for carcinogenic PAHs and (ii) a bioassay-based approach that employs the in vitro mutagenic activity of the soil fractions to determine levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents and, by extension, ELCR. Mutagenic activity results are presented in our companion paper.1 The results show that ELCR values for the PAH-containing fractions, determined using the chemical-specific approach, are generally (i.e., 8 out of 10) greater than those calculated using the bioassay-based approach; most are less than 5-fold greater. Only two chemical-specific ELCR estimates are less than their corresponding bioassay-derived values; differences are less than 10%. The bioassay-based approach, which permits estimation of ELCR without a priori knowledge of mixture composition, proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the chemical-specific approach. The results suggest that ELCR estimates for complex PAH mixtures determined using a targeted, chemical-specific approach are reasonable, albeit conservative. Calculated risk estimates still depend on contentious PEFs and cancer slope factors. Follow-up in vivo mutagenicity assessments will be required to validate the results and their relevance for human health risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils.

  5. Application of different measures of bioavailability to support the derivation of risk-based remedial benchmarks for PHC-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Risk estimates and exposure scenarios hardly ever take into consideration site-specific bioavailability of contaminants. Risk assessors frequently adopt the assumption that a contaminant in soils is 100 percent bioavailable, resulting in an overestimation of the risks associated with contamination. Remedial targets or benchmarks derived in light of this assumption are needlessly low and might be technically unattainable or prohibitive in terms of cost. This presentation discussed a research project whose goal was to develop a tool kit to measure or determine site-specific bioavailability of contaminants (PHCs) in soils to ecological receptors. Tools that were discussed included: biological measures such as toxicity tests, contaminant residues in tissues, and bioaccumulation tests. Chemical measures such as bioaccessibility tests and other biomimetic devices (SPMDs), biotic ligand modeling, and chemical extractions were also presented. Preliminary investigation results were provided. Other topics that were discussed included: single-species toxicity tests; preliminary comparisons; the site; bioaccumulation; and toxicity to earthworms. It was concluded that total soil and water-extractable concentrations did not correlate well with toxicity. tabs., figs.

  6. Eningiomas: outcome, and analysis of prognostic factors of primarily resected tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, S.L.; Perry, A.; Suman, V.; Meyer, B.; Scheithauer, B.W.; Shaw, E.G.; Earle, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: 582 consecutive cases of primary intracranial meningioma undergoing resection at the Mayo Clinic, (Rochester, MN) were reviewed to determine overall survival (OS), progression free survival(PFS), prognostic factors predicting recurrence, and to determine the importance of radiation therapy in the management of this tumor. Materials and Methods: Between 1978-1988, 582 cases of primarily resected meningiomas were identified based on the tumor and operative registries where diagnosis was between 1978-1988 inclusive. PFS was identified by radiographic progression. Follow-up was accomplished by chart review, and a detailed questionnaire sent to patients and referring physicians. Estimation of OS and PFS distributions were done by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess which factors were associated with PFS. Proportional hazard modeling was performed to obtain a subset of independent predictors of PFS. Results: the median age was 57(5-93). 67% were female. CT identified the tumor in 91% of cases. There was associated edema in 21% and 2% were radiographically en plaque. There were 17 patients with multiple tumors, four of whom had a known diagnosis of neurofibromatosis. Gross total resection (GTR) was accomplished in 80%, radical subtotal or subtotal resection(STR) in 20%, and biopsy in 53) cellularity, and four or more mitoses per 10 HPF. Multivariate analysis indicated young age, male sex, en plaque at surgery, were significant for decreased PFS when only patient characteristics were considered. When treatment and pathologic factors were also considered, then young age, male sex, less than GTR, and tumor sheeting were predictors for decreased PFS. 10 patients had RT after initial resection, two of whom recurred. There were 107 first recurrences. 50 were observed(no intervention within 3 months), 35 treated by surgery alone, 11 had S+RT, and 11 were treated with RT alone. Considering those patients treated at recurrence (n=57), PFS was at

  7. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Laurel L; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2018-01-29

    Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna, herpes zoster, delusional infestation, venous stasis syndrome, venous ulcer, and burning mouth syndrome were more commonly diagnosed. In those younger than 65 years, atypical nevi, psoriatic arthritis, pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, genital warts, alopecia areata, hidradenitis suppurativa, infantile hemangioma, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis (isolated cutaneous, with sarcoidosis-specific cutaneous lesions and with erythema nodosum) had a higher incidence. Many of the incidence rates by age group of diseases primarily affecting the skin derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project were similar to those reported elsewhere. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Efficient transfection of primarily cultured porcine embryonic fibroblasts using the Amaxa Nucleofection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Asuka; Sato, Masahiro; Shinohara, Mariko; Matsubara, Shyuichiro; Yokomine, Takaaki; Akasaka, Eri; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi; Takao, Sonshin

    2007-01-01

    Porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF) are important as donor cells for nuclear transfer for generation of genetically modified pigs. In this study, we determined an optimal protocol for transfection of PEF with the Amaxa Nucleofection system, which directly transfers DNA into the nucleus of cells, and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection and electroporation. Cell survival and transfection efficiency were assessed using dye-exclusion assay and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct, respectively. Our optimized nucleofection parameters yielded survival rates above 60%. Under these conditions, FACS analysis demonstrated that 79% of surviving cells exhibited transgene expression 48 h after nucleofection when program U23 was used. This efficiency was higher than that of transfection of PEFs with electroporation (ca. 3-53%) or lipofection (ca. 3-8%). Transfected cells could be expanded as stably transgene-expressing clones over a month. When porcine nuclear transfer (NT) was performed using stable transformant expressing GFP as a donor cell, 5-6% of reconstituted embryos developed to blastocysts, from which 30-50% of embryos exhibited NT-embryo-derived green fluorescence. Under the conditions evaluated, nucleofection exhibited higher efficiency than conventional electroporation and lipofection, and may be a useful alternative for generation of genetically engineered pigs through nuclear transfer.

  9. Search for primarily non-interacting decay modes of the upsilon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffler, J.S.

    1986-03-01

    The hadronic transition UPSILON(2S) → π 0 π 0 UPSILON(1S) is utilized to search for the reactions: UPSILON(1S) → non-interacting particles and UPSILON(1S) → γ + non-interacting particles. 44 pb -1 of UPSILON(2S) data were taken by the Crystal Ball detector at the DORIS II storage ring in order to perform this study. An upper limit of BR(UPSILON → Unseen) -1 of UPSILON(2S) data was available for this study. An upper limit on the branching ratio BR(UPSILON → γ + Unseen) is measured for photon energies in the range 500 MeV -3 (90% C.L.), is obtained. The compact size of the Crystal Ball detector enhances the observable branching ratio for noninteracting particles with short lifetimes such as massive axions. The identification of the recent Darmstadt events with a 1.6 MeV axion is excluded by the present result assuming the minimal Peccei-Quinn model. Limits on the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking mass scale are also derived as a function of gravitino mass

  10. Pregnant women in Timis County, Romania are exposed primarily to low-level (water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamtiu, Iulia; Bloom, Michael S; Gati, Gabriel; Goessler, Walter; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Braeuer, Simone; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Baciu, Calin; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen

    2015-06-01

    Excessive arsenic content in drinking water poses health risks to millions of people worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater exceeding the 10μg/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is characteristic for intermediate-depth aquifers over large areas of the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. In western Romania, near the border with Hungary, Arad, Bihor, and Timis counties use drinking water coming partially or entirely from iAs contaminated aquifers. In nearby Arad and Bihor counties, more than 45,000 people are exposed to iAs over 10μg/l via public drinking water sources. However, comparable data are unavailable for Timis County. To begin to address this data gap, we determined iAs in 124 public and private Timis County drinking water sources, including wells and taps, used by pregnant women participating in a case-control study of spontaneous loss. Levels in water sources were low overall (median=3.0; range=water sources compared to 10 women using uncontaminated sources for urine total iAs (6.6 vs. 5.0μg/l, P=0.24) and DMA (5.5 vs. 4.2μg/l, P=0.31). The results suggested that the origin of urine total iAs (r=0.35, P=0.13) and DMA (r=0.31, P=0.18) must have been not only iAs in drinking-water but also some other source. Exposure of pregnant women to arsenic via drinking water in Timis County appears to be lower than for surrounding counties; however, it deserves a more definitive investigation as to its origin and the regional distribution of its risk potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Rancière

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, including legal and mar...

  12. Does fault strengthening in laboratory rock friction experiments really depend primarily upon time and not slip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Rubin, Allan M.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2017-08-01

    The popular constitutive formulations of rate-and-state friction offer two end-member views on whether friction evolves only with slip (Slip law) or with time even without slip (Aging law). While rate stepping experiments show support for the Slip law, laboratory-observed frictional behavior near-zero slip rates has traditionally been inferred as supporting Aging law style time-dependent healing, in particular, from the slide-hold-slide experiments of Beeler et al. (1994). Using a combination of new analytical results and explicit numerical (Bayesian) inversion, we show instead that the slide-hold-slide data of Beeler et al. (1994) favor slip-dependent state evolution during holds. We show that, while the stiffness-independent rate of growth of peak stress (following reslides) with hold duration is a property shared by both the Aging and (under a more restricted set of parameter combinations) Slip laws, the observed stiffness dependence of the rate of stress relaxation during long holds is incompatible with the Aging law with constant rate-state parameters. The Slip law consistently fits the evolution of the stress minima at the end of the holds well, whether fitting jointly with peak stresses or otherwise. But neither the Aging nor Slip laws fit all the data well when a - b is constrained to values derived from prior velocity steps. We also attempted to fit the evolution of stress peaks and minima with the Kato-Tullis hybrid law and the shear stress-dependent Nagata law, both of which, even with the freedom of an extra parameter, generally reproduced the best Slip law fits to the data.

  13. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen.

  14. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: The CHAMPS-study DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Natascha Holbæk; Tarp, Jakob; Andersen, Lars Bo; Gejl, Anne Kær; Huang, Tao; Peijs, Lone; Bugge, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors. A secondary aim was to examine the associations between serum BDNF and each of the six risk factors. Four hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy adolescents between 11-17 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP), serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were modelled using linear regression analysis. Serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score in the total study sample (standardized beta coefficient (std.β) = 0.10, P = 0.037). In males, serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.034) and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026). In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030) and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC) (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012). Serum BDNF was positively associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal research

  15. The association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: The CHAMPS-study DK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Holbæk Pedersen

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors. A secondary aim was to examine the associations between serum BDNF and each of the six risk factors.Four hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy adolescents between 11-17 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, anthropometrics, pubertal status, blood pressure (BP, serum BDNF, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglyceride (TG, blood glucose and insulin were measured. Information about alcohol consumption and socio-economic status was collected via questionnaires. Associations were modelled using linear regression analysis.Serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score in the total study sample (standardized beta coefficient (std.β = 0.10, P = 0.037. In males, serum BDNF was positively associated with the composite z-score (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.034 and HOMA-IR (Std. β = 0.19, P = 0.004, and negatively associated with CRF (Std. β = -0.15, P = 0.026. In females, BDNF was positively associated with TG (Std. β = 0.14, P = 0.030 and negatively associated with waist circumference (WC (Std. β = -0.16, P = 0.012.Serum BDNF was positively associated with a composite z-score of cardiovascular risk factors. This association seems to be mainly driven by the association between TG, HOMA-IR and serum BDNF, and particularly for males. Further longitudinal

  16. Benefit and harm of intensive blood pressure treatment: Derivation and validation of risk models using data from the SPRINT and ACCORD trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive blood pressure (BP treatment can avert cardiovascular disease (CVD events but can cause some serious adverse events. We sought to develop and validate risk models for predicting absolute risk difference (increased risk or decreased risk for CVD events and serious adverse events from intensive BP therapy. A secondary aim was to test if the statistical method of elastic net regularization would improve the estimation of risk models for predicting absolute risk difference, as compared to a traditional backwards variable selection approach.Cox models were derived from SPRINT trial data and validated on ACCORD-BP trial data to estimate risk of CVD events and serious adverse events; the models included terms for intensive BP treatment and heterogeneous response to intensive treatment. The Cox models were then used to estimate the absolute reduction in probability of CVD events (benefit and absolute increase in probability of serious adverse events (harm for each individual from intensive treatment. We compared the method of elastic net regularization, which uses repeated internal cross-validation to select variables and estimate coefficients in the presence of collinearity, to a traditional backwards variable selection approach. Data from 9,069 SPRINT participants with complete data on covariates were utilized for model development, and data from 4,498 ACCORD-BP participants with complete data were utilized for model validation. Participants were exposed to intensive (goal systolic pressure < 120 mm Hg versus standard (<140 mm Hg treatment. Two composite primary outcome measures were evaluated: (i CVD events/deaths (myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, congestive heart failure, or CVD death, and (ii serious adverse events (hypotension, syncope, electrolyte abnormalities, bradycardia, or acute kidney injury/failure. The model for CVD chosen through elastic net regularization included interaction terms suggesting that older

  17. First-trimester artemisinin derivatives and quinine treatments and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Africa and Asia: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dellicour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal embryotoxicity data, and the scarcity of safety data in human pregnancies, have prevented artemisinin derivatives from being recommended for malaria treatment in the first trimester except in lifesaving circumstances. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies comparing the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and major congenital anomaly (primary outcomes among first-trimester pregnancies treated with artemisinin derivatives versus quinine or no antimalarial treatment.Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, and Malaria in Pregnancy Library were searched, and investigators contacted. Five studies involving 30,618 pregnancies were included; four from sub-Saharan Africa (n = 6,666 pregnancies, six sites and one from Thailand (n = 23,952. Antimalarial exposures were ascertained by self-report or active detection and confirmed by prescriptions, clinic cards, and outpatient registers. Cox proportional hazards models, accounting for time under observation and gestational age at enrollment, were used to calculate hazard ratios. Individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis was used to combine the African studies, and the results were then combined with those from Thailand using aggregated data meta-analysis with a random effects model. There was no difference in the risk of miscarriage associated with the use of artemisinins anytime during the first trimester (n = 37/671 compared with quinine (n = 96/945; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.73 [95% CI 0.44, 1.21], I2 = 0%, p = 0.228, in the risk of stillbirth (artemisinins, n = 10/654; quinine, n = 11/615; aHR = 0.29 [95% CI 0.08-1.02], p = 0.053, or in the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth combined (pregnancy loss (aHR = 0.58 [95% CI 0.36-1.02], p = 0.099. The corresponding risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, and pregnancy loss in a sensitivity analysis restricted to artemisinin exposures during the embryo sensitive period (6-12 wk gestation were as follows: aHR = 1

  18. Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances requires the application of adhesive systems to enable secure fastening of brackets and retainers to the surface of tooth enamel. The orthodontic bonding systems are similar in terms of chemical composition to dental filling materials, the chemical stability of which is not satisfactory. Particularly alarming is the release of bisphenol A and its derivatives to the external environment, which has been well-documented for materials used in conservative dentistry. [b]Objectives[/b]. The aim of the study was an in vitro assessment of the release of biologically harmful bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesives available on the European market, as a potential health risk factor for orthodontic patients. [b]Material and methods[/b]. The study assessed levels of BPA, BPA polymers and Bis-GMA resin in eluates of six commonly used orthodontic adhesives: Light Bond, Transbond XT, Resilence, Aspire, GrĕnGloo and ConTec LC, obtained after one hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 31 days of material sample storage in water. The presence and concentration of the studied chemicals in the obtained solutions were identified using the HPLC method. [b]Results[/b]. The highest (p≤0.05 concentration of BPA at 32.10µg/ml was observed in the Resilence material eluates. The highest concentration of poly-bisphenol A was found in solutions obtained after incubation of ConTec LC adhesive at 371.90µg/ml, whereas the highest amount of Bis-GMA resin (425.07µg/ml was present in Aspire material eluates. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment – biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients’ health. 2 Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the

  19. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular risk factors - Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Kurajoh

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to have protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and death through neural and non-neural pathways via tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling. However, it is not known whether plasma BDNF concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD.This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study as part of the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis.We measured plasma BDNF concentration in 324 patients without CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2, and with cardiovascular risk factors. As potential confounders, sleep condition, nocturnal hypertension, and autonomic function were quantitatively examined. The patients were followed for a median 37 months (range 2-59 months and occurrence of CKD was noted.Plasma BDNF concentration was significantly and independently associated with CKD development, which occurred in 38 patients (11.7%. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with reduced plasma BDNF concentration exhibited a significantly (p = 0.029 greater number of CKD events as compared to those with a higher concentration. Moreover, comparisons of key subgroups showed that the risk of CKD in association with low plasma BDNF concentration was more prominent in patients with a greater reduction of nocturnal systolic blood pressure, better movement index, higher standard deviations of the NN(RR interval or average NN(RR interval for each 5-minute period, and without past cardiovascular disease events, smoking habit, or albuminuria.Plasma BDNF concentration is an independent predictor for development of CKD in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  1. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa compound, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,3,5-triazine derivative, exerts its action by primarily targeting MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamachika, Shinichiro; Sugihara, Chika; Tsuji, Hayato; Muramatsu, Yasunori; Kamai, Yasuki; Yamashita, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    In order to find new anti-Pseudomonas agents, we carried out whole-cell based P. aeruginosa growth assay, and identified 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,3,5-triazine (Compound A). This compound showed anti-Pseudomonas activity against wild as well as pumpless strain equally at a same concentration. Also, this compound was structurally very similar to A22, which is known to inhibit the bacterial actin-like protein MreB. By the analysis of resistant strains, the primary target of this compound in P. aeruginosa was definitely confirmed to be MreB. In addition, these compounds showed a bacteriostatic effect, and induced the morphology changes in P. aeruginosa from rod shape to sphere shape, which leads to be clinically favorable in terms of susceptibility to phagocytosis and release of endotoxin. These results display that Compound A is a very attractive compound which shows anti-P. aeruginosa activity based on inhibition of MreB without being affected by efflux pumps, and could provide a new step toward development of new promising anti-Pseudomonas agents, MreB inhibitors.

  2. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  3. The high-risk HPV E6 target scribble (hScrib is required for HPV E6 expression in cervical tumour-derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kranjec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of high-risk HPV E6 oncoproteins to target cellular proteins which harbor PDZ domains is believed to play an important role in the virus life cycle and to influence the ability of these viruses to bring about malignant transformation. Whilst many of these PDZ proteins are potential tumour suppressors, involved in the control of cell polarity and cell-contact, recent studies suggest that mislocalisation or overexpression might result in the emergence of oncogenic functions. This has been shown most clearly for two E6 targets, hDlg and hScrib. In this study we show that hScrib plays such a role in HeLa cells, where its expression is required for maintaining high levels of HPV-18 E6 protein. Loss of hScrib has no effect on E6 stability but results in lower levels of E6 transcription and a reduced rate of E6 translation. We further show that, in the context of cervical tumour-derived cell lines, both hScrib and E6 cooperate in the activation of the S6 kinase signaling pathway, and thereby contribute towards maintaining high rates of protein translation. These results indicate that the residual hScrib that is present within HPV transformed cells is pro-oncogenic, and highlights the dual functions of E6 cell polarity targets. Keywords: HPV E6, hScrib, S6 kinase, Protein translation

  4. Associations of Mediterranean Diet and a Posteriori Derived Dietary Patterns with Breast and Lung Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusinska, Beata; Hawrysz, Iwona; Wadolowska, Lidia; Slowinska, Malgorzata Anna; Biernacki, Maciej; Czerwinska, Anna; Golota, Janusz Jacek

    2018-04-11

    Lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Poland and worldwide. Results of studies involving dietary patterns (DPs) and breast or lung cancer risk in European countries outside the Mediterranean Sea region are limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to develop a 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' ('Polish-aMED') score, and then study the associations between the 'Polish-aMED' score and a posteriori -derived dietary patterns with breast or lung cancer risk in adult Poles. This pooled analysis of two case-control studies involved 560 subjects (280 men, 280 women) aged 40-75 years from Northeastern Poland. Diagnoses of breast cancer in 140 women and lung cancer in 140 men were found. The food frequency consumption of 21 selected food groups was collected using a 62-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)-6. The 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' score which included eight items-vegetables, fruit, whole grain, fish, legumes, nuts and seeds-as well as the ratio of vegetable oils to animal fat and red and processed meat was developed (range: 0-8 points). Three DPs were identified in a Principal Component Analysis: 'Prudent', 'Non-healthy', 'Dressings and sweetened-low-fat dairy'. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, two models were created: crude, and adjusted for age, sex, type of cancer, Body Mass Index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) index, overall physical activity, smoking status and alcohol abuse. The risk of breast or lung cancer was lower in the average (3-5 points) and high (6-8 points) levels of the 'Polish-aMED' score compared to the low (0-2 points) level by 51% (odds ratio (OR): 0.49; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.30-0.80; p Mediterranean diet could be considered for adults living in non-Mediterranean countries for the prevention of the breast or lung cancers. Future studies should explore the role of a traditional Mediterranean diet fitted to local dietary patterns of non-Mediterranean Europeans

  5. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment Score (PANDORA: Development of a Simple Predictive Risk Score for 30-Day In-Hospital Mortality Based on Demographics, Clinical Observation, and Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hiesmayr

    Full Text Available To develop a simple scoring system to predict 30 day in-hospital mortality of in-patients excluding those from intensive care units based on easily obtainable demographic, disease and nutrition related patient data.Score development with general estimation equation methodology and model selection by P-value thresholding based on a cross-sectional sample of 52 risk indicators with 123 item classes collected with questionnaires and stored in an multilingual online database.Worldwide prospective cross-sectional cohort with 30 day in-hospital mortality from the nutritionDay 2006-2009 and an external validation sample from 2012.We included 43894 patients from 2480 units in 32 countries. 1631(3.72% patients died within 30 days in hospital. The Patient- And Nutrition-Derived Outcome Risk Assessment (PANDORA score predicts 30-day hospital mortality based on 7 indicators with 31 item classes on a scale from 0 to 75 points. The indicators are age (0 to 17 points, nutrient intake on nutritionDay (0 to 12 points, mobility (0 to 11 points, fluid status (0 to 10 points, BMI (0 to 9 points, cancer (9 points and main patient group (0 to 7 points. An appropriate model fit has been achieved. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for mortality prediction was 0.82 in the development sample and 0.79 in the external validation sample.The PANDORA score is a simple, robust scoring system for a general population of hospitalised patients to be used for risk stratification and benchmarking.

  6. On a true value of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The paper suggests looking on probabilistic risk quantities and concepts through the prism of accepting one of the views: whether a true value of risk exists or not. It is argued that discussions until now have been primarily focused on closely related topics that are different from the topic...... intervals, the use of Byes rule, models of complete ignorance, hierarchical models of uncertainty, assignment of probabilities over possibility space and interpretation of derived probabilistic measures. Behavioural implications of favouring the either view are also briefly described....

  7. X-ray and CT signs of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, L.A.; Sharmazanova, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    The x-ray signs of connective tissue systemic dysplasia (CTSD) in patients with primarily diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Fifty-four patients (28 med and 26 women aged 18-70) with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis underwent x-ray study. In patients with infiltration pulmonary tuberculosis CTSD in the lungs manifests by their diminishing, deformity of the lung pattern, high position of the diaphragm cupola, mediastinum shift to the side of the pathology, which is better seen on CT. The degree of CTSD x-ray signs in the lungs depends on the number of phenotypical signs that is the degree of the disease manifestation. CT allows more accurate determining of the signs of connective tissue dysplasia in which tuberculosis develops

  8. Assessment of Vegetation Variation on Primarily Creation Zones of the Dust Storms Around the Euphrates Using Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Amanollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, period frequency and effect domain of the dust storms that enter Iran from Iraq have increased. In this study, in addition to detecting the creation zones of the dust storms, the effect of vegetation cover variation on their creation was investigated using remote sensing. Moderate resolution image Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5 have been utilized to identify the primarily creation zones of the dust storms and to assess the vegetation cover variation, respectively. Vegetation cover variation was studied using Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI obtained from band 3 and band 4 of the Landsate satellite. The results showed that the surrounding area of the Euphrates in Syria, the desert in the vicinity of this river in Iraq, including the deserts of Alanbar Province, and the north deserts of Saudi Arabia are the primarily creation zones of the dust storms entering west and south west of Iran. The results of NDVI showed that excluding the deserts in the border of Syria and Iraq, the area with very weak vegetation cover have increased between 2.44% and 20.65% from 1991 to 2009. In the meanwhile, the retention pound surface areas in the south deserts of Syria as well as the deserts in its border with Iraq have decreased 6320 and 4397 hectares, respectively. As it can be concluded from the findings, one of the main environmental parameters initiating these dust storms is the decrease in the vegetation cover in their primarily creation zones.

