WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk communication strategies

  1. Strategies for risk communication: evolution, evidence, experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W Troy; Ferson, Scott

    2008-04-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the symposium entitled Strategies for Risk Communication: Evolution, Evidence, Experience. The symposium was held in Montauk, Long Island, New York on May 15-17, 2006. It explored practical methods and robust theories of risk communication informed by recent research in risk perception, neuroscience, and the evolutionary social sciences. The symposium focused on what experimental, survey, and brain imaging research has uncovered about how humans process and perceive uncertainty and risks and what the evolutionary history of humans suggests about how we understand and respond to risks. The purpose of the symposium and of this collection of papers is to begin to synthesize the findings from these diverse fields and inform the development of practical strategies for risk communication.

  2. Industrial Risk Communication and Conflict Mitigation Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Di Mauro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lombardy is one of the most densely populated and industrialized regions in Europe, where nearly 280 Seveso sites are located. The issue of risk communication, as set by the European Seveso Directive is therefore of high relevance in this region. Nevertheless, the Lombardy Region Authorities consider that the implementation of the Directive’s provisions is too weak. Therefore, the Lombardy Region financed an exploratory research in November 2009 and all the research activities ended in February 2011. (Éupolis Lombardia 2011. The research was conducted in order to estimate the existing gaps in risk communication, the subsequent conflicts and to evaluate how to improve the participation of the population in the emergency preparedness activities. The main goal of the project was to improve the communication of risk to the population exposed to industrial risks, hence to mitigate the related social conflict on the basis of an institutional learning process involving governmental bodies industrial organizations and the population. The project was supported by a multidisciplinary research group, which investigated the following aspects:- the regional activities regarding the risk communication at local level;- the nature and status of the main stakeholders groups’ perception of the industrial risks and the existing conflicts, collected through interviews and groups’ discussions;- the analysis of the gaps and ways of improvement related to an effective strategy of communication between industry, population and emergency services. A forum involving all the institutional stakeholders was set to discuss this issue.The paper reports the main results of the research and illustrates the potential strategies to improve the risk communication and the population participation and preparedness for the Lombardy Region. The results showed that the level of risk perception of the population in Lombardy is still too low to define a program of communication

  3. Risk management: a proposal for communication strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fontana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disasters related to natural hazards have increased in the last few decades. This increment makes it necessary to develop non-structural risk prevention and mitigation measures to improve people’s safety. An effective non-structural measure that can improve the preparedness of the population is a locally adapted communication campaign that is focused on natural hazards. We have developed a hypothetical communication campaign for a specific area in the north of Italy, in which hydro-geological risk is of considerable importance. The content of the campaign is defined by the combination of the requirements of the law with the results of a survey conducted in the study area. The aim of the survey is to evaluate the level of risk perception among the residents, and their attitudes towards prevention activities. The operative procedure of the campaign is modeled on advertising strategies. The campaign is designed to reach each family, and it is aimed at affecting people’s everyday life through a horizontal communication strategy that involves flyers, billboards, umbrellas and a website. The use of umbrellas as a medium for the campaign is the key. People mostly use umbrellas when it rains. Rain is linked with hydrogeological risk. As the content of the campaign is printed on the umbrellas, each time people use these umbrellas, they remember the campaign. The campaign is integrated into a broader communication program that includes meetings with stakeholders, activities in schools, and public conferences. The final goal is to foster the creation of a shared knowledge about risk in the whole population.

  4. Radon Risk Communication Strategies: A Regional Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication on the health effects of radon encounters many challenges and requires a variety of risk communication strategies and approaches. The concern over radon exposure and its health effects may vary according to people's level of knowledge and receptivity. Homeowners in radon-prone areas are usually more informed and have greater concern over those not living in radon-prone areas. The latter group is often found to be resistant to testing. In British Columbia as well as many other parts of the country, some homes have been lying outside of the radon-prone areas have radon levels above the Canadian guideline, which is the reason Health Canada recommends that all homes should be tested. Over the last five years, the Environment Health Program (EHP) of Health Canada in the British Columbia region has been using a variety of different approaches in their radon risk communications through social media, workshops, webinars, public forums, poster contests, radon distribution maps, public inquiries, tradeshows and conference events, and partnership with different jurisdictions and nongovernmental organizations. The valuable lessons learned from these approaches are discussed in this special report.

  5. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  6. Risk management, a proposal for Communication strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Fontana; Mattia De Amicis; Matteo Rossetti; Carolina Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The increment of disasters related to natural hazards observed during the last decades, sometimes associated to the low perceived risk in the population involved, shows the need of non structural risk prevention and mitigation measures that contribute to improve people’s safety towards natural hazards. Among the usually most effective non structural measures that serve to improve the preparedness of the population, is the development of locally adapted communication campaigns that actively in...

  7. Risk communication strategies for genetically engineered food products

    OpenAIRE

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Inhalt: Introduction: -Some Introductory Examples -Consumer-relevant Utility Dimensions -Communication Flow between the Relevant Actors -Risk Communication Dimensions -Complete Model -Aims of the Study Method: -Participants -Procedure -Content Analysis Results: -Sample Category 1: Food safety -Sample Category 2: Product Quality -Sample Category 3: Freedom of Choice -Sample Category 4: Decision Power over Foodstuffs -Strategy 1: Scientific Information Approach -Strategy 2: Balanced Information...

  8. Improving flood risk management through risk communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoque, Jose Maria; Diez Herrero, Andres; Amerigo, Maria; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Olcina, Jorge; Cortes, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    risk and a low level of awareness regarding the Civil Protection Plan. In the social context of the Iberian Peninsula, where climate change models indicate an increase in extreme weather events and, consequently, high exposure and vulnerability to flash floods, the implementation of appropriately designed communication strategies is critical to improve the resilience of urban areas in order to cope with this risk.

  9. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hooker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman’s ‘risk = hazard + outrage’ formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to ‘capture’ the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities. We argue that, when facing trade-offs in probable outcomes from communication, it is always best to choose strategies that maintain or build trust, even at the cost of initial overreactions. We discuss these features of successful risk communication in relation to a range of specific examples, particularly opposition to community water fluoridation, Ebola, and routine childhood immunisation.

  10. Patients’ Perceptions of Cholesterol, Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and Risk Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Parker, Donna R.; Eaton, Charles B.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Gramling, Robert; Cover, Rebecca T.; Ahern, David K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite some recent improvement in knowledge about cholesterol in the United States, patient adherence to cholesterol treatment recommendations remains suboptimal. We undertook a qualitative study that explored patients’ perceptions of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and their reactions to 3 strategies for communicating CVD risk.

  11. Biological Risks to Public Health: Lessons from an International Conference to Inform the Development of National Risk Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Bhatiasevi, Aphaluck; Chaib, Fadela; Baggio, Ombretta; Banluta, Christina; Hollenweger, Lilian; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication. The international conference on "Risk communication strategies before, during and after public health emergencies" provided a platform to present current strategies, facilitate learning from recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, and discuss recommendations to inform risk communication strategy development. The discussion concluded with 4 key areas for improvement in risk communication: consider communication as a multidimensional process in risk communication, broaden the biomedical paradigm by integrating social science intelligence into epidemiologic risk assessments, strengthen multisectoral collaboration including with local organizations, and spearhead changes in organizations for better risk communication governance. National strategies should design risk communication to be proactive, participatory, and multisectoral, facilitating the connection between sectors and strengthening collaboration.

  12. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies for risk communication and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Falsaperla, Susanna; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Solarino, Stefano; Crescimbene, Massimo; Eva, Elena; Reitano, Danilo; Þorvaldsdottir, Solveig; Sousa Silva, Delta; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Damage of non-structural elements of buildings (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding, electrical and mechanical systems and furniture) is known to cause injuries and human losses. Also it has a significant impact on earthquake resilience and is yet being worldwide underestimated. The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. They were chosen because they are prone to damage level 2 and 3 (EMS-98, European Macroseismic Scale) that typically affects non-structural elements. We will develop and test a risk communication strategy taking into account the needs of households and schools, putting into practice a portfolio of best practice to reduce the most common non-structural vulnerabilities. We will target our actions to different societal groups, considering their cultural background and social vulnerabilities, and implement a participatory approach that will promote engagement and interaction between the scientific community, practitioners and citizens to foster knowledge on everyone's own neighborhoods, resilience and vulnerability. A Practical Guide for citizens will highlight that low-cost actions can be implemented to increase safety of households, meant as being the places where the most vulnerable societal groups, including children and elderly people, spend much of their time. Since our actions towards communication will include education, we will define tools that allow a clear and direct understanding of elements exposed to risk. Schools will be one of our target societal groups and their central role played at the community level will ensure spreading and strengthening of the communication process. Schools are often located in old or re-adapted buildings, formerly used for

  13. Reducing disaster risk in rural Arctic communities through effective communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Communication is the process of exchanging and relaying vital information that has bearing on the effectiveness of all phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, making it one of the most important activities in disasters. Lack of communication between emergency managers, policy makers, and communities at risk may result in an inability to accurately identify disaster risk, and failure to determine priorities during a hazard event. Specific goals of communication change during the four phases of emergency management. Consequently, the communication strategy changes as well. Communication strategy also depends on a variety of attitudinal and motivational characteristics of the population at risk, as well as socioeconomic, cultural, and geographical features of the disaster-prone region. In May 2013, insufficient communication patterns between federal, state, tribal agencies, and affected communities significantly contributed to delays in the flood response and recovery in several rural villages along the Yukon River in central Alaska. This case study finds that long term dialogue is critical for managing disaster risk and increasing disaster resilience in rural Northern communities. It introduces new ideas and highlights best practices in disaster communication.

  14. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  15. Communication strategies to address geohydrological risks: the POLARIS web initiative in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Pernice, Umberto; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Floods and landslides are common phenomena that cause serious damage and pose a severe threat to the population of Italy. The social and economic impact of floods and landslides in Italy is severe, and strategies to target the mitigation of the effects of these phenomena are needed. In the last few years, the scientific community has started to use web technology to communicate information on geohydrological hazards and the associated risks. However, the communication is often targeted at technical experts. In the attempt to communicate relevant information on geohydrological hazards with potential human consequences to a broader audience, we designed the POpoLazione A RISchio (POLARIS) website. POLARIS publishes accurate information on geohydrological risk to the population of Italy, including periodic reports on landslide and flood risk, analyses of specific damaging events and blog posts on landslide and flood events. By monitoring the access to POLARIS in the 21-month period between January 2014 and October 2015, we found that access increased during particularly damaging geohydrological events and immediately after the website was advertised by press releases. POLARIS demonstrates that the scientific community can implement suitable communication strategies that address different societal audiences, exploiting the role of mass media and social media. The strategies can help multiple audiences understand how risks can be reduced through appropriate measures and behaviours, contributing to increasing the resilience of the population to geohydrological risk.

  16. Reporting pesticide assessment results to farmworker families: development, implementation, and evaluation of a risk communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Doran, Alicia M; Rao, Pamela; Hoppin, Jane A; Snively, Beverly M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2004-04-01

    The collection of environmental samples presents a responsibility to return information to the affected participants. Explaining complex and often ambiguous scientific information to a lay audience is a challenge. As shown by environmental justice research, this audience frequently has limited formal education, increasing the challenge for researchers to explain the data collected, the risk indicated by the findings, and action the affected community should take. In this study we describe the development and implementation of a risk communication strategy for environmental pesticide samples collected in the homes of Latino/a migrant and seasonal farmworkers in a community-based participatory research project. The communication strategy was developed with community input and was based on face-to-face meetings with members of participating households. Using visual displays of data effectively conveyed information about individual household contamination and placed it in the context of community findings. The lack of national reference data and definitive standards for action necessitated a simplified risk message. We review the strengths and weaknesses of such an approach and suggest areas for future research in risk communication to communities affected by environmental health risks.

  17. Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Strate, Simon Wolter; Loznica, Javor; Nærland, Kristoffer; Skipper, Mads Christian; Jensen, Charlotte Haagen

    2013-01-01

    This project focuses on the oil company, Shell, and their way of conducting themselves on social media sites, specifically Facebook and twitter. We establish this by using social media theory, and corporate campaign theories, and applying these to the content that Shell puts out on these particular social media sites. Furthermore, the project establishes a critical evaluation of the weight and presence of social media within modern corporate communication and issue management.

  18. Diversity in Risk Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Nur Probohudono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the communication of the five major categories of risk (business, strategy, market and credit risk disclosure over the volatile 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis (GFC time period in key South East Asian countries’ manufacturing listed companies. This study is important as it contributes to the literature by providing insights into the voluntary risk disclosure practices using sample countries with different economic scenarios. Key findings are that business risk is the most disclosed category and strategy risk is the least disclosed. Business and credit risk disclosure consistently increase over the three year period, while operating, market and strategy risk disclosure increase in 2008, but then decrease slightly in 2009. Statistical analysis reveals that country of incorporation and size help predict risk disclosure levels. The overall low disclosure levels (26-29% highlight the potential for far higher communication of key risk factors.

  19. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  20. An empirical analysis of communication flow, strategy and stakeholders' participation in the risk communication literature 1988–2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gutteling, Jan M.; Kuttschreuter, Margot

    2005-01-01

    Risk communication during the years has shown its vitality and has proved its importance as a field of research. This article provides a brief record of the development of risk communication in the environmental and technological domain by examining some of the trends resulting from the analysis of

  1. Business Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Hulea

    2005-01-01

    General communication processes rely on messages implying contents, communication channels, a receiver and clear objectives. Once accepting the importance of defining objectives, three strategies, narrative, implicative, and decisional, seem to be specific for most business communications. While narrative business communications convey information with a view of simply transmitting information and depend on accuracy, complexity, and clarity, implicative business communications convey informat...

  2. NASA's Agency-wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kristen; Scroggins. Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. To help enable existing and future programs to pursue this mission, NASA has established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) to proactively identify, analyze, and communicate environmental regulatory risks to the NASA community. The RRAC PC is chartered to evaluate the risks posed to NASA Programs and facilities by environmentally related drivers. The RRAC PC focuses on emerging environmental regulations, as well as risks related to operational changes that can trigger existing environmental requirements. Changing regulations have the potential to directly affect program activities. For example, regulatory changes can restrict certain activities or operations by mandating changes in how operations may be done or limiting where or how certain operations can take place. Regulatory changes also can directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage aPi'iications of certain materials. Such changes can result in NASA undertaking material replacement efforts. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented several strategies for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA Programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the lessons learned through establishing the RRAC PC, the process by which the RRAC PC monitors and distributes information about emerging regulatory requirements, and the cross

  3. Report of the International Conference on Risk Communication Strategies for BSL-4 laboratories, Tokyo, October 3-5, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Keith, Kelly; Comer, Chris; Abraham, Gordon; Gopal, Robin; Marui, Eiji

    2009-06-01

    Working with highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola or Marburg virus in the context of infection control or biodefense research requires high-biocontainment laboratories of the Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) to protect researchers and laboratory staff from infection and to prevent the unintentional release of harmful agents. The public perception of research on highly pathogenic agents and the operation of high-containment facilities is often ambivalent: while the output of the biomedical research is highly valued, the existence of a BSL-4 lab is often viewed with concern. Biomedical research perspectives and public perceptions often differ and can lead to tensions that could have negative effects on research, society, and politics. Therefore, risk communication plays a crucial role in siting, building, and operating a high-containment facility. The Japanese government invited risk communication experts and scientists from Canada, the U.S., Europe, and Australia to discuss their risk communication strategies for BSL-4 labs. This article describes the international perspective on risk communication and gives recommendations for successful strategies.

  4. Designing a risk communication strategy for health hazards posed by traditional slaughter of goats in Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Qekwana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In African societies, traditional slaughter is linked to celebrations like weddings or births, as well as funerals and ancestor veneration. Participants in traditional slaughter of goats are at risk of exposure to hazards during slaughter, food preparation and consumption of goat meat. For risk mitigation strategies to be implemented, identification of the population at risk is required. This study is based on the premise that the demographic profile of people involved in traditional slaughter of goats is important for risk communication. Both structured and informal interviews were recorded and analysed using a thematic analysis. A total of 105 people were interviewed at taxi ranks in Tshwane, Gauteng. Of these, 48 were women and 57 men. The median age of women and men was 40.6 years and 44.3 years, respectively. The majority of respondents (61.9%, n = 65 interviewed were from the Gauteng Province. Sixty percent (n = 63 of respondents had a secondary education, whilst less than 4.81% (n = 5 of respondents had no formal education. This study demonstrated that interviewing commuters at taxi ranks gave access to a cross section of gender, age, language and origin. It was found that both genders were involved in traditional slaughter of goats. Risk communication strategies should thus target women as well as men. Communication strategies to mitigate the risks of traditional slaughter of goats should take into consideration the dynamic nature of demographic and cultural norms. In light of the wide demographic profile of the respondents, it was concluded that it should be possible to use taxi ranks for successful dissemination of food safety and occupational health risk mitigation messages.

  5. Communication Strategy of Kenvelo

    OpenAIRE

    Plajner, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the problem of communication strategy in the fashion business with application on one of the fashion retailers, Kenvelo. Clothing business, or as we will refer here fashion business is together with food, transportation and communication businesses one of the most natural and essential parts of our lives. Nonetheless, fashion business is one of the most challenging and unpredictable ones, driven by many different factors and sometimes hardly comprehensive links. Th...

  6. NASA Education Communication Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2008

    2008-01-01

    For the past 15 years, the number of American college students earning science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees has continued to decrease. By 2010, it is projected the national demand for STEM employees will rise by 10 percent. The Education Communication Strategy identifies the steps National Aeronautics and Space…

  7. COMMUNICATION PROCESSES AND STRATEGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionThe main goal of studying a foreign language is to be able to communicate.The essence ofcommunication is sending and receiving messages and negotiating meaning.During the communicationprocess,learners may meet problems which hinder their understanding.In order to overcome theselimitations,it is very.important to know and use certain strategies involved in the communicationprocesses.There are three basic activities in the communication process-expressing intensions,interpretation andnegotiation.Expressing intentions is giving information.During communication,every speaker has tofirst send his or her messages and the listener must decode what he or she has heard.This activity may becalled interpretation.During conversation,both listener and speaker must do some negotiation in orderto make sure that they understand each other.Negotiation could be called communication exchange.

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  9. COREDAR: COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation stRategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsad Ibrahim Khan, S. K.; Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Andimuthu, R.; Kandasamy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) is a major long term outcome of climate change leading to increased inundation of low-lying areas. Particularly, global cities that are located on or near the coasts are often situated in low lying areas and these locations put global cities at greater risk to SLR. Localized flooding will profoundly impact vulnerable communities located in high-risk urban areas. Building community resilience and adapting to SLR is increasingly a high priority for cities. On the other hand, Article 6 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change addresses the importance of climate change communication and engaging stakeholders in decision making process. Importantly, Community Based Adaptation (CBA) experiences emphasize that it is important to understand a community's unique perceptions of their adaptive capacities to identify useful solutions and that scientific and technical information on anticipated coastal climate impacts needs to be translated into a suitable language and format that allows people to be able to participate in adaptation planning. To address this challenge, this study has put forth three research questions from the lens of urban community engagement in SLR adaptation, (1) What, if any, community engagement in addressing SLR occurring in urban areas; (2) What information do communities need and how does it need to be communicated, in order to be better prepared and have a greater sense of agency? and (3) How can government agencies from city to federal levels facilitate community engagement and action?. To answer these questions this study has evolved a framework "COREDAR" (COmmunicating Risk of sea level rise and Engaging stakeholDers in framing community based Adaptation StRategies) to communicate and transfer complex climate data and information such as projected SLR under different scenarios of IPCC AR5, predicted impact of SLR, prioritizing vulnerability, etc. to concerned stakeholders and local communities

  10. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhaber, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  11. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, J.C. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). School of Communication; Reno, H.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  12. A Strategy of Dialogue for Communicating Hazard and Risk Information Between the Science and Emergency Management Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will describe a collaborative dialogue process between earth scientists and emergency management officials that focused on translation of science into policy, building long term trust based relationships between sectors and unified presentation of hazards, risks and consequence management to public officials and the general public. The author will describe the structure and process of the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) in assessing the credibility of long and short term earthquake predictions, assessment of risk, and the formulation of public communication strategies and preparatory actions by government agencies. For nearly 4 decades, earth scientists, politically appointed state officials and emergency managers have engaged in ongoing discussions of the policy implications of research on potential seismic risk. Some discussions were scheduled and occurred over months, and others were ad hoc and occurred in the minutes between potential precursory incidents and possible large events. The effectiveness of this process was dependent on building respect for ones counterparts expertise, bias and responsibilities, clear communication of data, uncertainty and knowledge of the physical models assumed, history and probabilities; and the physical and political consequences of possible events; and the costs and economic and social disruption of alternative preparedness actions. But, the dialogue included political and social scientists, representatives of the print and broadcast media, political and management officials from federal, state and local governments. The presentation will provide an assessment of the effectiveness of the collaborative dialogue process and lessons on sustaining a long term partnership among the participating federal, state and local officials.

  13. COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN BUSSINES PROMOTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    DALIA PETCU; VASILE GHERHEŞ; SORIN SUCIU; IOAN DAVID

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a company to reach its business targets is closely linked to the effectiveness of its communication strategies. Building brad value or strengthening an existing brand involves different ways of communication but all have, as a starting point, a good knowledge of the consumers’ habits. This paper aims to identify and analyze various communication strategies designed to help business promoting.

  14. Communication strategies in business promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia PETCU; Vasile GHERHES; Sorin SUCIU; Ioan DAVID

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a company to reach its business targets is closely linked to the effectiveness of its communication strategies. Building brad value or strengthening an existing brand involves different ways of communication but all have, as a starting point, a good knowledge of the consumers’ habits. This paper aims to identify and analyze various communication strategies designed to help business promoting.

  15. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Julie; McConnon, Aine; Kennedy, Jean; Raats, Monique; Shepherd, Richard; Verbeke, Wim; Fletcher, Jon; Kuttschreuter, Margôt; Lima, Luisa; Wills, Josephine; Wall, Patrick

    2011-05-13

    European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. The

  16. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Luisa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies" aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to

  17. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to

  18. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barnett, Julie

    2011-05-13

    Abstract Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks\\/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods\\/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk\\/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk\\/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating

  19. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

      Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. A variety of risks are associated in shrimp farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for...... diseases) is the major concern of shrimp producers of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication...... of such a risk to the shrimp farmers. The risk perception and communication concepts could be applied to identify and to manage the disease occurrence in the initial stage. This conceptual paper provides the models to prevent and to manage shrimp diseases in coastal shrimp farming of Bangladesh and other...

  20. A revision of communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction: A case study of the South Durban basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Skinner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.

  1. Strategy for communicating benefit-risk decisions: a comparison of regulatory agencies' publicly available documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong Wai Yeen, James; Salek, Sam; Walker, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The assessment report formats of four major regulatory reference agencies, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration were compared to a benefit-risk (BR) documentation template developed by the Centre for Innovation in Regulatory Science and a four-member Consortium on Benefit-Risk Assessment. A case study was also conducted using a US FDA Medical Review, the European Public Assessment Report and Australia's Public Assessment Report for the same product. Compared with the BR Template, existing regulatory report formats are inadequate regarding the listing of benefits and risks, the assigning of relative importance and values, visualization and the utilization of a detailed, systematic, standardized structure. The BR Template is based on the principles of BR assessment common to major regulatory agencies. Given that there are minimal differences among the existing regulatory report formats, it is timely to consider the feasibility of a universal template.

  2. Strategy for communicating benefit-risk decisions: A comparison of regulatory agencies’ publicly available documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLeong Wai Yeen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment report formats of four major regulatory reference agencies, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration were compared to a benefit-risk (BR documentation template developed by the Centre for Innovation in Regulatory Science and a four-member Consortium on Benefit-Risk Assessment. A case study was also conducted using a US FDA Medical Review, the European Public Assessment Report and Australia’s Public Assessment Report for the same product. Compared with the BR Template, existing regulatory report formats are inadequate regarding the listing of benefits and risks, the assigning of relative importance and values, visualization and the utilization of a detailed, systematic, standardized structure. The BR Template is based on the principles of BR assessment common to major regulatory agencies. Given that there are minimal differences among the existing regulatory report formats, it is timely to consider the feasibility of a universal template.

  3. Trends in Corporate Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Milosteanu; Ionel Scaunasu; Alina Cornescu; Nicolae Popovic

    2011-01-01

    When business strategy is correlated with corporate communication strategy, this is reflected in the position and image of the organization on the market, leading to higher sales and increased profitability. The major changes caused by globalization, coupled with the new dynamic of the markets where consumers have access to more information in less time, require new forms of corporate communication. The new corporate communication concept involves major challenges for managers and can help de...

  4. Trends in Corporate Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Milosteanu; Ionel Scaunasu; Alina Cornescu; Nicolae Popovic

    2011-01-01

    When business strategy is correlated with corporate communication strategy, this is reflected in the position and image of the organization on the market, leading to higher sales and increased profitability. The major changes caused by globalization, coupled with the new dynamic of the markets where consumers have access to more information in less time, require new forms of corporate communication. The new corporate communication concept involves major challenges for managers and can help de...

  5. COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN BUSSINES PROMOTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALIA PETCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of a company to reach its business targets is closely linked to the effectiveness of its communication strategies. Building brad value or strengthening an existing brand involves different ways of communication but all have, as a starting point, a good knowledge of the consumers’ habits. This paper aims to identify and analyze various communication strategies designed to help business promoting.

  6. Communication: essential strategies for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary

    2013-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advance organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tool, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategies for communication for change processes, whether large or small. Intentional planning and development of a communication strategy alongside, not as an afterthought, to change initiatives are essential.

  7. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  8. Risk Communication and Citizen Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Despite the last few decades’ devotion to deliberative methods in risk communication, many studies point to how important challenges arise when citizens are engaged in public dialogue. Since the era of enlightenment public dialogue has occupied a position as a normative ideal for political......, their different presumptions about the role of communication symmetry are likely to appear. This points to how the models hold very different expectations as to the dialogical outcome, thus imposing some fundamental conflicts regarding the political efficacy of citizen engagement as a strategy for bridging...

  9. Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

  10. Integrated communications strategy for mylabel

    OpenAIRE

    Mazek, Katarzuna

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Communication Strategy for MyLabel Following paper presents Integrated Communication Strategy for Continente’s private label brand of cosmetics MyLabel. The main purpose of the project is to position MyLabel as venture brand which will gain strong market position in order to compete with the manufacturer brands. Therefore, based on the created brand equity model for the venture cosmetic brand, MyLabel will be approached from the branding perspective in order to improve perceived...

  11. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  12. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  13. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Richun; Xie, Ruiqian; Yang, Chong; Frost, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    To identify the general public's perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in humans in 2013. Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. Most the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  14. The Use of Communication Strategies in Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication strategy use among adult learners of English in a computer-mediated environment. Specifically explored communication strategies employed during problem-free discourse as well as compensatory strategy use during task-based computer-mediated communication. Strategy use was also examined relative to communicative task type.…

  15. 2012 NEHA/UL sabbatical report: vulnerability to potential impacts of climate change: adaptation and risk communication strategies for environmental health practitioners in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut

    2014-04-01

    Climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning have become increasingly important to environmental health practitioners (EHPs). The NEHA/UL Sabbatical Exchange Award allowed me to investigate how EHPs in the UK are incorporating climate change planning and communication strategies into their work. Projected climate change risks in the UK include flooding, extreme heat, water shortages, severe weather, decreased air quality, and changes in vectors. Despite public perception and funding challenges, all the local government representatives with whom I met incorporated climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning into their work. The mandated Community Risk Register serves as a key planning document developed by each local government authority and is a meaningful way to look at potential climate change health risks. Adaptation and sustainability were common threads in my meetings. These often took the form of "going green" with transportation, energy efficiency, conserving resources, and building design because the efforts made sense monetarily as future cost savings. Communication strategies targeted a variety of audiences (EHPs, non-EHP government employees, politicians, and the general public) using a broad range of communication channels (professional training, lobbying, conferences and fairs, publications, print materials, Internet resources, social media, billboards, etc).

  16. Security Problems of Communicative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Perelygina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of safety formation in communication strategies are connected with their adaptation to the conditions of social and psychological variability. Building up a communicative strategy is a versatile process, in which it is necessary to consider a wide spectrum of social and psychological parameters, especially topical in the modern period of social development. Forms of social interactions in schematic formats of contemporary social and economic revolution are reduced, social and functional potentials are depleted, mass society is further differentiating, the pace of historic changes is growing, all this determines the necessity to prepare changes in personality structures to the dynamics of social and fluidity.

  17. Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2012-05-01

    Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia.

  18. Perceptions on the risk communication strategy during the 2013 avian influenza A/H7N9 outbreak in humans in China: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the general public’s perceptions of the overall risk communication strategy carried out by Chinese public health agencies during the first wave of avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in humans in 2013. Methods: Participants were recruited from communities in Beijing, Lanzhou and Hangzhou, China in May and June 2013 by convenience sampling. Demographics and other relevant information were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group interviews were conducted using a set of nine pre-developed questions and a tested moderator guide. The interviews were audio recorded and were transcribed verbatim. The constant comparative method was used to identify trends and themes. Results: A total of nine focus group interviews, with 94 participants recruited from nine communities, were conducted. Most participants received H7N9 information via television and the Internet. A majority of the participants appreciated the transparency and timeliness of the information released by the government. They expressed a sense of trust in the recommended public health advice and followed most of them. The participants suggested that the government release more information about clinical treatment outcomes, have more specific health recommendations that are practical to their settings and expand the use of new media channels for risk communication. Conclusion: The public perceived the overall risk communication strategy by the Chinese public health agencies as effective, though the moderator had a governmental agency title that might have biased the results. There is a need to expand the use of social media for risk communication in the future.

  19. Feedback strategies for wireless communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ozbek, Berna

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the different strategies regarding the feedback information for wireless communication systems. The text analyzes the impact of quantization and correlation of channel state information (CSI) on the system performance. The authors show the effect of the reduced and limited feedback information and gives an overview about the feedback strategies in the standards. This volume presents theoretical analysis as well as practical algorithms for the required feedback information at the base stations to perform adaptive resource allocation efficiently and mitigate interference coming from other cells.

  20. Risk communication, risk perception, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakko, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Risk communication is about building trust while deploying an interactive and ongoing communication process in which audience members are active participants. This interactive participation may not solve a public health crisis, but it will help reduce unwarranted fear, anxiety and distrust. Consequently, if a government agency fails to understand how to effectively communicate about health risks, their trustworthiness and credibility may suffer, and a crisis event may go from bad to worse.

  1. Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Steiner, Markus; Grimes, David A; Hilgenberg, Deborah; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2013-04-30

    Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness is crucial to making an informed choice. The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness. To review all randomized controlled trials comparing strategies for communicating to consumers the effectiveness of contraceptives in preventing pregnancy. Through February 2013, we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO and CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. Previous searches also included EMBASE. We also examined references lists of relevant articles. For the initial review, we wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared methods for communicating contraceptive effectiveness to consumers. The comparison could be usual practice or an alternative to the experimental intervention.Outcome measures were knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness, attitude about contraception or toward any particular contraceptive, and choice or use of contraceptive method. For the initial review, two authors independently extracted the data. One author entered the data into RevMan, and a second author verified accuracy. For the update, an author and a research associate extracted, entered, and checked the data.For dichotomous variables, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous variables, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria and had a total of 4526 women. Five were multi-site studies. Four trials were conducted in the USA, while Nigeria and Zambia were represented by one study each, and one trial was done in both Jamaica and India.Two trials provided multiple sessions for participants. In one study that examined contraceptive choice, women in

  2. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  3. Health promotion in workplaces as a strategy for modification of risk factors for Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs): A practical example from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasiri, Amila; Dissanayake, Arosha; de Silva, Vijitha

    2016-10-17

    Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as a major public health concern worldwide and became a leading cause of mortality in Sri Lanka accounting for 65% of deaths. Health promotion strategies aimed at lifestyle modification are helpful in modifying risk factors for NCDs. To transform a workplace to a health promotion setting where lifestyle changes in workers lead to a modification of risk factors for NCDs. A health promotion program was conducted in a divisional administrative office, in Sri Lanka. An office health promotion committee was established and an action plan was prepared with participation of the workers. An interviewer administrated questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for NCDs. Workers were then screened for NCDs. Behavioral change and communication (BCC) programs were conducted to improve physical activity and dietary modifications. Workers actively participated realizing the ownership of their health. 32 males and 49 females (mean age of 40.8 years) were assessed. Among them, 23.4% were overweight and obese while 26% reported physical inactivity. Among males, 12.5% were smokers. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were present among 9.9% and 12.3%, respectively. 6.2% had high fasting blood glucose values. The program resulted in identifying 12 new patients with NCDs. After initiating health promotion activities, smoking rate dropped by 75%. Physical inactivity was reduced by 14% and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables increased by 19%. Programs targeting office settings are a new strategy for reduction of NCDs in Sri Lanka. True benefit of risk factor modification through BCC programs will become apparent in longitudinal assessments.

  4. Language Learning Strategies and Communication Strategies: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Kausar

    2006-01-01

    Since Selinker's (1972) historic invocation of language learning strategies (LLS) and communication strategies (CS) as two distinct processes involved in the development of interlanguage, it has become customary in SLA literature to distinguish the strategies of learning from the strategies of communication. It has been argued in this article that…

  5. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  6. Risk Assessment Terminology: Risk Communication Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, Gaetano; Bentley, Stefano; Giacometti, Federica; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-04-19

    The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: different aspects of risk perception (perceived risk, media triggers, the psychometric paradigm, fright factors and cultural determinants of risk perception) are described. The risk profile elements are illustrated in the manuscript: hazard-food commodity combination(s) of concern; description of the public health problem; food production, processing, distribution and consumption; needs and questions for the risk assessors; available information and major knowledge gaps and other risk profile elements.

  7. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: different aspects of risk perception (perceived risk, media triggers, the psychometric paradigm, fright factors and cultural determinants of risk perception are described. The risk profile elements are illustrated in the manuscript: hazard-food commodity combination(s of concern; description of the public health problem; food production, processing, distribution and consumption; needs and questions for the risk assessors; available information and major knowledge gaps and other risk profile elements.

  8. Integrating Computer-Mediated Communication Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Communication strategies (CSs) play important roles in resolving problematic second language interaction and facilitating language learning. While studies in face-to-face contexts demonstrate the benefits of communication strategy instruction (CSI), there have been few attempts to integrate computer-mediated communication and CSI. The study…

  9. Communicating risk effectively

    OpenAIRE

    Piening, Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Dit proefschrift richt zich op risicocommunicatie over bijwerkingen van geneesmiddelen. Nadat geneesmiddel op de markt worden toegelaten kunnen zich ernstige veiligheidsproblemen voordoen, mogelijk leidend tot ziekenhuisopnamen, handicaps, of zelfs overlijden van patiënten. Zorgverleners worden van deze bijwerkingen op de hoogte gebracht door middel van papieren waarschuwingsbrieven; zogenaamde Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPC’s). DHPC’s zijn hierin echter niet altijd succe...

  10. Communicating risk effectively

    OpenAIRE

    Piening, Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Dit proefschrift richt zich op risicocommunicatie over bijwerkingen van geneesmiddelen. Nadat geneesmiddel op de markt worden toegelaten kunnen zich ernstige veiligheidsproblemen voordoen, mogelijk leidend tot ziekenhuisopnamen, handicaps, of zelfs overlijden van patiënten. Zorgverleners worden van deze bijwerkingen op de hoogte gebracht door middel van papieren waarschuwingsbrieven; zogenaamde Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPC’s). DHPC’s zijn hierin echter niet altijd succe...

  11. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  12. Iranian EFL Learner’s Communication Strategies:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Sobhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Email has become a widespread medium of communication between students and their instructors, however; there is a limited amount of research on instructional role and uses of email in academic context. The present study investigated the communication strategies in email messages sent by Iranian EFL students to their male instructors in relation to their socioeconomic status (such as family income and education level. Moreover, the relationships between communication strategies and gender were examined. Email message sent by male and female students to their male instructors during the academic year 2012-2013 were analyzed for communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting, social. The results of quantitative and qualitative statistics revealed that there were significant relationships between communication strategies and participants’ socioeconomic status. In addition, there were significant relationships between communication strategies and gender.

  13. Politeness Strategies in English Verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses politeness and face, politeness strategies and polite language in verbal communication. The author puts forward some constructive suggestions on the appropriate use of politeness strategies and polite language in different contexts.

  14. The effectiveness of flood risk communication strategies and the influence of social networks-Insights from an agent-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk management is becoming increasingly important, because more people are settling in flood-prone areas, and flood risk is increasing in many regions due to extreme weather events associated with climate change. It has been proposed that appropriately designed flood risk communication

  15. The effectiveness of flood risk communication strategies and the influence of social networks-Insights from an agent-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W.J.W.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk management is becoming increasingly important, because more people are settling in flood-prone areas, and flood risk is increasing in many regions due to extreme weather events associated with climate change. It has been proposed that appropriately designed flood risk communication campai

  16. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

    Coastal shrimp aquaculture is one of the major economic activities of the people of developing countries especially in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. Various types of risks are associated in shri...

  17. Organizational Communication Strategies in Elementary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Alen

    Organizations, regardless of size and complexities, must depend on communication as a medium to effectively function. Regardless of the best-laid strategies, lack of communication may yield unfavorable results. Needless to state, organizational communication has been perceived as a challenge within many educational organizations. The intent of…

  18. Organizational Communication Strategies in Elementary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Alen

    Organizations, regardless of size and complexities, must depend on communication as a medium to effectively function. Regardless of the best-laid strategies, lack of communication may yield unfavorable results. Needless to state, organizational communication has been perceived as a challenge within many educational organizations. The intent of…

  19. Communication strategies for organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Astrid Lobo

    2008-03-01

    A country, state or hospital may have the latest medical technology and infrastructure as well as qualified professionals for organ transplantation, but unless there is an adequate donor population the waiting lists for transplants will continue to be long and for some patients, hopeless. Public and professional awareness programmes are key factor in the donation process. Social education that explains the life-saving benefits of organ transplantation, the enormous need for organ donation, the concept of brain death and religious teachings related to these issues is vital for creating a conducive environment for the organ transplant co-ordinator or physician soliciting the donation. The education of hospital medical, nursing and administrative personnel is also essential to both miximise opportunities for donation, as well as to prevent loss of potential organs after donor consent. Other target populations are medical examiners or coroners, and police personnel under whose jurisdiction the donations occur, as their co-operation and guidance is necessary for meeting statutory requirements. The involvement of government officials and politicians is also valuable, as their active intervention is essential for the introduction and amendment of rules and laws to promote the donation and transplantation of organs. The present paper describes communication strategies for the development of an efficient education plan that will provide information about organ transplantation, explain the desired outcome, address potential queries, misconceptions or obstacles, and identify potential sources of support.

  20. The Theoretical Background of Communication Strategy Research

    OpenAIRE

    達川, 奎三

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this article are to summarize the historical development of discussions on 'communicative competence' of language learners, focusing on 'strategic competence,' and also to explain different approaches to the study of communication strategies. A lot of different ideas have been presented on the concept of communicative competence so far. However, it is agreed today that communicative competence of language learners consists of several major sub-components, one of which is strat...

  1. Nanotechnology Risk Communication Past and Prologue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Löfstedt, Ragnar E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnologies operate at atomic, molecular, and macromolecular scales, at scales where matter behaves differently than at larger scales and quantum effects can dominate. Nanotechnologies have captured the imagination of science fiction writers as science, engineering, and industry have leapt to the challenge of harnessing them. Applications are proliferating. In contrast, despite recent progress the regulatory landscape is not yet coherent, and public awareness of nanotechnology remains low. This has led risk researchers and critics of current nanotechnology risk communication efforts to call for proactive strategies that do more than address facts, that include and go beyond the public participation stipulated by some government acts. A redoubling of nanotechnology risk communication efforts could enable consumer choice and informed public discourse about regulation and public investments in science and safety. PMID:21039707

  2. Consumer responses to communication about food risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Heleen; Houghton, Julie; van Kleef, Ellen; van der Lans, Ivo; Rowe, Gene; Frewer, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Recent emphasis within policy circles has been on transparent communication with consumers about food risk management decisions and practices. As a consequence, it is important to develop best practice regarding communication with the public about how food risks are managed. In the current study, the provision of information about regulatory enforcement, proactive risk management, scientific uncertainty and risk variability were manipulated in an experiment designed to examine their impact on consumer perceptions of food risk management quality. In order to compare consumer reactions across different cases, three food hazards were selected (mycotoxins on organically grown food, pesticide residues, and a genetically modified potato). Data were collected from representative samples of consumers in Germany, Greece, Norway and the UK. Scores on the "perceived food risk management quality" scale were subjected to a repeated-measures mixed linear model. Analysis points to a number of important findings, including the existence of cultural variation regarding the impact of risk communication strategies-something which has obvious implications for pan-European risk communication approaches. For example, while communication of uncertainty had a positive impact in Germany, it had a negative impact in the UK and Norway. Results also indicate that food risk managers should inform the public about enforcement of safety laws when communicating scientific uncertainty associated with risks. This has implications for the coordination of risk communication strategies between risk assessment and risk management organizations.

  3. Population communication management training strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan Salas, E

    1985-01-01

    The discussion presents some thoughts on a general training strategy in information/education/communication (IEC) management which might meet the needs of 3rd world countries. Management by objectives (MBO) has emerged as the central doctrine in management theory and practice since its initial formulation in 1954. Yet, little evidence exists to date of its successful application in IEC activities. Population IEC activities, being staff activities in a nonprofit, public sector program, are in the "twilight zone" of MBO where hasty efforts to comply with the form if not the substance of this management technique can lead to lower levels of performance and achievement than before the goal setting system was implemented. Yet, clearly, IEC managers need the benefits that management by objectives can bring if done properly. It is essential that IEC managers and workers stop looking at IEC materials as end products in themselves but rather as inputs to be combined with other inputs in realizing the desired output of voluntary behavioral change on a mass level. To overcome tendencies toward provincialism, all IEC managers should initially spend time working in other areas of the population program. The experience of using IEC materials and approaches in face-to-face transactions with potential acceptors is a prerequisite to the successful formulation of such materials and approaches. Training programs for IEC managers and supervisors should emphasize development of consensual decision making skills. The success or failure of the program depends on the ability of its workers to resolve potential conflicts between an individual's priorities and national priorities in a noncoercive manner. The social dynamics approach that seeks a conscious, voluntary, nonmanipulated shift of shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, and actions is the approach underlying the most successful population programs. All IEC managers and supervisors should be systematically trained in norm shifting

  4. Communicating Risk to Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Program Managers (PM) can protect program resources and improve chances of success by anticipating, understanding and managing risks. Understanding the range of potential risks helps one to avoid or manage the risks. A PM must choose which risks to accept to reduce fire fighting, must meet the expectations of stakeholders consistently, and avoid falling into costly "black holes" that may open. A good risk management process provides the PM more confidence to seize opportunities save money, meet schedule, even improve relationships with people important to the program. Evidence of managing risk and sound internal controls can mean better support from superiors for the program by building a trust and reputation from being on top of issues. Risk managers have an obligation to provide the PM with the best information possible to allow the benefits to be realized (Small Business Consortium, 2004). The Institute for Chartered Accountants in England and Wales sees very important benefits for companies in providing better information about what they do to assess and manage key business risks. Such information will: a) provide practical forward-looking information; b) reduce the cost of capital; c) encourage better risk management; and d) improve accountability for stewardship, investor protection and the usefulness of financial reporting. We are particularly convinced that enhanced risk reporting will help listed companies obtain capital at the lowest possible cost (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England &Wales, June 2002). Risk managers can take a significant role in quantifying the success of their department and communicating those figures to executive (program) management levels while pushing for a broader risk management role. Overall, risk managers must show that risk management work matters in the most crucial place-the bottom line- as they prove risk management can be a profit center (Sullivan, 2004).

  5. EPA Library Network Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish Agency-wide procedures for the EPA National Library Network libraries to communicate, using a range of established mechanisms, with other EPA libraries, EPA staff, organizations and the public.

  6. Developing Communicative Strategies and Grammar Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzial, Krystyna

    Procedures used in foreign language teaching are discussed from the point of view of developing communicative strategies in students. Literature on communicative competence is reviewed and the implications for foreign language instruction are discussed. It is shown that: (1) from the very beginning of language instruction, the classroom setting,…

  7. Disaster risk communication: A dichotomous approach incorporating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disaster risk communication: A dichotomous approach incorporating ... knowledge systems and modern risk communication management is found in ... The proposed model will undoubtedly provoke academic debate and help inform policy in ...

  8. Risk communication: Uncertainties and the numbers game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortigara, M. [ed.

    1995-08-30

    The science of risk assessment seeks to characterize the potential risk in situations that may pose hazards to human health or the environment. However, the conclusions reached by the scientists and engineers are not an end in themselves - they are passed on to the involved companies, government agencies, legislators, and the public. All interested parties must then decide what to do with the information. Risk communication is a type of technical communication that involves some unique challenges. This paper first defines the relationships between risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication and then explores two issues in risk communication: addressing uncertainty and putting risk number into perspective.

  9. Successful Climate Science Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, P.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, efforts to communicate the facts of global change have not successfully moved political leaders and the general public to action. In response, a number of collaborative efforts between scientists and professional communicators, writers, journalists, bloggers, filmmakers, artists and others have arisen seeking to bridge that gap. As a result, a new cadre of science-literate communicators, and media-savvy scientists have made themselves visible across diverse mainstream, traditional, and social media outlets. Because of these collaborations, in recent years, misinformation, and disinformation have been successfully met with accurate and credible rebuttals within a single news cycle.Examples of these efforts is the Dark Snow Project, a science/communication collaboration focusing initially on accelerated arctic melt and sea level rise, and the Climate Science Rapid Response team, which matches professional journalists with appropriate science experts in order to respond within a single news cycle to misinformation or misunderstandings about climate science.The session will discuss successful examples and suggest creative approaches for the future.

  10. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  11. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  12. Mass Media Orientation and External Communication Strategies: Exploring Organisational Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.; Jacobs, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between mass media orientations of communication professionals in organisations and their external communication strategies. We assume that mass media orientations within an organisation may affect an organisation’s external communication strategies of bridging and

  13. Implicit Coordination Strategies for Effective Team Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchibabu, Abhizna; Sparano-Huiban, Christopher; Sonenberg, Liz; Shah, Julie

    2016-06-01

    We investigated implicit communication strategies for anticipatory information sharing during team performance of tasks with varying degrees of complexity. We compared the strategies used by teams with the highest level of performance to those used by the lowest-performing teams to evaluate the frequency and methods of communications used as a function of task structure. High-performing teams share information by anticipating the needs of their teammates rather than explicitly requesting the exchange of information. As the complexity of a task increases to involve more interdependence among teammates, the impact of coordination on team performance also increases. This observation motivated us to conduct a study of anticipatory information sharing as a function of task complexity. We conducted an experiment in which 13 teams of four people performed collaborative search-and-deliver tasks with varying degrees of complexity in a simulation environment. We elaborated upon prior characterizations of communication as implicit versus explicit by dividing implicit communication into two subtypes: (a) deliberative/goal information and (b) reactive status updates. We then characterized relationships between task structure, implicit communication, and team performance. We found that the five teams with the fastest task completion times and lowest idle times exhibited higher rates of deliberative communication versus reactive communication during high-complexity tasks compared with the five teams with the slowest completion times and longest idle times (p = .039). Teams in which members proactively communicated information about their next goal to teammates exhibited improved team performance. The findings from our work can inform the design of communication strategies for team training to improve performance of complex tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. [Benefit-risk assessment of vaccination strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslik, Thomas; Boëlle, Pierre Yves

    2007-04-01

    This article summarises the various stages of the risk/benefit assessment of vaccination strategies. Establishing the awaited effectiveness of a vaccination strategy supposes to have an epidemiologic description of the disease to be prevented. The effectiveness of the vaccine strategy will be thus expressed in numbers of cases, hospitalizations or deaths avoided. The effectiveness can be direct, expressed as the reduction of the incidence of the infectious disease in the vaccinated subjects compared to unvaccinated subjects. It can also be indirect, the unvaccinated persons being protected by the suspension in circulation of the pathogenic agent, consecutive to the implementation of the vaccination campaign. The risks of vaccination related to the adverse effects detected during the clinical trials preceding marketing are well quantified, but other risks can occur after marketing: e.g., serious and unexpected adverse effects detected by vaccinovigilance systems, or risk of increase in the age of cases if the vaccination coverage is insufficient. The medico-economic evaluation forms a part of the risks/benefit assessment, by positioning the vaccine strategy comparatively with other interventions for health. Epidemiologic and vaccinovigilance informations must be updated very regularly, which underlines the need for having an operational and reliable real time monitoring system to accompany the vaccination strategies. Lastly, in the context of uncertainty which often accompanies the risks/benefit assessments, it is important that an adapted communication towards the public and the doctors is planned.