  9. Toxicity assessment strategies, data requirements, and risk assessment approaches to derive health based guidance values for non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Melching-Kollmuss, Stephanie; Kalberlah, Fritz

    2010-03-01

    In Europe, limits for tolerable concentrations of "non-relevant metabolites" for active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products in drinking water between 0.1 and 10 microg/L are discussed depending on the toxicological information available. "Non-relevant metabolites" are degradation products of AIs, which do not or only partially retain the targeted toxicities of AIs. For "non-relevant metabolites" without genotoxicity (to be confirmed by testing in vitro), the application of the concept of "thresholds of toxicological concern" results in a health-based drinking water limit of 4.5 microg/L even for Cramer class III compounds, using the TTC threshold of 90 microg/person/day (divided by 10 and 2). Taking into account the thresholds derived from two reproduction toxicity data bases a drinking water limit of 3.0 microg/L is proposed. Therefore, for "non-relevant metabolites" whose drinking water concentration is below 3.0 microg/L, no toxicity testing is necessary. This work develops a toxicity assessment strategy as a basis to delineate health-based limits for "non-relevant metabolites" in ground and drinking water. Toxicological testing is recommended to investigate, whether the metabolites are relevant or not, based on the hazard properties of the parent AIs, as outlined in the SANCO Guidance document. Also, genotoxicity testing of the water metabolites is clearly recommended. In this publication, tiered testing strategies are proposed for non-relevant metabolites, when drinking water concentrations >3.0 microg/L will occur. Conclusions based on structure-activity relationships and the detailed toxicity database on the parent AI should be included. When testing in animals is required for risk assessment, key aspects are studies along OECD-testing guidelines with "enhanced" study designs addressing additional endpoints such as reproductive toxicity and a developmental screening test to derive health-based tolerable drinking water limits with a limited number

  10. Environmental changes and microbiological health risks. Satellite-derived turbidity: an indicator of "health hazard" for surface water in West Africa (Bagre lake, Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Martinez, J.; Pinet, S.; Gal, L.; Soumaguel, N.

    2015-12-01

    A significant correlation exists between the concentration of parasites, bacteria and some water quality parameters including surface suspended solids (SSS) and turbidity. Suspended particles can carry viruses and pathogenic bacteria affecting human health and foster their development. High SSS, associated with high turbidity, can therefore be considered as a vector of microbiological contaminants, causing diarrheal diseases. Few studies have focused on the turbidity parameter in rural Africa, while many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, lakes, and rivers. Monitoring turbidity may therefore contribute to health hazard monitoring. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and is known to impact water reflectance in the visible and near-infrared domain. Ideally, its spatial and temporal variability requires the use of high temporal resolution (MODIS) and spatial resolution (Landsat, SPOT, Sentinel-2). Here we investigate turbidity in West-Africa. Various algorithms and indices proposed in the literature for inland waters are applied to MODIS series and to Landsat 7 and 8 CDR images, and SPOT5 images. The data and algorithms are evaluated with field measurements: turbidity, SSS, and hyperspectral ground radiometry. We show that turbidity of the Bagre Lake displays a strong increase over 2000-2015, associated with the corresponding increase of the red and NIR reflectances, as well as a reduction of the seasonal variations. Water level derived from the Jason 2 altimeter does not explain such variations. The most probable hypothesis is a change in land use (increase in bare and degraded soils), that leads to an increase in the particles transported by surface runoff to the lake. Such an increase in turbidity reinforces the health risk. We will discuss the link between turbidity and health in view of data from health centers on diarrheal diseases as well as data on practices and uses of populations.

  11. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  12. Financial Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Janečková, Alena

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract/ Financial derivatives The purpose of this thesis is to provide an introduction to financial derivatives which has been, from the legal perspective, described in a not satisfactory manner as quite little literature that can be found about this topic. The main objectives of this thesis are to define the term "financial derivatives" and its particular types and to analyse legal nature of these financial instruments. The last objective is to try to draft future law regulation of finan...

  13. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der; Schuuring, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853–15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  14. Derivation and validation of a simple clinical risk-model in heart failure based on 6 minute walk test performance and NT-proBNP status--do we need specificity for sex and beta-blockers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, L; Goode, K; Ingle, L; Remppis, A; Schellberg, D; Nelles, M; Katus, H A; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G F; Zugck, C

    2011-02-17

    It is unclear whether risk prediction strategies in chronic heart failure (CHF) need to be specific for sex or beta-blockers. We examined this problem and developed and validated the consequent risk models based on 6-minute-walk-test and NT-proBNP. The derivation cohort comprised 636 German patients with systolic dysfunction. They were validated against 676 British patients with similar aetiology. ROC-curves for 1-year mortality identified cut-off values separately for specificity (none, sex, beta-blocker, both). Patients were grouped according to number of cut-offs met (group I/II/III - 0/1/2 cut-offs). Widest separation between groups was achieved with sex- and beta-blocker-specific cut offs. In the derivation population, 1-year mortality was 0%, 8%, 31% for group I, II and III, respectively. In the validation population, 1-year rates in the three risk groups were 2%, 7%, 14%, respectively, after application of the same cut-offs. Risk stratification for CHF should perhaps take sex and beta-blocker usage into account. We derived and independently validated relevant risk models based on 6-minute-walk-tests and NT-proBNP. Specifying sex and use of beta-blockers identified three distinct sub-groups with widely differing prognosis. In clinical practice, it may be appropriate to tailor the intensity of follow-up and/or the treatment strategy according to the risk-group. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Release of bisphenol A and its derivatives from orthodontic adhesive systems available on the European market as a potential health risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2015-02-01

    1 In conditions of the current experiment it was demonstrated that most of the assessed orthodontic adhesive resins available on the European market and released into the outside environment – biologically harmful bisphenol A or its derivatives, posing a potential threat to the patients’ health. 2 Release of BPA and its derivatives into aqueous solutions is the highest in the early stages of sample incubation.

  16. Accumulation of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) copolymer containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate from simple carbohydrate substrates by Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, G W; Anderson, A J; Williams, D R; Dawes, E A; Ewing, D F

    1991-04-01

    A number of taxonomically-related bacteria have been identified which accumulate poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) copolymers containing primarily 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer units from a range of unrelated single carbon sources. One of these, Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 40126, was further investigated and shown to produce a copolymer containing 75 mol% 3HV and 25 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) from glucose as sole carbon source. Polyesters containing both 3HV and 3HB monomer units, together with 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB), 5-hydroxyvalerate (5HV) or 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx), were also produced by this organism from certain accumulation substrates. With valeric acid as substrate, almost pure (99 mol% 3HV) poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced. N.m.r. analysis confirmed the composition of these polyesters. The thermal properties and molecular weight of the copolymer produced from glucose were comparable to those of PHB produced by Alcaligenes eutrophus.

  17. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  18. Applying adverse outcome pathways and species sensitivity-weighted distribution to predicted-no-effect concentration derivation and quantitative ecological risk assessment for bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in aquatic environments: A case study on Tianjin City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Na, Guangshui; Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Yang, Xianhai; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Lijun; Lin, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Juying; Zhao, Jinsong

    2018-02-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a novel concept that effectively considers the toxic modes of action and guides the ecological risk assessment of chemicals. To better use toxicity data including biochemical or molecular responses and mechanistic data, we further developed a species sensitivity-weighted distribution (SSWD) method for bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol. Their aquatic predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived using the log-normal statistical extrapolation method. We calculated aquatic PNECs of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol with values of 4.01 and 0.721 µg/L, respectively. The ecological risk of each chemical in different aquatic environments near Tianjin, China, a coastal municipality along the Bohai Sea, was characterized by hazard quotient and probabilistic risk quotient assessment techniques. Hazard quotients of 7.02 and 5.99 at 2 municipal sewage sites using all of the endpoints were observed for 4-nonylphenol, which indicated high ecological risks posed by 4-nonylphenol to aquatic organisms, especially endocrine-disrupting effects. Moreover, a high ecological risk of 4-nonylphenol was indicated based on the probabilistic risk quotient method. The present results show that combining the SSWD method and the AOP concept could better protect aquatic organisms from adverse effects such as endocrine disruption and could decrease uncertainty in ecological risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:551-562. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Does radiation risk exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.

    1996-01-01

    Risk assessment and risk management are parts of a dynamic process with the objective to decide on the tolerability of risk and on measures to keep risk within accepted limits. It enables all relevant parties to express their concerns and preferences regarding the different options for the human action involved and regarding the relative importance of criteria to decide on the tolerability of risk. Risk assessment has three phases; problem definition, risk analysis and risk characterization. Risk analysis is primarily a technical and scientific endeavour. With regard to problem definition and ride characterization consultation between risk assessors and risk managers (and other parties concerned) is a must. (author)

  20. Project Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr., R. F. Miles

    1995-01-01

    Project risk management is primarily concerned with performance, reliability, cost, and schedule. Environmental risk management is primarily concerned with human health and ecological hazards and likelihoods. This paper discusses project risk management and compares it to environmental risk management, both with respect to goals and implementation. The approach of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to risk management is presented as an example of a project risk management approach that is an extension to NASA NHB 7120.5: Management of Major System Programs and Projects.

  1. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  2. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  4. Derivative chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂ μ φ∂ μ φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂ μ φ∂ μ φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type

  5. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  6. Finansal Risklerin Yönetilmesinde Türev Ürünlerin Kullanımı: Borsa İstanbul (Bist 100 Endeksi’ndeki Şirketler Üzerine Bir Araştırma (Usage Derivatives In Management Financial Risks: A Study On Firms In Borsa Istanbul (Bist 100 Stock Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal YILMAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Firms that experience risks as a result of their activities, use various tools to manage these risks and be protected against them. One of the most significant tools used for protection against financial risks is derivatives. Derivatives used by firms to eliminate the financial risks caused by uncertainty, future price changes and other factors, contribute to diminish fluctuations on future prices and market mechanism to operate in a reliable environment. In this study, after informing about primary derivative products, research is focused on the level of usage of derivatives against risks caused by financial tools by firms registered on BIST 100 stock index operating in other than financial sector and which derivative products are being used by mentioned firms. In the result, it is founded that in 2013, 36 % of the firms and in 2014, 45 % of the firms in the context of the study use derivative products against financial risks. It is also founded that firms use swap contracts against interest risks, and futures contracts are preferred by firms against exchange risk. In addition to this, option contracts are mostly used against other price risks.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Various Pertussis Vaccination Strategies Primarily Aimed at Protecting Infants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Tjalke A.; de Vries, Robin; Tamminga, Johannes J.; Sauboin, Christophe J.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Background: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease. Despite a high rate of vaccine coverage through the Dutch national immunization program, the incidence of pertussis remains high in the Netherlands and the risk of infection continues. Because pertussis is most severe in unimmunized

  8. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  9. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Antrim, L.A.; Sack, G.

    1986-01-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue

  10. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lihui; Yu, Lei; Wang, Yanli; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Qianlong; Lu, Ping; Yu, Xiufeng; Zhong, Weiwei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Cui, Ningren; Jiang, Chun; Zhu, Daling

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir) play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  11. Inward Rectifier K+ Currents Are Regulated by CaMKII in Endothelial Cells of Primarily Cultured Bovine Pulmonary Arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Qu

    Full Text Available Endothelium lines the interior surface of vascular walls and regulates vascular tones. The endothelial cells sense and respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli in the circulation, and couple the stimulus signals to vascular smooth muscles, in which inward rectifier K+ currents (Kir play an important role. Here we applied several complementary strategies to determine the Kir subunit in primarily cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs that was regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. In whole-cell voltage clamp, the Kir currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of extracellular Ba2+. In excised inside-out patches, an inward rectifier K+ current was observed with single-channel conductance 32.43 ± 0.45 pS and Popen 0.27 ± 0.04, which were consistent with known unitary conductance of Kir 2.1. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that expression of Kir 2.1 was significantly stronger than that of other subtypes in PAECs. Pharmacological analysis of the Kir currents demonstrated that insensitivity to intracellular ATP, pinacidil, glibenclamide, pH, GDP-β-S and choleratoxin suggested that currents weren't determined by KATP, Kir2.3, Kir2.4 and Kir3.x. The currents were strongly suppressed by exposure to CaMKII inhibitor W-7 and KN-62. The expression of Kir2.1 was inhibited by knocking down CaMKII. Consistently, vasodilation was suppressed by Ba2+, W-7 and KN-62 in isolated and perfused pulmonary arterial rings. These results suggest that the PAECs express an inward rectifier K+ current that is carried dominantly by Kir2.1, and this K+ channel appears to be targeted by CaMKII-dependent intracellular signaling systems.

  12. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  13. Biodex Fall Risk Assessment in the Elderly With Ataxia: A New Age-Dependent Derived Index in Rehabilitation: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prometti, Paola; Olivares, Adriana; Gaia, Giuseppina; Bonometti, Giampietro; Comini, Laura; Scalvini, Simonetta

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Biodex Fall Risk Assessment could provide an age-adjusted index useful for classifying patients at "risk of fall."This was a cohort study conducted on 61 chronic patients, in stable conditions, having a history of ataxia, difficulty in walking or loss of balance, and aged >64 years. These patients were coming from home to our Institute undergoing a period of in-hospital standard rehabilitation. Assessment of clinical parameters was performed at entry. Functional scales (Functional Independence Measure [FIM] for motor and cognitive function, Barthel G, Tinetti POMA), and the Biodex Fall Risk Index (FRI) were performed at entry and discharge. The Normalized FRI, obtained adjusting FRI to the reported maximum predictive FRI for the relevant age, identified 2 types of patients: those with a greater risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 1 (Normalized FRI>1); and those with an equal or even lesser risk of fall than expected for that age, labeled Case 0 (Normalized FRI≤1).FRI, Normalized FRI as well as independent variables as age, sex, pathology group, FIM, BarthelG, were considered in a multiple regression analysis to predict the functional improvement (i.e., delta Tinetti Total score) after rehabilitation.Normalized FRI is useful in assessing patients at risk of falls both before and after rehabilitation. At admission, the Normalized FRI evidenced high fall risk in 46% of patients (Case 1) which decreased to 12% after rehabilitation, being greater than age-predicted in 7 patients (Case 1-1) despite the functional improvement observed after the rehabilitation treatment. Normalized FRI evidenced Case 1-1 patients as neurological, "very old" (86% in age-group 75-84 years), and with serious events at 18 to 24 months' follow-up. Normalized FRI, but not FRI, at admission was a predictor of improvement in Tinetti Total scores.The normalized FRI effectively indicated patients at higher risk of fall, in whom health

  14. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases stromal cell derived factor 1 and the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in high cardiovascular risk subjects: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Condines, Ximena; Magraner, Emma; Roth, Irene; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz, Sara; Casas, Rosa; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Quifer-Rada, Paola; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-04-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular risk, but fermented beverages seem to confer greater cardiovascular protection due to their polyphenolic content. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone-marrow-derived stem cells with the ability to repair and maintain endothelial integrity and function and are considered as a surrogate marker of vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, no study has been carried out on the effects of moderate beer consumption on the number of circulating EPC in high cardiovascular risk patients. To compare the effects of moderate consumption of beer, non-alcoholic beer and gin on the number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors. In this crossover trial, 33 men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized to receive beer (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of polyphenols in the form of non-alcoholic beer, or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 weeks. Diet and physical exercise were carefully monitored. The number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors were determined at baseline and after each intervention. After the beer and non-alcoholic beer interventions, the number of circulating EPC significantly increased by 8 and 5 units, respectively, while no significant differences were observed after the gin period. In correlation, stromal cell derived factor 1 increased significantly after the non-alcoholic and the beer interventions. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases the number of circulating EPC in peripheral blood from high cardiovascular risk subjects. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN95345245 ISRCTN95345245. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a framework based on an ecosystem services approach for deriving specific protection goals for environmental risk assessment of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Nienstedt, Karin M.; Brock, T. C. M.

    2012-01-01

    General protection goals for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of plant protection products are stated in European legislation but specific protection goals (SPGs) are often not precisely defined. These are however crucial for designing appropriate risk assessment schemes. The process...... followed by the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as well as examples of resulting SPGs obtained so far for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides is presented. The ecosystem services approach was used as an overarching...... and geographical scale of the effect, and the degree of certainty that the specified level of effect will not be exceeded. In general, to ensure ecosystem services, taxa representative for the key drivers identified need to be protected at the population level. However, for some vertebrates and species that have...

  16. Derivation and Validation of a Risk Standardization Model for Benchmarking Hospital Performance for Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Li, Yan; Jones, Philip G.; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Before outcomes-based measures of quality can be used to compare and improve care, they must be risk-standardized to account for variations in patient characteristics. Despite the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), no risk-standardized models have been developed. Methods and Results We assessed disease-specific HRQL using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire at baseline and 1 year later in 2693 unselected AMI patients from 24 hospitals enrolled in the TRIUMPH registry. Using 57 candidate sociodemographic, economic, and clinical variables present on admission, we developed a parsimonious, hierarchical linear regression model to predict HRQL. Eleven variables were independently associated with poor HRQL after AMI, including younger age, prior CABG, depressive symptoms, and financial difficulties (R2=20%). The model demonstrated excellent internal calibration and reasonable calibration in an independent sample of 1890 AMI patients in a separate registry, although the model slightly over-predicted HRQL scores in the higher deciles. Among the 24 TRIUMPH hospitals, 1-year unadjusted HRQL scores ranged from 67–89. After risk-standardization, HRQL scores variability narrowed substantially (range=79–83), and the group of hospital performance (bottom 20%/middle 60%/top 20%) changed in 14 of the 24 hospitals (58% reclassification with risk-standardization). Conclusions In this predictive model for HRQL after AMI, we identified risk factors, including economic and psychological characteristics, associated with HRQL outcomes. Adjusting for these factors substantially altered the rankings of hospitals as compared with unadjusted comparisons. Using this model to compare risk-standardized HRQL outcomes across hospitals may identify processes of care that maximize this important patient-centered outcome. PMID:24163068

  17. Derivation and validation of a risk standardization model for benchmarking hospital performance for health-related quality of life outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Masoudi, Frederick A; Rumsfeld, John S; Li, Yan; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A

    2014-01-21

    Before outcomes-based measures of quality can be used to compare and improve care, they must be risk-standardized to account for variations in patient characteristics. Despite the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), no risk-standardized models have been developed. We assessed disease-specific HRQL using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire at baseline and 1 year later in 2693 unselected AMI patients from 24 hospitals enrolled in the Translational Research Investigating Underlying disparities in acute Myocardial infarction Patients' Health status (TRIUMPH) registry. Using 57 candidate sociodemographic, economic, and clinical variables present on admission, we developed a parsimonious, hierarchical linear regression model to predict HRQL. Eleven variables were independently associated with poor HRQL after AMI, including younger age, previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, depressive symptoms, and financial difficulties (R(2)=20%). The model demonstrated excellent internal calibration and reasonable calibration in an independent sample of 1890 AMI patients in a separate registry, although the model slightly overpredicted HRQL scores in the higher deciles. Among the 24 TRIUMPH hospitals, 1-year unadjusted HRQL scores ranged from 67-89. After risk-standardization, HRQL score variability narrowed substantially (range=79-83), and the group of hospital performance (bottom 20%/middle 60%/top 20%) changed in 14 of the 24 hospitals (58% reclassification with risk-standardization). In this predictive model for HRQL after AMI, we identified risk factors, including economic and psychological characteristics, associated with HRQL outcomes. Adjusting for these factors substantially altered the rankings of hospitals as compared with unadjusted comparisons. Using this model to compare risk-standardized HRQL outcomes across hospitals may identify processes of care that maximize this important patient

  18. Central Clearing of OTC Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    netting agreements. When a CCP exists for interest rate derivatives, adding a CCP for credit derivatives is shown to decrease overall exposures. These findings are shown to be robust to the statistical assumptions of the model as well as the choice of risk measure used to quantify exposures....

  19. Barriers to calling 911 and learning and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation for residents of primarily Latino, high-risk neighborhoods in Denver, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Haukoos, Jason S; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Ramirez, Lorenzo; Bull, Sheana; Eigel, Brian; Magid, David J; Padilla, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Individuals in neighborhoods composed of minority and lower socioeconomic status populations are more likely to have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event, less likely to have bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, and less likely to survive. Latino cardiac arrest victims are 30% less likely than whites to have bystander CPR performed. The goal of this study is to identify barriers and facilitators to calling 911, and learning and performing CPR in 5 low-income, Latino neighborhoods in Denver, CO. Six focus groups and 9 key informant interviews were conducted in Denver during the summer of 2012. Purposeful and snowball sampling, conducted by community liaisons, was used to recruit participants. Two reviewers analyzed the data to identify recurrent and unifying themes. A qualitative content analysis was used with a 5-stage iterative process to analyze each transcript. Six key barriers to calling 911 were identified: fear of becoming involved because of distrust of law enforcement, financial, immigration status, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest event, language, and violence. Seven cultural barriers were identified that may preclude performance of bystander CPR: age, sex, immigration status, language, racism, strangers, and fear of touching someone. Participants suggested that increasing availability of tailored education in Spanish, increasing the number of bilingual 911 dispatchers, and policy-level changes, including CPR as a requirement for graduation and strengthening Good Samaritan laws, may serve as potential facilitators in increasing the provision of bystander CPR. Distrust of law enforcement, language concerns, lack of recognition of cardiac arrest, and financial issues must be addressed when community-based CPR educational programs for Latinos are implemented. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 49 CFR 37.195 - Purchase or lease of OTRBs by private entities not primarily in the business of transporting people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primarily in the business of transporting people. 37.195 Section 37.195 Transportation Office of the... transporting people. This section applies to all purchases or leases of new vehicles by private entities which are not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people, with respect to buses delivered to...

  1. (-)Deprenyl and (-)1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane, [(-)PPAP], act primarily as potent stimulants of action potential-transmitter release coupling in the catecholaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, J; Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Markó, R; Kelemen, K

    1996-01-01

    The activity of the catecholaminergic neurons in the rat brain is enhanced significantly 30 min after the subcutaneous injection of very small doses of (-)deprenyl (threshold doses: 0.01 mg/kg for noradrenergic neurons and 0.025 mg/kg for dopaminergic neurons). As a catecholaminergic activity enhancer (CAE) substance (-)deprenyl is about ten times more potent than its parent compound, (-)methamphetamine. While the (+)methamphetamine is 3-5 times more potent than (-)methamphetammine in releasing catecholamines, the (-)methamphetamine is the more potent CAE substance. The mechanism of the CAE effect of (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP, a deprenyl-derived substance devoid of MAO inhibitory potency, was studied in rats by measuring: a) the release of catecholamines from striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium and locus coeruleus; b) the stimulation induced release of 3H-noradrenaline from the isolated brain stem; and c) the antagonistic effect against tetrabenazine-induced depression of learning in the shuttle box. The CAE effect was found to be unrelated: a) to the inhibition of MAO activity; b) to the inhibition of presynaptic catecholamine receptors; c) to the inhibition of the uptake of catecholamines; and d) to the release of catecholamines. It was concluded that (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP act primarily as potent stimulants of action potential-transmitter release coupling in the catecholaminergic neurons of the brain. We show that both (-)deprenyl and (-)PPAP enhance the inward Ca2+ current in sino-auricular fibers of the frog heart. (-)PPAP was much more potent than either (+)PPAP or (-)deprenyl in this test.

  2. Scientific information and the Tongass land management plan: key findings derived from the scientific literature, species assessments, resource analyses, workshops, and risk assessment panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest

    1996-01-01

    This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...

  3. Comparison of the guidance documents in support of EU risk assessments with those for the derivation of EU water quality standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos JH; Janssen MPM; SEC

    2005-01-01

    Risks of both new and existing substances and of biocides in Europe are being evaluated using the Technical Guidance Document (TGD). The European Water Framework Directive refers to this document for establishing Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for water. Another guidance document for the

  4. Lower risk of cancer in patients on metformin in comparison with those on sulfonylurea derivatives: Results from a large population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Ruiter (Rikje); L.E. Visser (Loes); M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); H.R. Haak (Harm); P.H. Geelhoed-Duijvestijn; S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Numerous studies have suggested a decreased risk of cancer in patients with diabetes on metformin. Because different comparison groups were used, the effect magnitude is difficult to estimate. Therefore, the objective of this study was to further analyze whether, and to what

  5. TRPA1 is functionally expressed primarily by IB4-binding, non-peptidergic mouse and rat sensory neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E Barabas

    functionally expressed primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression.