  15. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  16. [Cancer screening and risk communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, Odette

    2013-04-01

    In most psychological and medical research, patients are assumed to have difficulties with health statistics but clinicians not. However, studies indicate that most doctors have problems in understanding health statistics, including those of their own speciality. For example, only two out of 20 urologists knew the information relevant for a patient to make an informed decision about whether to take PSA screening for prostate cancer, just 14 out of 65 physicians in internal medicine understood that 5-year survival rates do not tell anything about screening's benefit, and merely 34 out of 160 gynecologists were able to interpret the meaning of a positive test result. This statistical illiteracy has a direct effect on patients understanding and interpretation of medical issues. Not rarely their own limited health literacy and their doctors' misinformation make them suffer through a time of emotional distress and unnecessary anxiety. The main reasons for doctors' statistical illiteracy are medical schools that ignore the importance of teaching risk communication. With little effort doctors could taught the simple techniques of risk communication, which would make most of their statistical confusion disappear.

  17. Tailoring in risk communication by linking risk profiles and communication preferences: The case of speeding of young car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY ABOUT BUSINESS MODELS: STAKEHOLDERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojoagă Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizations inform stakeholders about their current and future activities, processes, created value, strategic intentions, and other information that may influence the established relationships. Organizations choose to communicate with stakeholders by different means and in varied ways. The annual report represents a way of communicating between companies and their stakeholders, and it is offering comprehensive information about how companies operates and creates value. The business model is an emerging concept in management literature and practice. The concept describes the logic by which a organization creates, maintains and delivers value for its stakeholders. Through annual reports organisations can communicate to stakeholders information about their business models.We investigated how information about business models is explicitly communicated through annual reports, and how this information is reffering to stakeholders. Our paper aims to reveal which stakeholders are more often mentioned when organizations are communicating about business models through annual reports. This approach shows the attention degree given by organizations to stakeholders. We perceived this from a strategic point of view, as a strategic signal. Thus, we considered if the stakeholder is mentioned more frequent in the communicated message it has a greater role in communication strategy about business model. We conducted an exploratory research and have realized a content analysis.The analysed data consist in over a thousand annual reports from 96 organizations. We analysed the informations transmitted by organizations through annual reports. The annual reports were for a time period of 12 years. Most of the selected companies are multi-business, and are operating in different industries. The results show the stakeholder’s hierarchy based on how often they were mentioned in the communicated messages about business models through annual reports. Based on our

  19. On Communicative Strategies: A Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; Frawley, William

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the notion of communicative strategies as it has been treated in the literature and then attempts a more precise and explanatory redefinition. Provides an overview of the Vygotskyan psycholinguistic research model which this study uses as a theoretical framework. Also presents a new typology of interlanguage. (SED)

  20. Meeting CCS communication challenges head-on: Integrating communications, planning, risk assessment, and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S.; Gauvreau, L.; Hnottavange-Telleen, K.; Finley, R.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Archer Daniels Midland has implemented a comprehensive communications plan at the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP), a one million metric tonne Carbon Capture and Storage project in Decatur, IL, USA funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The IBDP Communication Plan includes consortium information, funding and disclaimer citations, description of target audiences, media communications guidelines, paper and presentations guidelines, site visit information, crisis communication, on-site photography regulations, and other components. The creation, development, and implementation processes for the IBDP Communication Plan (the Plan) are shared in this paper. New communications challenges, such as how to address add-on research requests, data sharing and management, scope increase, and contract agreements have arisen since the Plan was completed in January 2009, resulting in development of new policies and procedures by project management. Integrating communications planning, risk assessment, and project management ensured that consistent, factual information was developed and incorporated into project planning, and constitutes the basis of public communications. Successful integration has allowed the IBDP to benefit from early identification and mitigation of the potential project risks, which allows more time to effectively deal with unknown and unidentified risks that may arise. Project risks and risks associated with public perception can be managed through careful planning and integration of communication strategies into project management and risk mitigation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. An electronic patient risk communication board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Caligtan, Christine A; Benoit, Angela N; Breydo, Eugene M; Carroll, Diane L; Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W; Dykes, John S; Dykes, Patricia C

    2012-01-01

    Communication failures have been identified as the root cause of the majority of medical malpractice claims and patient safety violations. We believe it is essential to share key patient risk information with healthcare team members at the patient's bedside. In this study, we developed an electronic Patient Risk Communication Board (ePRCB) to assist in bridging the communication gap between all health care team members. The goal of the ePRCB is to effectively communicate the patient's key risk factors, such as a fall risk or risk of aspiration, to the healthcare team and to reduce adverse events caused by communication failures. The ePRCB will transmit patient risk information and tailored interventions with easy-to-understand icons on an LCD screen at the point of care. A set of patient risk reminder icons was developed and validated by focus groups. We used the results of the evaluation to refine the icons for the ePRCB.

  2. Risk Communication: the connection between assessment and management of changing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Teresa; Prenger-Berninghoff, Kathrin; Charrière, Marie

    2013-04-01

    Working toward effective risk mitigation strategies amidst ever-present and increasingly changing risks requires first effective communication between assessment and management spheres. This notion permeates the spectrum of what can be considered the physical changing risk inputs that feed into the risk governance processes of assessment, management and communication of risks. Close connections and overlaps between assessment and management requires communication to serve as the crux for the close collaboration necessary for encouraging preventative, long-term strategies for reducing disaster risks.1 More specifically, communication of risk information plays this connective role by informing and advising policy and decision making processes conducted by actors such as spatial planners who receive this information. In this way, those who assess the risks provide information to those who must manage these risks. When this one-directional communication pathway is reciprocated, risk managers provide information to risk assessors, enabling two-way communication amongst actors working toward risk reduction. This communication and exchange of information enables development of strategies and actions taken toward creating and improving risk mitigation measures within a given territory and community. Further, management actions taken (especially for mitigative measures) can alter the physical and social elements of the spatial context of their territory.2 This demands an adjustment of the previous risk assessment information and communication of the change in potential risk. These conceptual underpinnings are addressed and presented through explanation of an analytical framework encompassing changing risk inputs into risk governance processes. The framework elaborates the risk communication component and is supported by practical examples from stakeholder meetings and site visits in the Polish and Romania case study areas of the Marie Curie ITN, CHANGES.3 Specific examples

  3. Communicating about Cutbacks: Straightforward Strategies for the Retrenchment Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Harvey K.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional advancement office needs a communication strategy for interpreting the retrenchment effects on the institution. Fourteen guidelines for communication about retrenchment are provided. (MLW)

  4. Marketing Communication Strategies of the Industrial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Wodyński

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial market, created by companies, which buy and sell goods which are not directly for consumption, but are used in production process, communicates with the environment in a specific way. Many industrial companies supply only the customers of non consumption goods market and hence they do not enter into direct contact with a final consumer. In such cases recognizing the customers needs is even more difficult. Such environment requires efficiently functioning and planned communication of the company with the market. This study presents methods and strategies of marketing communication really used in industrial companies. While analysing marketing strategies of industrial companies, the author draws the attention to the fact that even though there was system transformation, the state still has significant impact on functioning and development of industry and that in a way directs and created barriers in companies functioning. Such conditions force even more active marketing communication as well as searching new solutions. As there are more and more sophisticated marketing techniques related to digital media, there is also a growing demand for strategic solutions in marketing communication. Digital media, first of all the Internet, provide so far unavailable possibilities of researching consumers behaviours and ways of using media. They also give a chance to follow the behaviour of smaller, unique and often social groups of consumers.

  5. Risk Communication and the Pharmaceutical Industry: what is the reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian; Chakraborty, Sweta

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication is central to the risk management strategy of a pharmaceutical company. Pharmaceutical companies primarily communicate risk through labelling tools such as the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), package insert, patient information leaflet (PIL) and the carton, which are currently regulated based on templates such as those of the EU. Recent research raises concern about how effective the SmPC is alone in communicating risk. There is some evidence that carton design can influence risk comprehension. Processes to check new trade names cannot be confused with existing names is a simple measure to mitigate one form of risk. Given the central role and the vast amount of resource that is consumed, it is surprising there has not been extensive original research to see whether product information such as the SmPC is a good tool for communicating risk. Recently, EU agencies have assessed the communication value of the PIL and revised the template and guidelines. However, no evaluation of user testing has been conducted at European level since the introduction of these new requirements. As regards 'Dear Healthcare Professional Communications', there is inconsistent evidence about their ability to change patient and physician behaviour. There is a dearth of evidence about what sort of communications materials are the most effective under which circumstances. The use of templates restricts the flexibility of companies to adapt their risk messages to their targets. Effective communication requires understanding how different audiences perceive the message and what the fundamental drivers are for altering patient and prescriber behaviour to be safer. This requires careful consideration of the relationship between risk communication, perception and management. However, the focus of a company's risk communication plan is normally on the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) regions and their regulations. Although the same regulatory tools are

  6. The Strategy and Implementation of the Rosetta Communication Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.; Landeau-Constantin, J.

    2016-03-01

    The communication campaign for Rosetta has been the biggest success in the history of European Space Agency outreach, resulting in global awareness for the agency. The mission itself is an extraordinary operational and scientific success, but communicating only the operational and scientific firsts would likely not have brought the Rosetta orbiter and Philae lander to the attention of so many people, and would not have made the mission part of people's lives across the globe. The additional impact brought to the mission through the communication campaign was based on a strategic approach focusing on: real-time release of information with maximum transparency; direct real-time access for media and social media; adding a human dimension to the story; and communicating the risks openly in order to manage expectations. In this article we describe our overall strategy, illustrate its implementation, and provide the framework for subsequent articles in this journal highlighting specific aspects of the campaign in more detail.

  7. Risk communication as an operation meant to produce and share audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Korbas-Magal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Luhmann's system theory is used as a theoretical framework for analysing the way risk communicators view their social functions. Narrated experiences from risk communicators in practice facilitate an understanding of risk communication as both an external irritation to society and part of the mass communication system. They also aid in clarifying how perceptions of audiences are reflected in the risk-communication strategies. The analysis is based on qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews conducted with 22 risk communicators (scientific professionals, spokespeople and journalists in Israel. Thematic areas reflected in interviewees' reported strategies embody their perception of audiences. Those themes include: the reduction of complexities; coding and sorting of information; autopoiesis (realisation/non-realisation of the risk; rationality; inherent paradoxes; and schema formation. In sum, the findings suggest that risk communicators play a major role in defining, creating and producing audiences for the mass communication system.

  8. Risk communication in the case of the Fukushima accident: Impact of communication and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2016-10-01

    Risk communication about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011 was often not transparent, timely, clear, nor factually correct. However, lessons related to risk communication have been identified and some of them are already addressed in national and international communication programmes and strategies. The Fukushima accident may be seen as a practice scenario for risk communication with important lessons to be learned. As a result of risk communication failures during the accident, the world is now better prepared for communication related to nuclear emergencies than it was 5 years ago The present study discusses the impact of communication, as applied during the Fukushima accident, and the main lessons learned. It then identifies pathways for transparent, timely, clear and factually correct communication to be developed, practiced and applied in nuclear emergency communication before, during, and after nuclear accidents. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:683-686. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Communicating genetic risk information within families: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Mel; Dancyger, Caroline; Michie, Susan

    2010-12-01

    This review of family communication of genetic risk information addresses questions of what the functions and influences on communication are; what, who and how family members are told about genetic risk information; what the impact for counsellee, relative and relationships are; whether there are differences by gender and condition; and what theories and methodologies are used. A systematic search strategy identified peer-reviewed journal articles published 1985-2009 using a mixture of methodologies. A Narrative Synthesis was used to extract and summarise data relevant to the research questions. This review identified 33 articles which found a consistent pattern of findings that communication about genetic risk within families is influenced by individual beliefs about the desirability of communicating genetic risk and by closeness of relationships within the family. None of the studies directly investigated the impact of communication on counsellees or their families, differences according to gender of counsellee or by condition nor alternative methods of communication with relatives. The findings mainly apply to late onset conditions such as Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. The most frequently used theory was Family Systems Theory and methods were generally qualitative. This review points to multifactorial influences on who is communicated with in families and what they are told about genetic risk information. Further research is required to investigate the impact of genetic risk information on family systems and differences between genders and conditions.

  10. [Risk communication during health crises: results of a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of adopted corporate communication strategies during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in Italy and on the training needs of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Maria; Mannocci, Alice; Miccoli, Silvia; Palazzo, Caterina; Di Thiene, Domitilla; Scalmato, Valeria; Ursillo, Paolo; Monteduro, Maria Antonietta; Turri, Alberto; Mazzoli, Pier Giovanni; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of corporate communication activities carried out during the A(H1N1) pandemic influenza in Italy and to identify educational needs of health professionals with regards to crisis communication. The study compared two samples representing respectively the general population and health professionals, living in different regions of northern, central and southern Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions on knowledge about preventive measures during a pandemic and on satisfaction with the adopted communication campaigns. Study results highlight that both samples had very little knowledge of appropriate preventive behaviors to be adopted during a pandemic. The sample of health professionals received a greater amount of information about the pandemic with respect to the general population and showed a strong interest toward the problem of receiving adequate training in risk communication. The degree of knowledge about preventive measures is directly proportional to the existence of institutional communication activities and to having consulted a health professional.

  11. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2009-01-01

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication   There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways.   The first...... aim of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen’s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event...

  12. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2009-01-01

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways. The first aim...... of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen?s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event change from...

  13. The Use of Communication Strategies in the Beginner EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cervantes, Carmen A.; Roux Rodriguez, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    When language learners do not know how to say a word in English, they can communicate effectively by using their hands, imitating sounds, inventing new words, or describing what they mean. These ways of communicating are communication strategies (CSs). EFL teachers are not always aware of the importance of teaching communication strategies to…

  14. Communication of Seismic Risk in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourniadis, Yannis; Free, Matthew; Coates, Katherine; Moldobekov, Bolot; Fleming, Kevin; Parolai, Stefano; Pittore, Massimiliano; Ormukov, Cholponbek; Takeuchi, Ko

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes that generate shaking leading to damage or human loss are infrequent events. This can lead to the situation in some parts of the world where, even in seismically hazardous areas, a large proportion of the potentially affected population do not have first-hand experience of a destructive earthquake event. Therefore, continual risk communication is required for the appropriate government agencies, civil defence professionals and the general public to understand the potential risks, and to implement the required risk mitigation measures. A comprehensive seismic risk communication strategy has been developed for the Kyrgyz Republic as part of a World Bank funded project. The communication strategy has been developed in close consultation with Kyrgyz ministries and agencies, who have been invaluable in tailoring the message to the specific requirements of Kyrgyz society. The communication strategy comprises the production of visual material, including brochures and posters, which illustrate in non-technical language the key elements of seismic risk (hazard, exposure, vulnerability, losses), and which provide easy-to-understand guidance on what the different segments of the society (young, elderly, home owners, employers) can do to reduce losses from earthquakes in their homes, workplace and the community at large. An important part of the risk communication strategy has been the establishment of a Steering Committee for the reduction of seismic risk in the Kyrgyz Republic. The members of the committee are drawn from those Kyrgyz ministries and institutions that are tasked with measuring and reducing seismic risk in the country, including the Ministries of Education, Transport and Emergency Situations, and the State Construction Agency. The role of the committee includes coordinating the communication between the project team and stakeholders in the Government, and, crucially, taking ownership of the risk mitigation measures and their implementation. A number

  15. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Munziba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  16. Risk communication on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2004-10-01

    For the title study use has been made of available scientific literature, results of new surveys and interviews. In the first part of the study attention is paid to the exchange of information between parties involved in climate change and differences in supply and demand of information. In the second part citizens' views on climate change, problems with communication on climate change, and the resulting consequences and options for communication are dealt with. In this second part also barriers to action that are related or influenced by communication are taken into consideration.

  17. Improving risk communication through interactive training in communication skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. A.; White, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and execution of the 2(1/2)-day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-min video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, an instructor, and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists' confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information.

  18. Improving risk communication through interactive training in communication skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.A.; White, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and execution of the 2 1/2 day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, and instructor, and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists' confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  20. Customer perceptions of agency risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A; Chen, Y C

    1996-04-01

    A government agency commissioned a baseline study of how its customers view the agency's risk information. The 70% response rate to a mail survey allows analysis by subgroups representing customers' primary interests. Although this agency traditionally has been responsible for ensuring plant and animal health at the farm gate (or where imported), responses emphasized emerging customer concerns about the environment and human health. Customers think many risk communication activities are important, but that the agency is not especially effective in conducting those activities. Customers are moderately satisfied with much of the risk information they receive, although many have little contact from or interaction with the agency. Customers identified other sources they use, which suggest potentially effective channels for this agency's risk messages. The study provides a baseline for measuring change in the agency's risk communication effectiveness. It also can be a model when other organizations plan their own risk communication evaluations.

  1. Media Use and the Cancer Communication Strategies of Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heesoo; Sohn, Minsung; Jung, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Communication related to health not only substantially affects perceptions and behaviors related to health but is also positively associated with the extent of health-information seeking and the practice of preventive behavior. Despite the fact that the number of cancer survivors has increased dramatically, there are few studies of the lack of health information, factors which act as barriers, and the difficulties in follow-up care experienced by cancer survivors. Therefore, we reviewed media utilization and the types of media used by cancer survivors with regard to risk communication and suggested appropriate strategies for cancer communication. According to the results, health communication contributed to health promotion by providing health-related information, consolidating social support factors such as social solidarity and trust, and reducing anxiety. In particular, participatory health communication may establish preventive programs which reflect the needs of communities, expand accessibility to better quality healthcare, and intensify healthy living by reducing health inequalities. Therefore, when people do not have an intention to obtain cancer screening, we need to intervene to change their behavior, norms, and degrees of self-efficacy. The findings of this study may help those involved in building partnerships by assisting in their efforts to understand and communicate with the public.

  2. Strategies for Dense Optical CDMA Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-bao; LIN Jin-tong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we have formulated a strategy that the limited available code sequences in pure Direct-Sequence(DS)or Frequency-Hopping(FH)system can be reused to realize dense optical CDMA:the strategy of novel hybrid DS/FH system.In which,the case that there are n users employing the same FH pattern but different DS code patterns is considered.On the condition that the impact of channel noises is neglected,the upper bound probability of error is evaluated based on the stationary random process theory.The results show that the hybrid system is suitable for Dense Optical CDMA(DOCDMA)communication.Moreover,the problems such as the link-impairment,dispersion of group velocity,etc.in the pure(DS or FH)system can be solved effectively.

  3. The spectre of uncertainty in communicating technological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broesius, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The literature does not clearly describe the potential moral and ethical conflicts that can exist between technology sponsors and the technical communicators whose job it is to present potentially risky technology to the non-technical people most likely to be imperiled by such risk. Equally important, the literature does not address the issue of uncertainty -- not the uncertainty likely to be experienced by the community at risk, but the unreliable processes and methodologies used by technology sponsors to define, quantify, and develop strategies to mitigate technological risks. In this paper, the author goes beyond a description of risk communication, the nature of the generally predictable interaction between technology advocates and non-technically trained individuals, and current trends in the field. Although that kind of information is critical to the success of any risk communication activity, and he has included it when necessary to provide background and perspective, without knowing how and why risk assessment is done, it has limited practical applicability outside the sterile, value-free vacuum in which it is usually framed. Technical communicators, particularly those responsible for communicating potential technological risk, must also understand the social, political, economic, statistical, and ethical issues they will invariably encounter.

  4. Effective communication: a powerful risk management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F

    1993-01-01

    Physicians can employ communication techniques to improve patient diagnoses, outcomes, and satisfaction and ultimately to decrease their risk of malpractice suit. The skills outlined in this article form the basis of the Miles Program for Physician-Patient Communication of which the author is a participant.

  5. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: ENVIRONMENTAL CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This handbook discusses a variety of data visualization and data interpretation tools that municipal, state and federal government agencies and others hve successfully used in environmental risk communication programs. The handbook presents a variety of tools used by several diff...

  6. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  7. Communication Strategies Used by L2 Learners to Solve Communication Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明霞; 刘洪明

    2010-01-01

    Most L2 research has limited the term"communication strategies"to strategies employed when things go wrong rather than applying it to the processes of problem-free communication:a communication strategy is resored to whe the L2 learner has difficulty with communicating rather than when things are going smoothly.Communication strategies overcome obstacles to communication by prividing the speaker with an alternative form of expressin for the intended meaning.In this article,the author discuss the problem from hvo aspects.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF RISK COMMUNICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of environmental and public health is to reduce the health risks associated with microbial and toxic agents in the environment, and also to agents of injury. There have generally been three approaches to managing these risks: first, control releases of the agent to the e...

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF RISK COMMUNICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of environmental and public health is to reduce the health risks associated with microbial and toxic agents in the environment, and also to agents of injury. There have generally been three approaches to managing these risks: first, control releases of the agent to the e...

  10. Irony as a Communicative and Argumentative Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the polyphonic theory of Bakhtin (1970a, 1970b as well as certain concepts utilized by Ducrot (1984, showing, in the field of a theory of discourse analysis — in this case, Charaudeau’s semiolinguistics (1983, 1992, 2008 — some procedures which lead to the construction of irony. The study takes into account that this linguistic phenomenon appears as a means of communication susceptible to the creation of argumentative strategies even if the latter are not presented in a non-conventional way. To illustrate this, the study uses, as a basis for reflection, excerpts from the memoirs or life narrative of a French artist whose form of writing, according to Bakhtin (1970b, may fall into the category of Carnival literature.

  11. Information needs for risk management/communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.

  12. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  13. Nursing and conflict communication: avoidance as preferred strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Margaret M; Nicotera, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to examine nurses' (n = 57) selection of strategies to confront conflict in the workplace. Communication competence is the conceptual framework, defining competent conflict communication as joint problem-solving communication that is both effective and appropriate. Items were drawn from tools assessing nurses' conflict management strategies. Nurses reported a strong preference not to confront conflict directly; nurse managers were less likely to avoid direct communication. Nurses who do choose to confront conflict are more likely to use constructive than destructive strategies. The integration of the social science of health communication into nursing education and practice and other implications are discussed.

  14. Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with nonexperts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Risk communication, especially to the general public and end users of plant protection products, is an important challenge. Currently, much of the risk communication the general public receives is via the popular press, and risk managers face the challenge of presenting their decisions...... and their scientific basis to the general public in an understandable way. Therefore, we decided to explore the obstacles in risk communication, as done by expert risk assessors and managers. Using the discourse analysis framework and readability tests, we studied perspectives of 3 stakeholder groups......—regulators, industry representatives, and academics across Europe. We conducted 30 confidential interviews (10 participants in each group), with part of the interview guide focused on communication of pesticide risk to the general public and the ideas experts in the field of risk assessment and management hold...

  15. Employee Communicative Actions and Companies' Communication Strategies to Mitigate the Negative Effects of Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Can communication with employees lessen the negative effects of a crisis? In the pre-crisis stage, employee communication can strengthen internal commitment, while in the crisis stage it can reinforce the commitment by means of accommodative crisis communication strategies. Employee...... communication strategies during the 2009 global economic crisis, based on a model on possible strategies that range from most accommodative to defensive. The main empirical results show that companies have mostly used defensive internal communication strategies that may damage their intangible assets, namely...

  16. Risk communication in environmental restoration programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    The author advocates adoption of a convergence model in place of the traditional source-receiver model of communication for communicating with members of the public who have a stake in remediation of a nearby site. The source-receiver model conceives of communication as the transmission of a message from a risk management agency (sender) to a target audience of the public (receivers). The underlying theme is that the sender intends to change the perception of the receiver of either the issue or the sender of information. The theme may be appropriate for health campaigns which seek to change public behavior; however, the author draws on her experience at a DOE site undergoing remediation to illustrate why the convergence model is more appropriate in the context of cleanup. This alternative model focuses on the Latin derivation of communication as sharing or making common to many, i.e., as involving a relationship between participants who engage in a process of communication. The focus appears to be consistent with recently issued DOE policy that calls for involving the public in identifying issues and problems and in formulating and evaluating decision alternatives in cleanup. By emphasizing context, process and participants, as opposed to senders and receivers, the model identifies key issues to address in facilitating consensus concerning the risks of cleanup. Similarities between the institutional context of DOE and DOD suggest that a convergence model may also prove to be an appropriate conceptual foundation for risk communication at contaminated DOD sites.

  17. Risk communication in environmental restoration programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    The author advocates adoption of a convergence model in place of the traditional source-receiver model of communication for communicating with members of the public who have a stake in remediation of a nearby site. The source-receiver model conceives of communication as the transmission of a message from a risk management agency (sender) to a target audience of the public (receivers). The underlying theme is that the sender intends to change the perception of the receiver of either the issue or the sender of information. The theme may be appropriate for health campaigns which seek to change public behavior; however, the author draws on her experience at a DOE site undergoing remediation to illustrate why the convergence model is more appropriate in the context of cleanup. This alternative model focuses on the Latin derivation of communication as sharing or making common to many, i.e., as involving a relationship between participants who engage in a process of communication. The focus appears to be consistent with recently issued DOE policy that calls for involving the public in identifying issues and problems and in formulating and evaluating decision alternatives in cleanup. By emphasizing context, process and participants, as opposed to senders and receivers, the model identifies key issues to address in facilitating consensus concerning the risks of cleanup. Similarities between the institutional context of DOE and DOD suggest that a convergence model may also prove to be an appropriate conceptual foundation for risk communication at contaminated DOD sites.

  18. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... potentially important policy implications for risk management strategies in developing countries.......This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...

  19. Initial crisis risk communications: A success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, S.B. (TECH-PLAN, Olney, MD (United States)); Traverso, D.K. (Cleveland Electric Illuminating Co., Perry, OH (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Federal regulations require nuclear facilities to be prepared for the risk communication aspects of a catastrophic emergency. Thus, all nuclear plants have provisions for a Joint Public Information Center (JPIC). The JPICs are designed to handle more than 300 media for 24 hours a day; to coordinate information among utility, federal, state, and local agencies; to provide spokespersons; etc. For a large-scale emergency, JPICs can work very well. However, some utilities - indeed, most companies - appear to have only two modes of emergency communication response: normal staff and JPIC. Experience has shown that normal staffing is inadequate to handle the risk communication response for media-intensive low-level emergencies and for the initial stages of an escalating emergency. It is clear that initial response will determine how well a company fares in its overall emergency response and in its long-term relations with the media and public. A solution to this risk communication challenge was developed by Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company's Perry Nuclear Plant - the Public Information Response Team. Using existing facilities and staff - only one of whom works regularly with the media - the Perry plant proactively manages its initial risk communication response.

  20. Effectively executing a comprehensive marketing communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Piccirilli, Ami; Cundiff, Lee; Britt, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Marketers are under increasing scrutiny from their management to demonstrate accountability for the resources they receive. Three models are presented to help marketers execute their customer communication activities more effectively. Benefits of using the "Identification of Strategic Communication Elements," "Business Communication" and "Communications Management Process" models include (1) more effective upfront strategic and tactical planning, (2) ensuring key communication principles are addressed, (3) easier communication program communication, (4) provides a framework for program evaluation and market research and (5) increases the creative thinking marketers need when addressing the major marketing challenges. The ultimate benefit is the greater likelihood of more positive marketing results.

  1. Barriers to Intercultural communication and strategies of Improving Intercultural communication competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛静

    2010-01-01

    As the development of intercultural communication, many scholars discuss or approach intercultural communication from verbal, nonverbal and other perspectives which all make great contribution to intercultural communication.This paper intends to examine the barriers to intercultural communication.Especially, I will put emphasis on prejudice, which is the personal attitude towards intercultural communication.It is also one of the main barriers to intercultural communication.Besides, the paper also explores some strategies of improving intercultural communication and overcoming the barriers.With these strategies,there will be more understanding and harmony between people from different cultures in the world.

  2. Risk communication in the clinical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard; Edwards, Adrian; Grey, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Modern healthcare and modern societies are facing up to the need for greater engagement of patients in treatment decisions. Shared and informed decision-making is replacing traditional paternalistic approaches to decisions; health policy both reflects and drives these changes. A critical contribution to better informed decisions by patients is the effective communication of risk in the clinical consultation. This is not straightforward, but there is a growing evidence base to improve performance in this area to the benefit of both patients and clinicians. The purpose of this review is to provide an accessible and practical guide to better communication of risk by clinicians.

  3. Perspectives on communicating risks of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Kevin; Burns, Mitchell; Crossan, Angus N; Fischhoff, David A; Hammond, Larry E; Johnston, John J; Kennedy, Ivan; Rose, Michael T; Seiber, James N; Solomon, Keith

    2013-05-22

    The Agrochemicals Division symposium "Perfecting Communication of Chemical Risk", held at the 244th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in Philadelphia, PA, August 19-23, 2012, is summarized. The symposium, organized by James Seiber, Kevin Armbrust, John Johnston, Ivan Kennedy, Thomas Potter, and Keith Solomon, included discussion of better techniques for communicating risks, lessons from past experiences, and case studies, together with proposals to improve these techniques and their communication to the public as effective information. The case studies included risks of agricultural biotechnology, an organoarsenical (Roxarsone) in animal feed, petroleum spill-derived contamination of seafood, role of biomonitoring and other exposure assessment techniques, soil fumigants, implications of listing endosulfan as a persistant organic pollutant (POP), and diuron herbicide in runoff, including use of catchment basins to limit runoff to coastal ecozones and the Great Barrier Reef. The symposium attracted chemical risk managers including ecotoxicologists, environmental chemists, agrochemists, ecosystem managers, and regulators needing better techniques that could feed into better communication of chemical risks. Policy issues related to regulation of chemical safety as well as the role of international conventions were also presented. The symposium was broadcast via webinar to an audience outside the ACS Meeting venue.

  4. Innovative Climate Communication Strategies: What Sticks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. F.; Heid, M.; Spanger-Siegfried, E.; Sideris, J.; Sanford, T. J.; Nurnberger, L.; Huertas, A.; Ekwurzel, B.; Cleetus, R.; Cell, K.

    2013-12-01

    A unique aspect of our work at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is the melding of scientific research and a robust communications initiative to bring salient information to decision makers and the public. Over the years, we have tried many different strategies to convey complex scientific information in an effective and appealing way, from movie stars to hope psychology, from dire warnings to academic appeals. But now that we are seeing climate impacts locally and climate change is no longer a future reality, what new vision do we need to support ongoing education? In this session we will present some of the techniques we have used to convey climate science concepts including our use of metaphors, data visualization, photography, blogs, social media, video, and public outreach events. Realizing that messages that stick are those that contain powerful narrative and speak to the emotional centers of our brains, we use innovative infographics as well as personal stories to encourage people to care about creating a healthier, cleaner planet. Reaching new audiences using unexpected messengers is a key focus. Some of the questions we will explore are: What metrics can we use to determine the efficacy of these tools? What are the best ways to convey urgency without a sense of hopelessness? How can we improve our communication at a time when action on climate is a necessity? Research shows infographics convey concepts much more easily and quickly than text alone, as our brains are wired to process visual scenes. Making complex scientific information accessible to the non-specialist public involves creativity and excellent data visualization.

  5. Reputation, relationships, risk communication, and the role of trust in the prevention and control of communicable disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina; de Andrade, Marisa; MacDonald, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Population-level compliance with health protective behavioral advice to prevent and control communicable disease is essential to optimal effectiveness. Multiple factors affect perceptions of trustworthiness, and trust in advice providers is a significant predeterminant of compliance. While competency in assessment and management of communicable disease risks is critical, communications competency may be equally important. Organizational reputation, quality of stakeholder relationships and risk information provision strategies are trust moderating factors, whose impact is strongly influenced by the content, timing and coordination of communications. This article synthesizes the findings of 2 literature reviews on trust moderating communications and communicable disease prevention and control. We find a substantial evidence base on risk communication, but limited research on other trust building communications. We note that awareness of good practice historically has been limited although interest and the availability of supporting resources is growing. Good practice and policy elements are identified: recognition that crisis and risk communications require different strategies; preemptive dialogue and planning; evidence-based approaches to media relations and messaging; and building credibility for information sources. Priority areas for future research include process and cost-effectiveness evaluation and the development of frameworks that integrate communication and biomedical disease control and prevention functions, conceptually and at scale.

  6. Temporal stability of the psychological determinants of trust: Implications for communication about food risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.

    2003-01-01

    There has been much debate about the role of trust in information sources in risk communication. Recent food scares have highlighted the need for both the development of effective risk communication strategies and investigation into whether trust differs between different information sources. In the

  7. Temporal stability of the psychological determinants of trust: Implications for communication about food risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.

    2003-01-01

    There has been much debate about the role of trust in information sources in risk communication. Recent food scares have highlighted the need for both the development of effective risk communication strategies and investigation into whether trust differs between different information sources. In the

  8. Roles of Communication Problems and Communication Strategies on Resident-Related Role Demand and Role Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Lee, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of dementia-related communication difficulties and communication strategies used by staff on resident-related indicators of role demand and role satisfaction. Formal/paid long-term care staff caregivers (N = 109) of residents with dementia completed questionnaires on dementia-related communication difficulties, communication strategies, role demand (ie, residents make unreasonable demands), and role satisfaction (measured by relationship closeness and influence over residents). Three types of communication strategies were included: (a) effective repair strategies, (b) completing actions by oneself, and (c) tuning out or ignoring the resident. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that communication problems were positively linked with role demand. Repair strategies were positively linked with relationship closeness and influence over residents. Completing actions by oneself was positively linked to role demand and influence over residents, whereas tuning out was negatively linked with influence over residents. The findings underscore that effective caregiver communication skills are essential in enhancing staff-resident relationships.

  9. Internal Crisis Communication Strategies to Protect Trust Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Crisis communication has emerged as a hot topic after the global financial crisis that started in the second half of 2008. A survey of 61 Italian companies examined internal crisis communication strategies and the characteristics of that communication in order to understand the role...

  10. Coaching Parents to Use Naturalistic Language and Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamoglu, Yusuf; Dinnebeil, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    Naturalistic language and communication strategies (i.e., naturalistic teaching strategies) refer to practices that are used to promote the child's language and communication skills either through verbal (e.g., spoken words) or nonverbal (e.g., gestures, signs) interactions between an adult (e.g., parent, teacher) and a child. Use of naturalistic…

  11. Protocols for communication and governance of risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Lind, N.C.; Faber, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the need to organize the development of standard protocols for communication about major public risks. Tragic events, such as inadequate earthquake preparedness or great unnecessary losses of life due to public misunderstandings underline the importance of such pr

  12. Using internal communication as a marketing strategy: gaining physician commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, R P

    1990-01-01

    In the ambulatory care industry, increased competition and promotional costs are pressuring managers to design more creative and effective marketing strategies. One largely overlooked strategy is careful monitoring of the daily communication between physicians and ambulatory care staff providing physician services. Satisfying physician communication needs is the key to increasing physician commitment and referrals. This article outlines the steps necessary to first monitor, then improve the quality of all communication provided to physicians by ambulatory care personnel.

  13. 通信工程项目中的风险管理与控制策略研究%The Risk Management Strategies in Communication Engineering Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘俊杰

    2016-01-01

    The development of modern communication technologybringsthe booming ofcommunication market.With the expanding ofcommunication project,there mustexistmanykinds of risksin the communication project.In order to gain more interests and efficiency,it isquite necessary tostrengthen the riskmanagement.%现代通信技术的发展推动了通信工程市场的繁荣,通信工程建设规模不断扩大,通信工程项目建设中必然存在多重风险,为了获取更多的经济效益,就必须强化风险管控,提高风险管控工作效率,最大程度地控制风险,从而在风险管控工作中获得良好的经济效益。

  14. CORPORATE STRATEGIES FOR CURRENCY RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkis, Sumbat; Shu, Chang

    2008-01-01

    Title: Corporate Strategies for Currency Risk Management ackground:Currency fluctuations are a global phenomenon, and can affect multinational companies directly through their cash flow, financial result and company valuation. The exposure to currency risks might however be covered against or ‘hedged’, as it is called, by different external and internal corporate strategies. However, some of these strategies might include a risk themselves as they can be expensive and uncertain. It is therefo...

  15. Risk communications: in search of a pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, K U

    2008-06-01

    This paper explores the difficulties in managing risk communications in the face of uncertainty of an avian flu pandemic over a protracted period. The communications effort has also been made more difficult by the confusion and cacophony in the media and claims by experts and politicians worldwide. While Singapore secured much praise for its handling of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) just 4 years earlier which threatened its very existence as a nation-state, it also had to "unlearn" and "unfix" assumptions and mindsets that grew out of that experience. A protracted crisis of uncertainty has also raised difficult questions of sustaining public awareness and alertness. Compounding these problems is the seemingly high reliance of Singaporeans on Government to manage the crisis at all stages. Risk communications has become a crucial necessity in an increasingly troubled world and evokes contradictions for many in medicine and public health - calling on Governments to raise the alarm whilst also calming fears at the same time. It is hoped that Singapore's experience throws up some useful lessons for other countries. The basic principles of risk communications employed are in line with the best practices adopted by many other countries. The experience may also contribute to the ongoing and somewhat contentious debate on whether the manner in which Singapore manages the information flow can be replicated or applied by other states and cultures.

  16. Electronic mail communication--management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Patricia B

    2003-12-01

    Electronic communication has come a long way in the past 30 years. It will no doubt continue to improve and remain the primary communication vehicle for businesses. Occupational health nurses, like other business professionals, must use email to their advantage to improve their practice. However, electronic mail communication must be managed in the same manner as records and documents produced in any form or media.

  17. Proposal of a methodology for the design of communication strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mislany Hernández Aguiar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work the topic of Strategies of Communication is approached from the point of view of Cuban managerial improvement process. The topic deal with two models or paradigms: the transmissive, where the diffusion or transmission of information is conceived versus communication and the persuasive which on the other hand refers to the modification of behaviors, opinions, attitudes and that demands knowledge about the audience. It is clarified that persuasive communication is the theoretical and methodological basis of communication strategies that constitute the set of ways and modes of communication that have the objective to establish an effective communication of ideas, products or services. In this work is mentioned different criteria that exist regarding the elements that should be treated in the strategy of communication and the proposal of steps that according to the author must not be excluded in it, such as: definition of communicative or communication objectives, determination of audiences, definition of communication strategies, design of the action plan, control and feedback.

  18. Complex Choices: Producers Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, Joost M.E.; Isengildina, Olga; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Garcia, Philip; Frank, Julieta; Kuiper, W. Erno

    2005-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available. How do producers make a choice of risk management instruments? Using the recently developed choice bracketing framework, we examine what risk management strategies producers use and identify the factors that drive their risk management decisions. Our results identify that producers use a wide variety of combinations of risk management instruments and that they bracket their choices into sets of alternative risk management...

  19. An Assessment of risk response strategies practiced in software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Bhoola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and success in projects are highly intertwined – better approaches to project risk management tend to increase chances of project success in terms of achieving scope & quality, schedule and cost targets. The process of responding to risk factors during a project’s life cycle is a crucial aspect of risk management referred to as risk response strategies, in this paper. The current research explores the status of risk response strategies applied in the software development projects in India. India provides a young IT-savvy English-speaking population, which is also cost effective. Other than the workforce, the environment for implementation of software projects in India is different from the matured economies. Risk management process is a commonly discussed theme, though its implementation in practice has a huge scope for improvement in India. The paper talks about four fundamental treatments to risk response – Avoidance, Transference, Mitigation and Acceptance (ATMA. From a primary data of 302 project managers, the paper attempts to address the risk response factors that lead to successful achievement of project scope & quality, schedule and cost targets, by using a series of regressions followed with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE modelling. Mitigation emerged as the most significant risk response strategy to achieve project targets. Acceptance, transference, and avoidance of risk were mostly manifested in the forms of transparency in communication across stakeholders, careful study of the nature of risks and close coordination between project team, customers/end-users and top management.

  20. Practical science communication strategies for graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Lauren M; Twardochleb, Laura A; Fritschie, Keith J; Mims, Meryl C; Lawrence, David J; Gibson, Polly P; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D

    2014-10-01

    Development of skills in science communication is a well-acknowledged gap in graduate training, but the constraints that accompany research (limited time, resources, and knowledge of opportunities) make it challenging to acquire these proficiencies. Furthermore, advisors and institutions may find it difficult to support graduate students adequately in these efforts. The result is fewer career and societal benefits because students have not learned to communicate research effectively beyond their scientific peers. To help overcome these hurdles, we developed a practical approach to incorporating broad science communication into any graduate-school time line. The approach consists of a portfolio approach that organizes outreach activities along a time line of planned graduate studies. To help design the portfolio, we mapped available science communication tools according to 5 core skills essential to most scientific careers: writing, public speaking, leadership, project management, and teaching. This helps graduate students consider the diversity of communication tools based on their desired skills, time constraints, barriers to entry, target audiences, and personal and societal communication goals. By designing a portfolio with an advisor's input, guidance, and approval, graduate students can gauge how much outreach is appropriate given their other commitments to teaching, research, and classes. The student benefits from the advisors' experience and mentorship, promotes the group's research, and establishes a track record of engagement. When graduate student participation in science communication is discussed, it is often recommended that institutions offer or require more training in communication, project management, and leadership. We suggest that graduate students can also adopt a do-it-yourself approach that includes determining students' own outreach objectives and time constraints and communicating these with their advisor. By doing so we hope students will

  1. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  2. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  3. Peculiarities of a communication strategy in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Radulescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public communication through all its registers – information, formation, service advertisement, campaigns – has an impact on citizens wanting to persuade them and sometimes wanting to change their opinions, behaviour. When such communication activities are organized – observing certain rules to be followed – the effects are positive. Therefore, in the present paper we describe the development stages of a communication strategy for public institution, pointing out the moment of detailed planningtarget groups, objectives, conceiving the message, choosing the communication tools. We want to point out that among all these it should be as much coherence as possible, reciprocal adaptability; the higher the coherence, the more efficient the communication process.

  4. Mediating the social and psychological impacts of terrorist attacks: the role of risk perception and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon; Krieger, Kristian

    2007-06-01

    The public's understanding of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) related issues and their likely actions following a CBRN incident is an issue of great concern, as public psychological and behavioural responses will help determine subsequent morbidity and mortality rates. This paper explores the role of effective government communication with the public and its role in mediating the social and psychological impact of terrorist attacks. We examine the importance of effective communication in reducing morbidity and mortality in the event of a terrorist attack and explore the impact of risk perceptions in determining the success or failure of risk communication strategies. This includes the examination of the role of fear as a health risk, and the identification of factors relevant to public trust in risk communication. Finally, an investigation of the type of information desired by members of the public leads the authors to make risk communication recommendations targeted at the promotion of more adaptive behaviours in response to CBRN attacks.

  5. A Communications Strategy for Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    government. inReach Communication capabilities rely on the Iridium satellite network. The inReach Extreme product uses the Iridium Global Satellite System... Iridium Communication between satellites and handsets is done using a TDMA and FDMA based system using L-band spectrum between 1,616 and 1,626.5... attacks on the United States and to support civil authorities in mitigating the effects of potential attacks and natural disasters.”29 Another key

  6. Communication Strategies and Product Line Design

    OpenAIRE

    J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2004-01-01

    When selling a product line, a firm has to consider the costs of communicating about the different products to the consumers. This may affect the product line design in general, and which products or services are offered in particular. The problem is that firms have to communicate to consumers, possibly through advertising, to make them consider buying the products that firms are selling. This results in the firm offering a smaller number of products than is optimal when advertising has no co...

  7. Debating Nuclear Energy: Theories of Risk and Purposes of Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Applies theoretical principles of risk perception and communication (from various psychological, social, political, and cultural dynamics) to a sample risk communication on nuclear energy to determine realistic expectations for persuasive risk communications. Stresses that rhetorical researchers need to explore and test the extent to which written…

  8. Debating Nuclear Energy: Theories of Risk and Purposes of Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Applies theoretical principles of risk perception and communication (from various psychological, social, political, and cultural dynamics) to a sample risk communication on nuclear energy to determine realistic expectations for persuasive risk communications. Stresses that rhetorical researchers need to explore and test the extent to which written…

  9. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: THE TOOLS OF MESSAGE MAPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk Communication in Action: The Tools of Message Mapping, is a workbook designed to guide risk communicators in crisis situations. The first part of this workbook will review general guidelines for risk communication. The second part will focus on one of the most robust tools o...

  10. Using a family systems approach to investigate cancer risk communication within melanoma families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie N; Hay, Jennifer; Kuniyuki, Alan; Asgari, Maryam M; Press, Nancy; Bowen, Deborah J

    2010-10-01

    The family provides an important communication nexus for information and support exchange about family cancer history, and adoption of family-wide cancer risk reduction strategies. The goals of this study were to (1) use the family systems theory to identify characteristics of this sample of families at increased risk of developing melanoma and (2) to relate familial characteristics to the frequency and style of familial risk communication. Participants were first-degree relatives (n=313) of melanoma patients, recruited into a family web-based intervention study. We used multivariable logistic regression models to analyze the association between family functioning and family communication. Most participants were female (60%), with an average age of 51 years. Fifty percent of participants reported that they spoke to their relatives about melanoma risk and people were more likely to speak to their female family members. Familial adaptation, cohesion, coping, and health beliefs were strongly associated with an open style of risk communication within families. None were associated with a blocked style of risk communication. Only cohesion and adaptation were associated with the amount of risk communication that occurred within families. Overall, individuals who came from families that were more highly cohesive, adaptable, and shared strong beliefs about melanoma risk were more likely to communicate openly about melanoma. The fact that this association was not consistent across blocked communication and communication frequency highlights the multifaceted nature of this process. Future research should focus on the interplay between different facets of communication. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chinese high-proficiency learners'communication strategy use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高煜

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction This essay intends to clarify Chinese high-proficiency learners' communication strategy use to some extent, The analysis is based on the data from the corpus group in my MA course collected in 2008.

  12. Nurse Assistant Communication Strategies About Pressure Ulcers in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L

    2015-07-01

    There is growing recognition of benefits of sophisticated information technology (IT) in nursing homes (NHs). In this research, we explore strategies nursing assistants (NAs) use to communicate pressure ulcer prevention practices in NHs with variable IT sophistication measures. Primary qualitative data were collected during focus groups with NAs in 16 NHs located across Missouri. NAs (n = 213) participated in 31 focus groups. Three major themes referencing communication strategies for pressure ulcer prevention were identified, including Passing on Information, Keeping Track of Needs and Information Access. NAs use a variety of strategies to prioritize care, and strategies are different based on IT sophistication level. NA work is an important part of patient care. However, little information about their work is included in communication, leaving patient records incomplete. NAs' communication is becoming increasingly important in the care of the millions of chronically ill elders in NHs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Beginning science teachers' strategies for communicating with families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Nena E.

    Science learning occurs in both formal and informal spaces. Families are critical for developing student learning and interest in science because they provide important sources of knowledge, support and motivation. Bidirectional communication between teachers and families can be used to build relationships between homes and schools, leverage family knowledge of and support for learners, and create successful environments for science learning that will support both teaching and student learning. To identify the communication strategies of beginning science teachers, who are still developing their teaching practices, a multiple case study was conducted with seven first year secondary science teachers. The methods these teachers used to communicate with families, the information that was communicated and shared, and factors that shaped these teachers' continued development of communication strategies were examined. Demographic data, interview data, observations and documentation of communication through logs and artifacts were collected for this study. Results indicated that the methods teachers had access to and used for communication impacted the frequency and efficacy of their communication. Teachers and families communicated about a number of important topics, but some topics that could improve learning experiences and science futures for their students were rarely discussed, such as advancement in science, student learning in science and family knowledge. Findings showed that these early career teachers were continuing to learn about their communities and to develop their communication strategies with families. Teachers' familiarity with their school community, opportunities to practice strategies during preservice preparation and student teaching, their teaching environment, school policies, and learning from families and students in their school culture continued to shape and influence their views and communication strategies. Findings and implications for

  14. Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with nonexperts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Agnieszka D; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille; Forbes, Valery E

    2013-10-01

    Risk communication, especially to the general public and end users of plant protection products, is an important challenge. Currently, much of the risk communication the general public receives is via the popular press, and risk managers face the challenge of presenting their decisions and their scientific basis to the general public in an understandable way. Therefore, we decided to explore the obstacles in risk communication, as done by expert risk assessors and managers. Using the discourse analysis framework and readability tests, we studied perspectives of 3 stakeholder groups-regulators, industry representatives, and academics across Europe. We conducted 30 confidential interviews (10 participants in each group), with part of the interview guide focused on communication of pesticide risk to the general public and the ideas experts in the field of risk assessment and management hold of the public perception of pesticides. We used the key informant approach in recruiting our participants. They were first identified as key stakeholders in ecological risk assessment of pesticides and then sampled by means of a snowball sampling technique. In the analysis, first we identified main motifs (themes) in each group, and then we moved to studying length of the sentences and grammar and to uncovering discourses present in the text data. We also used the Flesch Reading Ease test to determine the comprehension difficulty of transcribed interviews. The test is commonly used as a standard for estimating the readability of technical documents. Our results highlight 3 main obstacles standing in the way of effective communication with wider audiences. First of all, ecological risk assessment as a highly technical procedure uses the specific language of ecological risk assessment, which is also highly specialized and might be difficult to comprehend by nonexperts. Second, the idea of existing "expert-lay discrepancy," a phenomenon described in risk perception studies is visibly

  15. Resilient Communication: A New Crisis Communication Strategy for Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    hard way and his lack of crisis communication skills was a career ender for him during Hurricane Katrina (MSNBC, 2005). In contrast, former New...disruptions,” that is those game -changing events where your messages may no longer work. That leads into the final recommendation of having a contingency...Winning in the no-spin era by someone who knows the game . New York: Free Press. CNN. (2007, May 7). Greensburg focuses on rebuilding. Retrieved January

  16. Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Renes, R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers’ udder health management, tools such as

  17. Evaluation of two communication strategies to improve udder health management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Renes, R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, programs to improve udder health are implemented using communication tools and methods that inform and persuade dairy farmers. This study evaluated 2 communication strategies used in a mastitis control program in the Netherlands. To improve farmers’ udder health management, tools such as

  18. TAs on TV: Demonstrating Communication Strategies for International Teaching Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dan; Myers, Cindy

    1989-01-01

    Describes a technique for videotaping classroom performances of native and international teaching assistants (ITA) to teach ITAs about specific, definable English language skills, U.S. academic culture and pedagogical performance, and to help them develop communications strategies for coping with largely undefinable future communicative needs.…

  19. Strategies for successful software development risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Boban

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, software is becoming a major part of enterprise business. Software development is activity connected with advanced technology and high level of knowledge. Risks on software development projects must be successfully mitigated to produce successful software systems. Lack of a defined approach to risk management is one of the common causes for project failures. To improve project chances for success, this work investigates common risk impact areas to perceive a foundation that can be used to define a common approach to software risk management. Based on typical risk impact areas on software development projects, we propose three risk management strategies suitable for a broad area of enterprises and software development projects with different amounts of connected risks. Proposed strategies define activities that should be performed for successful risk management, the one that will enable software development projects to perceive risks as soon as possible and to solve problems connected with risk materialization. We also propose a risk-based approach to software development planning and risk management as attempts to address and retire the highest impact risks as early as possible in the development process. Proposed strategies should improve risk management on software development projects and help create a successful software solution.