  6. TRPA1 Is Functionally Expressed Primarily by IB4-Binding, Non-Peptidergic Mouse and Rat Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    primarily in the IB4-positive, CGRP-negative subpopulation of small lumbar DRG neurons from rodents. Thus, IB4 binding is a better indicator than neuropeptides for TRPA1 expression. PMID:23133534

  7. An empirically derived dietary pattern associated with breast cancer risk is validated in a nested case-control cohort from a randomized primary prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H; Kimler, Bruce F; Fabian, Carol J; Carlson, Susan E

    2017-02-01

    We reported an association between cytologic atypia, a reversible biomarker of breast cancer risk, and lower omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio in blood and breast tissue. Our goal was to develop and validate a dietary pattern index in this high-risk sample of U.S. women, and test its capacity to predict incidence in a nested case-control cohort of Canadian women from a randomized trial of a low-fat dietary intervention for primary prevention of breast cancer. Food intake was measured by food frequency questionnaire in the U.S. sample (n = 65) and multiple dietary recalls in the Canadian sample (n = 220 cases; 440 controls). Principal component analysis identified a dietary pattern associated with atypia. We measured differences among dietary pattern tertiles in (a) fatty acid composition in blood lipids and breast tissue in the U.S. sample, and (b) risk of breast cancer subtypes in the Canadian cohort. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00148057. A Modern diet was characterized as consuming more grains, dairy, and sugar and less vegetables, fish and poultry; these women had lower tissue omega-3 fatty acids and higher omega-6 and trans fatty acids. The low-fat intervention increased the likelihood of a Modern diet after randomization. A Modern diet at baseline and post-randomization was associated with estrogen-receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer risk among those at least 160 cm tall. A Traditional diet (the reciprocal of Modern) at baseline was associated with lower ER-positive (ER+) risk in the comparison group, but not the low-fat intervention group. A Modern diet (high in grains, dairy, and sugar and low in vegetables, fish, and poultry) is associated with ER- breast cancer risk among taller women. Recommending dietary fat reduction may have untoward effects on breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Receptor-binding properties of modern human influenza viruses primarily isolated in Vero and MDCK cells and chicken embryonated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalova, Larisa; Gambaryan, Alexandra; Romanova, Julia; Tuzikov, Alexander; Chinarev, Alexander; Katinger, Dietmar; Katinger, Herman; Egorov, Andrej; Bovin, Nicolai

    2003-01-01

    To study the receptor specificity of modern human influenza H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, the analogs of natural receptors, namely sialyloligosaccharides conjugated with high molecular weight (about 1500 kDa) polyacrylamide as biotinylated and label-free probes, have been used. Viruses isolated from clinical specimens were grown in African green monkey kidney (Vero) or Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and chicken embryonated eggs. All Vero-derived viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) sequences indistinguishable from original viruses present in clinical samples, but HAs of three of seven tested MDCK-derived isolates had one or two amino acid substitutions. Despite these host-dependent mutations and differences in the structure of HA molecules of individual strains, all studied Vero- and MDCK-isolated viruses bound to Neu5Ac α2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc (6'SLN) essentially stronger than to Neu5Acα2-6Galβ1-4Glc (6'SL). Such receptor-binding specificity has been typical for earlier isolated H1N1 human influenza viruses, but there is a new property of H3N2 viruses that has been circulating in the human population during recent years. Propagation of human viruses in chicken embryonated eggs resulted in a selection of variants with amino acid substitutions near the HA receptor-binding site, namely Gln226Arg or Asp225Gly for H1N1 viruses and Leu194Ile and Arg220Ser for H3N2 viruses. These HA mutations disturb the observed strict 6'SLN specificity of recent human influenza viruses

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Acetaminophen and Synthetic Color(s) by Derivative Spectroscopy in Syrup Formulations and Validation by HPLC: Exposure Risk of Colors to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shanya Das; Dixit, Sumita; Tripathi, Anurag; Das, Mukul

    2015-06-01

    Color additives are used in pediatric syrup formulations as an excipient; though not pre-requisite, but pediatric syrup formulations are normally colored. An attempt has been made to measure simultaneously the single drug, acetaminophen (AT), along with the colors, carmoisine (CA), erythrosine (ET), and sunset yellow FCF (SSY) added in it by three derivative spectroscopy methods namely, 1st order, ratio, and differential derivative methods. Moreover, evaluation has been made for the exposure assessment of the colors added as excipient because some colors have been reported to cause allergic reactions and hypersensitivity in children. The present methods provide simple, accurate, and reproducible quantitative determination of the drug, AT, along with the color in synthetic mixtures and commercial drug formulations without any interference. The limit of detection varied from 0.0001-0.31 μg/ml while limit of quantification ranged from 0.002-1.04 μg/ml in all the three methods. The calibration curve of all the three derivative methods exhibited good linear relationship with excellent regression coefficients (0.9986-1.000). Both intra-day and inter-day precisions showed %RSD value less than 2% while the percentage recovery was found between 96.8-103.8%. The sensitivity of the proposed methods is almost comparable to HPLC and thus, can be used for determination of drug AT, and color simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulation on routine basis. The present methods also showed that colors like SSY and ET are saturating more than 50% of acceptable daily intake (ADI) value which is alarming and needs to be considered for modification by regulatory authorities to safeguard the health of children.

  10. Hospitalization and mortality among primarily nonbreastfed children during a large outbreak of diarrhea and malnutrition in Botswana, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Tracy L; Kim, Andrea; Lu, Lydia; Bowen, Anna; Masunge, Japhter; Arvelo, Wences; Smit, Molly; Mach, Ondrej; Legwaila, Keitumetse; Motswere, Catherine; Zaks, Laurel; Finkbeiner, Thomas; Povinelli, Laura; Maruping, Maruping; Ngwaru, Gibson; Tebele, Goitebetswe; Bopp, Cheryl; Puhr, Nancy; Johnston, Stephanie P; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Bern, Caryn; Beard, R S; Davis, Margarett K

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a pediatric diarrhea outbreak occurred in Botswana, coinciding with heavy rains. Surveillance recorded a 3 times increase in cases and a 25 fold increase in deaths between January and March. Botswana has high HIV prevalence among pregnant women (33.4% in 2005), and an estimated 35% of all infants under the age of 6 months are not breastfed. We followed all children <5 years old with diarrhea in the country's second largest referral hospital at the peak of the outbreak by chart review, interviewed mothers, and conducted laboratory testing for HIV and enteric pathogens. Of 153 hospitalized children with diarrhea, 97% were <2 years old; 88% of these were not breastfeeding. HIV was diagnosed in 18% of children and 64% of mothers. Cryptosporidium and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were common; many children had multiple pathogens. Severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor or marasmus) developed in 38 (25%) patients, and 33 (22%) died. Kwashiorkor increased risk for death (relative risk 2.0; P = 0.05); only one breastfeeding child died. Many children who died had been undersupplied with formula. Most of the severe morbidity and mortality in this outbreak occurred in children who were HIV negative and not breastfed. Feeding and nutritional factors were the most important determinants of severe illness and death. Breastfeeding is critical to infant survival in the developing world, and support for breastfeeding among HIV-negative women, and HIV-positive women who cannot formula feed safely, may prevent further high-mortality outbreaks.

  11. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  12. A deep learning based strategy for identifying and associating mitotic activity with gene expression derived risk categories in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Bucheli, David; Janowczyk, Andrew; Gilmore, Hannah; Romero, Eduardo; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-06-01

    The treatment and management of early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is hindered by the difficulty in identifying patients who require adjuvant chemotherapy in contrast to those that will respond to hormonal therapy. To distinguish between the more and less aggressive breast tumors, which is a fundamental criterion for the selection of an appropriate treatment plan, Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests are typically employed. While informative, these gene expression tests are expensive, tissue destructive, and require specialized facilities. Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade, the common scheme employed in breast cancer grading, has been shown to be correlated with the Oncotype DX risk score. Unfortunately, studies have also shown that the BR grade determined experiences notable inter-observer variability. One of the constituent categories in BR grading is the mitotic index. The goal of this study was to develop a deep learning (DL) classifier to identify mitotic figures from whole slides images of ER+ breast cancer, the hypothesis being that the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier would correlate with the corresponding Oncotype DX risk categories. The mitosis detector yielded an average F-score of 0.556 in the AMIDA mitosis dataset using a 6-fold validation setup. For a cohort of 174 whole slide images with early stage ER+ breast cancer for which the corresponding Oncotype DX score was available, the distributions of the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier was found to be significantly different between the high vs low Oncotype DX risk groups (P machine classifier trained to separate low/high Oncotype DX risk categories using the mitotic count determined by the DL classifier yielded a 83.19% classification accuracy. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  13. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G; Chen, Menglan; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear.

  14. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively.These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers from easily obtainable risk factors and may

  15. Interaction between dietary marine-derived n-3 fatty acids intake and J-point elevation on the risk of cardiac death: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Horie, Minoru; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    Higher marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (MDn3FAs) intake reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death via antiarrhythmic effects. The article evaluates whether MDn3FAs intake attenuates the increased risk of cardiac death associated with J-point elevation (JPE), characterised by an elevation of QRS-ST junction (J-point) ≥0.1 mV on electrocardiography. A prospective population-based cohort study. The National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and the National Nutrition Survey of Japan. A total of 4348 community-dwelling men (mean age 49.3 years), without cardiovascular diseases at baseline, from randomly selected areas across Japan. Cardiac death (200 men) during the 24-year follow-up. Dietary MDn3FAs intake was assessed using a dietary method to estimate individual intake of household-based weighed food records for 3 days. Cox models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for possible confounding factors. JPE was present in 340 participants (7.8%). The median daily intake of MDn3FAs was 0.35%kcal (0.92 g/day). The risk of cardiac death was significantly higher in participants with JPE than in those without JPE in the low intake group (death was statistically significant (p=0.006). The increased risk of cardiac death associated with JPE may be attenuated by higher dietary MDn3FAs intake.

  16. Synthetic virus-like particles target dendritic cell lipid rafts for rapid endocytosis primarily but not exclusively by macropinocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Sharma

    Full Text Available DC employ several endocytic routes for processing antigens, driving forward adaptive immunity. Recent advances in synthetic biology have created small (20-30 nm virus-like particles based on lipopeptides containing a virus-derived coiled coil sequence coupled to synthetic B- and T-cell epitope mimetics. These self-assembling SVLP efficiently induce adaptive immunity without requirement for adjuvant. We hypothesized that the characteristics of DC interaction with SVLP would elaborate on the roles of cell membrane and intracellular compartments in the handling of a virus-like entity known for its efficacy as a vaccine. DC rapidly bind SVLP within min, co-localised with CTB and CD9, but not caveolin-1. In contrast, internalisation is a relatively slow process, delivering SVLP into the cell periphery where they are maintained for a number of hrs in association with microtubules. Although there is early association with clathrin, this is no longer seen after 10 min. Association with EEA-1(+ early endosomes is also early, but proteolytic processing appears slow, the SVLP-vesicles remaining peripheral. Association with transferrin occurs rarely, and only in the periphery, possibly signifying translocation of some SVLP for delivery to B-lymphocytes. Most SVLP co-localise with high molecular weight dextran. Uptake of both is impaired with mature DC, but there remains a residual uptake of SVLP. These results imply that DC use multiple endocytic routes for SVLP uptake, dominated by caveolin-independent, lipid raft-mediated macropinocytosis. With most SVLP-containing vesicles being retained in the periphery, not always interacting with early endosomes, this relates to slow proteolytic degradation and antigen retention by DC. The present characterization allows for a definition of how DC handle virus-like particles showing efficacious immunogenicity, elements valuable for novel vaccine design in the future.

  17. Synthetic Virus-Like Particles Target Dendritic Cell Lipid Rafts for Rapid Endocytosis Primarily but Not Exclusively by Macropinocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Ghasparian, Arin; Robinson, John A.; McCullough, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    DC employ several endocytic routes for processing antigens, driving forward adaptive immunity. Recent advances in synthetic biology have created small (20–30 nm) virus-like particles based on lipopeptides containing a virus-derived coiled coil sequence coupled to synthetic B- and T-cell epitope mimetics. These self-assembling SVLP efficiently induce adaptive immunity without requirement for adjuvant. We hypothesized that the characteristics of DC interaction with SVLP would elaborate on the roles of cell membrane and intracellular compartments in the handling of a virus-like entity known for its efficacy as a vaccine. DC rapidly bind SVLP within min, co-localised with CTB and CD9, but not caveolin-1. In contrast, internalisation is a relatively slow process, delivering SVLP into the cell periphery where they are maintained for a number of hrs in association with microtubules. Although there is early association with clathrin, this is no longer seen after 10 min. Association with EEA-1+ early endosomes is also early, but proteolytic processing appears slow, the SVLP-vesicles remaining peripheral. Association with transferrin occurs rarely, and only in the periphery, possibly signifying translocation of some SVLP for delivery to B-lymphocytes. Most SVLP co-localise with high molecular weight dextran. Uptake of both is impaired with mature DC, but there remains a residual uptake of SVLP. These results imply that DC use multiple endocytic routes for SVLP uptake, dominated by caveolin-independent, lipid raft-mediated macropinocytosis. With most SVLP-containing vesicles being retained in the periphery, not always interacting with early endosomes, this relates to slow proteolytic degradation and antigen retention by DC. The present characterization allows for a definition of how DC handle virus-like particles showing efficacious immunogenicity, elements valuable for novel vaccine design in the future. PMID:22905240

  18. Comparative genome analysis of Pseudogymnoascus spp. reveals primarily clonal evolution with small genome fragments exchanged between lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leushkin, Evgeny V; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A; Sutormin, Roman A; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Kochkina, Galina A; Ivanushkina, Natalia E; Vasilenko, Oleg V; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Ozerskaya, Svetlana M

    2015-05-21

    Pseudogymnoascus spp. is a wide group of fungi lineages in the family Pseudorotiaceae including an aggressive pathogen of bats P. destructans. Although several lineages of P. spp. were shown to produce ascospores in culture, the vast majority of P. spp. demonstrates no evidence of sexual reproduction. P. spp. can tolerate a wide range of different temperatures and salinities and can survive even in permafrost layer. Adaptability of P. spp. to different environments is accompanied by extremely variable morphology and physiology. We sequenced genotypes of 14 strains of P. spp., 5 of which were extracted from permafrost, 1 from a cryopeg, a layer of unfrozen ground in permafrost, and 8 from temperate surface environments. All sequenced genotypes are haploid. Nucleotide diversity among these genomes is very high, with a typical evolutionary distance at synonymous sites dS ≈ 0.5, suggesting that the last common ancestor of these strains lived >50 Mya. The strains extracted from permafrost do not form a separate clade. Instead, each permafrost strain has close relatives from temperate environments. We observed a strictly clonal population structure with no conflicting topologies for ~99% of genome sequences. However, there is a number of short (~100-10,000 nt) genomic segments with the total length of 67.6 Kb which possess phylogenetic patterns strikingly different from the rest of the genome. The most remarkable case is a MAT-locus, which has 2 distinct alleles interspersed along the whole-genome phylogenetic tree. Predominantly clonal structure of genome sequences is consistent with the observations that sexual reproduction is rare in P. spp. Small number of regions with noncanonical phylogenies seem to arise due to some recombination events between derived lineages of P. spp., with MAT-locus being transferred on multiple occasions. All sequenced strains have heterothallic configuration of MAT-locus.

  19. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  20. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  1. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungshim L Park

    Full Text Available The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA, respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P < 0.0001. Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear.

  2. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to mechanically separated meat (MSM) derived from poultry and swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    The purpose of this assessment was to identify public health risks linked to mechanically separated meat (MSM) types from pork and poultry and compare them with fresh meat, minced meat and meat preparations (non-MSM); and to select, rank and suggest objective measurement methods and values...... is a promising method for distinction of MSM types, but further validation is needed. In order to improve methods for MSM identification, specifically designed studies for the collection of data obtained by standardised methods on indicators such as calcium and cholesterol should be undertaken, while studies...

  3. PTSD, food addiction, and disordered eating in a sample of primarily older veterans: The mediating role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S; Wolf, Erika J

    2016-09-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with eating disorders (EDs) and addictive behaviors, including the relatively new construct food addiction. However, few studies have investigated mechanisms that account for these associations, and men are underrepresented in studies of EDs and food addiction. We examined whether lifetime PTSD symptoms were associated with current food addiction and ED symptoms, and whether emotion regulation (expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal), which has been associated with both PTSD and EDs, mediated these relations, in a sample of trauma-exposed, male (n=642) and female (n=55) veterans. Participants were recruited from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel and completed an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that PTSD was directly associated with ED symptoms, food addiction, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in the full sample and with all constructs except cognitive reappraisal in the male subsample. Expressive suppression was significantly associated with ED symptoms and mediated the PTSD-ED relation. These results highlight the importance of investigating PTSD as a risk factor for food addiction and ED symptoms and the potential mediating role of emotion regulation in the development of PTSD and EDs in order to identify targets for treatments. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant with umbilical cord-derived multipotent mesenchymal cell infusion for the treatment of high-risk acute leukemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Wang, Zhidong; Zheng, Xiaoli; Ding, Li; Han, Dongmei; Yan, Hongmin; Guo, Zikuan; Wang, Hengxiang

    2015-05-01

    In this study, 25 children with high-risk acute leukemia received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (haplo-HSCT) with co-transfusion of umbilical cord multipotent mesenchymal cells (UC-MSCs). Adverse effects, hematopoietic recovery, complications and outcome were observed during a median follow-up of 12.8 months (range: 3-25 months). Myeloid engraftment was rapid, and the median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery was 15.12 days and 20.08 days, respectively. Eight patients developed grade I skin acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) that responded well to standard steroid therapy. Of note, cytomegalovirus viremia was observed in most patients (23/25 cases). Patients died mainly of leukemia relapse and pulmonary complication. Fourteen patients are currently alive and remain with full donor chimerism at the time of reporting. The present results suggest further clinical trials to testify the effectiveness of UC-MSCs to prevent aGVHD in haplo-HSCT for treating children with high-risk leukemia.

  5. Denitrifiers in the surface zone are primarily responsible for the nitrous oxide emission of dairy manure compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Koki, E-mail: k_maeda@affrc.go.jp [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Toyoda, Sakae [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hanajima, Dai [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) productions of each compost zones were compared. ► The pile surface emitted significant fluxes of N{sub 2}O. ► The isotopic signature of N{sub 2}O from surface and NO{sub 2}{sup −} amended core were different. ► The denitrifying gene abundance was significantly higher in pile surface than the pile core. -- Abstract: During the dairy manure composting process, significant nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions occur just after the pile turnings. To understand the characteristics of this N{sub 2}O emission, samples were taken from the compost surface and core independently, and the N{sub 2}O production was monitored in laboratory incubation experiments. Equal amounts of surface and core samples were mixed to simulate the turning, and the {sup 15}N isotope ratios within the molecules of produced N{sub 2}O were analyzed by isotopomer analysis. The results showed that the surface samples emitted significant levels of N{sub 2}O, and these emissions were correlated with NO{sub x}{sup −}-N accumulation. Moreover, the surface samples and surface-core mixed samples incubated at 30 °C produced N{sub 2}O with a low site preference (SP) value (−0.9 to 7.0‰) that was close to bacteria denitrification (0‰), indicating that denitrifiers in the surface samples are responsible for this N{sub 2}O production. On the other hand, N{sub 2}O produced by NO{sub 2}{sup −}-amended core samples and surface samples incubated at 60 °C showed unrecognized isotopic signatures (SP = 11.4–20.3‰). From these results, it was revealed that the N{sub 2}O production occurring just after the turnings was mainly derived from bacterial denitrification (including nitrifier denitrification) of NO{sub x}{sup −}-N under mesophilic conditions, and surface denitrifying bacteria appeared to be the main contributor to this process.

  6. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a containment level-III laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Kym S; Burdz, Tamara V; Turenne, Christine Y; Sharma, Meenu K; Kabani, Amin M; Wolfe, Joyce N

    2005-01-24

    In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating/chemical fixation) may not consistently kill MTB organisms. An inclusive viability study (n = 226) was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7%) of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80 degrees C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18), resulting in 0% viability. This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation) or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a CL3 laboratory. This process is vital to establish in

  7. High Level of Tobacco Carcinogen-Derived DNA Damage in Oral Cells Is an Independent Predictor of Oral/Head and Neck Cancer Risk in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Ma, Bin; Ruszczak, Chris; Carmella, Steven G; Lindgren, Bruce; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Hecht, Stephen S; Stepanov, Irina

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared with cancer-free smokers. In this study, we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC. Subjects included cigarette smokers with HNSCC (cases, n = 30) and cancer-free smokers (controls, n = 35). At recruitment, tobacco/alcohol use questionnaires were completed, and urine and oral cell samples were obtained. Analysis of urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and N '-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN; TSNA biomarkers), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a PAH), cotinine, 3'-hydroxycotinine, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) were performed. Cases and controls differed in mean age, male preponderance, and frequency of alcohol consumption (but not total alcoholic drinks). Univariate analysis revealed similar levels of NNN, 1-HOP, and cotinine between groups but, as reported previously, significantly higher DNA adduct formation in the cases. Multiple regression adjusting for potential confounders showed persistent significant difference in DNA adduct levels between cases and controls [ratio of geometric means, 20.0; 95% CI, 2.7-148.6). Our cohort of smokers with HNSCC demonstrates higher levels of TSNA-derived oral DNA damage in the setting of similar exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Among smokers, DNA adduct formation may act as a predictor of eventual development of HNSCC that is independent of carcinogen exposure indicators. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 507-13. ©2017 AACR See related editorial by Johnson and Bauman, p. 489 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabani Amin M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3 laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226 was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7% of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18, resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a

  9. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2016-06-01

    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests.