  20. Thinkers and Doers: Strategies for Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, L.; Smith, T.

    2015-12-01

    Effective communication of science requires thoughtful consideration of the audience. Various settings, from K-12 schools to public events, provide unique opportunities to share science in ways that are accurate, interesting, and meaningful for diverse groups. Small and large audiences have been successfully engaged in scientific dialog using techniques that offer the exchange ideas for 'thinkers,' the creation of hands-on experiences for 'doers,' and a combination of both for different groups. Best practices and examples of effective in-person and electronic science communication for diverse groups will be highlighted.

  1. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a

  2. NLP as a communication strategy tool in libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, Alexandros; Sakas, Damianos P.; Giannakopoulos, Georgios

    2015-02-01

    The role of communication is a catalyst for the proper function of an organization. This paper focuses on libraries, where the communication is crucial for their success. In our opinion, libraries in Greece are suffering from the lack of communication and marketing strategy. Communication has many forms and manifestations. A key aspect of communication is body language, which has a dominant communication tool the neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). The body language is a system that expresses and transfers messages, thoughts and emotions. More and more organizations in the public sector and companies in the private sector base their success on the communication skills of their personnel. The NLP suggests several methods to obtain excellent relations in the workplace and to develop ideal communication. The NLP theory is mainly based on the development of standards (communication model) that guarantees the expected results. This research was conducted and analyzed in two parts, the qualitative and the quantitative. The findings mainly confirm the need for proper communication within libraries. In the qualitative research, the interviewees were aware of communication issues, although some gaps in that knowledge were observed. Even this slightly lack of knowledge, highlights the need for constant information through educational programs. This is particularly necessary for senior executives of libraries, who should attend relevant seminars and refresh their knowledge on communication related issues.

  3. Ethical Implications of Seismic Risk Communication in Istanbul - Insights from a Transdisciplinary, Film-based Science Communication Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, Johanna; Stewart, Iain S.

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade, social science studies indicate that there is little or no correlation between the provision of scientific information about geohazards and risks and the adaptive changes in individual or community behaviour that would reduce risk. Bridging that gap to effectively convey hazard science 'the last mile' to those communities at risk raises a number of ethical issues about the role and responsibilities of geoscientists as communicators. Those issues emerge from a methodological shift away from the dominant interpretation of seismic risk communication as a transfer of scientific facts to "the public", towards more inclusive transdisciplinary communication strategies that incorporate peer-role models, adopt social network-based strategies and directly engage with communities in motivating preparedness actions. With this methodological shift comes ethical dilemmas. What are the target-groups that should be prioritised? What are the professional expectations and levels of personal engagement required of geo-communicators? How able and willing are geoscientists to include other forms of knowledge (e.g. from local communities or other disciplines)? What media formats can reconcile argumentative, informational "matters of fact" with sociocultural and psychological "matters of concern"? How should scientists react to political controversies related to risk mitigation and its communication? In the context of these ethical concerns, many geoscientist struggle to switch from conventional communication modes in which they are the technical 'experts' to more community-centered, participatory modes of public engagement. We examine this research question through a case study on seismic risk communication challenges in Istanbul, a megacity with one of the highest seismic vulnerabilities in the world. Currently, there are few formal mechanisms to facilitate interchange between academic geoscientists and the general public in Istanbul. In order to reduce the city

  4. Current features on risk perception and risk communication of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    Health effects and risks of radiation and radionuclides are being misunderstood by many members of general public. Many peoples have fear and anxieties for radiation. So far, the health effects from radiation at low dose and low dose rate have not been cleared on biological aspects. Then, we have quantitatively estimated health risks of low-dose radiation on the basis of linear dose response relationship without threshold from the viewpoints of radiation protection by using both epidemiological data, such as atomic bomb survivors, and some models and assumptions. It is important for researchers and relevant persons in radiation protection to understand the process of risk estimation of radiation and to communicate an exact knowledge of radiation risks of the public members. (author)

  5. Positive versus Negative Communication Strategies in Task-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Siti

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task-Based Learning (TBL) would shape or change students' use of oral communication strategies. Students' problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis…

  6. Positive versus Negative Communication Strategies in Task-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Siti

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task-Based Learning (TBL) would shape or change students' use of oral communication strategies. Students' problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis…

  7. TOXOPLASMOSIS: FOOD SAFETY AND RISK COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Celano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, parasitic pathology supported by Toxoplasma gondii, is a typical example of multi-issue and inter-disciplinary on which, with equal intensity, converge the interests of various branches of human and veterinary medicine. The aim of research was the assessment of risk communication to pregnant women by doctors gynecologists involved in ASL’s territorial about toxoplasmosis, which can have serious effects on pregnancy and the unborn child. The results acquired during the investigation showed the need to develop and implement appropriate information campaigns and proper nutrition education.

  8. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Howard, C; Hedderley, D; Shepherd, R

    1997-12-01

    Factors such as hazard type and source credibility have been identified as important in the establishment of effective strategies for risk communication. The elaboration likelihood model was adapted to investigate the potential impact of hazard type, information source, and persuasive content of information on individual engagement in elaborative, or thoughtful, cognitions about risk messages. One hundred sixty respondents were allocated to one of eight experimental groups, and the effects of source credibility, persuasive content of information and hazard type were systematically varied. The impact of the different factors on beliefs about the information and elaborative processing examined. Low credibility was particularly important in reducing risk perceptions, although persuasive content and hazard type were also influential in determining whether elaborative processing occurred.

  9. Decision making biases in the communication of earthquake risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M. B.; Steacy, S.; Begg, S. H.; Navarro, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    L'Aquila, with 6 scientists convicted of manslaughter, shocked the scientific community, leading to urgent re-appraisal of communication methods for low-probability, high-impact events. Before the trial, a commission investigating the earthquake recommended risk assessment be formalised via operational earthquake forecasts and that social scientists be enlisted to assist in developing communication strategies. Psychological research has identified numerous decision biases relevant to this, including hindsight bias, where people (after the fact) overestimate an event's predictability. This affects experts as well as naïve participants as it relates to their ability to construct a plausible causal story rather than the likelihood of the event. Another problem is availability, which causes overestimation of the likelihood of observed rare events due to their greater noteworthiness. This, however, is complicated by the 'description-experience' gap, whereby people underestimate probabilities for events they have not experienced. That is, people who have experienced strong earthquakes judge them more likely while those who have not judge them less likely - relative to actual probabilities. Finally, format changes alter people's decisions. That is people treat '1 in 10,000' as different from 0.01% despite their mathematical equivalence. Such effects fall under the broad term framing, which describes how different framings of the same event alter decisions. In particular, people's attitude to risk depends significantly on how scenarios are described. We examine the effect of biases on the communication of change in risk. South Australian participants gave responses to scenarios describing familiar (bushfire) or unfamiliar (earthquake) risks. While bushfires are rare in specific locations, significant fire events occur each year and are extensively covered. By comparison, our study location (Adelaide) last had a M5 quake in 1954. Preliminary results suggest the description

  10. A Novel Routing Strategy on Space Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Yujian; WANG, Xu-Liang; Zhen-dong, XI; Bing-hong, WANG

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective routing strategy on the basis of the so-called nearest neighbor search strategy by introducing a preferential time delay exponent β. Traffic dynamics both near and far away from the critical generating rate Rc are discussed. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal performance of the system corresponds to β =-0.5. Due to the low cost of acquiring nearest-neighbor information and the strongly improved network capacity, our strategy may be useful and reasonable for the protocol designing of modern communication networks and space communication networks.

  11. Communication skills: a new strategy for training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A. Gordon

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 the General Medical Council (GMC published Tomorrow's Doctors, a set of recommendations for medical education. Much of this document was concerned with the training of communication skills and how this could be improved. This recommendation follows decades of evidence about the importance of communication from many widely respected medical teachers from every discipline: Doctors can discharge (their important tasks effectively only if they possess the relevant skills. Unfortunately, many do not appear to acquire them during their professional training. (Maguire, 1981 There appears to be a failure sometimes to notice what is really being said… the doctor avoids the acute discomfort of being aware of a problem in which he would rather not get involved. (Norell, 1972.

  12. H-Relation Personalized Communication Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Paszyński

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the communication patterns arising from the partition of geometricaldomain into sub-domains, when data is exchanged between processors assigned to adjacentsub-domains. It presents the algorithm constructing bipartite graphs covering the graphrepresentation of the partitioned domain, as well as the scheduling algorithm utilizing thecoloring of the bipartite graphs. Specifically, when the communication pattern arises from thepartition of a 2D geometric area, the planar graph representation of the domain is partitionedinto not more than two bipartite graphs and a third graph with maximum vertex valency 2,by means of the presented algorithm. In the general case, the algorithm finds h−1 or fewerbipartite graphs, where h is the maximum number of neighbors. Finally, the task of messagescheduling is reduced to a set of independent scheduling problems over the bipartite graphs.The algorithms are supported by a theoretical discussion on their correctness and efficiency.

  13. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  14. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  15. 75 FR 65641 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Initiative, foodborne outbreaks and related recall communications, and the challenges of effectively... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice... announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. This meeting...

  16. Risk Communication Strategy Viewed from the“Mad Cow”Crisis in the United Kingdom%从英国疯牛病事件看风险交流策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海荣; 孙向东; 王幼明

    2014-01-01

    Due to the impaired risk management and risk communication, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy event was evolved to a social and political crisis of the United Kingdom and entire Europe. The expensive lessons from the crisis should be learned. In China, modern risk communication conception should be embedded. With effective communication model, a system of risk communication involved the stakeholders also need to be established.%由于没有在风险交流等方面采取有效的风险管理措施,上世纪90年代英国的疯牛病事件由一场普通的农牧业疫情,最终演变成为一个国家乃至整个欧洲地区的社会、政治危机。这一事件对我国动物卫生风险交流体系建设具有深刻启示。动物卫生全行业需要确立现代风险交流的概念和理念,形成开放的诸多利益相关者参与的风险交流体系,并建立有效的风险交流模式。

  17. The evolution of individual variation in communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A; Pen, Ido; Komdeur, Jan; Weissing, Franz J

    2010-11-01

    Communication is a process in which senders provide information via signals and receivers respond accordingly. This process relies on two coevolving conventions: a "sender code" that determines what kind of signal is to be sent given the sender's state; and a "receiver code" that determines the appropriate responses to different signal types. By means of a simple but generic model, we show that polymorphic sender and receiver strategies emerge naturally during the evolution of communication, and that the number of alternative strategies observed at equilibrium depends on the potential for error in signal production. Our model suggests that alternative communication strategies will evolve whenever senders possess imperfect information about their own quality or state, signals are costly, and genetic mechanisms allow for a correlation between sender and receiver behavior. These findings provide an explanation for recent reports of individual differences in communication strategies, and suggest that the amount of individual variation that can be expected in communication systems depends on the type of information being conveyed. Our model also suggests a link between communication and the evolution of animal personalities, which is that individual differences in the production and interpretation of signals can result in consistent differences in behavior.

  18. Teaching Culture. Strategies for Intercultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, H. Ned

    Based on the assertion that language and culture study are best brought together when the teacher is effective in the affective as well as cognitive and skills domains, teaching strategies and activities are presented that combine specific teaching techniques and ideas with other human and cultural resources in and out of the classroom. Chapters…

  19. The Challenge of Communicating Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, R.

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide, natural hazard risks, and especially flood risk, are increasing dramatically as populations grow, infrastructure deteriorates, and climate change worsens. Street level modeling technologies may help decision makers and the general public understand risk and explore options for building resilience. But there are challenges in linking powerful visualization technologies to people in ways that they trust, support and can use. Technology adoption depends on a host of social and psychological factors—for example, how have past experiences shaped perceptions? Where do people currently turn for information? Who do they trust? Who do they see as responsible for implementing response and resilience measures? What do people think about climate change and sea level rise? What are the values that will motivate them to act? The answers vary from place to place and group to group. Visualization technologies that are responsive to this type of information may be most effective. Through household level survey data collected at sites in California and Mexico, we identify factors that may help in designing effective flood risk communication tools.

  20. Strategy and risk in farming

    OpenAIRE

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Issues that are relevant in current farm management are discussed. First, three basic farm management theories are presented: (1) decision-making theory; (1) system theory; and (3) theory of management by objectives. Next, two new developments are introduced, namely, strategic management and risk management.

  1. Interdisciplinary Analysis of Drought Communication Through Social Media Platforms and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, M.

    2015-12-01

    As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.

  2. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Ayuni Putri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the context that English in Indonesia is considered as a foreign language, it causes the learners of English in Indonesia understand not only the language but also the culture. Foreign language learners may encounter various communication problems when their interlanguage is limited. In order to convey their messages and remain in a conversation until their communication goal is achieved, ESL (English as a Second Language learners need to employ communication strategies, which have been defined generally as devices used by second language learners to overcome perceived barriers to achieving specific communication goals (Færch & Kasper, 1983. In order to avoid certain miscommunication, the teacher of English in Indonesia should also give their learners the understanding of communication strategies.

  3. CLASSICAL RISK MODEL WITH THRESHOLD DIVIDEND STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ming; Guo Junyi

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a threshold dividend strategy is used for classical risk model.Under this dividend strategy, certain probability of ruin, which occurs in case of constant barrier strategy, is avoided. Using the strong Markov property of the surplus process and the distribution of the deficit in classical risk model, the survival probability for this model is derived, which is more direct than that in Asmussen(2000, P195, Proposition 1.10). The occupation time of non-dividend of this model is also discussed by means of Martingale method.

  4. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: CASE STUDIES IN FISH ADVISORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Handbook provides both general and specific information on how to enhance mercury risk communication activities and their associated outreach efforts. Additionally, it provides information on how to facilitate communication in areas where information is not available. Chapte...

  5. Communication Strategy of a successful Frack Campaign in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerduijn Strating, Eilard; Seinen, Chiel; Heeringa, Henk; Pestman, Bart

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, after several years without frack activities onshore in the Netherlands, a new conventional frack campaign was planned. In the interim, anti-shalegas sentiments had carried over from the US to Europe and various countries had announced a frack moratorium. The Netherlands was not amongst these yet, but it was recognized that starting a new conventional frack campaign could potentially result in a significant negative public sentiment and affect our License to Operate. A team of subsurface and communication experts drafted a communication strategy that was premised on the "Discuss > Decide > Deliver" philosophy, implying that a decision on the campaign-start would only be taken after the results of the engagements with key stakeholders indicated sufficient support. It was recognized that in order to start communication with stakeholders and the general public through engagements, infographics, websites etc., several minimum requirements had to be in place: 1] An explanation about why fracking is done and what it entails 2] An assessment and description of the risks (eg groundwater contamination, tremors) 3] A description of the REACH compliant chemicals used (composition & quantities). With the basic info in place, a staged engagement process was set up where key stakeholders at the national level were informed first, followed by those at regional level (including waterboards), followed by local stakeholders. Several "Go-No go" decision points were build in. Throughout it was agreed that a target date for the actual frack campaign was only to be set once local engagements were going to start. Several of the technical staff (eg subsurface and well engineers) received media and communication training to prep them for the engagements with external stakeholders and communities. Also several staff were identified that would be involved in the writing of Q&A's, external bulletins etc. Having technical staff involved in such communications helped build credibility

  6. Employee Communicative Actions and Companies' Communication Strategies to Mitigate the Negative Effects of Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Can communication with employees lessen the negative effects of a crisis? In the pre-crisis stage, employee communication can strengthen internal commitment, while in the crisis stage it can reinforce the commitment by means of accommodative crisis communication strategies. Employee...... commitment is at the basis of positive employee communicative actions, like advocacy and positive referrals, which finally protect the company’s reputation. After a theoretical exploration of these issues, this chapter presents first a case study showing how continuous internal communication efforts...... and factual communication based on managers’ and company’s actions are crucial in order to build quality relationships with employees. In turn, this leads to positive employee communicative actions when a crisis occurs. Second, it illustrates a survey of Italian companies which examined internal crisis...

  7. The Impact of Teaching Communication Strategies on English Speaking of Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsom, Tiwaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of teaching communication strategies on Thai engineering undergraduate students' communication strategy use and strategic competence. Fifty-seven engineering undergraduate students were taught ten communication strategies for ten weeks and responded to a self-report communication strategy questionnaire before and…

  8. Fempress: a communication strategy for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cruz, A

    1995-02-01

    In 1981, two Chilean women living in exile in Mexico started Fempress, the Latin American Media Network which puts out a monthly magazine, operates a press service on women's issues, and provides a Radio Press Service which covers Latin America. The monthly magazine, Mujer-Fempress, started out as 200 copies of a xeroxed bulletin and now runs 5000 copies per issue. This magazine has played an important role in achieving communication within the far-flung women's movement in Latin American. Early in its existence, Fempress began to concentrate on creating alternative media channels as a means of empowering women through raising awareness and stimulating change. Since the market will not support such alternative work, Fempress is dependent upon international cooperation for funding.

  9. Companies on Facebook and Twitter. Current situation and communication strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÁ Pérez Dasilva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given their influence, companies are being forced to integrate social networks in their communication strategies. Objectives. This article aims to provide an overview of the use of Facebook and Twitter by the main commercial brands in Spain and to analyse the communication strategies of the companies that tend to receive more complaints from the public. Method. The study is based on the examination of the social network accounts of the three brands with the highest advertising investment in each of the 15 industry sectors. A total of 5,433 tweets and 3,000 posts were analysed. Conclusions. The study confirmed the massive presence of these companies is the social networks and demonstrated the extreme variability of the number of followers, the traffic and the nature of the information published. However, it was also demonstrated that the use made of the different social networks and the communication strategies required by the different companies are distinguishable and identifiable.

  10. Change communication : the impact on satisfaction with alternative workplace strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Melanie; Brown, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Communication is fundamental to the Facilities Management (FM) role within organisations; especially when the FM department is implementing changes to the workplace. An evaluation of an instance is presented. A self- administered online questionnaire was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The research focused on responses to satisfaction with the communication methods rather than reviewing the merits of alternative workplace strategies. Findings included the impact of...

  11. Communication of Audit Risk to Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, C. Wayne; Thompson, James H.

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on audit risk by examining it in terms of its components: inherent risk, control risk, and detection risk. Discusses applying audit risk, a definition of audit risk, and components of audit risk. (CT)

  12. Public dialogues on flood risk communication: Literature review : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orr, Paula; Forrest, Steven; Brooks, Katya; Twigger-Ross, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This literature review summarises the state of knowledge on communicating the risk of flooding to the public as of January 2014. The review considers how different audiences respond to risk communication and the factors which influence that response. The current systems and techniques for flood risk

  13. The impact of teaching communication strategies on EFL learners’ Willingness to Communicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulfazl Mesgarshahr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the pedagogical implications of the research on the Willingness to Communicate (WTC might be to propose practical ways of making language learners more willing to communicate in the classroom. This study investigated the impact of teaching communication strategies (CSs on Iranian EFL learners’ WTC. To this end, 8 intact classes were included as the experimental and control groups. The control group underwent regular language instruction, while the experimental group received the treatment (i.e., communication strategy training. The self-report measurement of WTC (MacIntyre, Baker, Clément, & Conrad, 2001 was done before (pre-test and after the treatment (post-test. The results of the independent-samples t test showed that the degree of WTC of the treatment group was significantly higher compared with that of the control group. It was concluded that teaching CSs helps learners become more willing to communicate in the classroom.

  14. Communication Strategy of a Non-Profit Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Crhová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the diploma thesis is to analyze the communication strategy of the non-profit organization Otevřená OKNA, z. ú. including its assessment, and to suggest an optimization of the communication strategy based on this analysis. The real possibilities of non-profit organizations and the environment in which it is located and operates were taken into account. The theoretical part defines and formulates the fundamental findings related to the non-profit sector, non-profit organizatio...

  15. Communication strategies of people with ALS and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joan

    2004-06-01

    There are wider issues relating to the communication difficulties experienced by people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) than simply the physical problems caused by diminished oral control. In addition, existing literature on ALS rarely considers communication to be a joint interaction which depends on the strategies adopted by both communication partners, nor does it present communication in real life settings. This paper presents some of the findings from a 3-year research project which investigated the communication of people with ALS and their partners in their own homes. It discusses the purpose of human communication, and through examination of conversations in people's own homes has identified a range of strategies and techniques that families with ALS employ. For some people with ALS, although speech may deteriorate, they are still able to communicate closely and in a way that is more focused on topics that are particularly important to them. The findings from this study will be of interest to those who work with people with ALS.

  16. Content and style of radiation risk communication for pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Joshua S; Frush, Donald P

    2014-03-01

    The diagnostic benefits of medical imaging, including CT, must be weighed against the risks of ionizing radiation and communicated effectively to patients. Health care providers requesting and performing these examinations have a shared responsibility for this risk-benefit discussion. Effective and balanced communication of these risks requires style as well as content mastery. Fundamentals of communication are similar for all patients, but special attention is needed in the pediatric setting.

  17. Corporate social responsibility as communicational strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Jorge C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Based on a concrete case, the negotiation of compensation and reparation for environmental damage in the state of Rio de Janeiro, this paper deals with the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as main strategic instrument to set up a relationship among state, businesses and the civil society in the process of licensing and deploying gas pipelines. In this kind of process, a few cultural aspects, such as a social pattern based in philanthropy and paternalism, make difficult for any agreement to be reached among the stake holders. As a result, the process of licensing becomes slow and fragile. In some cases, negotiation ends up unsuccessful. This mental model coexists with an imperious need for investments in energy, leading to a hard contradiction between a traditional behavior and the surge of modern consumerism habits. Besides, local legislation and bureaucracy allow for few or no options to solve the conflict. In this context, as will be seen, CSR is a preferential way to establish fruitful dialog. By means of Corporate Social Investments (CSI), it is possible to create a common experience of local development among entrepreneurs, the state and the community, by this breaking communication barriers and providing alternatives to solve the original contradiction. (author)

  18. INSURANCE - A RISK COVERING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  19. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions.

  20. Solution-Focused Strategies for Effective Sexual Health Communication among African American Parents and Their Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon D; Williams, Sha-Lai

    2015-11-01

    The high rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly among African American youths who may not be aware of their HIV status, provide indication that, unless prevention efforts are enhanced, this vulnerable group of youths will remain at greater risk for negative health status outcomes. Parents are important in efforts to reduce risk among youths and often have a willingness to be sexuality educators for their children; however, communication barriers often impede their ability to provide preventive sexual health knowledge to their youths. Social workers are often presented with opportunities to help parents develop effective sexual health communication skills in informal settings when formal interventions are not feasible. The present effort considers solution-focused strategies social workers can use to help parents overcome barriers and communicate more positively with their youths about sexual health.

  1. Communication strategies in cosmetic surgery websites: an application of Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Wu, Lei; Taylor, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel as a theoretical framework, this study examines the communication approach (transmission or ritual) and message strategy (ego, social, sensory, routine, acute need, or ration) of cosmetic surgery websites. A content analysis revealed a fairly even division between transmission and ritual approaches. Ration strategy was the exclusive strategy in the websites adopting a transmission approach. No routine or acute need strategies were observed. Websites incorporating the ritual approach used ego, social, and sensory strategies. Human female models and natural objects were incorporated to deliver emotional persuasion. Implications for cosmetic surgery web marketers are discussed.

  2. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition and document......For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition...... and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...

  3. Risky business: challenges and successes in military radiation risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark A; Geckle, Lori S; Davidson, Bethney A

    2012-01-01

    Given the general public's overall lack of knowledge about radiation and their heightened fear of its harmful effects, effective communication of radiation risks is often difficult. This is especially true when it comes to communicating the radiation risks stemming from military operations. Part of this difficulty stems from a lingering distrust of the military that harkens back to the controversy surrounding Veteran exposures to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War along with the often classified nature of many military operations. Additionally, there are unique military exposure scenarios, such as the use of nuclear weapons and combat use of depleted uranium as antiarmor munitions that are not found in the civilian sector. Also, the large, diverse nature of the military makes consistent risk communication across the vast and widespread organization very difficult. This manuscript highlights and discusses both the common and the distinctive challenges of effectively communicating military radiation risks, to include communicating through the media. The paper also introduces the Army's Health Risk Communication Program and its role in assisting in effective risk communication efforts. The authors draw on their extensive collective experience to share 3 risk communication success stories that were accomplished through the innovative use of a matrixed, team approach that combines both health physics and risk communication expertise.

  4. Is knowledge important? Empirical research on nuclear risk communication in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Zeleznik, Nadja; Turcanu, Catrinel; Thijssen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Increasing audience knowledge is often set as a primary objective of risk communication efforts. But is it worthwhile focusing risk communication strategies solely on enhancing specific knowledge? The main research questions tackled in this paper were: (1) if prior audience knowledge related to specific radiation risks is influential for the perception of these risks and the acceptance of communicated messages and (2) if gender, attitudes, risk perception of other radiation risks, confidence in authorities, and living in the vicinity of nuclear/radiological installations may also play an important role in this matter. The goal of this study was to test empirically the mentioned predictors in two independent case studies in different countries. The first case study was an information campaign for iodine pre-distribution in Belgium (N = 1035). The second was the information campaign on long-term radioactive waste disposal in Slovenia (N = 1,200). In both cases, recurrent and intensive communication campaigns were carried out by the authorities aiming, among other things, at increasing specific audience knowledge. Results show that higher prior audience knowledge leads to more willingness to accept communicated messages, but it does not affect people’s perception of the specific risk communicated. In addition, the influence of prior audience knowledge on the acceptance of communicated messages is shown to be no stronger than that of general radiation risk perception. The results in both case studies suggest that effective risk communication has to focus not only on knowledge but also on other more heuristic predictors, such as risk perception or attitudes toward communicated risks.

  5. Perceived vs. Actual Strategy Use across Three Oral Communication Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Victori, Mia

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to explore differences in strategy use across three oral communication tasks. Twenty-two intermediate level university students carried out three tasks in pairs at three different time periods. After each task, which varied in terms of cognitive, interactional and learner factors (Robinson, "International Review of Applied…

  6. Electronic word-of-mouth: successful communication strategies for restaurants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Gavin; Longart, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ... semi-structured, in-depth interviews with restaurant marketers who currently use social media as part of the integrated marketing communications strategies; it also included a focus group and two sub-sequent personal interviews with restaurant consumers who actively use social media. Approach - A thematic analysis was conducted so as to first in...

  7. Literacy and Communication Technologies: Distance Education Strategies for Literacy Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinoye, Rashid

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the promotion of literacy through information and communication technologies (ICTs) and through various modes of distance learning. After a general discussion of these approaches, the article focuses on efforts towards reducing illiteracy in Nigeria through integrated strategies for literacy delivery and especially through…

  8. The Northern Philippine Sea: A Bioregional Development Communication Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivic G. Pajaro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine marine management challenge requires a scaled up ecosystem approach to the biodiversity-based bioregional level used in marine spatial planning. The related communication challenge is being addressed by a currently informal consortium that includes non-government organizations, local government units, as well as state colleges and universities. The evolving communication strategy described here is focused upon considerations that include local government mandates, status of marine development, provinceby- province assessment of coastal economies, cultural relevance, academic programming, and the need for national inputs on counterpart funding. The current work provides a possible model for Philippine application in all marine bioregions. The concept of the bioregional approach was systematically advocated across one bioregion, the Northern Philippine Sea. The Philippine strategy of development communication was used as a template to promote the development of a bioregional approach by establishing an initial level of participation involving the provincial governments as well as the state universities and colleges.

  9. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-06-01

    Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (~19 months, ~20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale.

  10. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Miritello, Giovanna; Cebrián, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Social connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural properties of social networks and in turn processes such as navigation, influence or information diffusion. Since time, attention and cognition are inelastic resources, humans should have a predefined strategy to manage their social interactions over time. However, the limited observational length of existing human interaction datasets, together with the bursty nature of dyadic communications have hampered the observation of tie dynamics in social networks. Here we develop a method for the detection of tie activation/deactivation, and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset ($\\approx$ 19 months, $\\approx$ 20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active. In particular we find that men have an overall higher communication capacity than women and that this ...

  11. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident.

  12. Deciding to help: effects of risk and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marije H.; Kerstholt, José H.; Giebels, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in decis

  13. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Christine Tiffany; Claravall, Marie Chantal; Hall, Julie Lyn; Taketani, Keisuke; Zepeda, John Paul; Gehner, Monika; Lawe-Davies, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  14. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tiffany Cool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem: In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context: Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome: The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt: During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  15. Communication Strategies between Chinese Employers and their Basotho Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobe Maboleba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Lesotho, an increasing number of supermarkets and small stores, in both urban and rural areas, are owned and/or managed by Chinese. This paper is a preliminary attempt to document how workplace communication takes place between Chinese employers and their Basotho employees. It specifically investigates communication strategies used in carrying out daily interaction, looking at the use of the three languages Sesotho and Chinese as mother tongue languages for both parties, then the international language, English, and their possible mixing. It discusses whether there could be said to be a local pidgin developing. The paper also looks at non-verbal communication strategies, such as gestures, and whether more ‘experienced’ employers and employees are used to ‘mediate’ in workplace communication. Data were obtained from questions administered to employees of Chinese stores. It was supplemented by observations in such stores. Analysed data reveal that competency and fluency in a language is not a hindrance in business. Workers and their employees could always employ any means of communication to carry out their normal routines.

  16. Defining moments in risk communication research: 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, scholars suggested that risk communication was embarking on a new phase that would give increased attention to the social contexts that surround and encroach on public responses to risk information. A decade later, many researchers have answered the call, with several defining studies examining the social and psychological influences on risk communication. This article reviews risk communication research appearing in the published literature since 1996. Among studies, social trust, the social amplification of risk framework, and the affect heuristic figured prominently. Also common were studies examining the influence of risk in the mass media. Among these were content analyses of media coverage of risk, as well as investigations of possible effects resulting from coverage. The use of mental models was a dominant method for developing risk message content. Other studies examined the use of risk comparisons, narratives, and visuals in the production of risk messages. Research also examined how providing information about a risk's severity, social norms, and efficacy influenced communication behaviors and intentions to follow risk reduction measures. Methods for conducting public outreach in health risk communication rounded out the literature.

  17. An update on risk communication in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Krümmel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic. Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the “Arctic Dilemma”. This article gives an update on health risk communication in the Arctic region. It briefly summarizes some research on risk communication methodologies as well as approaches to an evaluation of the outcomes of risk communication initiatives. It provides information on specific initiatives in several Arctic countries, and particularly those that were directed at Indigenous populations. This article also summarizes some international versus local risk communication activities and the complexity of developing and delivering messages designed for different audiences. Finally, the potential application of social media for risk communication and a summary of “best practices” based on published literature and a survey of Inuit in a few Arctic countries are described. Conclusion: Several of the risk communication initiatives portrayed in this article indicate that there is only limited awareness of the outcome of risk communication messages. In some cases, risk communication efforts appear to have been successful, at least when effectiveness is measured in an indirect way, for example, by lower contaminant levels. However, due to missing effectiveness evaluation studies, uncertainty remains as to whether a specific risk communication method was successful and could be clearly linked to behavioural changes that resulted in decreased

  18. Does communicating (flood) risk affect (flood) risk perceptions? Results of al quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    People's risk perceptions are generally regarded as an important determinant of their decisions to adjust to natural hazards. However, few studies have evaluated how risk communication programs affect these risk perceptions. This study evaluates the effects of a small-scale flood risk communication

  19. The Effect of Communication Strategy Training on the Development of EFL Learners' Strategic Competence and Oral Communicative Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of communication strategy instruction on EFL students' oral communicative ability and their strategic competence. In a 14-week English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course (English Use II) based on Communicative Language Teaching approach, 80 learners were divided into two groups. The strategy training group (n = 44)…

  20. Risk and outbreak communication: lessons from alternative paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Risk communication guidelines widely used in public health are based on the psychometric paradigm of risk, which focuses on risk perception at the level of individuals. However, infectious disease outbreaks and other public health emergencies are more than public health events and occur in a highly charged political, social and economic environment. This study examines other sociological and cultural approaches from scholars such as Ulrich Beck and Mary Douglas for insights on how to communicate in such environments. It recommends developing supplemental tools for outbreak communication to deal with issues such as questions of blame and fairness in risk distribution and audiences who do not accept biomedical explanations of disease.

  1. Creation of a virtual triage exercise: an interprofessional communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Sharon; Nicely, Stephanie; Hodgson, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Virtual reality simulation as a teaching method is gaining increased acceptance and presence in institutions of higher learning. This study presents an innovative strategy using the interdisciplinary development of a nonimmersive virtual reality simulation to facilitate interprofessional communication. The purpose of this pilot project was to describe nursing students' attitudes related to interprofessional communication following the collaborative development of a disaster triage virtual reality simulation. Collaboration between and among professionals is integral in enhancing patient outcomes. In addition, ineffective communication is linked to detrimental patient outcomes, especially during times of high stress. Poor communication has been identified as the root cause of the majority of negative sentinel events occurring in hospitals. The simulation-development teaching model proved useful in fostering interprofessional communication and mastering course content. Mean scores on the KidSIM Attitudes Towards Teamwork in Training Undergoing Designed Educational Simulation survey demonstrated that nursing students, after simulation experience,had agreement to strong agreement inall areas surveyed including interprofessional education, communication, roles and responsibilities of team members, and situational awareness. The findings indicate that students value interprofessional teamwork and the opportunity to work with other disciplines.

  2. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  3. Understanding risk evaluation and mitigation strategies in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven

    2011-07-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) be required of manufacturers. These REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with drugs and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product, including once the product becomes available as generic. The elements of an individual REMS program consist of three levels: medication guide or patient package insert, communication plan, and elements to assure safe use (ETASU). A medication guide or patient package insert is used to help prevent serious adverse events, aid in patient decision making, and enhance drug adherence. Communication plans are used to educate health care providers and to encourage their compliance with REMS. The ETASU is a restrictive process that is implemented when it is deemed necessary to ensure that patients have safe access to products with known serious risks that would otherwise be unavailable. To review the components of REMS and specifically assess their impact on health care providers practicing within the organ transplantation arena, a literature search of the MEDLINE database (January 2007-December 2010) was performed, and published materials from the FDA and its Web site were also reviewed. In transplantation, REMS programs exist for both everolimus (medication guide and communication plan) and sirolimus (medication guide). The FDA has stated that all mycophenolic acid derivatives will be subject to a proposed REMS that has not yet been approved; however, both branded mycophenolic acid agents already have approved medication guides. The REMS are a permanent fixture in the development and marketing of pharmaceutical agents, and their further implementation in solid organ transplantation is inevitable. Transplantation providers should take a proactive role in patient education and implementation of REMS within the therapeutic area

  4. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2014-01-01

    nuclear radiation from Fukushima" which focus on mis-information and fear mongering. Nuclear power and NTR are powerful resources that can open many doors for future prosperity and capability. With great power comes great responsibility. Radiation and its effects need to be better understood, quantified, and communicated. A human mission to mars has its own risks of deep space radiation and is considered a considerable risk at 400 milli-Sieverts per year in deep space and 245 milli-Sieverts per year on the surface of Mars as measured by the Mars Curiosity mission. Although these quantities of ionizing radiation are within the astronaut career limit, it exceeds the yearly average amounts of ionizing radiation. Astronaut crews have experienced these levels of radiation before, but for durations shorter than a year, and a mission to Mars could possibly be 3 years in length. There is also evidence that people can comfortably handle higher levels of ionizing radiation where the radiation occurs naturally like Ramsar, Iran when people can experience 270 milli-Sieverts per year. A risk posture that the development, test, and flight of an NTR will meet opposition from groups who oppose nuclear energy must be likely and the impact can be sever to the effort. Active risk mitigation must be taken for an NTR full-scale development project. The NTR design must take into account safety for transport and off nominal conditions. Nuclear fuel element must consider containment of fission products and Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) that may meet less opposition should be considered for safety and security reasons. Even though testing was conducted on Rover/NERVA safely and successfully in the 60's with exhaust sent heavenward in to open air, modern testing of NTR must consider full containment and no release of ionizing radiation to the public and must meet the current requirement of no more than 0.1 milli-Sieverts per year to the public. 0.1 milli-Sieverts is equivalent to eating one banana or

  5. Communicating and Visualizing Erosion-associated Risks to Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Caspar; Simpson, Carolyn; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem worldwide, affecting agriculture, the natural environment and urban areas through its impact on flood risk, water quality, loss of nutrient-rich upper soil layers, eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of waterways and sediment-related damage to roads, buildings and infrastructure such as water, gas and electricity supply networks. This study focuses on risks to infrastructure associated with erosion and the interventions needed to reduce those risks. Deciding on what interventions to make means understanding better which parts of the landscape are most susceptible to erosion and which measures are most effective in reducing it. Effective ways of communicating mitigation strategies to stakeholders such as farmers, land managers and policy-makers are then essential if interventions are to be implemented. Drawing on the Decision-Support Matrix (DSM) approach which combines a set of hydrological principles with Participatory Action Research (PAR), a decision-support tool for Communicating and Visualizing Erosion-Associated Risks to Infrastructure (CAVERTI) was developed. The participatory component was developed with the Wear Rivers Trust, focusing on a case-study area in the North East of England. The CAVERTI tool brings together process understanding gained from modelling with knowledge and experience of a variety of stakeholders to address directly the problem of sediment transport. Development of the tool was a collaborative venture, ensuring that the problems and solutions presented are easily recognised by practitioners and decision-makers. This recognition, and ease of access via a web-based interface, in turn help to ensure that the tools get used. The web-based tool developed helps to assess, manage and improve understanding of risk from a multi-stakeholder perspective and proposes solutions to problems. We argue that visualization and communication tools co-developed by researchers and stakeholders are the best means

  6. POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN TASK-BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rohani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task Based Learning (TBL would shape or change students’ use of oral communication strategies. Students’ problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis throughmulti-methods of questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion, learning journals, and classroom observation. Participants were 26 second year students of the State Polytechnic of Malang. Data collection was conducted for one semester. Findingsshow linguistic and non-linguistic problems encountered by students during one-semester implementation of TBL. Students also performedincreased use of positive strategies but reduced use of negative strategies after the implementation of TBL.

  7. An Effective Local Routing Strategy on the Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Jian; Wang, Bing-Hong; Xi, Zheng-Dong; Yin, Chuan-Yang; Yang, Han-Xin; Sun, Duo

    In this paper, we propose an effective routing strategy on the basis of the so-called nearest neighbor search strategy by introducing a preferential cut-off exponent K. We assume that the handling capacity of one vertex is proportional to its degree when the degree is smaller than K, and is a constantC 0 otherwise. It is found that by tuning the parameter α, the scale-free network capacity measured by the order parameter is considerably enhanced compared to the normal nearest-neighbor strategy. Traffic dynamics both near and far away from the critical generating rate R c are discussed. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimal performance of the system corresponds to α= - 0.5. Due to the low cost of acquiring nearest-neighbor information and the strongly improved network capacity, our strategy may be useful and reasonable for the protocol designing of modern communication networks.

  8. CSR Communication Strategies for Organizational Legitimacy in Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colleoni, Elanor

    2013-01-01

    . Empirical findings show that, even when engaging in a dialogue, communication in social media is still conceived as a marketing practice to convey messages about companies. Originality/value – This paper originally investigates organizational legitimacy in the context of social media by applying advanced...... is to investigate which corporate communication strategy adopted in online social media is more effective to create convergence between corporations' corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda and stakeholders' social expectations, and thereby, to increase corporate legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach – Using...... the entire Twitter social graph, a network analysis was carried out to study the structural properties of the CSR community, such as the level of reciprocity, and advanced data mining techniques, i.e. topic and sentiment analysis, were carried out to investigate the communication dynamics. Findings...

  9. Transparent communication strategy on GMOs: will it change public opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinemus, Kristina; Egelhofer, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Innovations are central for the economic growth; however, the use of new technologies needs to be widely accepted in the general public and the society as a whole. Biotechnology in general, and the use of genetic engineering in food production in particular are seen critically by the European public and perceived as "risky", and a transatlantic divide between European and US citizens has been observed. This review investigates the reasons for those differing perceptions and proposes new strategies to communicate the benefits of biotechnology in agriculture to a broader public. When analyzing the dialogue process that has taken place between public, scientists, governmental organizations and industry, questions arise on what has been done differently in Europe, in order to propose new, more successful and efficient communication strategies for the future.

  10. Stakeholder analysis and mapping as targeted communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author highlights the importance of stakeholder theory and discusses how to apply the theory to conduct a stakeholder analysis. This article also provides an explanation of how to use related stakeholder mapping techniques with targeted communication strategies.

  11. Risk and Outbreak Communication: Lessons from Taiwan's Experiences in the Post-SARS Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yu-Ling; Wei, Han-Ning; Yang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Ying-Hwei

    In addition to the impact of a disease itself, public reaction could be considered another outbreak to be controlled during an epidemic. Taiwan's experience with SARS in 2003 highlighted the critical role played by the media during crisis communication. After the SARS outbreak, Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) followed the WHO outbreak communication guidelines on trust, early announcements, transparency, informing the public, and planning, in order to reform its risk communication systems. This article describes the risk communication framework in Taiwan, which has been used to respond to the 2009-2016 influenza epidemics, Ebola in West Africa (2014-16), and MERS-CoV in South Korea (2015) during the post-SARS era. Many communication strategies, ranging from traditional media to social and new media, have been implemented to improve transparency in public communication and promote civic engagement. Taiwan CDC will continue to maintain the strengths of its risk communication systems and resolve challenges as they emerge through active evaluation and monitoring of public opinion to advance Taiwan's capacity in outbreak communication and control. Moreover, Taiwan CDC will continue to implement the IHR (2005) and to promote a global community working together to fight shared risks and to reach the goal of "One World, One Health."

  12. The challenge of Risk Communication: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschatzky, Valentina; Haynes, Katharine; McAneney, John

    2013-04-01

    Last October, in a landmark case, six scientists and a government official associated with the Italian National Commission for the Forecast and Prevention of Major Risks were found guilty of multiple counts of manslaughter. The trial followed a magnitude 6.3 earthquake near the Italian city of L'Aquila that killed 309 people in April 2009. The alleged crime was not a failure to predict the earthquake, but rather one of inadequately communicating the level of risk, and, presumably in the view of the judge, deliberate obfuscation. Risk communication is about providing the public with information needed to minimise injury, loss of life and damage to property. Mostly, even when well executed, this is, at best, only partially successful. The usual outcome is a public who, despite warnings and for any number of reasons, do not undertake protective behaviour. Nevertheless, despite the difficulty of motivating behavioural change, the public deserve correct and objective information. The L'Aquila situation is not without precedent: on June 25, 1997, a major dome collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat killed 19 people within a designated exclusion zone. At the inquest, the advice provided by the scientists involved with the monitoring and risk assessment of the volcano was closely scrutinised. In the end, however, the scientists were not implicated in the deaths and the advice they provided was not challenged. The scientists on Montserrat, like those of the Major Risk Commission in Italy, had come under great pressure to bend their science to the social and political needs of the island; unlike the scientists on trial in Italy, they resisted. Similar questions were posed of fire authorities and scientists after the 2009 bushfires (wildfires) in Victoria, Australia, and the death of 173 people. A longstanding Australian bushfire community safety strategy was the 'prepare, stay and defend [homes], or leave early policy'. It arose from

  13. Communicative aspects and coping strategies in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Pereira da Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, healthy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale – VoiSS – Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire – VDCQ – Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria – LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p<0.001, VoiSS (p<0.001, LwD (p<0.001. The most frequently used coping strategy was self-control (p<0.001. The correlation between vocal symptoms and communicative aspects showed that the greater the impairment in communication, the greater the VoiSS emotional scores and the greater will be the amount of voice symptoms and signs. However, the vocal signs and symptoms and communicative aspects showed no correlation with coping. Conclusion: Patients with PD have a high amount of vocal signs and symptoms and the higher the occurrence, the more the patient reports being difficult to live with dysarthria, particularly when there are deviations in the emotional domain.

  14. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor

  15. [Risk communication of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment during a food-related outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, M; Epp, A; Röder, B; Böl, G-F

    2013-01-01

    Information about and explanation of risks as well as the initiation of behavioral changes and preventive actions are core tasks of risk communication. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak in spring 2011, the governmental agencies responsible for risk communication mainly focused on these tasks. In general, risk communication is understood as a continuous, long-term process that aims at an adequate handling of risks. In contrast, crisis communication is focused rather on an acute event and aims at timely information and behavioral measures. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak, risk communication partly changed over to crisis communication. The risk communication activities of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitüt für Risikobewertung, BfR) during the EHEC/HUS outbreak are presented here. The results of a representative survey that was conducted in Germany shortly after the outbreak show details of the success of these risk communication activities. Finally, the necessity of communication about scientific uncertainty is addressed and new ways in risk communication with regard to new media are highlighted.

  16. Brief Survey of the Communicative Approach and the Strategy of Improving the Students' Communicative Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕萍

    2012-01-01

      With the rapid development of economy and improvement position of English as an international lan-guage in our country,English teaching draw a lot of attention nowadays. In traditional English teaching,it's the teachers who manipulate everything in class,where students are seen as receivers of knowledge. Therefore,it lacks cooperation between teachers and students. Students have no opportunity to apply what they have learnt in class to practical com-munications. In this teachers-centered class,students are not able to bring themselves into ful play,which explains the low quality of English teaching in some schools and students fail to communicate with others after many years' learning. Based on the theory of Communicative Approach,the paper analyses its advantages and existing problems in application and proposes some strategy of improving students'Communicative Competence.

  17. Knowledge management: an innovative risk management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipperer, Lorri; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management effectively lends itself to the enterprise risk process. The authors introduce the concept of knowledge management as a strategy to drive innovation and support risk management. They align this work with organizational efforts to improve patient safety and quality through the effective sharing of experience and lessons learned. The article closes with suggestions on how to develop a knowledge management initiative at an organization, who should be on the team, and how to sustain this effort and build the culture it requires to drive success.