  10. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatrai, Peter, E-mail: peter.tatrai@biomembrane.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Karolina ut 29, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Szepesi, Aron, E-mail: aron.szepesi@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Matula, Zsolt, E-mail: matula.zsolt@gmail.com [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Szigeti, Anna, E-mail: anna.szigeti@biomembrane.hu [Creative Cell Ltd., Puskas Tivadar utca 13, H-1119 Budapest (Hungary); Buchan, Gyoengyi, E-mail: buchan@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Madi, Andras, E-mail: madi@med.unideb.hu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Stem Cell, Apoptosis and Genomics Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Uher, Ferenc, E-mail: uher@biomembrane.hu [Stem Cell Laboratory, Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service, Dioszegi ut 64, H-1113 Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC{sup hTERT}, ASC{sup Bmi-1}, ASC{sup Bmi-1+hTERT} and ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC{sup Bmi-1} had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC{sup SV40T+hTERT} acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC{sup hTERT} and ASC{sup hTERT+Bmi-1}, on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC{sup hTERT} also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture

  11. Combined introduction of Bmi-1 and hTERT immortalizes human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells with low risk of transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tátrai, Péter; Szepesi, Áron; Matula, Zsolt; Szigeti, Anna; Buchan, Gyöngyi; Mádi, András; Uher, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We immortalized human adipose stromal cells (ASCs) with hTERT, Bmi-1, and SV40T. ► hTERT-only ASCs are prone to transformation, while Bmi-only ASCs become senescent. ► SV40T introduced along with hTERT abrogates proliferation control and multipotency. ► hTERT combined with Bmi-1 yields stable phenotype up to 140 population doublings. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are increasingly being studied for their usefulness in regenerative medicine. However, limited life span and donor-dependent variation of primary cells such as ASCs present major hurdles to controlled and reproducible experiments. We therefore aimed to establish immortalized ASC cell lines that provide steady supply of homogeneous cells for in vitro work while retain essential features of primary cells. To this end, combinations of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), murine Bmi-1, and SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) were introduced by lentiviral transduction into ASCs. The resulting cell lines ASC hTERT , ASC Bmi-1 , ASC Bmi-1+hTERT and ASC SV40T+hTERT were tested for transgene expression, telomerase activity, surface immunomarkers, proliferation, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, karyotype, tumorigenicity, and cellular senescence. All cell lines have maintained expression of characteristic surface immunomarkers, and none was tumorigenic. However, ASC Bmi-1 had limited replicative potential, while the rapidly proliferating ASC SV40T+hTERT acquired chromosomal aberrations, departed from MSC phenotype, and lost differentiation capacity. ASC hTERT and ASC hTERT+Bmi-1 , on the other hand, preserved all essential MSC features and did not senesce after 100 population doublings. Notably, a subpopulation of ASC hTERT also acquired aberrant karyotype and showed signs of transformation after long-term culture. In conclusion, hTERT alone was sufficient to extend the life span of human ASC, but ASC hTERT are prone to transformation during extensive

  12. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  13. Survey on the Use of Derivatives in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Nuka Lantara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides survey evidence on the use of derivatives among firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. The finding shows that the participation rate in the use of derivatives is 28.8 percent, much lower than those found in developed countries. For the derivatives non-users, insignificant risk exposure is reported as the most important rationale for not using derivatives. Consumer goods industry constitutes the largest proportion of firms using derivatives. The majority of respondents utilize derivatives to hedge against financial risks rather than to speculate. Foreign currency risk and interest rate risk are the most important types of risks faced with by respondents. Using the Chi-square and the Fisher’s exact tests, the result corroborates the size effect hypothesis, where the use of derivatives is more popular among large firms than small firms. A SURVEY ON THE USE OF DERIVATIVES IN INDONESIA Keywords: derivatives; hedging; risk management

  14. Prognostic risk stratification derived from individual patient level data for men with advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Gregory R; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Necchi, Andrea; Eigl, Bernhard J; Kolinsky, Michael P; Chacko, Raju T; Dorff, Tanya B; Harshman, Lauren C; Milowsky, Matthew I; Lee, Richard J; Galsky, Matthew D; Federico, Piera; Bolger, Graeme; DeShazo, Mollie; Mehta, Amitkumar; Goyal, Jatinder; Sonpavde, Guru

    2014-05-01

    Prognostic factors in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) receiving systemic therapy are unknown. A prognostic classification system in this disease may facilitate interpretation of outcomes and guide rational drug development. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify prognostic factors in men with PSCC receiving first-line systemic therapy for advanced disease. Individual patient level data were obtained from 13 institutions to study prognostic factors in the context of first-line systemic therapy for advanced PSCC. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to examine the prognostic effect of these candidate factors on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): age, stage, hemoglobin, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, albumin, site of metastasis (visceral or nonvisceral), smoking, circumcision, regimen, ECOG performance status (PS), lymphovascular invasion, precancerous lesion, and surgery following chemotherapy. The effect of different treatments was then evaluated adjusting for factors in the prognostic model. The study included 140 eligible men. Mean age across all men was 57.0 years. Among them, 8.6%, 21.4%, and 70.0% of patients had stage 2, 3, and 4 diseases, respectively; 40.7% had ECOG PS ≥ 1, 47.4% had visceral metastases, and 73.6% received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The multivariate model of poor prognostic factors included visceral metastases (Pstatistic of 0.657 and 0.677 for OS and PFS, respectively). The median OS for the entire population was 9 months. Median OS was not reached, 8, and 7 months for those with 0, 1, and both risk factors, respectively. Cisplatin-based regimens were associated with better OS (P = 0.017) but not PFS (P = 0.37) compared with noncisplatin-based regimens after adjusting for the 2 prognostic factors. In men with advanced PSCC receiving first-line systemic therapy, visceral metastases and ECOG PS ≥ 1 were poor prognostic factors. A prognostic model including

  15. Derivation of a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for use in the assessment of risk from chronic exposure to ethylene glycol: Application of international programme for chemical safety guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Robert B.; Brent, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) has developed a set of guidelines ('the Guidance') for the establishment of Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAFs) for in the assessment of toxicity risk to the human population as a result of chemical exposure. The development of case studies is encouraged in the Guidance document and comments on them have been encouraged by the IPCS. One provision in the Guidance is for the determination of CSAFs based on human data. We present a case study of the use of the Guidance for the determination of the CSAF for ethylene glycol (EG) primarily utilizing clinically obtained data. The most relevant endpoint for this analysis was deemed to be acute renal injury. These data were applied based on an assessment of the known pharmaco/toxico-kinetic properties of EG. Because of the lack of both bioaccumulation of EG and reports of chronic or progressive renal injury from EG, it was concluded that the most appropriate model of chronic exposure is one of repeated acute episodes. The most relevant exposure metric was determined to be plasma glycolate concentration. Based on a prospective human study of EG-poisoned patients, the NOAEL for glycolate was found to be 10.1 mM. This value is similar to that obtained from animal data. The application of the Guidelines to this data resulted in a CSAF of 10.24, corresponding to a daily EG dose of 43.7 mg/kg/day. In 2000, Health Canada (HC) produced an animal data-based analysis of the maximum tolerated dose of EG. The results of our analysis are compared with those of HC, and the strengths and weaknesses of these two data types related to EG are discussed

  16. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Insulin Resistance after Two Hypocaloric Diets with Different Fat Distribution in Obese Subjects: Effect of the rs10767664 Gene Variant in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Romero, Enrique; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants on change in body weight and cardiovascular risk factors after weight loss remains unclear in obese patients. Our aim was to analyze the effects of the rs10767664 BDNF gene polymorphism on body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, and serum adipokine levels after a high monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) hypocaloric diet (diet M) versus a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) hypocaloric diet (diet P). A Caucasian population of 361 obese patients was enrolled. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to one of two diets for a period of 3 months. Two hundred and sixteen subjects (59.8%) had the genotype AA (wild-type group), and 145 (40.2%) patients had the genotypes AT (122 patients, 33.8%) or TT (23 patients, 6.4%) (mutant-type group). After weight loss with diet P and diet M and in both genotype groups, body mass index, weight, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum leptin levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol decreased in a significant way. Secondary to weight loss with diet M and only in the wild-type group, insulin levels (-2.1 ± 2.0 vs. -0.7 ± 2.9 IU/L, p hypocaloric diet enriched with MUFAs. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Derivatives in energy project finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on risk management of merchant power generation projects and describes project finance as balancing risk and reward over time. The historical background to risk management is traced, and the case for derivatives in energy project finance is put forward with the hedging of forward output, and forwards and power purchase agreements discussed. Current and prospective usage, and the implementation issues of market liquidity, margin calls, letters of credit, derivative counterparty credit risk, and accounting policy are considered. A detailed example of a gas-fired plant in the US is presented with details given of the distribution of project earnings before tax. Oil field operating cashflows are examined, with reserved flow models, leverage effects, and price hedging addressed

  19. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-01-01

    The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...

  20. Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lu

    2006-01-01

    The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...

  1. Nanoparticles affect PCR primarily via surface interactions with PCR components: using amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a main model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanomaterials have been widely reported to affect the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, many studies in which these effects were observed were not comprehensive, and many of the proposed mechanisms have been primarily speculative. In this work, we used amino-modified silica-coated magnetic n...

  2. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposed rules address risk management for cleared trades by futures commission merchants, swap dealers... Commission has proposed extensive regulations addressing open access and risk management at the derivatives..., 2011) (Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations). These proposed regulations...

  3. Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on companies risk evaluation before endorsement of Loan deriving from business relationships. The aim of this thesis is not only to describe individual steps of risk assessment, but also perfom analysis of particular companies based on available data, i.e. Balance sheet, Profit and Loss statement and external rating and after that propose solution for each company. My analysis will be based on theoretical knowledge, further on experience related to my job role a...

  4. Energy-related risk in the U.S.A. in the year 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.; King, S.

    1986-01-01

    The present risk to health of energy systems has been the subject of much debate in recent years. This paper extrapolates some present results on energy-related risk to the year 2020. It finds that if today's trends continue, the largest sources of risk will be due to the changeover from large to small cars, radon buildup in better-sealed buildings and the entire coal (and synthetic fuel) cycle. Other sources of risk, such as the larger proportion of nuclear and solar energy three or four decades from now, are about an order of magnitude lower than the aforementioned three. Because of the many uncertainties in the calculations, the results should be viewed as primarily qualitative, although derived quantitatively. However, they can be used as a guide by policymakers and research planners to produce the greatest risk reduction per unit effort. (author)

  5. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references

  6. Silsesquioxane-derived ceramic fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, F. I.; Farmer, S. C.; Terepka, F. M.; Leonhardt, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers formed from blends of silsesquioxane polymers were characterized to study the pyrolytic conversion of these precursors to ceramics. The morphology of fibers pyrolyzed to 1400 C revealed primarily amorphous glasses whose conversion to beta-SiC is a function of both blend composition and pyrolysis conditions. Formation of beta-SiC crystallites within the glassy phase is favored by higher than stoichiometric C/Si ratios, while carbothermal reduction of Si-O bonds to form SiC with loss of SiO and CO occurs at higher methyl/phenylpropyl silsesquioxane (lower C/Si) ratios. As the carbothermal reduction is assumed to be diffusion controlled, the fibers can serve as model systems to gain understanding of the silsesquioxane pyrolysis behavior, and therefore are useful in the development of polysilsesquioxane-derived ceramic matrices and coatings as well.

  7. Cost that is Directly Incurred as a Result of Operating the Train Service on the 1520 mm Rail with Primarily Freight Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hudenko, J; Ribakova, N; Počs, R

    2016-01-01

    Under the Directive 2012/34/EU (21 November 2012) "the charges for … [rail] infrastructure … shall be set at the cost that is directly incurred as a result of operating the train service". This charging rule is new for Baltic States’ railways, where due to the favorable geographic position a full cost application without detalization was possible. Although, a big number of relevant studies on the issue was made in EU, all of them covered only 1435mm railways with primarily passenger transport...

  8. Risco de preço na comercialização da soja: uso de derivativos pelos produtores rurais de Maracaju-MS Price risk in marketing soybeans: use of derivatives by farmers from Maracaju-MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Richter Won Mühlen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisou o comportamento do produtor de soja de Maracaju-MS quanto ao risco de preço e ao uso de derivativos agropecuários, buscando identificar os mecanismos de proteção de preço utilizados e as razões de seu uso ou rejeição. Para tanto, um questionário foi aplicado a uma amostra de produtores de soja, sendo também entrevistados representantes de tradings, armazéns gerais, cooperativas, corretoras e agentes financeiros. Constatou-se que a utilização de ferramentas de proteção de preço é ainda pouco expressiva, já que apenas 11% dos produtores usam o Mercado Futuro (hedge e o Mercado de Opções, e 38% os utilizaram alguma vez. O principal mecanismo usado é o Mercado a Termo. Produtores que já usaram o Mercado Futuro (hedge e o de opções atuam em médias e grandes propriedades, têm nível de escolaridade alto e estão mais capitalizados. A baixa utilização dos derivativos (Futuros e Opções se dá, principalmente, pela falta de conhecimento e pela ausência de profissionais de confiança capazes de orientar os produtores.The present research analysed the behavior of the soybean farmer of Maracaju-MS, Brazil in relation to price risk and use of agricultural derivatives, seeking to identify the price protection mechanisms used and the reasons for their use or rejection. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of soybean farmers. Also, representatives of trading houses, storage plants, cooperatives, brokers and financial agents were interviewed. Results showed that the use of price protection tools is still scarce, as only 11% of farmers use future market price (hedge and the options market, and 38% have used them before. The main mechanism used is the forward market. Farmers who already have used futures market (hedge and options manage medium and large properties, have a high level of education and are better capitalized. The low use of derivatives (futures and options is mainly due to the lack of

  9. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  10. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas.

  11. Fragment-Specific Fixation Versus Volar Locking Plates in Primarily Nonreducible or Secondarily Redisplaced Distal Radius Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Marcus; Abramo, Antonio; Geijer, Mats; Kopylov, Philippe; Tägil, Magnus

    2017-03-01

    To compare the patient-reported, clinical, and radiographic outcome of 2 methods of internal fixation in distal radius fractures. Fifty patients, mean age 56 years (range, 21-69 years) with primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures were randomized to open reduction internal fixation using volar locking plates (n = 25) or fragment-specific fixation (n = 25). The patients were assessed on grip strength, range of motion, patient-reported outcome (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), pain (visual analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 [SF-12]), and radiographic evaluation. Grip strength at 12 months was the primary outcome measure. At 12 months, no difference was found in grip strength, which was 90% of the uninjured side in the volar plate group and 87% in the fragment-specific fixation group. No differences were found in range of motion and the median Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 5 in both groups. The overall complication rate was significant, 21% in the volar locking plate group, compared with 52% in the fragment-specific group. In treatment of primarily nonreducible or secondarily redisplaced distal radius fractures, volar locking plates and fragment-specific fixation both achieve good and similar patient-reported outcomes, although more complications were recorded in the fragment-specific group. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  13. Hedging Yield with Weather Derivatives: A Role for Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredo, Mark R.; Richards, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    While there are few risk management alternatives available to specialty crop growers, weather derivatives provide an important advancement. As with the use of any derivatives contract, the behavior of the basis will ultimately determine the net-hedged outcome. However, when using weather derivatives to hedge yield risks for specialty crops, growers face a unique form of basis risk because weather (temperature) and yield are nonlinearly related. Using the forecast encompassing principle, this ...

  14. Uncertainty: lotteries and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ávalos, Eloy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop the theory of uncertainty in a context where the risks assumed by the individual are measurable and manageable. We primarily use the definition of lottery to formulate the axioms of the individual's preferences, and its representation through the utility function von Neumann - Morgenstern. We study the expected utility theorem and its properties, the paradoxes of choice under uncertainty and finally the measures of risk aversion with monetary lotteries.

  15. Interest Rate Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, B.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of exotic derivative pricing models is to enable financial institutions to quantify and manage their financial risk, arising from large books of portfolios. These portfolios consist of many non-standard exotic financial products. Risk is managed by means of the evaluation of sensitivity

  16. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha sensitize primarily resistant human endometrial stromal cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluhr, Herbert; Krenzer, Stefanie; Stein, Gerburg M

    2007-01-01

    The subtle interaction between the implanting embryo and the maternal endometrium plays a pivotal role during the process of implantation. Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express Fas and the implanting trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand (FASLG, FasL), suggesting a possible role for Fas......-mediated signaling during early implantation. Here we show that ESCs are primarily resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis independently of their state of hormonal differentiation. Pre-treatment of ESCs with interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha sensitizes them to become apoptotic upon stimulation...... of Fas by an agonistic anti-Fas antibody. Incubation of ESCs with the early embryonic signal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, CGB) does not influence their reaction to Fas stimulation. The sensitizing effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was accompanied by a significant upregulation of Fas and FLICE...

  17. Elevated plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α levels in human smokers originate primarily from enzymatic instead of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Kadiiska, Maria B; Deterding, Leesa J; Mason, Ronald P

    2018-02-01

    It is widely accepted that free radicals in tobacco smoke lead to oxidative stress and generate the popular lipid peroxidation biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ). However, 8-iso-PGF 2α can simultaneously be produced in vivo by the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHS) induced by inflammation. This inflammation-dependent mechanism has never been considered as a source of elevated 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of chemical- and PGHS-dependent 8-iso-PGF 2α formation in the plasma of tobacco smokers and non-smokers. The influences of gender and hormonal contraceptive use were accounted for. The distribution was determined by measuring the 8-iso-PGF 2α /prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) ratio. When comparing smokers (n = 28) against non-smokers (n = 30), there was a statistically significant increase in the 8-iso-PGF 2α concentration. The source of this increased 8-iso-PGF 2α was primarily from PGHS. When stratifying for gender, the increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in male smokers (n = 9) was primarily from PGHS. Interestingly, female smokers on hormonal contraceptives had increased 8-iso-PGF 2α in both pathways, whereas those not on hormonal contraceptives did not have increased 8-iso-PGF 2α . In conclusion, increased plasma 8-iso-PGF 2α in tobacco smokers has complex origins, with PGHS-dependent formation as the primary source. Accounting for both pathways provides a definitive measurement of both oxidative stress and inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Usefulness Of Derivative Instruments In Emerging Markets: Turkish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Saatcioglu; Iskender Karagul; Ara G. Volkan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of derivative markets, definitions of derivative investment instruments, development of global derivative markets and the applicability of derivative markets in Turkey, given their economic value added to the Turkish economy. Readers will acquire insight into investing in various investment instruments and hedging against risk. Turkish derivative markets will be described, supportive statistical data will be presented, and readers will be introduced to the de...

  19. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  20. Thinking through cancer risk: characterizing smokers' process of risk determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Shuk, Elyse; Cruz, Gustavo; Ostroff, Jamie

    2005-10-01

    The perception of cancer risk motivates cancer risk reduction behaviors. However, common measurement strategies for cancer risk perceptions, which involve numerical likelihood estimates, do not adequately capture individuals' thoughts and feelings about cancer risk. To guide the development of novel measurement strategies, the authors used semistructured interviews to examine the thought processes used by smokers (N = 15) as they considered their cancer risk. They used grounded theory to guide systematic data coding and develop a heuristic model describing smokers' risk perception process that includes a cognitive, primarily rational process whereby salient personal risk factors for cancer are considered and combined, and an affective/attitudinal process, which shifts risk perceptions either up or down. The model provides a tentative explanation concerning how people hold cancer risk perceptions that diverge from rational assessment of their risks and will be useful in guiding the development of non-numerical measurements strategies for cancer risk perceptions.

  1. Prostaglandin (PG) E3 synthesis elicted by adrenergic stimuli in guinea-pig trachea (GPT) is mediated primarily by B2 adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadel, G.L.; Malik, K.U.; Lew, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and to characterize the type of adrenergic receptor (AR) involved in the production of the major metabolite of this fatty acid. [ 14 C]AA was incubated with GPT-rings and the radiolabelled products were extracted and separated by TLC method. The medium was also assayed for radiolabelled immunoreactive PG's (iPG's) and leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4 by RIA or Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) after exposure to various AR agonists. [ 14 C]AA was incorporated into GPT-rings and metabolized mainly into iPGE2 and smaller amounts into PGF2α. Trace amounts of PGD2 and 6-keto-PGF1α but not LTB4 or LTC4 were detected by RIA and/or EIA. Incubation of GPT rings for 15 minutes with isoproterenol and salbutamol resulted in a significant increase of PGE2 synthesis (optimum conc: 10 -7 , 10 -7 M respectively). In contrast, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phenylnephrine and xylazine (up to 10 -6 M) did not significantly increase PGE2 production. Isoproterenol-induced iPGE2 production was inhibited by a selective β2 antagonist, butoxamine (70%: 10 -7 M, 91%: 10 -6 M) and somewhat reduced by β1 antagonists practolol and metoprolol (30-64%:10 -6 M). These data suggest that isoproterenol induced iPGE2 synthesis is primarily mediated via activation of β2 adrenergic receptor

  2. Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma with primarily periorbital swelling: 7 cases of an atypical clinical manifestation of this rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Jose A; Sangueza, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma (HVL) is a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is usually seen in children of Hispanic or Asian origin. Association between chronic latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in both hydroa vacciniforme (HV) and HVL has been demonstrated and has recently been categorized by the World Health Organization as one of the Epstein Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood. Patients with HVL present with a cutaneous rash characterized by edema, blisters, ulcers, and scars mainly seen on the face and extremities that mimic HV; however, unlike in HV, the lesions tend to be extensive and deeper and are associated with severe scarring, necrosis, and systemic manifestations. We are reporting 7 cases of an unusual clinical variant of HVL with primarily periorbital edema. All of our patients in this series presented with progressive periorbital edema that was accompanied with systemic symptoms including fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy. Most cases were initially misinterpreted as inflammatory processes including cellulitis, arthropod bite reactions, and periorbital lupus erythematosus. The biopsy of these lesions revealed an atypical lymphocytic infiltrate predominantly distributed in the deep dermis and in subcutaneous fat. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed a cytotoxic T-cell (CD8) profile. All cases were associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our study presents a rare clinical variant of HVL with predominant periorbital edema. This variant could potentially be overlooked and misdiagnosed as an inflammatory condition; thus, it needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of periorbital edema in young patients.

  3. High mobility group protein number17 cross-links primarily to histone H2A in the reconstituted HMG 17 - nucleosome core particle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.R.; Yau, P.; Yasuda, H.; Traut, R.R.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The neighbor relationship of lamb thymus High Mobility Group (HMG) protein 17 to native HeLa nucleosome core particle histones in the reconstituted complex has been studied. 125 I-labeled HMG 17 was cross-linking to core histones using the protein-protein cross-linking reagent 2-iminothiolane. Specific cross-linked products were separated on a two-dimensional Triton-acid-urea/SDS gel system, located by autoradiography, excised and quantified. Disulfide bonds in the cross links were then cleaved and the protein constituents were identified by SDS gel electrophoresis. HMG 17 cross-linked primarily to histone H2A while lower levels of cross-linking occurred between HMG 17 and the other histones. In contrast, cross-linking between two HMG 17 molecules bound on the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that H2A comprises part of the HMG 17 binding site but that HMG 17 is sufficiently elongated and mobile to permit cross-linking to the other histones and to a second HMG 17 molecule. These results are in agreement with the current model for the structure of the nucleosome and the proposed binding sites for HMG 17

  4. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Salinity-induced inhibition of growth in the aquatic pteridophyte Azolla microphylla primarily involves inhibition of photosynthetic components and signaling molecules as revealed by proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagela, Preeti; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Mishra, Vagish; Dahuja, Anil; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Tiwari, Budhi Sagar; Abraham, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Salinity stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in the growth and productivity of a plant. Azolla, a symbiotic pteridophyte and potent candidate for biofertilizer due to its nitrogen fixation ability, shows reduced growth and nitrogen fixation during saline stress. To better understand regulatory components involved in salinity-induced physiological changes, in the present study, Azolla microphylla plants were exposed to NaCl (6.74 and 8.61 ds/m) and growth, photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, ion accumulation, and changes in cellular proteome were studied. Maximum dry weight was accumulated in control and untreated plant while a substantial decrease in dry weight was observed in the plants exposed to salinity. Exposure of the organism to different concentrations of salt in hydroponic conditions resulted in differential level of Na + and K + ion accumulation. Comparative analysis of salinity-induced proteome changes in A. microphylla revealed 58 salt responsive proteins which were differentially expressed during the salt exposure. Moreover, 42 % spots among differentially expressed proteins were involved in different signaling events. The identified proteins are involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, and defense. Downregulation of these key metabolic proteins appears to inhibit the growth of A. microphylla in response to salinity. Altogether, the study revealed that in Azolla, increased salinity primarily affected signaling and photosynthesis that in turn leads to reduced biomass.

  6. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Established the Awn as the Major Photosynthetic Organ of the Barley Spike While the Lemma and the Palea Primarily Protect the Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Abebe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The lemma, palea, and awn of a barley ( L. spike are photosynthetic organs that supply the developing seed with carbohydrates. The lemma and palea also enclose the seed and protect it from pathogens and insects. Despite the important roles they play, little information exists on gene expression in these organs that identifies their function. In this study, we compared gene expression among the lemma, palea, awn, and developing seed of barley during grain filling using the Barley1 Genome Array to identify highly expressed genes involved in the primary function of these organs. Hierarchical clustering and mixed model analysis revealed that the lemma and palea have closely related gene expression patterns. In addition, the lemma and palea overexpressed defense-related genes compared with the awn. The awn preferentially expressed genes for photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and reactive oxygen species scavenging. This suggests the lemma and palea are mainly protective organs whereas the awn is primarily a photosynthetic structure. The seed was enriched with genes for the biosynthesis of starch, storage proteins, enzyme inhibitors, and cell proliferation.

  7. Is Walking Capacity in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Primarily Related to Muscle Oxidative Capacity or Maximal Muscle Strength? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Walking capacity is reduced in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS. To develop effective exercise interventions to enhance walking capacity, it is important to determine the impact of factors, modifiable by exercise intervention (maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity, on walking capacity. The purpose of this pilot study is to discriminate between the impact of maximal muscle strength versus muscle oxidative capacity on walking capacity in subjects with MS. Methods. From 24 patients with MS, muscle oxidative capacity was determined by calculation of exercise-onset oxygen uptake kinetics (mean response time during submaximal exercise bouts. Maximal muscle strength (isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was assessed on dynamometer. All subjects completed a 6-minute walking test. Relationships between walking capacity (as a percentage of normal value and muscle strength (of knee flexors and extensors versus muscle oxidative capacity were assessed in multivariate regression analyses. Results. The expanded disability status score (EDSS showed a significant univariate correlation (r=-0.70, P<0.004 with walking capacity. In multivariate regression analyses, EDSS and mean response time, but not muscle strength, were independently related to walking capacity (P<0.05. Conclusions. Walking distance is, next to disability level and not taking neurologic symptoms/deficits into account, primarily related to muscle oxidative capacity in subjects with MS. Additional study is needed to further examine/verify these findings.