  18. The adaptation study of oral communication strategy inventory into Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saziye Yaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals use a variety of strategies in the course of speaking which can be identified via measurement tools. In the literature, strategy inventories are regarded as the most commonly used measurement tools. However, most of the strategy inventories lack the reliability and validity studies. Furthermore, most of them represent strategies that the learner could use throughout the language learning process and they are not directly relevant to the skill of speaking. Moreover, in the literature, most of the studies carried out on speaking strategies are based on the inventories developed for learners learning English as a second language. With respect to other measurement tools, Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 for Japanese learning English as a foreign language had a clear factor structure and it seemed less problematic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to adapt OCSI into Turkish. Our concern in the adaptation study of OCSI is to investigate whether oral communication strategies classified in OCSI developed by Nakatani (2006 would also measure Turkish EFL students’ speaking strategy use. Within the scope of adaptation study, the inventory was translated to Turkish and evaluated with the method of back translation. The equivalence between English form and Turkish form, construct validity and internal consistency were examined. The research was conducted with 808 students studying English as a foreign language at ELT departments of three different universities and Anatolian High schools. Based on the findings concerning the reliability and validity studies, it can be concluded that the classification of the original form of OCSI differs from the adapted version to some extent in that the Turkish form is made up of seven factors in contrast to the original inventory consisting of eight factors. Non verbal strategies which existed in Nakatani’s original inventory did not appear in the adaptation form

  19. Understanding, accepting and controlling risks: A multistage framework for risk communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The meanings and functions of cc risk communication a (RC, for shea) are specified on the basis of a multistage framework for handling societal risks. After identifying various reasons for RC, essential components of > are briefly discussed : basic risk communicator positions, different levels of ri

  20. UNDERSTANDING, ACCEPTING AND CONTROLLING RISKS - A MULTISTAGE FRAMEWORK FOR RISK COMMUNICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VLEK, CAJ

    1995-01-01

    The meanings and functions of cc risk communication a (RC, for shea) are specified on the basis of a multistage framework for handling societal risks. After identifying various reasons for RC, essential components of > are briefly discussed : basic risk communicator positions, different levels of ri

  1. Understanding, accepting and controlling risks: A multistage framework for risk communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The meanings and functions of cc risk communication a (RC, for shea) are specified on the basis of a multistage framework for handling societal risks. After identifying various reasons for RC, essential components of > are briefly discussed : basic risk communicator positions, different levels of

  2. Identifying Strategies that Facilitate EFL Learners' Oral Communication: A Classroom Study Using Multiple Data Collection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    This article considers whether the use of specific communication strategies can improve learners' English proficiency in communicative tasks. Japanese college students (n= 62) participated in a 12-week course of English lessons using a communicative approach with strategy training. To investigate the influence of specific strategy use, their…

  3. Effects of risk communication on natural hazards on real estate owners' risk perception and risk behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Maidl, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, in most of the European countries risk maps on natural hazards have been elaborated but there is so far little experience how to efficiently communicate these maps to the public. Recently, the public authorities of Zurich informed the owners of buildings located within the hazard zone on urban flood risks The owners received official letters containing information on potential danger, the probability of flood events, constructional safety measures, and guidelines for appropriate actions in case of an immediate flood. In the cover letter they were also encouraged to achieve more detailed information about the particular risks for their building using an online accessible risk map within a geographic information system (GIS). This risk communication campaign was based on the expectation that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. There is, however, little empirical evidence that these expected outcomes can be achieved by written forms of risk communication. With this project we aim to find out to which degree a campaign of written risk communication can shape land owners risk perception and risk behaviour, and which other factors (e.g. trust in authorities, risk, risk zone category of the building) contributed to these outcomes... In collaboration with public authorities we conducted a survey among 1500 owners of buildings in the hazard zones in Zurich (50 % in blue zone, 50 % in yellow and yellow-white zone), that is 14% of all persons who were addressed by the authorities of the city. The standardized questionnaire comprises in particular items measuring respondents' evaluation of the virtual and physical information material, the time they spent for studying the information material, the dimensions of their risk perception, their acceptability of risks and their preparedness to implement constructional and other safety

  4. How do family physicians communicate about cardiovascular risk? Frequencies and determinants of different communication formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients understand information about risk better if it is communicated in numerical or visual formats (e.g. graphs compared to verbal qualifiers only. How frequently different communication formats are used in clinical primary care settings is unknown. Methods We collected socioeconomic and patient understanding data using questionnaires and audio-recorded consultations about cardiovascular disease risk. The frequencies of the communication formats were calculated and multivariate regression analysis of associations between communication formats, patient and general practitioner characteristics, and patient subjective understanding was performed. Results In 73% of 70 consultations, verbal qualifiers were used exclusively to communicate cardiovascular risk, compared to numerical (11% and visual (16% formats. Female GPs and female patient's gender were significantly associated with a higher use of verbal formats compared to visual formats (p = 0.001 and p = 0.039, respectively. Patient subjective understanding was significantly higher in visual counseling compared to verbal counseling (p = 0.001. Conclusions Verbal qualifiers are the most often used communication format, though recommendations favor numerical and visual formats, with visual formats resulting in better understanding than others. Also, gender is associated with the choice of communication format. Barriers against numerical and visual communication formats among GPs and patients should be studied, including gender aspects. Adequate risk communication should be integrated into physicians' education.

  5. 77 FR 70450 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Campus must enter through Building 1. Contact Person: Lee L. Zwanziger, Risk Communication Staff, Food.... Interested persons can also log on to https://collaboration.fda.gov/rcac/ to hear and see the...

  6. Breast cancer: unique communication challenges and strategies to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Patricia A; Aaron, Joann; Baile, Walter F

    2009-01-01

    Women with breast cancer have become increasingly more involved on a national and local level in advocating for resources to fight cancer. However, in the context of the relationship with their physicians and other cancer caregivers, much remains to be done in providing them with adequate support. In this paper, we highlight the difficulties in communication related to breast cancer and describe strategies and approaches that may be helpful in improving the communication throughout the cancer trajectory. Specifically, breast cancer patients have high unmet information needs relevant to health information and dissatisfaction with the actual information they receive from their providers. These needs seem even more pronounced when patients are older, of lower socio-economic class and from differing cultural backgrounds which may affect their ability to express their desires for information and desire to be involved in decision-making about their treatment. Other communication challenges can be envisioned as occurring at key points across the cancer trajectory: diagnosis disclosure, treatment failure, transition to palliative care, and end of life discussions. These involve techniques as basic as how to establish trust and rapport and determine a patient's information and decision-making preferences and as complex as giving bad news. These strategies are now viewed as essential skills in that they can affect patient distress and quality of life, satisfaction, and malpractice litigation as well as practitioner stress and burnout.

  7. Risk communication and human biomonitoring: which practical lessons from the Belgian experience are of use for the EU perspective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loots Ilse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to investigate and monitor environmental health in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium, the Flemish government funded the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which started a human biomonitoring campaign in 2001. In addition to environmental health experts measuring environmental pollutants and health effects in human beings, social scientific experts at the Centre focus on risk communication associated with the human biomonitoring campaign. Methods In the literature about risk communication an evolution can be traced from traditional, one-way communication, restricted to the dissemination of information from experts to the public, to more modern, two-way risk communication, with a focus on participation and cooperation between scientists, policy-makers and the public. Within the Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health this discourse was first translated into some general principles and guidelines for external communication, at a 'Ten Commandments level'. These principles needed to be incorporated in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring research. Results The social scientific experts at the Centre developed a combined risk communication strategy. On the one hand the strategy consists of traditional risk communication for external communication purposes, for example information meetings and digital newsletters. On the other hand it consists of a step by step approach of incorporating more modern risk communication, for example a risk perception questionnaire, dialogical experiments for involving local stakeholders, and an action-plan for interpreting results for policy making. Conclusion With a parallel strategy of traditional and modern communication, of external and internal reflection, and through different social scientific projects, the Flemish Centre of Expertise of Environment and Health incorporates risk communication in the day-to-day practice of human biomonitoring

  8. "One Big Happy Family": How to Plan an Internal Communications Strategy. Specialisms for Generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Peter; Harwood, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the strategic importance of internal communications, and offers a simple model for managing the process of effective internal communications. Discussion includes defining internal communications, strategic importance of internal communications, integrating internal communications strategy as a natural part of everyday working…

  9. Risk communication and radiological/nuclear terrorism: a strategic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2011-11-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication is a crucial element in radiological/nuclear terrorism preparedness. Whereas in the past, communication and information issues were sometimes viewed as secondary in comparison with technical concerns, today the need to improve risk communication, public information, and emergency messaging is seen as a high priority. The process of improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication can be conceptualized as occurring in four overlapping phases. The first phase involves the recognition that communication and information issues will be pivotal in shaping how a radiological/nuclear terrorism incident unfolds and in determining its outcome. This recognition has helped shape the second phase, in which various research initiatives have been undertaken to provide an empirical basis for improved communication. In the third and most recent phase, government agencies, professional organizations and others have worked to translate research findings into better messages and informational materials. Like the first and second phases, the third phase is still unfolding. The fourth phase in risk communication for radiological/nuclear terrorism-a mature phase-is only now just beginning. Central to this phase is a developing understanding that for radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication to be fully effective, it must go beyond crafting better messages and materials (as essential as that may be). This emerging fourth phase seeks to anchor radiological/nuclear communication in a broader approach: one that actively engages and partners with the public. In this article, each of the four stages is discussed, and future directions for improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication are explored.

  10. Strategies to address the desertion university from Information Technologies and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Rocio Ramirez Saavedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents general objective describe the main components of a strategy by the use of Information Technology and Communications (TIC to address the problem of the undergraduate student desertion of universities in Colombia. it is the purpose of proposing a strategy to avoid duplication of efforts and resources expenses when determining whether a student is at risk of dropping out. The overall methodological development was approached from heuristics and the projectile area, the specific methodology to establish three phases, planning, design and development were defined. Through this article the institutions of higher education may have a strategy to address the problem of undergraduate student desertion. Regionally the study may be used as a reference for implementing new strategies to help reduce dropout rates from the experiences of other institutions in the country.

  11. RiverCare communication strategy for reaching beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes Arevalo, Juliette; den Haan, Robert Jan; Berends, Koen; Leung, Nick; Augustijn, Denie; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2017-04-01

    Effectively communicating river research to water professionals and researchers working in multiple disciplines or organizations is challenging. RiverCare studies the mid-term effects of innovative river interventions in the Netherlands to improve river governance and sustainable management. A total of 21 researchers working at 5 universities are part of the consortium, which also includes research institutes, consultancies, and water management authorities. RiverCare results do not only benefit Dutch river management, but can also provide useful insights to challenges abroad. Dutch partner organizations actively involved in RiverCare are our direct users. However, we want to reach water professionals from the Netherlands and beyond. To communicate with and disseminate to these users, we set up a communication strategy that includes the following approaches : (1) Netherlands Centre of River studies (NCR) website to announce activities post news, not limited to RiverCare; (2) A RiverCare newsletter that is published twice per year to update about our progress and activities; (3) A multimedia promotional providing a 'first glance' of RiverCare. It consists of four video episodes and an interactive menu; (4) An interactive knowledge platform to provide access, explain RiverCare results and gather feedback about the added value and potential use of these results; and (5) A serious gaming environment titled Virtual River where actors can play out flood scaling intervention and monitoring strategies to assess maintenance scenarios. The communication strategy and related approaches are being designed and developed during the project. We use participatory methods and systematic evaluation to understand communication needs and to identify needs for improvement. As a first step, RiverCare information is provided via the NCR website. The active collaboration with the NCR is important to extend communication efforts beyond the RiverCare consortium and after the program ends

  12. Humor as a Communication Strategy in Provider-Patient Communication in a Chronic Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C; Martin, Gillian S; Keating, Mary A

    2017-02-01

    Humor is a potential communication strategy to accomplish various and potentially conflicting consultation goals. We investigated humor use and its reception in diabetes consultations by analyzing how and why humor emerges and its impact on the interaction. We did this by using an interactional sociolinguistics approach. We recorded 50 consultations in an Irish diabetes setting. Analysis of the humor events drew on framework analysis and on concepts from Conversation Analysis and pragmatics. The study also comprised interviews using tape-assisted recall. We identified 10 humor functions and two umbrella functions. A key finding is that most humor is relationship-protecting humor initiated by patients, that is, they voice serious messages and deal with emotional issues through humor. Our findings imply that patients' and providers' awareness of indirect communication strategies needs to be increased. We also recommend that researchers employ varied methods to adequately capture the interactive nature of humor.

  13. Risk communication between general practitioners and patients with hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo; Kirkegaard, Pia; Lauritzen, Torsten

      Purpose: It is important that the general practitioners (GPs) are able to intervene to reduce risk of disease. One of the key points in doing so is effective risk communication that decreases uncertainty about choice of treatment and gives the patients a greater understanding of benefits...... and risks of different options. The aim of this PhD-study is to make a model for training GPs in risk communication and to evaluate in a randomized intervention, how training GPs, using the model, affects the patients level of cholesterol, adherence to treatment, number of contacts to health services......, and psychological well-being.    Methods: 40 GPs receive training in risk communication. Each GP selects 7 patients with elevated cholesterol. These patients are informed about the opportunity to receive preventive pharmacological treatment. Another 280 patients receive the same opportunity from 40 GPs without...

  14. Clinical handover as an interactive event: informational and interactional communication strategies in effective shift-change handovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Suzanne; Slade, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Clinical handover -- the transfer between clinicians of responsibility and accountability for patients and their care (AMA 2006) -- is a pivotal and high-risk communicative event in hospital practice. Studies focusing on critical incidents, mortality, risk and patient harm in hospitals have highlighted ineffective communication -- including incomplete and unstructured clinical handovers -- as a major contributing factor (NSW Health 2005; ACSQHC 2010). In Australia, as internationally, Health Departments and hospital management have responded by introducing standardised handover communication protocols. This paper problematises one such protocol - the ISBAR tool - and argues that the narrow understanding of communication on which such protocols are based may seriously constrain their ability to shape effective handovers. Based on analysis of audio-recorded shift-change clinical handovers between medical staff we argue that handover communication must be conceptualised as inherently interactive and that attempts to describe, model and teach handover practice must recognise both informational and interactive communication strategies. By comparing the communicative performance of participants in authentic handover events we identify communication strategies that are more and less likely to lead to an effective handover and demonstrate the importance of focusing close up on communication to improve the quality and safety of healthcare interactions.

  15. Assessment of Risk Communication about Undercooked Hamburgers by Restaurant Servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen M; Binder, Andrew R; McLAUGHLIN, Anne; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Hanson, Dana; Powell, Douglas; Chapman, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2013 Model Food Code, it is the duty of a food establishment to disclose and remind consumers of risk when ordering undercooked food such as ground beef. The purpose of this study was to explore actual risk communication behaviors of food establishment servers. Secret shoppers visited 265 restaurants in seven geographic locations across the United States, ordered medium rare burgers, and collected and coded risk information from chain and independent restaurant menus and from server responses. The majority of servers reported an unreliable method of doneness (77%) or other incorrect information (66%) related to burger doneness and safety. These results indicate major gaps in server knowledge and risk communication, and the current risk communication language in the Model Food Code does not sufficiently fill these gaps. The question is "should servers even be acting as risk communicators?" There are numerous challenges associated with this practice, including high turnover rates, limited education, and the high stress environment based on pleasing a customer. If servers are designated as risk communicators, food establishment staff should be adequately trained and provided with consumer advisory messages that are accurate, audience appropriate, and delivered in a professional manner so that customers can make informed food safety decisions.

  16. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Mercury Contamination: Fate and Risk Minimization Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, L.

    Two river basins have been studied in French Guyana, which are subject to heavy mercury contamination, due to illegal gold mining. Within the framework of an interdisciplinary European project, the fate of mercury in water, air, soil, sediment has been studied, as well as its bio-accumulation in the food chain. This bioaccumulation results in the contamination of amerindian populations, through fish consumption. This study has been done in close contact with the economic and political actors. The results of the scientific interdisciplinary study has been translated in terms of risk minimization strategies, which are analyzed in the framework of the European Water Framework Directive.

  18. Literacy and Communication Technologies: Distance Education Strategies for Literacy Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinoye, Rashid

    2008-11-01

    This article examines the promotion of literacy through information and communication technologies (ICTs) and through various modes of distance learning. After a general discussion of these approaches, the article focuses on efforts towards reducing illiteracy in Nigeria through integrated strategies for literacy delivery and especially through distance learning. After highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of these measures, the author makes some suggestions on how to maximize their effectiveness in helping Nigeria to achieve the targets of the Education for All agenda and the Millennium Development Goals.

  19. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. [Study on health support strategies by analyzing the diet, alcohol intake, and smoking behavior of university students: examination of non-communicable disease risk factors according to their sex, age and living arrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the diet, drinking, and smoking behaviors of university students and to analyze the health behaviors that could be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in order to contribute to the promotion of NCD prevention in youth. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions including items about health behaviors. The subjects surveyed were students of 10 universities on the main island of Japan (1,196 valid responders). The score for the nutritional balance was significantly low in the group living alone for both students in their teens and 20s. For the frequency of not eating breakfast, results suggest that living alone and increase in age are related to the lack of breakfast for both males and females. Teenage males living alone tended to lack in consideration for the intake of animal fat than those not living alone. The females showed a higher tendency to eat sweets and snacks during the day than the males. For the males who living alone, results suggest that they tended to have a higher or equal alcohol intake to females in their 20s and males in their 20s not living alone even when they are underage. Males in their 20s tended to have a higher amount and frequency of smoking than other groups regardless of their living arrangement. Accumulation of health behavior that could be a risk for NCDs was found in some of the groups, such as males living alone.

  1. An Investigation into the Communication Strategies Employed by the EFL Learners in Tibet University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玛德吉

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigates the result of a research of communication strategies employed by EFL learners in an oral English test. Data for the research were collected through recording and transcribing a whole session of oral test. By analyzing different types of communication strategies employed by learners, the paper attempts to figure the role of communication strategies in managing smooth communication and get enlightenment for oral English teaching in the future.

  2. Integrating social capacity into risk reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, S.; Pedoth, L.; Zebisch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of risk to impacts from external stresses and shocks is an important task in communities worldwide at all government levels and independent of the development status. The importance of building social capacity as part of risk reduction strategies is increasingly recognized. However, there is space for improvement to incorporate related activities into a holistic risk governance approach. Starting point for such enhancements is to promote and improve assessments of what is called 'sensitivity' or 'adaptive capacity' in the climate change community and what is named 'vulnerability' or 'resilience' in the hazard risk community. Challenging issues that need to be tackled in this context are the integration of concepts and method as well as the fusion of data. Against this background we introduce a method to assess regional adaptive capacity to climate change focusing on mountain areas accounting for sector specific problems. By considering three levels of specificity as base for the selection of most appropriate indicators the study results have the potential to support decision making regarding most appropriate adaptation actions. Advantages and shortcomings of certain aspects of adaptive capacity assessment in general and of the proposed method in particular are presented.

  3. Incorporating risk communication into highly pathogenic avian influenza preparedness and response efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Shauna J; Malladi, Sasidhar; Sampedro, Fernando; Snider, Tim; Goldsmith, Timothy; Hueston, William D; Lauer, Dale C; Halvorson, David A

    2012-12-01

    A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the United States will initiate a federal emergency response effort that will consist of disease control and eradication efforts, including quarantine and movement control measures. These movement control measures will not only apply to live animals but also to animal products. However, with current egg industry "just-in-time" production practices, limited storage is available to hold eggs. As a result, stop movement orders can have significant unintended negative consequences, including severe disruptions to the food supply chain. Because stakeholders' perceptions of risk vary, waiting to initiate communication efforts until an HPAI event occurs can hinder disease control efforts, including the willingness of producers to comply with the response, and also can affect consumers' demand for the product. A public-private-academic partnership was formed to assess actual risks involved in the movement of egg industry products during an HPAI event through product specific, proactive risk assessments. The risk analysis process engaged a broad representation of stakeholders and promoted effective risk management and communication strategies before an HPAI outbreak event. This multidisciplinary team used the risk assessments in the development of the United States Department of Agriculture, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Secure Egg Supply Plan, a comprehensive response plan that strives to maintain continuity of business. The collaborative approach that was used demonstrates how a proactive risk communication strategy that involves many different stakeholders can be valuable in the development of a foreign animal disease response plan and build working relationships, trust, and understanding.

  4. Using Comparative Risk Surveys in Environmental Communication Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis

    2006-01-01

    Using student-generated comparative risk surveys in environmental communication pedagogy has been helpful in achieving specified learning objectives: to describe (1) the influence of socioeconomic, political, and scientific factors in the social construction of environmental problems; (2) the role risk perception plays in defining environmental…

  5. Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and communication preferences of Latino community members regarding BRCA1/2 mutation testing and preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Gammon, Amanda; Coxworth, James; Simonsen, Sara E; Arce-Laretta, Maritza

    2010-02-01

    To inform development of a culturally sensitive hereditary breast and ovarian cancer communication initiative and related clinical genetic services. Five focus groups were conducted with 51 female and male Latinos. Educational materials were designed to communicate information about hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and availability of relevant clinical services or prevention strategies. Focus groups explored participants' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, BRCA1/2 testing, and communication preferences for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer health messages. Overall, awareness of familial breast and ovarian cancer and availability of genetic risk assessment was low. Once informed, participants held favorable attitudes toward risk assessment and counseling services. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to provide bilingual media products and use of a variety of strategies to increase awareness about hereditary cancer risk and availability of clinical genetic services. Important barriers were identified regarding family cancer history communication and cancer prevention services. Strategies were suggested for communicating cancer genetic information to increase awareness and overcome these barriers; these included both targeted and tailored approaches. This research suggests that cancer genetic communication efforts should consider community and cultural perspectives as well as health care access issues before widespread implementation.

  6. Communicating cancer risk in print journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, J E

    1999-01-01

    The current barrage of information about real and potential cancer risks has created undue fears and misplaced concerns about cancer hazards faced by Americans. Most members of the general public are far more worried about minuscule, hypothetical risks presented by environmental contaminants than about the far greater well-established hazards that they inflict on themselves, for example, through smoking, dietary imbalance, and inactivity. It is the job of the print media to help set the record straight and to help place in perspective the myriad cancer risks that are aired almost weekly in 30-second radio and television broadcasts.

  7. Risk communication for nanobiotechnology: to whom, about what, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Susanna Hornig

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory oversight and public communication are intimately intertwined. Oversight failures quickly galvanize media and public attention. In addition, regulations sometimes require that risks and uncertainties be included in communication efforts aimed at non-experts outside of the regulatory and policy communities - whether in obtaining informed consent for novel medical treatments; by including risk information on drug labels, in drug advertisements, or on chemicals used in the workplace; in providing nutritional information on food packages; or by opening environmental impact assessments to public comment. In recent decades, broad public input with respect to new technologies has also been sought "upstream" of hard policy decisions in the hope of ultimately gaining legitimacy for those decisions - and perhaps increasing their quality. When communication fails, oversight may also be seen as failing - rightly or wrongly. As part of a larger project organized by the University of Minnesota, this paper presents six models of public risk communication and uses those models to analyze the communication challenges facing nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. Reviewing the communication dynamics associated with the historical cases of technology regulation with which this symposium issue is concerned (genetically engineered organisms [GEOs] in the food supply, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, chemicals in the workplace, and gene transfer research or "gene therapy") helps shed light on the communications challenges facing nanobiotechnology.

  8. Brief Communication: The dark side of risk and crisis communication: legal conflicts and responsibility allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.

    2015-06-01

    Inadequate, misinterpreted, or missing risk and crisis communication may be a reason for practitioners, and sometimes science advisors, to become the subjects of criminal investigations. This work discusses the legal consequences of inadequate risk communication in these situations. After presenting some cases, the discussion focuses on three critical issues: the development of effective communication protocols; the role, tasks, and responsibilities of science advisors; and the collateral effects of practitioners' defensive behaviours. For example, if the avoidance of personal liability becomes a primary objective for practitioners, it may clash with other objectives, such as the protection of vulnerable communities or the transparency of decision making. The conclusion presents some ideas for future research on the legal aspects of risk communication.

  9. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  10. Family communication in a population at risk for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batte, Brittany; Sheldon, Jane P; Arscott, Patricia; Huismann, Darcy J; Salberg, Lisa; Day, Sharlene M; Yashar, Beverly M

    2015-04-01

    Encouraging family communication is an integral component of genetic counseling; therefore, we sought to identify factors impacting communication to family members at risk for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). Participants (N = 383) completed an online survey assessing: 1) demographics (gender, genetic test results, HCM family history, and disease severity); 2) illness representations; 3) family functioning and cohesiveness; 4) coping styles; 5) comprehension of HCM autosomal dominant inheritance; and 6) communication of HCM risk information to at-risk relatives. Participants were a national sample of individuals with HCM, recruited through the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. Data from 183 participants were analyzed using a logistic regression analysis, with family communication as a dichotomous dependent variable. We found that female gender and higher comprehension of autosomal dominant inheritance were significant predictors of participants' communication of HCM risk information to all their siblings and children. Our results suggest that utilizing interventions that promote patient comprehension (e.g., a teaching-focused model of genetic counseling) are important and may positively impact family communication within families with HCM.

  11. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, S.

    2013-07-01

    In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address - in research as well as in practice - since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  12. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kjellgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address – in research as well as in practice – since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  13. Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy: Review of Risk Factors and Risk-Reducing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy have increased substantially over the last decade. Surgical oncologists are often in the frontline, dealing with requests for this procedure. This paper reviews the current evidence base regarding contralateral breast cancer, assesses the various risk-reducing strategies, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy.