  8. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  9. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  10. Molecular Targets of Nutraceuticals Derived from Dietary Spices: Potential Role in Suppression of Inflammation and Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Van Kuiken, Michelle E.; Iyer, Laxmi H.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Sung, Bokyung

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact cancer is primarily a preventable disease, recent statistics indicate cancer will become the number one killer worldwide in 2010. Since certain cancers are more prevalent in the people of some countries than others, suggests the role of lifestyle. For instance cancer incidence among people from the Indian subcontinent, where most spices are consumed, is much lower than that in the Western World. Spices have been consumed for centuries for a variety of purposes—as flavoring agents, colorants, and preservatives. However, there is increasing evidence for the importance of plant-based foods in regular diet to lowering the risk of most chronic diseases, so spices are now emerging as more than just flavor aids, but as agents that can not only prevent but may even treat disease. In this article, we discuss the role of 41 common dietary spices with over 182 spice-derived nutraceuticals for their effects against different stages of tumorigenesis. Besides suppressing inflammatory pathways, spice-derived nutraceuticals can suppress survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. We discuss how spice-derived nutraceuticals mediate such diverse effects and what their molecular targets are. Overall our review suggests “adding spice to your life” may serve as a healthy and delicious way to ward off cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:19491364

  11. Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Sander, Ulrich

    2009-05-01

    Knowledge of the amount of violence tolerated by the human body is essential when developing and implementing pedestrian safety strategies. When estimating the potential benefits of new countermeasures, the pedestrian fatality risk as a function of impact speed is of particular importance. Although this function has been analysed previously, we state that a proper understanding does not exist. Based on the largest in-depth, pedestrian accident study undertaken to date, we derive an improved risk function for adult pedestrians hit by the front of passenger cars. Our results show far lower fatality risks than generally reported in the traffic safety literature. This discrepancy is primarily explained by sample bias towards severe injury accidents in earlier studies. Nevertheless, a strong dependence on impact speed is found, with the fatality risk at 50 km/h being more than twice as high as the risk at 40 km/h and more than five times higher than the risk at 30 km/h. Our findings should have important implications for the development of pedestrian accident countermeasures worldwide. In particular, the scope of future pedestrian safety policies and research should be broadened to include accidents with impact speeds exceeding 50 km/h.

  12. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  13. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs.

  14. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  15. Prostaglandin (PG) E3 synthesis elicted by adrenergic stimuli in guinea-pig trachea (GPT) is mediated primarily by B2 adrenergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, G.L.; Malik, K.U.; Lew, D.B. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and to characterize the type of adrenergic receptor (AR) involved in the production of the major metabolite of this fatty acid. ({sup 14}C)AA was incubated with GPT-rings and the radiolabelled products were extracted and separated by TLC method. The medium was also assayed for radiolabelled immunoreactive PG's (iPG's) and leukotrienes (LT) B4 and C4 by RIA or Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) after exposure to various AR agonists. ({sup 14}C)AA was incorporated into GPT-rings and metabolized mainly into iPGE2 and smaller amounts into PGF2{alpha}. Trace amounts of PGD2 and 6-keto-PGF1{alpha} but not LTB4 or LTC4 were detected by RIA and/or EIA. Incubation of GPT rings for 15 minutes with isoproterenol and salbutamol resulted in a significant increase of PGE2 synthesis (optimum conc: 10{sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}7}M respectively). In contrast, dobutamine, norepinephrine, phenylnephrine and xylazine (up to 10{sup {minus}6}M) did not significantly increase PGE2 production. Isoproterenol-induced iPGE2 production was inhibited by a selective {beta}2 antagonist, butoxamine (70%: 10{sup {minus}7}M, 91%: 10{sup {minus}6}M) and somewhat reduced by {beta}1 antagonists practolol and metoprolol (30-64%:10{sup {minus}6}M). These data suggest that isoproterenol induced iPGE2 synthesis is primarily mediated via activation of {beta}2 adrenergic receptor.

  16. Sitagliptin reduces cardiac apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis primarily by insulin-dependent mechanisms in experimental type-II diabetes. Potential roles of GLP-1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Picatoste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a key process in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, their underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, leading to a lack of therapy. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 enhancer, sitagliptin, reduces hyperglycemia but may also trigger direct effects on the heart. METHODS: Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats developed type-II diabetes and received sitagliptin, an anti-hyperglycemic drug (metformin or vehicle (n=10, each. After cardiac structure and function assessment, plasma and left ventricles were isolated for biochemical studies. Cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts were used for in vitro assays. RESULTS: Untreated GK rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, plasma GLP-1 decrease, and cardiac cell-death, hypertrophy, fibrosis and prolonged deceleration time. Moreover, cardiac pro-apoptotic/necrotic, hypertrophic and fibrotic factors were up-regulated. Importantly, both sitagliptin and metformin lessened all these parameters. In cultured cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, high-concentration of palmitate or glucose induced cell-death, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Interestingly, GLP-1 and its insulinotropic-inactive metabolite, GLP-1(9-36, alleviated these responses. In addition, despite a specific GLP-1 receptor was only detected in cardiomyocytes, GLP-1 isoforms attenuated the pro-fibrotic expression in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, GLP-1 receptor signalling may be linked to PPARδ activation, and metformin may also exhibit anti-apoptotic/necrotic and anti-fibrotic direct effects in cardiac cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sitagliptin, via GLP-1 stabilization, promoted cardioprotection in type-II diabetic hearts primarily by limiting hyperglycemia e hyperlipidemia. However, GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36 promoted survival and anti-hypertrophic/fibrotic effects on cultured cardiac cells, suggesting cell-autonomous cardioprotective actions.

  17. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  18. DEMOS PLUS. Robot for decontaminating soils and cavity walls of the reactor and fuel pools NPP primarily during periods of recharging fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacalle Bayo, J.; Vaquer Perez, J. I.; Rosello Garcia, J. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the robot Plus Demos, equipment that has been developed by GD Energy Services from the redesign and development of robot Demos show, which took place on last year. This evolution has given the team greater capabilities, highlighting the decontamination of vertical surfaces. The main objective pursued is to minimize operational doses to workers operating in cavity as well as the risk of surface contamination during them. (Author)

  19. Pregnant women in Timis County, Romania are exposed primarily to low-level (<10 μg/L) arsenic through residential drinking water consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Neamtiu, Iulia; Bloom, Michael S.; Gati, Gabriel; Goessler, Walter; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Braeuer, Simone; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Baciu, Calin; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Excessive arsenic content in drinking water poses health risks to millions of people worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater exceeding the 10 μg/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is characteristic for intermediate-depth aquifers over large areas of the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. In western Romania, near the border with Hungary, Arad, Bihor, and Timis counties use drinking water coming partially or entirely from iAs contaminated aqui...

  20. Correlation between conventional MR imaging combined with diffusion-weighted imaging and histopathologic findings in eyes primarily enucleated for advanced retinoblastoma. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yanfen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shanxi Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shanxi Province Cancer Hospital, Taiyuan (China); Luo, Ran; Liu, Huanhuan; Zhang, Caiyuan; Zhang, Zhongyang; Wang, Dengbin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ruifen [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2018-02-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of conventional MRI in detecting tumour invasion of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma and to correlate ADC values with high-risk prognostic parameters. The sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and accuracies of MRI in detecting tumour-extent parameters of 63 retinoblastomas were determined. Furthermore, ADC values were correlated with high-risk prognostic parameters. MRI detected postlaminar optic nerve with a sensitivity of 73.3% (95% CI 44.9-92.2%) and a specificity of 89.6% (77.3-96.5%), while the specificity for choroidal invasion was only 31.8% (13.9-54.9%). Likewise, MRI failed to predicted early optic nerve invasion in terms of low sensitivity and PPV. In contrast, scleral and ciliary body invasion could be correctly excluded with high NPV. ADC values were significantly lower in patients with undifferentiated tumours, large tumour size, as with optic nerve and scleral invasion (all p < 0.05). However, no correlation was found between ADC values and the degree of choroidal or ciliary body infiltration. Additionally, ADC values were negatively correlated with Ki-67 index (r = -0.62, P = 0.002). Conventional MRI has some limitations in reliably predicting microscopic infiltration, with the diagnostic efficiency showing room for improvement, whereas ADC values correlated well with certain high-risk prognostic parameters for retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  1. Financial derivatives in power marketing: The basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, V.C.; Ghosh, K.

    1996-01-01

    With the ongoing changes in the power industry worldwide, electricity is beginning to be traded like other commodities. The use of financial derivative instruments in power markets is on the rise. The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of these derivatives in risk management which is vital for survival in the increasingly competitive industry. Starting with the familiar cash markets, the paper discusses the basics of futures, options, and swap markets as applied to electric energy trading

  2. Habitat selection by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is primarily driven by avoidance of human activity during day and prey availability during night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filla, Marc; Premier, Joseph; Magg, Nora; Dupke, Claudia; Khorozyan, Igor; Waltert, Matthias; Bufka, Luděk; Heurich, Marco

    2017-08-01

    The greatest threat to the protected Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx ) in Central Europe is human-induced mortality. As the availability of lynx prey often peaks in human-modified areas, lynx have to balance successful prey hunting with the risk of encounters with humans. We hypothesized that lynx minimize this risk by adjusting habitat choices to the phases of the day and over seasons. We predicted that (1) due to avoidance of human-dominated areas during daytime, lynx range use is higher at nighttime, that (2) prey availability drives lynx habitat selection at night, whereas high cover, terrain inaccessibility, and distance to human infrastructure drive habitat selection during the day, and that (3) habitat selection also differs between seasons, with altitude being a dominant factor in winter. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed telemetry data (GPS, VHF) of 10 lynx in the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem (Germany, Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2013 using generalized additive mixed models and considering various predictor variables. Night ranges exceeded day ranges by more than 10%. At night, lynx selected open habitats, such as meadows, which are associated with high ungulate abundance. By contrast, during the day, lynx selected habitats offering dense understorey cover and rugged terrain away from human infrastructure. In summer, land-cover type greatly shaped lynx habitats, whereas in winter, lynx selected lower altitudes. We concluded that open habitats need to be considered for more realistic habitat models and contribute to future management and conservation (habitat suitability, carrying capacity) of Eurasian lynx in Central Europe.

  3. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  4. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  5. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....

  6. Decision support for utility environmental risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balson, W.E.; Wilson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of decision support methods developed and applied by Decision Focus Incorporated to help utility personnel manage current environmental problems. This work has been performed for the Environmental Risk Analysis Program of EPRI's Environment Division, and also for a number of electric utilities across the country. These are two distinct types of decision support software tools that have been created: economic risk management and environmental risk analysis. These types differ primarily in the identification of who will make a decision. Economic risk management tools are directed primarily at decisions made by electric utilities. Environmental risk analysis tools are directed primarily at decisions made by legislative or regulatory agencies, about which a utility may wish to comment

  7. Commodity risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Till

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the practical issues involved in applying a disciplined risk management methodology to commodity futures trading. Accordingly, the paper shows how to apply methodologies derived from both conventional asset management and hedge fund management to futures trading. The article also discusses some of the risk management issues that are unique to leveraged futures trading.

  8. Pregnant women in Timis County, Romania are exposed primarily to low-level (<10 μg/L) arsenic through residential drinking water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamtiu, Iulia; Bloom, Michael S.; Gati, Gabriel; Goessler, Walter; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Braeuer, Simone; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Baciu, Calin; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Gurzau, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Excessive arsenic content in drinking water poses health risks to millions of people worldwide. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater exceeding the 10 μg/l maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is characteristic for intermediate-depth aquifers over large areas of the Pannonian Basin in Central Europe. In western Romania, near the border with Hungary, Arad, Bihor, and Timis counties use drinking water coming partially or entirely from iAs contaminated aquifers. In nearby Arad and Bihor counties, more than 45,000 people are exposed to iAs over 10 μg/l via public drinking water sources. However, comparable data are unavailable for Timis County. To begin to address this data gap, we determined iAs in 124 public and private Timis County drinking water sources, including wells and taps, used by pregnant women participating in a case-control study of spontaneous loss. Levels in water sources were low overall (median = 3.0; range = < 0.5–175 μg/l), although higher in wells (median = 3.1, range = < 0.5–175) than in community taps (median = 2.7, range = < 0.5–36.4). In a subsample of 20 control women we measured urine biomarkers of iAs exposure, including iAs (arsenite and arsenate), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and methylarsonic acid (MMA). Median values were higher among 10 women using iAs contaminated drinking water sources compared to 10 women using uncontaminated sources for urine total iAs (6.6 vs. 5.0 μg/l, P = 0.24) and DMA (5.5 vs. 4.2 μg/l, P = 0.31). The results suggested that the origin of urine total iAs (r = 0.35, P = 0.13) and DMA (r = 0.31, P = 0.18) must have been not only iAs in drinking-water but also some other source. Exposure of pregnant women to arsenic via drinking water in Timis County appears to be lower than for surrounding counties; however, it deserves a more definitive investigation as to its origin and the regional distribution of its risk potential. PMID:25697081

  9. Findings of multiple HPV genotypes in cervical carcinoma are associated with poor cancer-specific survival in a Swedish cohort of cervical cancer primarily treated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliff, Malin; Sorbe, Bengt; Mordhorst, Louise Bohr; Helenius, Gisela; Karlsson, Mats G; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella

    2018-04-10

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common cancers in women and virtually all cases of CC are a result of a persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). For disease detected in early stages there is curing treatment but when diagnosed late with recurring disease and metastasis there are limited possibilities. Here we evaluate HPV impact on treatment resistance and metastatic disease progression. Prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in a Swedish CC patient cohort (n=209) was evaluated, as well as HPV influence on patient prognosis. Tumor samples suitable for analysis (n=204) were genotyped using two different real-time PCR methods. HPV16 variant analysis was made using pyrosequencing. Results showed that HPV prevalence in the total series was 93%. Of the HPV-positive samples, 13% contained multiple infections, typically with two high-risk HPV together. Primary cure rate for the complete series was 95%. Recurrence rate of the complete series was 28% and distant recurrences were most frequent (20%). Patients with tumors containing multiple HPV-strains and particularly HPV genotypes belonging to the alpha 7 and 9 species together had a significantly higher rate of distant tumor recurrences and worse cancer-specific survival rate.

  10. Alcohol Use and Mental Health Conditions Among Black College Males: Do Those Attending Postsecondary Minority Institutions Fare Better Than Those at Primarily White Institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Jackson, Zachary; Watkins, Daphne C; Goodwill, Janelle R; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2017-07-01

    While there is a sizeable body of research examining the association between alcohol use and mental health conditions among college students, there are sparse investigations specifically focusing on these associations among Black college students. This is concerning given Black college students face different stressors compared with their non-Black peers. Black males appear especially at risk, exhibiting increased susceptibility to mental health issues and drinking in greater quantities and more frequently than Black females. This investigation examined the association between alcohol consumption and mental health conditions among Black men attending institutions of higher education in the United States and sought to determine differences between Black men attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) compared with those attending postsecondary minority institutions. Final sample included 416 Black men, 323 of which attended a PWI. Data were from the National College Health Assessment. Black men attending a PWI reported significantly greater levels of alcohol consumption and significantly more mental health conditions. Attendance at a minority-serving institution was associated with fewer mental health conditions among Black men. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings and conduct culturally sensitive and gender-specific research examining why Black men at PWIs report greater alcohol consumption and more mental health conditions than their peers attending postsecondary minority institutions.

  11. RISK PERCEPTION AND DIFFUSION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most recent NHANES data reveals that approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily bec...

  12. Undesired Plant-Derived Components in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Abraham, Klaus; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Among the various chemical compounds, the class of natural plant-derived substances in the modern food chain is generating increasing concern. Adverse effects encountered may be various and pose risks of acute, subchronic, or chronic toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity may be

  13. FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES - MEANINGS BEYOND SUBPRIME CRISIS STIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Derivatives are designed as complex financial instruments and their main aim is to manage the risk associated with the underlying asset, in order to ensure against fluctuations in value, or to profit from periods of inactivity, instability or decline. In recent years financial derivatives have experienced a fulminant development and also they have been perceived as an effective lever of the modern economy. The subprime crisis was triggered by a quite significant financial infrastructure glitch, which coalesced around certain factors influence, such as : highly permissive regulation of financial markets, speculative bubbles, underperforming risk management, liquidity injections and structural imbalances. Despite the fact that is a innovative segment and quite difficult affordable as understanding level of the operation mechanisms, financial derivatives were only the tool triggering this global dimension crisis.

  14. Induction of the unfolded protein response by cigarette smoke is primarily an activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein mediated process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraghty P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Geraghty, Alison Wallace, Jeanine M D'ArmientoDepartment of Medicine, Divisions of Molecular and Pulmonary Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAPurpose: Cigarette smoke is the major risk factor associated with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Recent studies propose a link between endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and emphysema, demonstrated by increased ER stress markers under smoking conditions. Here, we investigate whether cigarette smoke-induced ER stress is cell specific and correlates with acute and chronic cigarette smoke exposure.Methods: Gene and protein expression changes in human primary lung cell cultures following cigarette smoke extract (CSE exposure were monitored by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Mice and guinea pigs were exposed to cigarette smoke and ER stress markers examined in whole lung homogenates. Inflammatory cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 10 days smoke exposed mice were also examined.Results: Cigarette smoke induced a trend increase in the ER stress response through an activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 mediated induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP in primary small airway epithelial cells. Bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages responded similarly to CSE. Wild-type mice and guinea pigs exposed to acute levels of cigarette smoke exhibited increased levels of CHOP but not at significant levels. However, after long-term chronic cigarette smoke exposure, CHOP expression was reduced. Interestingly, inflammatory cells from smoke exposed mice had a significant increase in CHOP/ATF4 expression.Conclusion: A trend increase in CHOP levels appear in multiple human lung cell types following acute cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In vivo, inflammatory cells, predominately macrophages, demonstrate significant cigarette smoke-induced ER stress. Early induction of CHOP in cigarette smoke may play a pivotal role in early

  15. Impaired compensation to femoral artery ligation in diet-induced obese mice is primarily mediated via suppression of collateral growth by Nox2 and p47phox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStasi, Matthew R; Mund, Julie A; Bohlen, H Glenn; Miller, Steven J; Ingram, David A; Dalsing, Michael C; Unthank, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in impaired vascular compensation to arterial occlusion that occurs in the presence of risk factors associated with oxidative stress. Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice characterized by multiple comorbidities including diabetes and hyperlipidemia were used as a preclinical model. Arterial occlusion was induced by distal femoral artery ligation in lean and DIO mice. Proximal collateral arteries were identified as the site of major (∼70%) vascular resistance to calf perfusion by distal arterial pressures, which decreased from ∼80 to ∼30 mmHg with ligation in both lean and DIO mice. Two weeks after ligation, significant vascular compensation occurred in lean but not DIO mice as evidenced by increased perfusion (147 ± 48% vs. 49 ± 29%) and collateral diameter (151 ± 30% vs. 44 ± 17%). Vascular mRNA expression of p22(phox), Nox2, Nox4, and p47(phox) were all increased in DIO mice. Treatment of DIO mice with either apocynin or Nox2ds-tat or with whole body ablation of either Nox2 or p47(phox) ameliorated the impairment in both collateral growth and hindlimb perfusion. Multiparametric flow cytometry analysis demonstrated elevated levels of circulating monocytes in DIO mice without impaired mobilization and demargination after femoral artery ligation. These results establish collateral resistance as the major limitation to calf perfusion in this preclinical model, demonstrate than monocyte mobilization and demarginatin is not suppressed, implicate Nox2-p47(phox) interactions in the impairment of vascular compensation to arterial occlusion in DIO mice, and suggest that selective Nox component suppression/inhibition may be effective as either primary or adjuvant therapy for claudicants. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari-Piri Esmaeil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation , where and are the mappings on Banach algebra . We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation , where .

  17. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  18. Investigation - Derived Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.; Anderson, R.

    1998-06-01

    The Investigation-Derived Waste Program is a software application that was developed to identify the groundwater monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site that require containerization and treatment for purge water generated during sampling

  19. PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother's consumption of conta...

  20. Cardiovascular risk age: concepts and practicalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-06-01

    A young person with many risk factors may have the same level of risk as an older person with no risk factors. Thus a high-risk 40-year-old may have a risk age of 60 years or more. The aim of the study was to derive a generic equation for risk age, construct risk age charts, and explore the hypothesis that risk age is similar regardless of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point used.

  1. Development of Derivatives Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčochová, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to summarise the theoretical principles, concepts and considerations pertaining to accounting for and reporting of derivatives and to describe and analyse the development of major accounting standards dealing with related issues. Sections 1 and 2 provide a basic overview of derivative instruments'categorisation, mechanics, valuation and uses. Section 3 studies the principles that ensure the provision of useful financial information, with specific focus on financial instrument...

  2. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  3. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  4. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective...... and injective modules are replaced by Gorenstein projective and Gorenstein injective ones, respectively. Furthermore, we derive the tensor product 􀀀 R 􀀀 using Gorenstein at modules....

  5. Liquidity effects and FFA returns in the international shipping derivatives market

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Amir H.; Kappou, K; Tsouknidis, Dimitris; Visvikis, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the impact of liquidity risk on freight derivatives returns. The Amihud liquidity ratio and bid–ask spreads are utilized to assess the existence of liquidity risk in the freight derivatives market. Other macroeconomic variables are used to control for market risk. Results indicate that liquidity risk is priced and both liquidity measures have a significant role in determining freight derivatives returns. Consistent with expectations, both liquidity measures are found to hav...

  6. Regulatory and management requirements for investigation-derived waste generated during environmental investigations and cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clary, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental cleanup efforts often result in the generation of waste materials, such as soil samples, drill cuttings, decontamination water, drilling muds, personal protective equipment, and disposable sampling equipment. The management of associated with site characterization and remediation issues is a complicated issue at many CERCLA/RCRA facilities throughout the country, primarily because of the federal hazardous waste regulations. The hazardous waste regulations were intended to apply to the active generation of hazardous waste at industrial facilities and do not often make sense when applied to sites con by poor disposal practices of the past. In order to manage investigation derived waste in a more rational, logical manner, EPA issued guidance on the management of investigation-derived waste (IDW) at Superfund sites in January, 1992. The basic intent of the EPA guidance is to provide Superfund Site Managers with options for handling, managing, and disposing of IDW. The second part of this paper provides a detailed analysis of current IDW practices at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and Superfund sites across the nation. Some sites, particularly the DOE facilities, with more complicated on-going cleanup efforts have developed site-specific written procedures for managing IDW, often incorporating risk assessment. In come cases, these site-specific policies are going farther than the current EPA and Colorado policies in terms of conservatively managing IDW

  7. Synthesizing Risk from Summary Evidence Across Multiple Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Ian; Colditz, Graham A; Steele, Russell J

    2018-07-01

    Although meta-analyses provide summary effect estimates that help advise patient care, patients often want to compare their overall health to the general population. The Harvard Cancer Risk Index was published in 2004 and uses risk ratio estimates and prevalence estimates from original studies across many risk factors to provide an answer to this question. However, the published version of the formula only uses dichotomous risk factors and its derivation was not provided. The objective of this brief report was to provide the derivation of a more general form of the equation that allows the incorporation of risk factors with three or more levels.

  8. Is risk analysis scientific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-01-01

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  10. Harmful Chemicals in Soil and Risk Assessment of an Abandoned Open Dumpsite in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of pollutants in soil samples collected in and around a dumpsite in Heze, Shandong, China, were investigated, and the potential ecological and health risks of these pollutants were assessed. Seventeen soil samples from five different locations were analysed for pollution characteristics, and the target pollutants included inorganic pollutants and heavy metals as well as volatile organic compounds/semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs. Results showed that the mean concentration level of each pollutant from the interior area was relatively higher than that from the boundary area of the dumpsite. Inorganic pollutants and heavy metals were detected in all of the soil samples. According to potential ecological risk assessment with environmental background values of Shandong as screening values, heavy metals in majority of the samples pose low ecological risk to the ecosystem except Hg. Hg poses a considerable or very high risk because of its high levels of accumulation. In consideration of future land use pattern, human health risks derived from environmental exposure to heavy metals were assessed. Carcinogenic risk and noncarcinogenic hazards for adults are acceptable, while noncarcinogenic hazards for children exceed the safety threshold. The health risks are primarily attributed to oral exposure to As and Cr.

  11. Evaluation of a constipation risk assessment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernike, W; Henderson, A

    1999-06-01

    This project was undertaken in order to evaluate the utility of a constipation risk assessment scale and the accompanying bowel management protocol. The risk assessment scale was primarily introduced to teach and guide staff in managing constipation when caring for patients. The intention of the project was to reduce the incidence of constipation in patients during their admission to hospital.

  12. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlmann, Ralf; Horvath, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage) assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems. PMID:26195922

  13. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlmann, Ralf; Horvath, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage) assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  14. Risks, risk assessment and risk competence in toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahlmann, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the toxic effects of xenobiotics requires sound knowledge of physiology and biochemistry. The often described lack of understanding pharmacology/toxicology is therefore primarily caused by the general absence of the necessary fundamental knowledge. Since toxic effects depend on exposure (or dosage assessing the risks arising from toxic substances also requires quantitative reasoning. Typically public discussions nearly always neglect quantitative aspects and laypersons tend to disregard dose-effect-relationships. One of the main reasons for such disregard is the fact that exposures often occur at extremely low concentrations that can only be perceived intellectually but not by the human senses. However, thresholds in the low exposure range are often scientifically disputed. At the same time, ignorance towards known dangers is wide-spread. Thus, enhancing the risk competence of laypersons will have to be initially restricted to increasing the awareness of existing problems.

  15. Price models for oil derivates in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemac, F.; Saver, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Slovenia, a law is currently applied according to which any change in the price of oil derivatives is subject to the Governmental approval. Following the target of getting closer to the European Union, the necessity has arisen of finding ways for the introduction of liberalization or automated approach to price modifications depending on oscillations of oil derivative prices on the world market and the rate of exchange of the American dollar. It is for this reason that at the Agency for Energy Restructuring we made a study for the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development regarding this issue. We analysed the possible models for the formation of oil derivative prices for Slovenia. Based on the assessment of experiences of primarily the west European countries, we proposed three models for the price formation for Slovenia. In future, it is expected that the Government of the Republic of Slovenia will make a selection of one of the proposed models to be followed by enforcement of price liberalization. The paper presents two representative models for price formation as used in Austria and Portugal. In the continuation the authors analyse the application of three models that they find suitable for the use in Slovenia. (author)

  16. Mexico; Financial Sector Assessment Program Update: Technical Note: Derivatives Market: Overview and Potential Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This technical note provides an overview of Mexico’s derivatives markets, and describes concisely the derivatives regulatory framework and risk management practices in financial institutions active in these markets. The most important derivatives market in Mexico is the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market, which is fully integrated with the global derivatives market. The origin of the OTC derivatives market can be traced back to the 1994 Mexican crisis that forced Mexico to abandon its ...

  17. Venous Thrombosis Risk after Cast Immobilization of the Lower Extremity: Derivation and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Score, L-TRiP(cast), in Three Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Banne; van Adrichem, Raymond A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Baglin, Trevor; Rosendaal, Frits R; le Cessie, Saskia; Cannegieter, Suzanne C

    2015-11-01

    Guidelines and clinical practice vary considerably with respect to thrombosis prophylaxis during plaster cast immobilization of the lower extremity. Identifying patients at high risk for the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) would provide a basis for considering individual thromboprophylaxis use and planning treatment studies. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the predictive value of genetic and environmental risk factors, levels of coagulation factors, and other biomarkers for the occurrence of VTE after cast immobilization of the lower extremity and (2) to develop a clinical prediction tool for the prediction of VTE in plaster cast patients. We used data from a large population-based case-control study (MEGA study, 4,446 cases with VTE, 6,118 controls without) designed to identify risk factors for a first VTE. Cases were recruited from six anticoagulation clinics in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2004; controls were their partners or individuals identified via random digit dialing. Identification of predictor variables to be included in the model was based on reported associations in the literature or on a relative risk (odds ratio) > 1.2 and p ≤ 0.25 in the univariate analysis of all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression, a full prediction model was created. In addition to the full model (all variables), a restricted model (minimum number of predictors with a maximum predictive value) and a clinical model (environmental risk factors only, no blood draw or assays required) were created. To determine the discriminatory power in patients with cast immobilization (n = 230), the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by means of a receiver operating characteristic. Validation was performed in two other case-control studies of the etiology of VTE: (1) the THE-VTE study, a two-center, population-based case-control study (conducted in Leiden, the Netherlands, and Cambridge, United Kingdom) with 784 cases and 523 controls

  18. A pancreaticoduodenectomy risk model derived from 8575 cases from a national single-race population (Japanese) using a web-based data entry system: the 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates for pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Wataru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Hirai, Ichiro; Kenjo, Akira; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Baba, Hideo; Tomita, Naohiro; Nakagoe, Tohru; Sugihara, Kenichi; Mori, Masaki

    2014-04-01

    To create a mortality risk model after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) using a Web-based national database system. PD is a major gastroenterological surgery with relatively high mortality. Many studies have reported factors to analyze short-term outcomes. After initiation of National Clinical Database, approximately 1.2 million surgical cases from more than 3500 Japanese hospitals were collected through a Web-based data entry system. After data cleanup, 8575 PD patients (mean age, 68.2 years) recorded in 2011 from 1167 hospitals were analyzed using variables and definitions almost identical to those of American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The 30-day postoperative and in-hospital mortality rates were 1.2% and 2.8% (103 and 239 patients), respectively. Thirteen significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality were identified: age, respiratory distress, activities of daily living within 30 days before surgery, angina, weight loss of more than 10%, American Society of Anesthesiologists class of greater than 3, Brinkman index of more than 400, body mass index of more than 25 kg/m, white blood cell count of more than 11,000 cells per microliter, platelet count of less than 120,000 per microliter, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio of more than 1.1, activated partial thromboplastin time of more than 40 seconds, and serum creatinine levels of more than 3.0 mg/dL. Five variables, including male sex, emergency surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bleeding disorders, and serum urea nitrogen levels of less than 8.0 mg/dL, were independent variables in the 30-day mortality group. The overall PD complication rate was 40.0%. Grade B and C pancreatic fistulas in the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula occurred in 13.2% cases. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates for pancreatic cancer were significantly lower than those for nonpancreatic cancer. We conducted the reported risk stratification study for PD

  19. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    and found them to be effective against Plasmodium falciparum under in vitro conditions. Further, we selected four most active derivatives 1m, 1o, 2c and 2j and evaluated their antimalarial potential against Plasmodium berghei in vivo. These 4-aminoquinolines cured BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei......Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives...... for structure activity relationship to find lead molecules for treating multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax....

  20. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    . With the existence of a liquid market for derivatives with variance as underlying, such as VIX options, VIX futures and a well-developed over-the-counter market for options on variance swaps, it is important to consider models that are able to fit these markets while consistently pricing vanilla options...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  1. The visual communication of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, I M; Hollands, J G

    1999-01-01

    This paper 1) provides reasons why graphics should be effective aids to communicate risk; 2) reviews the use of visuals, especially graphical displays, to communicate risk; 3) discusses issues to consider when designing graphs to communicate risk; and 4) provides suggestions for future research. Key articles and materials were obtained from MEDLINE(R) and PsychInfo(R) databases, from reference article citations, and from discussion with experts in risk communication. Research has been devoted primarily to communicating risk magnitudes. Among the various graphical displays, the risk ladder appears to be a promising tool for communicating absolute and relative risks. Preliminary evidence suggests that people understand risk information presented in histograms and pie charts. Areas that need further attention include 1) applying theoretical models to the visual communication of risk, 2) testing which graphical displays can be applied best to different risk communication tasks (e.g., which graphs best convey absolute or relative risks), 3) communicating risk uncertainty, and 4) testing whether the lay public's perceptions and understanding of risk varies by graphical format and whether the addition of graphical displays improves comprehension substantially beyond numerical or narrative translations of risk and, if so, by how much. There is a need to ascertain the extent to which graphics and other visuals enhance the public's understanding of disease risk to facilitate decision-making and behavioral change processes. Nine suggestions are provided to help achieve these ends.

  2. Chemotherapy and novel therapeutics before radical prostatectomy for high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eugene K; Eastham, James A

    2015-05-01

    Although both surgery and radiation are potential curative options for men with clinically localized prostate cancer, a significant proportion of men with high-risk and locally advanced disease will demonstrate biochemical and potentially clinical progression of their disease. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy before radical prostatectomy (RP) is a logical strategy to improve treatment outcomes for men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer. Furthermore, delivery of chemotherapy and other systemic agents before RP affords an opportunity to explore the efficacy of these agents with pathologic end points. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primarily with docetaxel (with or without androgen deprivation therapy), has demonstrated feasibility and safety in men undergoing RP, but no study to date has established the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapies. Other novel agents, such as those targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, clusterin, and immunomodulatory therapeutics, are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The combinatorial derivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Protasov

    2013-09-01

    $\\Delta(A=\\{g\\in G:|gA\\cap A|=\\infty\\}$. The mapping $\\Delta:\\mathcal{P}_G\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_G$, $A\\mapsto\\Delta(A$, is called a combinatorial derivation and can be considered as an analogue of the topological derivation $d:\\mathcal{P}_X\\rightarrow\\mathcal{P}_X$, $A\\mapsto A^d$, where $X$ is a topological space and $A^d$ is the set of all limit points of $A$. Content: elementary properties, thin and almost thin subsets, partitions, inverse construction and $\\Delta$-trajectories,  $\\Delta$ and $d$.

  4. Commodity derivatives pricing with inventory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Dziubinski, Matt P.

    We introduce tractable models for commodity derivatives pricing with inventory and volatility eects, and illustrate with applications to the oil market. We contribute to the existing literature in several respects. First, whereas the previous literature uses futures data for investigating...... the relationship between inventory and volatility, we use the information available in options traded on futures. Second, performance assessment in the previous literature has primarily evolved around explaining moments of data or forecasting prices of futures. Instead, we asses the performance of our model...... by considering both the ability of explaining prices in-sample and out-of-sample - assessing both the pricing-performance and the hedging-performance of the models. Third, we model the futures surface rather than the spot price process, and from the no-arbitrage relationship between spot and futures prices we...

  5. Managing power risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudd, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Issues regarding the management of financial risks in the electric power market were discussed. The nature of the risk was defined for electricity producers, local utilities, traders/dealers, and brokers, each of which are exposed to different types of risks with the exception of credit risk, which is common to all. The main features of options, swaps, CFDs, bilateral financial contracts, futures contracts and the terms of the NYMEX electricity contract were outlined. Basic derivative strategies, the role of the broker, the elements of emissions trading, and trading strategies for consumers were also explained. 3 fig

  6. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives...

  7. Metal borohydrides and derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paskevicius, Mark; Haarh Jepsen, Lars; Schouwink, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    major classes of metal borohydride derivatives have also been discovered: anion-substituted compounds where the complex borohydride anion, BH4 -, is replaced by another anion, i.e. a halide or amide ion; and metal borohydrides modified with neutral molecules, such as NH3, NH3BH3, N2H4, etc. Here, we...

  8. Superstability of Generalized Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Ansari-Piri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the superstability of the functional equation f(xy=xf(y+g(xy, where f and g are the mappings on Banach algebra A. We have also proved the superstability of generalized derivations associated to the linear functional equation f(γx+βy=γf(x+βf(y, where γ,β∈ℂ.

  9. INTEREST RATE DERIVATIVES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    SLOBODAN CEROVIC; MARINA PEPIC

    2011-01-01

    Financial derivatives (interest rate futures, options and swaps) are a very simple way to minimize interest rate risk and therefore are extremely popular. The value of interest rate derivatives transactions in the world is increasing dramatically. Unfortunately, this is not the case with developing countries in Europe. Although significantly increased in the last decade, interest rate derivatives markets in developing countries are still in nascent stage. In most developing countries still t...

  10. Derivative instruments a guide to theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The authors concentrate on the practicalities of each class of derivative, so that readers can apply the techniques in practice. Product descriptions are supported by detailed spreadsheet models, illustrating the techniques employed, some which are available on the accompanying companion website. This book is ideal reading for derivatives traders, salespersons, financial engineers, risk managers, and other professionals involved to any extent in the application and analysis of OTC derivatives.* Combines theory with valuation to provide overall coverage of the topic area* Pr

  11. Epidemiology and risk factors for faecal extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage derived from residents of seven nursing homes in western Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S-Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y-L; Wang, Y-C; Xiao, S-Z; Gu, F-F; Guo, X-K; Ni, Y-X; Han, L-Z

    2016-03-01

    Nursing homes (NHs) have been implicated as significant reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant organisms causing severe infectious disease. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of, and risk factors for, faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in seven NHs in Shanghai between March 2014 and May 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and polymerase chain reaction were used to detect genes coding for ESBLs and carbapenemases. NH records at individual-resident level and facility level were examined for potential risk factors. Four hundred and fifty-seven Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected of which 183 (46·92%) were colonized by ESBL-E. CTX-M enzymes (198/200, 99%) predominated, with CTX-M-14 (84/200, 42%) the most common types. Two carbapenemase producers harboured blaKPC-2. Resistance rates to carbapenems, TZP, AK, FOS, CL and TGC were low. History of invasive procedures [odds ratio (OR) 2·384, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·318-4·310, P = 0·004], narrow-spectrum cephalosporins (OR 1·635, 95% CI 1·045-2·558, P = 0·031) and broad-spectrum cephalosporins (OR 3·276, 95% CI 1·278-8·398, P = 0·014) were independently associated with ESBL-E carriage. In conclusion, NH residents have a very high prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-E. Continuous and active surveillance is important, as are prudent infection control measures and antibiotic use to prevent and control the spread of these antibiotic-resistant strains.

  12. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  13. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors...

  14. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  15. The carcinogenic risks of low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1991-08-01

    This report presents a discussion on risk from ionizing radiations to human populations. Important new information on human beings has come mainly from further follow-up of existing epidemiological studies, notably the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the ankylosing spondylitis patients; from new epidemiological surveys, such as the patients treated for cancer of the uterine cervix; and from combined surveys, including workers exposed in underground mines. Since the numerous and complex differences among the different study populations introduce factors that influence the risk estimates derived in ways that are not completely understood, it is not clear how to combine the different risk estimates obtained. These factors involve complex biological and physical variables distributed over time. Because such carcinogenic effects occur too infrequently to be demonstrated at low doses, the risks of low-dose radiation can be estimated only by interpolation from observations at high doses on the basis of theoretical concepts, mathematical models and available empirical evidence, primarily the epidemiological surveys of large populations exposed to ionizing radiation. In spite of a considerable amount of research, only recently has there has been efforts to apply the extensive laboratory data in animals to define the dose-incidence relationship in the low dose region. There simply are insufficient data in the epidemiological studies of large human populations to estimate risk coefficients directly from exposure to low doses. The risk estimates for the carcinogenic effects of radiation have been, in the past, somewhat low and reassessment of the numerical values is now necessary

  16. Risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Mcmanus, John

    2009-01-01

    Few projects are completed on time, on budget, and to their original requirement or specifications. Focusing on what project managers need to know about risk in the pursuit of delivering projects, Risk Management covers key components of the risk management process and the software development process, as well as best practices for risk identification, risk planning, and risk analysis. The book examines risk planning, risk analysis responses to risk, the tracking and modelling of risks, intel...

  17. Derived enriched uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, E.

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact on the uranium market of highly enriched uranium from nuclear weapons dismantling in the Russian Federation and the USA is analyzed. Uranium supply, conversion, and enrichment factors are outlined for each country; inventories are also listed. The enrichment component and conversion components are expected to cause little disruption to uranium markets. The uranium component of Russian derived enriched uranium hexafluoride is unresolved; US legislation places constraints on its introduction into the US market

  18. Computation of Mie derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bowler, Nicola

    2013-07-10

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the derivatives of Mie scattering coefficients with respect to the electrical radius of the spherical scattering particle, and to the relative permittivity and permeability of both the particle and the surrounding medium. Their corresponding approximate expressions are developed to avoid numerical overflow based on the logarithmic derivative of Riccati-Bessel functions. The analytical expressions have been verified by comparing their results with those calculated by analytical expressions developed by Mathematica. Compared with the numerical derivative, the analytical expressions and approximate expressions show a higher accuracy and are 2.0 and 2.8 times, respectively, faster in the case of a single magnetodielectric sphere. Generally, for spheres with an electrical radius in a large range, the approximate expressions can yield acceptable accuracy and computation time up to a high order. This work can be used in the design of nonmetallic metamaterials, and in the retrieval of aerosol properties from remote sensing data. An example calculation is given for the design of an optical, all-dielectric, mu-negative metamaterial consisting of a simple cubic array of tellurium nanoparticles.

  19. Carnitine derivatives: clinical usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-03-01

    Carnitine and its derivatives are natural substances involved in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field in relation to the molecular mechanisms. The pool of different carnitine derivatives is formed by acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), and isovaleryl-carnitine. ALC may have a preferential effect on the brain tissue. ALC represents a compound of great interest for its wide clinical application in various neurological disorders: it may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, chronic fatigue syndrome, peripheral neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment associated with various conditions. PLC has been demonstrated to replenish the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by the propionyl-CoA moiety, a greater affinity for the sarcolemmal carrier, peripheral vasodilator activity, a greater positive inotropism, and more rapid entry into myocytes. Most studies of the therapeutic use of PLC are focused on the prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertrophic heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease. ALC and PLC are considered well tolerated without significant side-effects. A number of therapeutic effects possibly come from the interaction of carnitine and its derivatives with the elements of cellular membranes.

  20. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  1. High risk of adrenal toxicity of N1-desoxy quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives and the protection of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) in the inhibition of the expression of aldosterone synthetase in H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Chunhui; Ihsan, Awais; Luo, Xun; Guo, Pu; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N1-QCT, N1-MEQ and N1-CYA showed more adrenal toxicity than other metabolites. • N1-desoxy QdNOs reduced expression of CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and transcription factors. • OPC increased expression of transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. • OPC reduced adrenal toxicity induced by N1-desoxy QdNOs. • The results provided a mechanism of adrenal damage caused by QdNO metabolites. - Abstract: Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (QdNOs) with a wide range of biological activities are used in animal husbandry worldwide. It was found that QdNOs significantly inhibited the gene expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, the key aldosterone synthases, and thus reduced aldosterone levels. However, whether the metabolites of QdNOs have potential adrenal toxicity and the role of oxidative stress in the adrenal toxicity of QdNOs remains unclear. The relatively new QdNOs, cyadox (CYA), mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT) and their metabolites, were selected for elucidation of their toxic mechanisms in H295R cells. Interestingly, the results showed that the main toxic metabolites of QCT, MEQ, and CYA were their N1-desoxy metabolites, which were more harmful than other metabolites and evoked dose and time-dependent cell damage on adrenal cells and inhibited aldosterone production. Gene and protein expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as NURR1, NGFIB, CREB, SF-1, and ATF-1, were down regulated by N1-desoxy QdNOs. The natural inhibitors of oxidant stress, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), could upregulate the expression of diverse transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and elevated aldosterone levels to reduce adrenal toxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that N1-desoxy QdNOs have the potential to be the major toxic metabolites in adrenal toxicity, which may shed new light on the adrenal toxicity of these fascinating compounds and help to provide a basic foundation for the

  2. Discounting and Expropriation Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Immordino; Mario Padula

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between discounting and risk of expropriation and provides the theoretical conditions that make a positive association consistent with rationality. Moreover, using a national representative sample and a representative sample of the 50+ in eleven European countries, we show that discounting increases with expropriation risk. The two surveys give direct measures of discount rate as well as measures derived from households consumption decisions and provide...

  3. Fundamentals of futures, options, basis and derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. [TD Securities Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Characteristic features of futures and options contracts, basis differentials and derivatives were defined and explained. A futures contract refers to an exchange-traded supply contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer is obligated to take delivery and the seller is obligated to provide delivery of a fixed amount of a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified location. In contrast, an option contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. Basis differential refers to the discount between two distinct delivery points to reflect the relative value of a commodity, such as natural gas, at those points. Advantages and disadvantages of futures and options contacts, the factors affecting options pricing, and basis differentials, and the methods of calculating basis differentials were described. The nature and intricacies of derivatives, their benefits, in particular their use as a tool for the effective management of the volatilities associated with the oil and gas industry were explained. Their shortcomings such as the high liquidity risk, were also described. Examples of derivative transactions were provided to illustrate the interrelationships of futures/options/derivatives, and their role in financial risk management.

  4. Fundamentals of futures, options, basis and derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristic features of futures and options contracts, basis differentials and derivatives were defined and explained. A futures contract refers to an exchange-traded supply contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer is obligated to take delivery and the seller is obligated to provide delivery of a fixed amount of a commodity at a predetermined price at a specified location. In contrast, an option contract gives the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying commodity at a certain price on or before an agreed date. Basis differential refers to the discount between two distinct delivery points to reflect the relative value of a commodity, such as natural gas, at those points. Advantages and disadvantages of futures and options contacts, the factors affecting options pricing, and basis differentials, and the methods of calculating basis differentials were described. The nature and intricacies of derivatives, their benefits, in particular their use as a tool for the effective management of the volatilities associated with the oil and gas industry were explained. Their shortcomings such as the high liquidity risk, were also described. Examples of derivative transactions were provided to illustrate the interrelationships of futures/options/derivatives, and their role in financial risk management

  5. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  6. Pricing a Collateralized Derivative Trade with a Funding Value Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadd B. Hunzinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 credit crisis changed the manner in which derivative trades are conducted. One of these changes is the posting of collateral in a trade to mitigate the counterparty credit risk. Another is the realization that banks are not risk-free and, as a result, cannot borrow at the risk-free rate any longer. The latter led banks to introduced the controversial adjustment to derivative prices, known as a funding value adjustment (FVA, which is interlinked with the posting of collateral. In this paper, we extend the Cox, Ross and Rubinstein (CRR discrete-time model to include collateral and FVA. We prove that this derived model is a discrete analogue of Piterbarg’s partial differential equation (PDE, which describes the price of a collateralized derivative. The fact that the two models coincide is also verified by numerical implementation of the results that we obtain.

  7. Operational risk and e-banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerbu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banking involves a variety of risks. Under Basel II, the main risks are the monitored credit risk, market risk and operational risk. Frequently, operational risks are underestimated, considering that they would not affect the optimal activity of a bank. However, past experience of some credit institutions have shown that operational risk is an important cause of financial losses in the banking sector. Operational risk is generated by a complex of factors that manifests primarily as a result of direct customer interaction with the credit institution. In this context, the provision of e-banking services reduces direct contact with bank customers and thus reduces potential losses arising from operational risk. In sum, we consider it necessary to be aware of the link between operational risk and e-banking services promoted by banks and of the importance of this connection especially in a financial environment affected by the financial crisis.

  8. Year-end seasonality in one-month LIBOR derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Neely; Drew B. Winters

    2005-01-01

    We examine the markets for one-month LIBOR futures contracts and options on those futures for a year-end price effect consistent with the previously identified year-end rate increase in one-month LIBOR. The cash market rate increase appears in forward rates and derivative prices, which allows the derivatives to properly hedge year-end interest rate risk. However, while the year-end effect appears in the derivative contract, these derivative contracts provide biased forecasts of both future in...

  9. Unlabelled and radioactive labelled derivatives of butylamino propiophenone and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, J.W.A.; Butz, R.F.; Welch, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to new unlabelled and radioactive labelled derivatives of butylamino propiophenone and their preparation. This invention is primarily directed to a radioimmunoassay for clinical or experimental testing for the presence of and quantitation of bupropion, a pharmacologically active antidepressant compound, in biological fluids

  10. In defense of derivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    At the 2015 AAPT Summer Meeting, I presented four derivations of the formula for motional emf. Such physics derivations involve the construction of explanatory frameworks involving diagrams and mathematical models. Although textbooks devote considerable space to such explanations, many teachers and students spend their time on worksheets, end-of-chapter problems, and the like. The book is reduced to a bank of solved (i.e., example) and unsolved (i.e., homework) questions, along with equations in colored boxes that presumably are to be used to answer those questions. Such an approach encourages fragmentation of knowledge, the view that there is only one right answer to a problem with the goal of physics being to find that answer (neatly boxed of course), and the inability to reason about even a slightly different (much less a novel) situation. If we are to develop scientific literacy, significant course time must be devoted to explaining the structure of and support for the models and equations we use.

  11. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far were...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....

  12. Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance

  13. Finanční deriváty v České republice a ve světě

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the financial derivatives and trading in the world and the Czech Republic. The introductory part defines the basic concepts associated with financial derivatives, describes their types and method of statistical reporting. Briefly outlines the basic types of derivatives and their history. The second part evaluates the derivatives trading on Exchange and OTC markets. It is primarily focused on the latest development during the financial crisis. The third part examines mor...

  14. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  15. Effects of mining-derived metals on riffle-dwelling crayfish in southwestern Missouri and southeastern Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, Ann L.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Fairchild, James F.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Riffle-dwelling crayfish populations were sampled at 16 sites in 4 tributaries of the Spring River located within the Tri-State Mining District in southwest Missouri. Crayfish density, physical habitat quality, and water quality were examined at each site to assess the ecological effects of mining-derived metals on crayfish. Metals (lead, zinc, and cadmium) were analyzed in samples of surface water, sediment, detritus, and whole crayfish. Sites were classified a posteriori into reference, mining, and downstream sites primarily based on metal concentrations in the materials analyzed. Three species of crayfish (Orconectes neglectus neglectus, O. macrus, and O. virilis) were collected during the study; however, only O. n. neglectus was collected at all sites. Mean crayfish densities were significantly lower at mining sites than at reference sites. Mean concentrations of metals were significantly correlated among the materials analyzed and were significantly greater at mining and downstream sites than at reference sites. Principal component analyses showed a separation of sites due to an inverse relationship among crayfish density, metals concentrations, and physical habitat quality variables. Sediment probable-effects quotients and surface-water toxic unit scores were significantly correlated; both indicated risk of toxicity to aquatic biota at several sites. Metals concentrations in whole crayfish at several sites exceeded concentrations known to be toxic to carnivorous wildlife. Mining-derived metals have the potential to impair ecosystem function through decreased organic matter processing and nutrient cycling in streams due to decreased crayfish densities.

  16. A cost/risk framework for evaluation of nuclear waste management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a cost/risk framework which is developed to compare waste management alternatives such as partitioning and transmutation (P-T) to the currently open light water reactor fuel cycle in the United States in which spent fuel will be buried in a geologic repository. This framework has utility for developing economic values associated with long-term risk and was originally developed as part of a system study to define and determine the scope of the driving features of a P-T scheme involving nonconventional (pyrochemical) reprocessing and a fast-spectrum reactor fueled primarily with minor actinides. A potentially significant benefit is shown to be obtainable in the form of reduced long-term repository health risks; although the primary risk reduction is derived from the destruction or selective packaging and disposal of 99 Tc and 129 I, the modification of probabilities associated with site-specific repository features or highly uncertain future events could affect these results. The potential benefits are represented as a cost stream and appear as a large annual investment available for the development and implementation of P-T Preliminary results suggest further studies in selected areas; a particularly significant near-term health risk benefit is expected to arise from reduced uranium mining and purification activities associated with the closure of the currently open fuel cycle

  17. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol

  18. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  19. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  20. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work links entrepreneurship to the economic theory of the firm, using the concept of entrepreneurship as judgment introduced by Frank Knight. When judgment is complementary to other assets, it makes sense for entrepreneurs to hire labour and to own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then...... to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...... be designed to encourage forms of proxy entrepreneurship that increase firm value while discouraging actions that destroy value. Building on key ideas from the entrepreneurship literature, Austrian economics and the economic theory of the firm, we develop a framework for analysing the trade-off between...

  1. Use of a probabilistic PBPK/PD model to calculate Data Derived Extrapolation Factors for chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poet, Torka S; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, Michael J; Smith, Jordan N; McDougal, Robin; Juberg, Daland R; Price, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model combined with Monte Carlo analysis of inter-individual variation was used to assess the effects of the insecticide, chlorpyrifos and its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon in humans. The PBPK/PD model has previously been validated and used to describe physiological changes in typical individuals as they grow from birth to adulthood. This model was updated to include physiological and metabolic changes that occur with pregnancy. The model was then used to assess the impact of inter-individual variability in physiology and biochemistry on predictions of internal dose metrics and quantitatively assess the impact of major sources of parameter uncertainty and biological diversity on the pharmacodynamics of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibition. These metrics were determined in potentially sensitive populations of infants, adult women, pregnant women, and a combined population of adult men and women. The parameters primarily responsible for inter-individual variation in RBC acetylcholinesterase inhibition were related to metabolic clearance of CPF and CPF-oxon. Data Derived Extrapolation Factors that address intra-species physiology and biochemistry to replace uncertainty factors with quantitative differences in metrics were developed in these same populations. The DDEFs were less than 4 for all populations. These data and modeling approach will be useful in ongoing and future human health risk assessments for CPF and could be used for other chemicals with potential human exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The best estimate of risk to which everyone is exposed from natural radon in buildings is now obtained by extrapolation from observations on men exposed to radon in mines. The relationship between dose and effect derived by the US National Research Council implies that about 6% of the current life-time risk of developing the disease in the UK is attributable to radon, but for residents of some houses it will be much greater. This estimate is dependent on many assumptions, some of which are certainly wrong, and reliable estimates can be obtained only by direct observations on people living in different houses. It is possible that radon may also cause some risk of other cancers, notably leukaemia, but such risks, if real, are certainly small. Studies in progress should provide reliable estimates of all radon induced risks within a few years. (author)

  3. Managing Risk and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero

    outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book...... is framed around the challenges imposed on executives and directors in dealing with an increasingly complex and unpredictable world. This requires a new risk leadership focus that not only avoids the downside risks but also considers ways to exploit the upside potential offered by a dynamic environment....... The underlying logic is built on the principles of financial economics where benefits derive from reducing bankruptcy costs and increasing future cash inflows. This provides a stringent framework for analyzing the effect of different risk management actions and behaviors in effective risk-taking organizations...

  4. Predicting the 10-Year Risks of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Population: The China-PAR Project (Prediction for ASCVD Risk in China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Hu, Dongsheng; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Huang, Jianfeng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Fangchao; Cao, Jie; Shen, Chong; Yu, Ling; Lu, Fanghong; Wu, Xianping; Zhao, Liancheng; Wu, Xigui; Gu, Dongfeng

    2016-11-08

    The accurate assessment of individual risk can be of great value to guiding and facilitating the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, prediction models in common use were formulated primarily in white populations. The China-PAR project (Prediction for ASCVD Risk in China) is aimed at developing and validating 10-year risk prediction equations for ASCVD from 4 contemporary Chinese cohorts. Two prospective studies followed up together with a unified protocol were used as the derivation cohort to develop 10-year ASCVD risk equations in 21 320 Chinese participants. The external validation was evaluated in 2 independent Chinese cohorts with 14 123 and 70 838 participants. Furthermore, model performance was compared with the Pooled Cohort Equations reported in the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline. Over 12 years of follow-up in the derivation cohort with 21 320 Chinese participants, 1048 subjects developed a first ASCVD event. Sex-specific equations had C statistics of 0.794 (95% confidence interval, 0.775-0.814) for men and 0.811 (95% confidence interval, 0.787-0.835) for women. The predicted rates were similar to the observed rates, as indicated by a calibration χ 2 of 13.1 for men (P=0.16) and 12.8 for women (P=0.17). Good internal and external validations of our equations were achieved in subsequent analyses. Compared with the Chinese equations, the Pooled Cohort Equations had lower C statistics and much higher calibration χ 2 values in men. Our project developed effective tools with good performance for 10-year ASCVD risk prediction among a Chinese population that will help to improve the primary prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Risk premia in energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut E.D.; Veraart, Luitgard A.M.

    Risk premia between spot and forward prices play a key role in energy markets. This paper derives analytic expressions for such risk premia when spot prices are modelled by Lévy semistationary processes. While the relation between spot and forward prices can be derived using classical no......-arbitrage arguments as long as the underlying commodities are storable, the situation changes in the case of electricity. Hence, in an empirical study based on electricity spot prices and futures from the European Energy Exchange market, we investigate the empirical behaviour of electricity risk premia from...

  6. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area.

  7. Primer on electricity futures and other derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoft, S.; Belden, T.; Goldman, C.; Pickle, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition in bulk power and retail electricity markets is likely to lower electricity prices, but will also result in greater price volatility as the industry moves away from administratively determined, cost-based rates and encourages market-driven prices. Price volatility introduces new risks for generators, consumers, and marketers. Electricity futures and other derivatives can help each of these market participants manage, or hedge, price risks in a competitive electricity market. Futures contracts are legally binding and negotiable contracts that call for the future delivery of a commodity. In most cases, physical delivery does not take place, and the futures contract is closed by buying or selling a futures contract on or near the delivery date. Other electric rate derivatives include options, price swaps, basis swaps, and forward contracts. This report is intended as a primer for public utility commissioners and their staff on futures and other financial instruments used to manage price risks. The report also explores some of the difficult choices facing regulators as they attempt to develop policies in this area

  8. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  9. Arbitrage-free valuation of energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, K.; Ng, V.; Pirrong, C.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on techniques available for valuing energy-contingent claims and develops an arbitrage-free framework to value energy derivatives. The relationship between the spot, forward and futures prices is explained. Option valuation with deterministic convenience yields is discussed using an extension of the Black (1976) framework, and details of the risk-neutral valuation of European options, and valuation of American and European-style options are given. Option valuations with stochastic convenience yields, the evolution of the term structure of convenience yield, and a tree approach to valuing American and other options are discussed. Applications and limitations of the models for pricing energy derivative products are considered. The stochastic differential equation for the futures prices when the convenience yields are stochastic is presented in an appendix

  10. Fundamentals and advanced techniques in derivatives hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the theory of derivatives pricing and hedging as well as techniques used in mathematical finance. The authors use a top-down approach, starting with fundamentals before moving to applications, and present theoretical developments alongside various exercises, providing many examples of practical interest. A large spectrum of concepts and mathematical tools that are usually found in separate monographs are presented here. In addition to the no-arbitrage theory in full generality, this book also explores models and practical hedging and pricing issues. Fundamentals and Advanced Techniques in Derivatives Hedging further introduces advanced methods in probability and analysis, including Malliavin calculus and the theory of viscosity solutions, as well as the recent theory of stochastic targets and its use in risk management, making it the first textbook covering this topic. Graduate students in applied mathematics with an understanding of probability theory and stochastic calculus will find this b...

  11. DIFFUSION AND PERCEPTION OF MERCURY RISK INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 8% of American women have blood Mercury levels exceeding the EPA reference dose (a dose below which symptoms would be unlikely). The children of these women are at risk of neurological deficits (lower IQ scores) primarily because of the mother’s consumption of...

  12. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  13. Reincarceration Risk Among Men with Mental Illnesses Leaving Prison: A Risk Environment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrenger, Stacey L; Draine, Jeffrey; Angell, Beth; Herman, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Reentry interventions for persons with mental illness leaving prison have consisted primarily of linkage to mental health services and have produced mixed results on psychiatric and criminal recidivism. These interventions primarily focus on intra-individual risk factors. However, social and environmental factors may also increase risk of reincarceration by constraining choices and pro-social opportunities for community reintegration upon release from prison. In order to add to the knowledge base on understanding reincarceration risk for men with mental illnesses leaving prison, we examined interpersonal and environmental factors that exposed men to heightened risk for reincarceration. As part of a larger study examining the effectiveness of Critical Time Intervention for men with mental illness leaving prison, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 men within 6 months of release from prison. Policies and practices at local and state levels, community conditions, and interpersonal obligation and conflict were identified as increasing risk for reincarceration.

  14. Ideas concerning the risk problem in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.W.

    1975-01-01

    Scientific and technical development is primarily meant to improve the quality of life and to reduce mortality. The increased risk thus caused for the individual leads to a longer life expectation of man and to the ethical question of choosing the safety of a technical system. One must critically choose between justifiable effort and risk. Experience in reactor engineering (technical systems with hypothetical extreme risks) leads to considerations of the analysis to determine the risk of large chemical plants for inhabited neighbourhoods and attempts to design a conceptive and computer model for a safety analysis which can be of use in decisions regarding new planning. (HP/LH) [de

  15. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described

  16. Arbitrage Opportunities and their Implications to Derivative Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Panayides, Stephanos

    2005-01-01

    We explore the role that random arbitrage opportunities play in hedging financial derivatives. We extend the asymptotic pricing theory presented by Fedotov and Panayides [Stochastic arbitrage return and its implication for option pricing, Physica A 345 (2005), 207-217] for the case of hedging a derivative when arbitrage opportunities are present in the market. We restrict ourselves to finding hedging confidence intervals that can be adapted to the amount of arbitrage risk an investor will per...

  17. Accounting for derivative contracts in an energy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewthwaite, T.; Majid, H.; Swingler, N. [Arthur Andersen (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This chapter reviews the latest developments in the accounting for derivative contracts in the energy environment, covering the US accounting and disclosure requirements and the Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 133 Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities, and the Emerging Issues Task Force Consensus (EITF) 98-10 accounting for energy trading and risk management activities. UK accounting and disclosure requirements and the international point of view are discussed. Three different types of hedges are described.

  18. Nuclear power and investor perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.I.; Miller, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores and quantifies the recent Wall Street fears concerning nuclear utilities. An econometric model of investor behavior is presented that quantifies the nuclear risk premium for the period when nuclear fear among investors was at its height, in mid-1984. The principal finding is that the risk premium relates primarily to nuclear construction work in progress (CWIP), rather than to the commercial operation of completed nuclear plants. 7 references, 1 table

  19. Feedstock specific environmental risk levels related to biomass extraction for energy from boreal and temperate forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamers, Patrick; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Junginger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Past research on identifying potentially negative impacts of forest management activities has primarily focused on traditional forest operations. The increased use of forest biomass for energy in recent years, spurred predominantly by policy incentives for the reduction of fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, and by efforts from the forestry sector to diversify products and increase value from the forests, has again brought much attention to this issue. The implications of such practices continue to be controversially debated; predominantly the adverse impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity, and the climate change mitigation potential of forest bioenergy. Current decision making processes require comprehensive, differentiated assessments of the known and unknown factors and risk levels of potentially adverse environmental effects. This paper provides such an analysis and differentiates between the feedstock of harvesting residues, roundwood, and salvage wood. It concludes that the risks related to biomass for energy outtake are feedstock specific and vary in terms of scientific certainty. Short-term soil productivity risks are higher for residue removal. There is however little field evidence of negative long-term impacts of biomass removal on productivity in the scale predicted by modeling. Risks regarding an alteration of biodiversity are relatively equally distributed across the feedstocks. The risk of limited or absent short-term carbon benefits is highest for roundwood, but negligible for residues and salvage wood. Salvage operation impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity are a key knowledge gap. Future research should also focus on deriving regionally specific, quantitative thresholds for sustainable biomass removal. -- Highlights: ► Synthesis of the scientific uncertainties regarding biomass for energy outtake. ► With specific focus on soil productivity, biodiversity, and carbon balance. ► Balanced determination of the risk levels

  20. Systemic risk contributions: a credit portfolio approach

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann, Klaus; Puzanova, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    We put forward a Merton-type multi-factor portfolio model for assessing banks' contributions to systemic risk. This model accounts for the major drivers of banks' systemic relevance: size, default risk and correlation of banks' assets as a proxy for interconnectedness. We measure systemic risk in terms of the portfolio expected shortfall (ES). Banks' (marginal) risk contributions are calculated based on partial derivatives of the ES in order to ensure a full risk allocation among institutions...

  1. Clinical phase I/II trial to investigate neoadjuvant intensity-modulated short term radiation therapy (5 × 5 gy) and intraoperative radiation therapy (15 gy) in patients with primarily resectable pancreatic cancer - NEOPANC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E; Werner, Jens; Timke, Carmen; Saleh-Ebrahimi, Ladan; Schneider, Lutz; Hackert, Thilo; Hartwig, Werner; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hensley, Frank W; Buechler, Markus W

    2012-01-01

    The current standard treatment, at least in Europe, for patients with primarily resectable tumors, consists of surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. But even in this prognostic favourable group, long term survival is disappointing because of high local and distant failure rates. Postoperative chemoradiation has shown improved local control and overalls survival compared to surgery alone but the value of additional radiation has been questioned in case of adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there remains a strong rationale for the addition of radiation therapy considering the high rates of microscopically incomplete resections after surgery. As postoperative administration of radiation therapy has some general disadvantages, neoadjuvant and intraoperative approaches theoretically offer benefits in terms of dose escalation, reduction of toxicity and patients comfort especially if hypofractionated regimens with highly conformal techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy are considered. The NEOPANC trial is a prospective, one armed, single center phase I/II study investigating a combination of neoadjuvant short course intensity-modulated radiation therapy (5 × 5 Gy) in combination with surgery and intraoperative radiation therapy (15 Gy), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy according to the german treatment guidelines, in patients with primarily resectable pancreatic cancer. The aim of accrual is 46 patients. The primary objectives of the NEOPANC trial are to evaluate the general feasibility of this approach and the local recurrence rate after one year. Secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, overall survival, acute and late toxicity, postoperative morbidity and mortality and quality of life. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01372735

  2. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  3. Statistical Analysis of Asian WeatherDerivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Yue

    2009-01-01

    Since last decade, weather derivatives have been traded by Chicago Mercantile Exchange(CME) to hedge the weather risk. In addition to HDD,CDD and CAT, which are index written on the temperature in U.S. and Europe, Pacific Rim Index is newly developed and actively traded nowadays. In terms of the great value of research on this new instrument, we study the temperature dynamics of 4 cities in Asia: Tokyo, Osaka, Taipei and Beijing by a continuous-time autoregressive process. We further inferred...

  4. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisham, Azie Farhani Badrol; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2014-12-01

    Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional. Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks. However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model. Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives.

  5. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  6. Derivative spectrophotometry of cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of derivative spectrophotometry is briefly described, and derivative absorption spectra are presented for samarium, cobalt, and commercial Sm-Co alloys. It is shown that the use of derivative spectrophotometry not only improves the accuracy and selectivity of element determinations but also simplifies the analysis of alloys. Results of a statistical evaluation of the metrological characteristics of the analytical procedure described here are presented. 8 references

  7. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable

  8. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  9. AN OVERVIEW ON STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMICS FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a history and an evolution of concepts of risk and risk management in economic, respectively financial fields, highlighting the usefulness (or not and complexity of tools for risk assessment developed over time. The main objective of risk management is to reduce costs and increase the value of company and stakeholders gains; also, a coherent risk management strategy may improve entity capital structure which will derive in a healthy financing policy. The risk and risk management field has been developed merely after the second world war and creates the favourable context of a new C position in business chart – Chief Risk Officer. The paper will explore the etymology of term risk correlated with the uncertainty. Research on risk and risk management is not possible without taking into account the derivatives market.

  10. Clinical Perspective Youth violence risk assessment: gaps in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International literature on violence risk assessment indicates that although a number of instruments designed to assess youth violence risk exist, many primarily focus on identifying psychopathic tendencies in young people, which has stimulated much debate amongst scholars. In addition to paying careful attention to the ...

  11. The Price of Commodity Risk in Stock and Futures Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boons (Martijn); F.A. de Roon (Frans); M.K. Szymanowska (Marta)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe find that commodity risk is priced in the cross-section of US stock returns. Following the financialization of commodities, investors hedge commodity price risk directly in the futures market, primarily via commodity index investments, whereas before they gained commodity exposure

  12. The activation of p38 MAPK primarily contributes to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 to the distal CCAAT box of the RhoB promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jiwon; Choi, Jeong-Hae; Won, Misun; Kang, Chang-Mo; Gyun, Mi-Rang; Park, Hee-Moon; Kim, Chun-Ho; Chung, Kyung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Regulation of transcriptional activation of RhoB is still unclear. → We examine the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition, and c-Jun and RhoB depletion on UV-induced RhoB expression and apoptosis. → We identify the regions of RhoB promoter necessary to confer UV responsiveness using pRhoB-luciferase reporter assays. → c-Jun, ATF2 and p300 are dominantly associated with NF-Y on the distal CCAAT box. → The activation of p38 MAPK primarily contribute to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 proteins on distal CCAAT box of RhoB promoter. -- Abstract: The Ras-related small GTP-binding protein RhoB is rapidly induced in response to genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation. It is known that UV-induced RhoB expression results from the binding of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) via NF-Y to the inverted CCAAT box (-23) of the RhoB promoter. Here, we show that the association of c-Jun with the distal CCAAT box (-72) is primarily involved in UV-induced RhoB expression and p38 MAPK regulated RhoB induction through the distal CCAAT box. UV-induced RhoB expression and apoptosis were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor. siRNA knockdown of RhoB, ATF2 and c-Jun resulted in decreased RhoB expression and eventually restored the growth of UV-irradiated Jurkat cells. In the reporter assay using luciferase under the RhoB promoter, inhibition of RhoB promoter activity by the p38 inhibitor and knockdown of c-Jun using siRNA occurred through the distal CCAAT box. Immunoprecipitation and DNA affinity protein binding assays revealed the association of c-Jun and p300 via NF-YA and the dissociation of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) via c-Jun recruitment to the CCAAT boxes of the RhoB promoter. These results suggest that the activation of p38 MAPK primarily contributes to UV-induced RhoB expression by recruiting the c-Jun and p300 proteins to the distal CCAAT box of the RhoB promoter in Jurkat cells.

  13. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  14. Combined Risk Measures: Representation Results and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göttsche, O.E.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of risk play a crucial role in different areas of modern finance. This includes pricing of financial products, capital allocation and derivation of economic capital. Key to this analysis is the quantification of the risk via risk measures. A promising approach is to

  15. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  16. Hedging Life and Pension Company Balance Sheets with Hybrid Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2009-01-01

    Life and Pension companies are facing enhanced risks of market due to dynamic interest rates and unprecedented volatility in equities, jeopardising guarantee of performance to policyholders and shareholders. Evolving statutory requirements and financial reporting standards, add to the challenges...... for these companies. This paper highlights the utility of "Hybrid Derivatives" and the new risk based solvency reporting system, know as "Traffic Light System" adopted by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority, as an answer to the challenges posed....

  17. An empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills model of ART adherence in a sample of HIV-positive persons primarily in out-of-HIV-care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Smolenski, Derek; Amico, K Rivet

    2014-02-01

    The current body of evidence supporting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence rests exclusively on data collected from people living with HIV (PLWH) at point-of-HIV-care services. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if the IMB model is a useful predictive model of ART adherence among PLWH who were primarily recruited in out-of-HIV-care settings; and (2) assess whether the theorized associations between IMB model constructs and adherence persist in the presence of depression and current drug use. PLWH (n = 312) responding to a one-time online survey completed the Life Windows IMB-ART-Adherence Questionnaire, and demographic, depression (CES-D 10), and drug use items. Path models were used to assess the fit of a saturated versus fully mediated IMB model of adherence and examined for moderating effects of depression and current drug use. Participants were on average 43 years of age, had been living with HIV for 9 or more years, and mostly male (84.0%), Caucasian (68.8%), and gay-identified (74.8%). The a priori measurement models for information and behavioral skills did not have acceptable fit to the data and were modified accordingly. Using the revised IMB scales, IMB constructs were associated with adherence as predicted by the theory in all but one model (i.e., the IMB model operated as predicted among nondrug users and those with and without depression). Among drug users, information exerted a direct effect on adherence but was not significantly associated with behavioral skills. Results of this study suggest that the fully or partially mediated IMB model is supported for use with samples of PLWH recruited primarily out-of-HIV-care service settings and is robust in the presence of depression and drug use.

  18. Influenza A H3N2 subtype virus NS1 protein targets into the nucleus and binds primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS to nucleolin and fibrillarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor, which is targeted into the cell cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus. NS1 is a multi-functional protein that inhibits host cell pre-mRNA processing and counteracts host cell antiviral responses. Previously, we have shown that the NS1 protein of the H3N2 subtype influenza viruses possesses a C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) that also functions as a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) and targets the protein into the nucleolus. Results Here, we show that the NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus subtype interacts in vitro primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via its N-terminal NLS1 with the nucleolar proteins, nucleolin and fibrillarin. Using chimeric green fluorescence protein (GFP)-NS1 fusion constructs, we show that the nucleolar retention of the NS1 protein is determined by its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS in vivo. Confocal laser microscopy analysis shows that the NS1 protein colocalizes with nucleolin in nucleoplasm and nucleolus and with B23 and fibrillarin in the nucleolus of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus-infected A549 cells. Since some viral proteins contain NoLSs, it is likely that viruses have evolved specific nucleolar functions. Conclusion NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus interacts primarily via the C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via the N-terminal NLS1 with the main nucleolar proteins, nucleolin, B23 and fibrillarin. PMID:22909121

  19. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  20. Derivative financial instruments and nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Owhoso, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the extent of derivative financial instrument use among US nonprofit health systems and the impact of these financial instruments on their cash flows, reported operating results, and financial risks. Our examination is conducted through a case study of New Jersey hospitals and health systems. We review the existing literature on interest rate derivative instruments and US hospitals and health systems. This literature describes the design of these derivative financial instruments and the theoretical benefits of their use by large health care provider organizations. Our contribution to the literature is to provide an empirical evaluation of derivative financial instruments usage among a geographically limited sample of US nonprofit health systems. We reviewed the audited financial statements of the 49 community hospitals and multi-hospital health systems operating in the state of New Jersey. We found that 8 percent of New Jersey's nonprofit health providers utilized interest rate derivatives with an aggregate principle value of $229 million. These derivative users combine interest rate swaps and caps to lower the effective interest costs of their long-term debt while limiting their exposure to future interest rate increases. In addition, while derivative assets and liabilities have an immaterial balance sheet impact, derivative related gains and losses are a material component of their reported operating results. We also found that derivative usage among these four health systems was responsible for generating positive cash flows in the range of 1 percent to 2 percent of their total 2001 cash flows from operations. As a result of our admittedly limited samples we conclude that interest rate swaps and caps are effective risk management tools. However, we also found that while these derivative financial instruments are useful hedges against the risks of issuing long-term financing instruments, they also expose derivative users to credit, contract

  1. General risks for tunnelling projects: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siang, Lee Yong; Ghazali, Farid E. Mohamed; Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Ali, Roslinda

    2017-10-01

    Tunnels are indispensable when installing new infrastructure as well as when enhancing the quality of existing urban living due to their unique characteristics and potential applications. Over the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in the building of tunnels, world-wide. Tunnelling projects are complex endeavors, and risk assessment for tunnelling projects is likewise a complex process. Risk events are often interrelated. Occurrence of a technical risk usually carries cost and schedule consequences. Schedule risks typically impact cost escalation and project overhead. One must carefully consider the likelihood of a risk's occurrence and its impact in the context of a specific set of project conditions and circumstances. A project's goals, organization, and environment impacts in the context of a specific set of project conditions and circumstances. Some projects are primarily schedule driven; other projects are primarily cost or quality driven. Whether a specific risk event is perceived fundamentally as a cost risk or a schedule risk is governed by the project-specific context. Many researchers have pointed out the significance of recognition and control of the complexity, and risks of tunnelling projects. Although all general information on a project such as estimated duration, estimated cost, and stakeholders can be obtained, it is still quite difficult to accurately understand, predict and control the overall situation and development trends of the project, leading to the risks of tunnelling projects. This paper reviews all the key risks for tunnelling projects from several case studies that have been carried out by other researchers. These risks have been identified and reviewed in this paper. As a result, the current risk management plan in tunnelling projects can be enhanced by including all these reviewed risks as key information.

  2. Pricing of Asian temperature risk

    OpenAIRE

    Benth, Fred; Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; López Cabrera, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Weather derivatives (WD) are different from most financial derivatives because the underlying weather cannot be traded and therefore cannot be replicated by other financial instruments. The market price of risk (MPR) is an important parameter of the associated equivalent martingale measures used to price and hedge weather futures/options in the market. The majority of papers so far have priced non-tradable assets assuming zero MPR, but this assumption underestimates WD prices. We study the MP...

  3. Ionospheric and induced field leakage in geomagnetic field models, and derivation of candidate models for DGRF 1995 and DGRF 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Lowes, F.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    the zonal coefficients g(1)(0), g(3)(0),..., by 1-2 nT. We describe the reason for this contamination, and present a method to correct for it. Since not only OSVM but probably all main field models that are derived primarily from data around local midnight suffer from this effect, the presented scheme can...

  4. Improving ecological risk assessment of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals by using an integrated modeling system - An example assessing chloroparaffins in riverine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical risk assessment (CRA) is primarily carried out at the screening level relying on empirical relationships between chemical properties and tested toxicity effects. Ultimately, risk to aquatic ecosystems is strongly dependent on actual exposure, which depends on chemical pr...

  5. Environmental risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-e-Silva, Pedro Paulo de

    1996-01-01

    The conventional Risk Analysis (RA) relates usually a certain undesired event frequency with its consequences. Such technique is used nowadays in Brazil to analyze accidents and their consequences strictly under the human approach, valuing loss of human equipment, human structures and human lives, without considering the damage caused to natural resources that keep life possible on Earth. This paradigm was developed primarily because of the Homo sapiens' lack of perception upon the natural web needed to sustain his own life. In reality, the Brazilian professionals responsible today for licensing, auditing and inspecting environmental aspects of human activities face huge difficulties in making technical specifications and procedures leading to acceptable levels of impact, furthermore considering the intrinsic difficulties to define those levels. Therefore, in Brazil the RA technique is a weak tool for licensing for many reasons, and of them are its short scope (only accident considerations) and wrong a paradigm (only human direct damages). A paper from the author about the former was already proposed to the 7th International Conference on Environmetrics, past July'96, USP-SP. This one discusses the extension of the risk analysis concept to take into account environmental consequences, transforming the conventional analysis into a broader methodology named here as Environmental Risk Analysis. (author)

  6. The Financial Industry's Challenge of Developing Commodity Derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1999-01-01

    With a constant new stream of financial services coming to the market, each often more exotic and complicated than the last, the financial services industry, which includes commodity derivatives exchanges, brokerage houses and banks providing price risk reduction services (the so-called hedging

  7. Insights from the analyses of risk-informed extension of diesel generator allowed outage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; He Wei

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, many U.S. nuclear plants have applied and received approval for the risk-informed extension of the Allowed Outage Time (AOT) for Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). These risk-informed applications need to meet the regulatory guidance on the risk criteria. This paper discusses in detail insights derived from the risk-informed analyses performed to support these applications. The risk criteria on ΔCDF/ΔLERF evaluate the increase in average risk by extending the AOT for EDGs, induced primarily by an increase in EDG maintenance unavailability due to the introduction of additional EDG preventive maintenance. By performing this preventive maintenance work on-line, the outage duration can be shortened. With proper refinement of the risk model, most plants can meet the ΔCDF/ΔLERF criteria for extending the EDGAOT from, for example, 3 days to 14 days. The key areas for model enhancements to meet these criteria include offsite/onsite power recovery, LERF modeling, etc. The most important LERF model enhancements consist of refinement of the penetrations included in the containment isolation model for the consideration of a large release, and taking credit for operator vessel depressurization during the time period between core damage and vessel failure. A recent study showed that although the frequency of loss of offsite power (LOSP) has decreased, the duration of offsite power recovery has actually increased. However, many of the events used to derive this conclusion may not be applicable to PRAs. One approach develops the offsite power non-recovery factor by first screening the LOSP events for applicability to the plant being analyzed, power operation, and LOSP initiating event, then using the remaining events data for the derivation based on the fraction of events with recovery duration longer than the time window allowed. The risk criteria on ICCDP/ICLERP examine the increase in risk from the average CDF/LERF, based on the increased maintenance

  8. AN OVERVIEW ON STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMICS FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a history and an evolution of concepts of risk and risk management in economic, respectively financial fields, highlighting the usefulness (or not) and complexity of tools for risk assessment developed over time. The main objective of risk management is to reduce costs and increase the value of company and stakeholders gains; also, a coherent risk management strategy may improve entity capital structure which will derive in a healthy financing policy. T...

  9. Host genome variations and risk of infections during induction treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Lausen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate association of host genomic variation and risk of infections during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Methods: We explored association of 34 000 singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related primarily to pharmacogenomics and immune function...

  10. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control desi......Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3......, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (pdifference in BDNF levels...

  11. Chemistry of aliphatic sulfurpentafluoride derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissell, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes the literature through 1974 on aliphatic sulfurpentafluoride compounds. Methods of preparation and methods of transforming one pentafluorothio compound into another are briefly discussed. The physical properties of all known derivatives are tabulated

  12. Higher derivatives in gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogilidze, S.A.; Sanadze, V.V.; Tkebuchava, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of appearance of highher derivatives of coordinates in the symmetry transformation law of the second Noether's theorem is established. It is shown that the corresponding transformations are canonical in the extended phase space. 15 refs

  13. Surrounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Steffensen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in insurance and finance was always intersecting although they were originally and generally viewed as separate disciplines. Insurance is about transferring risks between parties such that the burdens of risks are borne by those who can. This makes insurance transactions a beneficial activity for the society. It calls on detection, modelling, valuation, and controlling of risks. One of the main sources of control is diversification of risks and in that respect it becomes an issue in itself to clarify diversifiability of risks. However, many diversifiable risks are not, by nature or by contract design, separable from non-diversifiable risks that are, on the other hand, sometimes traded in financial markets and sometimes not. A key observation is that the economic risk came before the insurance contract: Mother earth destroys and kills incidentally and mercilessly, but the uncertainty of economic consequences can be more or less cleverly distributed by the introduction of an insurance market.

  14. Risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Lizarazu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation Colombia risk evaluation experiences, sanitarian regulations evolution, chemical dangers food, biological dangers food, codex alimentarius, trade, industrial effects, dangers identification, data collection and risk profile

  15. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  16. Push-outs of derivations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extension as a limit of operators b ↦→ D(ba) − b.D(a), a ∈ A in an appropriate operator topology, the main point in the proof being to show that the limit map is in fact a derivation. In this paper we make clear which part of this approach is analytic and which algebraic by presenting an algebraic scheme that gives derivations ...

  17. Elementary derivation of Kepler's laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1995-02-01

    A simple derivation of all three so-called Kepler Laws is presented in which the orbits, bound and unbound, follow directly and immediately from conservation of energy and angular momentum. The intent is to make this crowning achievement of Newtonian Mechanics easily accessible to students in introductory physics courses. The method is also extended to simplify the derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Law. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  18. Derivatives Trading and Negative Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Spamann, Holger

    2012-01-01

    This paper exposits a model of parallel trading of corporate securities (shares, bonds) and derivatives in which a large trader can sometimes profitably acquire securities with their corporate control rights for the sole purpose of reducing the corporations value and gaining on a net short position created through off-setting derivatives. At other times, the large trader profitably takes a net long position. The large trader requires no private information beyond its own trades. The problem i...

  19. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reac...

  20. A Framework for Collateral Risk Control Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Didier Cossin; Zhijiang Huang; Daniel Aunon-Nerin; Fer nando González

    2002-01-01

    This paper derives a general framework for collateral risk control determination in repurchase transactions or repos. The objective is to treat consistently heterogeneous collateral so that the collateral taker has a similar risk exposure whatever the collateral pledged. The framework measures the level of risk with the probability of incurring a loss higher than a pre-specified level given two well-known parameters used to manage the intrinsic risk of collateral: marking to market and haircu...

  1. Technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1998-01-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  2. Technological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  3. PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessments) Participation versus Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Banke, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) are performed for projects or programs where the consequences of failure are highly undesirable. PRAs primarily address the level of risk those projects or programs posed during operations. PRAs are often developed after the design has been completed. Design and operational details used to develop models include approved and accepted design information regarding equipment, components, systems and failure data. This methodology basically validates the risk parameters of the project or system design. For high risk or high dollar projects, using PRA methodologies during the design process provides new opportunities to influence the design early in the project life cycle to identify, eliminate or mitigate potential risks. Identifying risk drivers before the design has been set allows the design engineers to understand the inherent risk of their current design and consider potential risk mitigation changes. This can become an iterative process where the PRA model can be used to determine if the mitigation technique is effective in reducing risk. This can result in more efficient and cost effective design changes. PRA methodology can be used to assess the risk of design alternatives and can demonstrate how major design changes or program modifications impact the overall program or project risk. PRA has been used for the last two decades to validate risk predictions and acceptability. Providing risk information which can positively influence final system and equipment design the PRA tool can also participate in design development, providing a safe and cost effective product.

  4. Synthetic or Food-Derived Vitamin C?Are They Equally Bioavailable?

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Anitra C.; Vissers, Margreet C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential water-soluble micronutrient in humans and is obtained through the diet, primarily from fruits and vegetables. In vivo, vitamin C acts as a cofactor for numerous biosynthetic enzymes required for the synthesis of amino acid-derived macromolecules, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptide hormones, and is also a cofactor for various hydroxylases involved in the regulation of gene transcription and epigenetics. Vitamin C was first chemically synthesized in the ea...

  5. DUVAS (derivative uv-absorption spectrometer): instrument description and operating manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dougherty, J.M.; Metcalfe, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    DUVAS is a real-time, field-portable spectrometer capable of monitoring a variety of aromatic organic vapors and inorganic gases at sub-ppM concentrations. The instrument is a prototype, microcomputer-controlled, derivative ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrometer (DUVAS) developed primarily for area monitoring at coal conversion facilities, although other important occupational and environmental monitoring applications for compounds such as SO 2 , NO/sub x/, NH 3 , and HCHO are also being pursued

  6. Risk of solid cancer in low dose-rate radiation epidemiological studies and the dose-rate effectiveness factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Roy; Walsh, Linda; Azizova, Tamara; Rühm, Werner

    2017-10-01

    Estimated radiation risks used for radiation protection purposes have been based primarily on the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors who received brief exposures at high dose rates, many with high doses. Information is needed regarding radiation risks from low dose-rate (LDR) exposures to low linear-energy-transfer (low-LET) radiation. We conducted a meta-analysis of LDR epidemiologic studies that provide dose-response estimates of total solid cancer risk in adulthood in comparison to corresponding LSS risks, in order to estimate a dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF). We identified 22 LDR studies with dose-response risk estimates for solid cancer after minimizing information overlap. For each study, a parallel risk estimate was derived from the LSS risk model using matching values for sex, mean ages at first exposure and attained age, targeted cancer types, and accounting for type of dosimetric assessment. For each LDR study, a ratio of the excess relative risk per Gy (ERR Gy -1 ) to the matching LSS ERR risk estimate (LDR/LSS) was calculated, and a meta-analysis of the risk ratios was conducted. The reciprocal of the resultant risk ratio provided an estimate of the DREF. The meta-analysis showed a LDR/LSS risk ratio of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14, 0.57) for the 19 studies of solid cancer mortality and 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.54) when three cohorts with only incidence data also were added, implying a DREF with values around 3, but statistically compatible with 2. However, the analyses were highly dominated by the Mayak worker study. When the Mayak study was excluded the LDR/LSS risk ratios increased: 1.12 (95% CI 0.40, 1.84) for mortality and 0.54 (95% CI 0.09, 0.99) for mortality + incidence, implying a lower DREF in the range of 1-2. Meta-analyses that included only cohorts in which the mean dose was LDR data provide direct evidence regarding risk from exposures at low dose rates as an important complement to the LSS risk estimates used

  7. Estratégia de comercialização em mercados derivativos - descobrimento de base e risco de base da cafeicultura em diversas localidades de Minas Gerais e São Paulo Marketing strategy in derivative markets discovery of the basis and the risk of basis of coffee in several places in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Elias Fontes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho tem-se por objetivo geral mensurar os valores da base e do risco de base da atividade cafeeira de importantes cidades produtoras de café localizadas no Estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo, pois a estratégia de se utilizar os mercados derivativos vem ganhando cada vez mais importância, devido às suas características, que propiciam o feitio de ''hedge'' de preços. Os municípios estudados foram Boa Esperança, Caratinga, Lavras, Machado, Patrocínio, Três Pontas, Varginha e Garça (SP. Os dados primários utilizados sobre o preço da saca de café comercializada no mercado local foram coletados diretamente nas instituições participantes, e o preço do café no mercado futuro foi levantando junto à BM&F. A diversidade dos valores da base e do risco de base encontrada demonstra que cada localidade apresenta características próprias de comercialização, e todas as localidades apresentam valores negativos. A época de comercialização é um importante fator a ser levado em consideração, pois na safra há um fortalecimento da base e o risco de base é menor do que na entressafra, que apresenta um enfraquecimento da base.The general objective of this assignment is to measure the value of the basis and of the risk of basis of the cultivation of coffee in important coffee producer cities from the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, for the strategy of using the derivative markets has been obtaining more importance due to its characteristics that provide the hedge of the prices. The cities studied were Boa Esperança, Caratinga, Lavras, Machado, Patrocínio, Três Pontas, Varginha and Garça (SP. The primary data used was, the local price of the coffee bag. The data was collected directly from the participant institutions and the future price of the coffe was raised with the BM&F. The variety of the values of the basis and of the risk of basis found shows that each locality presents its own commerce

  8. Issues raised in the limitation, control and measurement of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years a consistent set of quantities for ionising radiation measurements in radiological protection have been defined. The efforts being made by those concerned with radiation dosimetry to ensure the universal adoption and use of these quantities are now threatened by further developments in risk concepts. The most serious threats arise from changed perceptions about the quality factors appropriate for different radiations due to improved biological information about relative biological effectiveness, and the increased importance to be given to the cancer risk estimates derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors following the revised dose estimates. A change in the basis of quality factor specification will require careful consideration if it is not to produce further problems in obtaining agreement on the conceptual basis for radiological protection metrology. The change is primarily for adoption in the calculation of the risk quantity, effective dose equivalent. Some of the possible options for taking account of the change in regard to the measurement quantities are examined. (author)

  9. RBCA-based approaches to ecological risk assessment for TPH-contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummell, R.; Vedagiri, U.

    1995-01-01

    The RBCA guidelines proposed by ASTM form an evaluation and decision-making framework for sites potentially contaminated by petroleum releases. They present a three-tiered approach of decreasing conservatism and increasing site-specificity that primarily evaluates risks to human health. While RBCA includes consideration of environmental impacts, there are no specific recommendations on how this is to be achieved. A RBCA-based ecological risk assessment approach was developed for TPH-contaminated areas in Alaska. The approach presents a habitat-based selection process for surrogate chemicals and indicator chemicals of ecological relevance, evaluation of ecotoxicity, derivation of matrix-specific Tier 1 RBSLs (including soils) and determination of Tier 2 and 3 SSTLS. Chemicals are considered by class, aquatic (freshwater and saltwater) and terrestrial habitats are evaluated independently, and chemical concentrations are screened in all media of concern (air, soil, water, sediment). Data needs and decision points specific to ecological receptors are identified for each tier of the approach. Other aspects of the approach include consideration of contaminant migration pathways and habitats that are typical of Arctic conditions. Areas where ecological and human risk concerns may overlap are identified

  10. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  11. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  12. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Parnell, L.D.; Werff-van der Vat, B.J.C. van der; Ommen, B. van; Greef, J. van der; Ordovás, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to

  13. Association Between Cumulative Psychosocial Risk and Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Female Adolescents in a Free Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D; Schlecht, Nicolas F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the association of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy lifestyle. The sample (N = 745) comprised sexually active female adolescent patients (12-19 yr), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted principal component analyses for categorical data were used to derive multisystemic psychosocial risk indices using 9 indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any type, high-risk types, vaccine types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Subjects had a median of 3 psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.2), with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine types (aOR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose.

  14. The Association between Cumulative Psychosocial Risk and Cervical HPV Infection Among Female Adolescents in a Free Vaccination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216

  15. What's the risk? Identifying potential human pathogens within grey-headed flying foxes faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Henry

    Full Text Available Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying foxes are recognised vectors for a range of potentially fatal human pathogens. However, to date research has primarily focused on viral disease carriage, overlooking bacterial pathogens, which also represent a significant human disease risk. The current study applied 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, community analysis and a multi-tiered database OTU picking approach to identify faecal-derived zoonotic bacteria within two colonies of P. poliocephalus from Victoria, Australia. Our data show that sequences associated with Enterobacteriaceae (62.8% ± 24.7%, Pasteurellaceae (19.9% ± 25.7% and Moraxellaceae (9.4% ± 11.8% dominate flying fox faeces. Further colony specific differences in bacterial faecal colonisation patterns were also identified. In total, 34 potential pathogens, representing 15 genera, were identified. However, species level definition was only possible for Clostridium perfringens, which likely represents a low infectious risk due to the low proportion observed within the faeces and high infectious dose required for transmission. In contrast, sequences associated with other pathogenic species clusters such as Haemophilus haemolyticus-H. influenzae and Salmonella bongori-S. enterica, were present at high proportions in the faeces, and due to their relatively low infectious doses and modes of transmissions, represent a greater potential human disease risk. These analyses of the microbial community composition of Pteropus poliocephalus have significantly advanced our understanding of the potential bacterial disease risk associated with flying foxes and should direct future epidemiological and quantitative microbial risk assessments to further define the health risks presented by these animals.

  16. An estrogen-associated dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-11-01

    High endogenous hormone levels have been associated with breast cancer and dietary factors have the potential to influence breast cancer risk through effects on hormone levels. Dietary patterns derived from reduced rank regression provide a way to identify food groups correlated with hormones and subsequently examine food patterns that may be associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether a dietary pattern previously correlated with estradiol and estrone sulfate was associated with breast cancer in the prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 37,004 primarily postmenopausal women diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,603 cases of breast cancer were identified. A higher estrogen dietary pattern score was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Women in the highest quartile of estrogen pattern score had a 29% (95% CI = 1.08-1.55) increased risk of breast cancer compared to women in the lowest quartile (p(trend) = 0.006). When the association was examined by estrogen-receptor status, it was only significant for those with estrogen-receptor-positive tumors; however, in the competing risk analysis there were no significant differences in the effect estimates by receptor subtype (p(heterogeneity) = 0.65). Our findings suggest that a dietary pattern associated with higher estrogen levels may increase breast cancer risk. However, whether the influence of this dietary pattern is through a direct effect on estrogen levels deserves further study. © 2015 UICC.

  17. Climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, D.; Favier, R.; Bourg, D.; Marchand, J.P.

    2005-04-01

    The climatic risks are analyzed in this book under the cross-vision of specialists of different domains: philosophy, sociology, economic history, law, geography, climatology and hydrology. The prevention of risks and the precautionary principle are presented first. Then, the relations between climatic risk and geography are analyzed using the notion of territoriality. The territory aspect is in the core of the present day debates about the geography of risks, in particular when the links between climate change and public health are considered. Then the main climatic risks are presented. Droughts and floods are the most damaging ones and the difficulties of prevention-indemnification coupling remain important. (J.S.)

  18. Public perceptions of the risks of an unfamiliar technology: The case of using nuclear energy sources for space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharik, Michael

    This thesis addresses the public perception of the risk of a technology not widely known to laypeople. Its aims were (1) to characterize public perceptions of the risk of using nuclear energy in space and decisions related to this risk, and (2) to extend the 'mental model' methodology to studying public perception of unfamiliar, risky technologies. A model of the physical processes capable of creating risks from using nuclear energy sources in space was first constructed. Then, knowledge and beliefs related to this topic were elicited from three different groups of people. The generality of the findings was examined in a constructive replication with environmentally-oriented people. The possibility of involving the public in decision-making processes related to engineering macro-design was then investigated. Finally, a communication regarding these risk processes was developed and evaluated in an experiment comparing it with communications produced by NASA. Although they included large portions of the expert model, people's beliefs also had gaps and misconceptions. Respondents often used scientific terms without a clear understanding of what they meant. Respondents' mental models sometimes contained scattered and inconsistent entries. The impact of pre-existing mental models was clearly seen. Different groups of people had different patterns of knowledge and beliefs. Nevertheless, respondents expressed reasonable and coherent opinions on choices among engineering options. The CMU brochure, derived from the study of readers' existing mental models, provided a better risk communication tool than NASA's material, reflecting primarily experts' perspective. The better performance of subjects reading either brochure generally reflected adding knowledge on issues that they had not previously known, rather than correcting wrong beliefs. The communication study confirmed a hypothesis that improving knowledge on risk processes related to the use of a technology causes a more

  19. Risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Every plan contains risk. To proceed without planning some means of managing that risk is to court failure. The basic logic of risk is explained. It consists in identifying a threshold where some corrective action is necessary, the probability of exceeding that threshold, and the attendant cost should the undesired outcome occur. This is the probable cost of failure. Various risk categories in dentistry are identified, including lack of liquidity; poor quality; equipment or procedure failures; employee slips; competitive environments; new regulations; unreliable suppliers, partners, and patients; and threats to one's reputation. It is prudent to make investments in risk management to the extent that the cost of managing the risk is less than the probable loss due to risk failure and when risk management strategies can be matched to type of risk. Four risk management strategies are discussed: insurance, reducing the probability of failure, reducing the costs of failure, and learning. A risk management accounting of the financial meltdown of October 2008 is provided.

  20. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)