  14. Communicative strategies used by spouses of individuals with communication disorders related to stroke-induced aphasia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-11-01

    A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative disabilities, nor what factors contribute to the development of a particular approach by communication partners. To develop a set of categories to describe the strategies used by communication partners of adults who have problems expressing themselves due to neurogenic communicative disabilities. The reliability of assessment was a particular focus. The material explored consisted of 21 video-recorded everyday conversations involving seven couples where one spouse had a communicative disability. Three of the dyads included a person with dysarthria and anomia related to later stages of Parkinson's disease, while four of them included a person with stroke-induced aphasia involving anomia. First a qualitative interaction analysis was performed to explore the strategies used by the communication partners when their spouses had problems expressing themselves. The strategies were then categorized, the reliability of the categorizations was explored and the relative frequency of the various strategies was examined. The analysis of the conversational interactions resulted in a set of nine different strategies used by the communication partners without a communicative disability. Each of these categories belonged to one of three overall themes: No participation in repair; Request for clarification or modification; and Providing candidate solutions. The reliability of the categorization was satisfactory. There were no statistically significant differences between diagnoses in the frequency of use of strategies, but the spouses of the persons with Parkinson's disease tended to use open-class initiations of repair more often than the spouses of the persons

  15. Does Using Nonnumerical Terms to Describe Risk Aid Violence Risk Communication? Clinician Agreement and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N. Zoe; Carter, Angela M.; Harris, Grant T.; Sharpe, Amilynn J. B.

    2008-01-01

    Actuarial risk assessments yield valid numerical information about violence risk, but research suggests that forensic clinicians prefer to communicate risk using nonnumerical information (i.e., verbal terms such as high risk). In an experimental questionnaire study, 60 forensic clinicians disagreed on the interpretation of nonnumerical terms, and…

  16. Communication strategies and intensive interaction therapy meet the theology of the body: bioethics in dialogue with people with profound disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.

  17. [Risk communication in analysis of occupational health risk for industrial workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, A O; Lebedeva-Nesevrya, N A

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of risk communication system function on industrial enterprise. Sociologic study in machinery construction enterprise of Perm area helped to consider main procedures of informing on occupational risk for health of workers exposed to occupational hazards, to describe features and mechanisms of risk communication, to specify its model. The authors proved that main obstacles for efficient system of occupational risks communication are insufficiently thorough legal basis, low corporative social responsibility of the enterprise and low social value of health for workers. This article was prepared with the support of the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation (Project No. 14-16-59011).

  18. Speak no evil: The promotional heritage of nuclear risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwin, L.

    1990-01-01

    Louis Gwin addresses the critically important problem of nuclear risk communication. His research suggests that while an orderly evacuation of the population actually at risk may be workable in theory, the more likely occurrence is widespread panic and gridlock. Gwin's research suggests that existing programs of nuclear risk communication actually make this problem worse. He found that those who had received no prior information on what to do in an emergency were significantly more likely to do the right thing (e.g., await further instructions) than those who had received instructions. With utilities themselves retaining the ultimate responsibility for developing communication programs, it is not surprising that they have been reluctant; to issue instructions on what to do in the event of a nuclear accident is to acknowledge that such accidents can and do occur. Gwin makes no attempt to protray the nuclear industry as purposefully dishonest or evil. The bottom line is that programs that combine the communication of emergency plans with a latent desire to reassure the public fail in their primary purpose. As Gwin observes the key issue is one of trust. People see such communications as little more than propaganda put out by industry for its own purposes and do not trust the utilities to tell them what to do in the event of an accident. It will be every man for himself, with potentially disastrous consequences. How do we restore trust in nuclear risk communications Gwin offers a number of valuable suggestions such as placing communication responsibility in state or local agencies or in FEMA, and to ensure some form of public participation in the development and communication of emergency plans. This is an excellent study of an important and timely subject. It provides a much needed picture of just how badly our plans are likely to work in the next nuclear emergency. Gwin's warning should be heeded by policymakers now, while there is still time.

  19. The evolution of risk communication at the Weldon Spring site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, S. [USDOE Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles, MO (United States); Sizemore, M.; Meyer, L. [MK-Ferguson Co., Weldon Spring, MO (United States)]|[Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Weldon Spring, MO (United States); MacDonell, M.; Haroun, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Clear risk communication is one of the keys to establishing a positive relationship with the public at an environmental restoration site. This effort has been evolving at the Weldon Spring site over the past few years, with considerable input from the local community. The recent signing of the major cleanup decision for this site, which identifies on-site disposal as the remedy reflects the strength of the communication program that has evolved for the project.

  20. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  1. Wildfire communication and climate risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn S. Wilson; Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric. Toman

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the late 19th century and most of the 20th century, risks associated with wildfire were addressed by suppressing fires as quickly as possible. However, by the 1960s, it became clear that fire exclusion policies were having adverse effects on ecological health, as well as contributing to larger and more damaging wildfires over time. Although federal fire...

  2. Evaluating Risk Communication After the Fukushima Disaster Based on Nudge Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Tsubokura, Masaharu

    2017-03-01

    Using nudge theory and some examples of risk communication that followed the Fukushima disaster, this article discusses the influences and justifications of risk communication, in addition to how risk communication systems are designed. To assist people in making decisions based on their own value systems, we provide three suggestions, keeping in mind that people can be influenced (ie, "nudged") depending on how risk communication takes place: (1) accumulate knowledge on the process of evaluating how the method of risk communication and a system's default design could impact people; (2) clarify the purpose and outcomes of risk communication; and (3) see what risk communication might be ethically unjustifiable. Quantitative studies on risk communication and collective narratives will provide some ideas for how to design better risk communication systems and to help people make decisions. Furthermore, we have shown examples of unjustifiable risk communication.

  3. THE TYPES OF COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES USED BY SPEAKING CLASS STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION LEVELS IN ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF PETRA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY, SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study that aims to find out the types of Communication Strategies used and mostly used by students with high and low levels of Communication Apprehension and whether students with high level of Communication Apprehension used more numbers of Communication Strategies. The subjects in a created classroom were asked to retell a pictorial story and a pictorial instruction. The results showed that students with high Communication Apprehension level used more numbers of Communication Strategies.

  4. Improving sexual risk communication with adolescents using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L; Felicetti, Irene L; Saftner, Melissa A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately pre- and post-visit, and at 1 and 3 months, adolescents reported sexual risk behaviors and perceptions about EHC communication on questionnaires and by interview. NPs reported their perceptions of EHCs by questionnaire after the visit and poststudy interview. The EHC approach facilitated communication and adolescent awareness of their risk behaviors. Scores increased on Amount of Communication, t(29) = 8.174, p Communication, t(29) = 3.112, p = .004; Client Involvement in Decision Making, t(29) = 3.901, p = .001, and Client Satisfaction with Interpersonal Style, t(29) = 3.763, p = .001. Adolescents reported decreased sexual intercourse at 1 month, p = .031. School nurses could use the EHC approach to facilitate adolescent communication and tailoring of interventions.

  5. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals.

  6. (Meta)communication strategies in inclusive classes for deaf students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Celeste Azulay; Branco, Angela Uchôa

    2009-01-01

    How can an inclusive classroom for deaf students be successful? The use of metacommunication strategies by teachers and hearing peers seems promising. Schools that promote this approach tend to improve deaf students' psychosocial development and academic achievement. However, this is not a general rule. The present study identifies the elements of success, with the investigators basing their analysis on extensive observation of 4 bilingual classes conducted by regular education and specialized teachers. The study was conducted in 3 public elementary schools in Brasilia, Brazil. Data were collected through direct observation (156 hours) and video recording (34 hours). Results were qualitatively analyzed from a microgenetic perspective. The investigators devised 14 categories of social interaction, e.g., visual contact and responsivity, multimodal communication, co-construction of meanings, flexible use of space, and sign language instruction for hearing students.

  7. Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigere Chagutah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has frequently been struck by damaging climate hazards which increasingly continue to threaten sustainable development efforts. Ominously, climate models predict that the incidence of major ‘wet’ events, such as floods and cyclones will increase in frequency against the background of a changing climate. Unfortunately, local mechanisms for communicating and raising public awareness of the consequent risks and appropriate risk reduction options remain weak. At the core of policy responses to the threat posed by climate related hazards, the South African government has adopted a disaster risk reduction approach to disaster management. This article details how, among many other measures to limit the adverse impacts of natural hazards, South Africa’s National Disaster Management Framework calls for the implementation of effective public awareness activities to increase the knowledge among communities of the risks they face and what risk-minimising actions they can take. Emphasis is laid on the importance of information provision and knowledge building among at-risk communities. Citing established theories and strategies, the author proposes a participatory development communication approach through Development Support Communication strategies for the provision of disaster risk reduction public awareness activities by government and other disaster risk reduction role-players in South Africa. By way of a review of completed studies and literature, the article provides guidance on the planning and execution of successful public communication campaigns and also discusses the constraints of communication campaigns as an intervention for comprehensive disaster risk reduction.

  8. [Communication strategies used by health care professionals in providing palliative care to patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovo de Araújo, Monica Martins; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study is to verify the relevance and utilization of communication strategies in palliative care. This is a multicenter qualitative study using a questionnaire, performed from August of 2008 to July of 2009 with 303 health care professionals who worked with patients receiving palliative care. Data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Most participants (57.7%) were unable to state at least one verbal communication strategy, and only 15.2% were able to describe five signs or non-verbal communication strategies. The verbal strategies most commonly mentioned were those related to answering questions about the disease/treatment. Among the non-verbal strategies used, the most common were affective touch, looking, smiling, physical proximity, and careful listening. Though professionals have assigned a high degree of importance to communication in palliative care, they showed poor knowledge regarding communication strategies. Final considerations include the necessity of training professionals to communicate effectively in palliative care.

  9. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Susan C; Peterson, Janet; Yektashenas, Behin

    2012-02-01

    The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices.

  10. Communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Esparcia, Antonio; López-Villafranca, Paloma

    2016-08-01

    The current study focuses on communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations. The aims of these organizations are: educate and inform the public about rare diseases, raise awareness of the problems related to rare diseases, and achieve social legitimacy in order give visibility to their demands. We analyzed the portrayal of rare disease and patient organizations by Spain's major media organizations in terms of circulation and viewership - the press (El País, El Mundo, La Vanguardia,ABC and El Periódico), radio (CadenaSer, Onda Cero, Cope and RNE), and television (Telecinco, Antena 3, La 1, La Sexta, Cuatro) -between 2012 and 2014.We then carried out a descriptive analysis of communication activities performed via the World Wide Web and social networks by 143 national organizations. Finally, we conducted a telephone questionnaire of a representative sample of 90 organizations in order to explore the association between media presence and funding and public image. The triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed us to meet the study's objectives. Increased visibility of the organizations afforded by an increase in the coverage of the topic by the medialed to an increase in membership - but not in donations - and increased awareness of these diseases.

  11. Communication strategy of project LMS in Česká spořitelna a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Kočerginová, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis demonstrates the process of making and implementing a communication strategy in a project LMS in Česká spořitelna a.s. Theoretical part explains the terms communication, types of communication and communication strategy. In analytical part is described the process of making the communication strategy, its implementation and efectivity. The ground for this bachelor thesis were personal experiences with creation of a communication strategy.

  12. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  13. Minimizing and communicating radiation risk in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Treves, S Ted; Adelstein, S James

    2012-03-01

    The value of pediatric nuclear medicine is well established. Pediatric patients are referred to nuclear medicine from nearly all pediatric specialties including urology, oncology, cardiology, gastroenterology, and orthopedics. Radiation exposure is associated with a potential, small, risk of inducing cancer in the patient later in life and is higher in younger patients. Recently, there has been enhanced interest in exposure to radiation from medical imaging. Thus, it is incumbent on practitioners of pediatric nuclear medicine to have an understanding of dosimetry and radiation risk to communicate effectively with their patients and their families. This article reviews radiation dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals and also CT given the recent proliferation of PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It also describes the scientific basis for radiation risk estimation in the context of pediatric nuclear medicine. Approaches for effective communication of risk to patients' families are discussed. Lastly, radiation dose reduction in pediatric nuclear medicine is explicated.

  14. Earthquake risk communication as dialogue - insights from a workshop in Istanbul's urban renewal neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, Johanna; Stewart, Iain S.

    2016-05-01

    An important paradox of hazard communication is that the more effectively a potential physical threat is made public by the scientist, the more readily the scientific message becomes normalized into the daily discourses of ordinary life. As a result, a heightened risk awareness does not necessarily motivate personal or collective preparedness. If geoscientists are to help at-risk communities adopt meaningful measures to protect themselves, new strategies are needed for public communication and community engagement. This paper outlines an attempt to develop a novel approach to train geoscientists, using doctoral and post-doctoral researchers in an EU integrated training network studying tectonic processes and geohazards in Turkey. An urban field visit to seismically vulnerable neighbourhoods in Istanbul allowed the researchers to meet with local residents facing the seismic threat. Those meetings exposed the complex social, political and cultural concerns among Istanbul's at-risk urban communities. These concerns were used to provoke subsequent focus group discussions among the group of geoscientists about roles, responsibilities and methods of communicating hazard information to the public. Through the direct testimony of local residents and geoscientists, we explore the form that new strategies for public communication and community engagement might take.

  15. Liability-driven investing: an enterprise risk management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, William M

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals that understand their risks and how to address them, and can communicate thisto rating agencies, can improve their opportunities in the capital markets. Evaluating global risk requires that healthcare financial executives consider risks in the context of one another as well as the organization's overall strategic plan.

  16. Challenges to communicate risks of human-caused earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The awareness of natural hazards has been up-trending in recent years. In particular, this is true for earthquakes, which increase in frequency and magnitude in regions that normally do not experience seismic activity. In fact, one of the major concerns for many communities and businesses is that humans today seem to cause earthquakes due to large-scale shale gas production, dewatering and flooding of mines and deep geothermal power production. Accordingly, without opposing any of these technologies it should be a priority of earth scientists who are researching natural hazards to communicate earthquake risks. This presentation discusses the challenges that earth scientists are facing to properly communicate earthquake risks, in light of the fact that human-caused earthquakes are an environmental change affecting only some communities and businesses. Communication channels may range from research papers, books and class room lectures to outreach events and programs, popular media events or even social media networks.

  17. Dangerous Events, Risk Communications and Evolutionary Governance Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, M.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conceptualizes and categorizes the various relationships between dangerous events, the emergence of risk communications and the effects on governance (the taking of collectively binding decisions in a community by a diversity of actors, inside and outside government) from Evolution

  18. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  19. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  20. PRIME VALUE METHOD TO PRIORITIZE RISK HANDLING STRATEGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, D

    2007-10-31

    Funding for implementing risk handling strategies typically is allocated according to either the risk-averse approach (the worst risk first) or the cost-effective approach (the greatest risk reduction per implementation dollar first). This paper introduces a prime value approach in which risk handling strategies are prioritized according to how nearly they meet the goals of the organization that disburses funds for risk handling. The prime value approach factors in the importance of the project in which the risk has been identified, elements of both risk-averse and cost-effective approaches, and the time period in which the risk could happen. This paper also presents a prioritizer spreadsheet, which employs weighted criteria to calculate a relative rank for the handling strategy of each risk evaluated.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES OF BANK RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study summarizes what it means banking risks, the main risk management strategies. The complexity of the business environment, liberalization and internationalization of financial flows, brings rapid innovation, diversified financial markets, new opportunities but multiplied risks. Banks establish the types of risks they are prepared to take and the threshold at which risk is considered significant. The process of determining the risks that are taken includes the nature, the scale and the complexity of banks.

  2. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed.

  3. Vaccine Hesitancy: In Search of the Risk Communication Comfort Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joshua; Dubé, Eve; Driedger, Michelle

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about vaccination, and identify which risk communication messages are most effective for influencing the behaviours of vaccine hesitant parents. A total of 1,000 surveys (closed and open-ended questions) were administered in November 2015 using the Angus Reid Forum Panel, a key consumer panel consisting of approximately 150,000 Canadian adults aged 18 and older, spread across all geographic regions of Canada. Approximately 92% of the Canadian parents surveyed consider vaccines safe and effective, and trust doctors and public health officials to provide timely and credible vaccine-related information. However, a concerning number of them either believe or are uncertain whether there is a link between vaccines and autism (28%), worry that vaccines might seriously harm their children (27%), or believe the pharmaceutical industry is behind the push for mandatory immunization (33%). Moreover, despite the common assumption that social media are becoming the go-to source of health news and information, most parents still rely on traditional media and official government websites for timely and credible information about vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases, particularly during community-based disease outbreaks. Finally, parents reported high levels of support for pro-vaccine messaging that has been demonstrated in previous research to have little to no positive impact on behaviour change, and may even be counterproductive. The study's results are highly relevant in a context where public health officials are expending significant resources to increase rates of childhood immunization and combat vaccine

  4. Vaccine Hesitancy: In Search of the Risk Communication Comfort Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joshua; Dubé, Eve; Driedger, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about vaccination, and identify which risk communication messages are most effective for influencing the behaviours of vaccine hesitant parents. Methods: A total of 1,000 surveys (closed and open-ended questions) were administered in November 2015 using the Angus Reid Forum Panel, a key consumer panel consisting of approximately 150,000 Canadian adults aged 18 and older, spread across all geographic regions of Canada. Results: Approximately 92% of the Canadian parents surveyed consider vaccines safe and effective, and trust doctors and public health officials to provide timely and credible vaccine-related information. However, a concerning number of them either believe or are uncertain whether there is a link between vaccines and autism (28%), worry that vaccines might seriously harm their children (27%), or believe the pharmaceutical industry is behind the push for mandatory immunization (33%). Moreover, despite the common assumption that social media are becoming the go-to source of health news and information, most parents still rely on traditional media and official government websites for timely and credible information about vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases, particularly during community-based disease outbreaks. Finally, parents reported high levels of support for pro-vaccine messaging that has been demonstrated in previous research to have little to no positive impact on behaviour change, and may even be counterproductive. Discussion: The study’s results are highly relevant in a context where public health officials are expending significant resources to increase rates of

  5. The Tous Dam Disaster of 1982: Risk communication and the origins of integrated flood risk management in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Llobet, A.; Tàbara, J.; Sauri, D.

    2012-12-01

    The failure of Tous dam on the Júcar River near Valencia in 1982 was one of the most important socio-natural disasters in 20th century Spain. The death toll of 25 would have been much greater had not a local dam manager anticipated the failure and alerted mayors of a failure, before it actually occurred. The Tous Dam failure occurred a week before the first democratic elections in Spain after the Franco dictatorship, it received extensive coverage in the media. As a result, this disaster triggered a paradigm change in the way disaster risks were perceived and managed at multiple levels of government in Spain. Many factors, often of a qualitative and organisational nature, affect (vertical and horizontal) communication in disaster risk reduction learning and planning at the community level. Through interviews with key actors and stakeholders, content analysis of scientific literature, review of historical and media accounts, and analysis of legislation and regulation, we documented changes that resulted from the Tous Dam failure: (1) A process of institutional development, which led to the growth, and increase in complexity of the organisations involved both in vertical and horizontal communication of disaster risk reduction. (2) Actions taken and experiences gained in dealing with disaster risk reduction in the Tous area were used as a benchmark to develop new strategies, as well as new mechanisms for communication and planning in other territories and other risk domains in Spain.We identify three main stages from 1980s to present in the evolution of disaster risk reduction planning in the area, which show a progressive shift towards a more integrated and preventative approach: (1) After the collapse of the Tous Dam, disaster risk reduction strategies in Spain focused on improving preparedness in order to reduce short-term risks. (2) Disaster management in the 1990s was strongly influenced by international initiatives (e.g. the UN International Decade for Natural

  6. COMMUNICATION SKILLS, A SOLUTION DIMINISHING RISKS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Duica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest approaches in the field, the integrated marketing communication requires a planned organizational approach, creating and maintaining in time good relations with the customers of its products or services, but also with its other stakeholders. According to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute (INS, the year 2014 is the first year in history when the Romanian exports exceeded the amount of EUR 50 billion. However, within the context of the economic crisis, numerous Romanian brands have disappeared from the market and Romania risks becoming a simple outlet market if the local companies do not improve their communication processes and skills, as sources of competitive advantage by which the Romanian products and services may differ in relation to those of the E.U. member countries. Within the context of business globalization and of the knowledge society, the present paper is trying to identify ways of developing the communication skills, which can be integrated in a formal risk management system, allowing the decrease of the risks triggered by the cultural differences specific of communication in international business.

  7. Improving Communication About Potentially Catastrophic Risks of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. E. T.; Stern, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific assessments of future climate change tend to focus on central estimates and may understate or ignore the significance of low probability outcomes that may have extremely severe consequences. This relative neglect of tail risks is partly a result of traditions in prediction and forecasting, and conservatism about phenomena for which few data and information exist. The misinterpretation of such scientific assessments can have adverse results. Even though the central estimates of high emissions scenarios present obvious dangers, the tails of lower emissions scenarios still contain very serious risks which may be overlooked by policy-makers. Economic analyses may omit the possibility of catastrophic impacts, leading to substantial under-estimates of damage caused by climate change. So how do we avoid these shortcomings and achieve more effective communication about the risks of climate change? The scientific assessments of climate change differ in significant ways from the formal risk assessment methods successfully employed in other fields. We outline a 'good practice' approach to the identification, assessment and communication of potentially catastrophic risks based on examples from sectors such as civil engineering, national security and insurance. We illustrate how this 'good practice' approach could be applied to provide a better presentation of some catastrophic tail risks that are outlined in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The risks we consider include the possibility of 'extreme' rises in temperature and sea level lying outside the central projections described in the report, and the plausibility of significant releases of methane from the thawing of permafrost. Using these illustrations, we examine how scientific researchers can improve their communication about climate change to assist decision-making, and how policy-makers and politicians might respond differently to alternative presentations of

  8. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  9. From Informing to Interacting? Exploring the European Commission's Communication Strategy "to be all ears"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Brussel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 the European Commission has paid increasing attention to two-way communication in its institutional communication strategy. Besides informing the public, the Commission’s strategy has become orientated towards listening to and engaging in a dialogue with citizens. This article explores the rhetoric of the Commission regarding its institutional communication strategy from 2001 to the present time and studies in depth the dialogic dimension of this strategy. This contribution extends the study of the Commission’s communication strategy by offering new insights into the development of the dialogic approach and the Commission’s current understanding of communication. Furthermore, defining institutional two-way communication as a means to facilitate a link between decision making and public opinion, I contribute to the debate on the European public sphere. The data used for the analysis originate from document analysis and semi-structured elite interviews with Commission officials. The analysis indicates the gradual nature of the shift between 2001 and 2009 from a one-way informing approach to a two-way communicating approach. The dialogic dimension in the Commission’s communication strategy is found to be more restricted in terms of subjects for discussion and facilitation. There are indications that engaging in a dialogue and interaction have been played down and are being managed through other means outside the formal communication strategy.

  10. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  11. Communication Skills for End-of-Life Nursing Care: Teaching Strategies from the ELNEC Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzo, Marianne LaPorte; Sherman, Deborah Witt; Sheehan, Denice C.; Ferrell, Betty Rolling; Penn, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Presents a key module in a 3-day train-the-trainer course in end-of-life nursing--competence in communicating with patients and families. Factors affecting communication, coping strategies for families, strategies for classroom and clinical teaching, and resources are described. (SK)

  12. Effects of Communication Strategy Training on EFL Students' Performance in Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Stuart; Fischer, Danielle; Geluso, Joe; Von Joo, Lucius

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted with regard to communication strategy training and performance on communicative tasks (Lam, 2009; Nakatani, 2010; Naughton, 2006). This study aims to add to the literature by examining how two strategies, clarifying/confirming and extending a conversation, and two methods of teaching the…

  13. The Effect of Compliance-Gaining Strategy Choice and Communicator Style on Sales Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish-Sprowl, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the relationship among compliance-gaining strategy choice, communicator image, and sales person effectiveness. Finds no statistically significant relationship between the use of compliance-gaining strategies and sales success, but indicates a link between communicator image and sales success. (SR)

  14. Using communication theory for health promotion: practical guidance on message design and strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Timothy; Volkman, Julie E

    2012-09-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, health communication is "the study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health." The purpose of this article is to look at how health educators can use communication theory to create messages that are innovative, relatable, and motivating to intended audiences. Three specific communication theories are presented, along with examples of how they have been successfully used in behavior change initiatives. These three theories are offered in an effort to stimulate further investigation into how theory supports the creation of targeted, tailored, and effective communication strategies.

  15. Perceived risk and strategy efficacy as motivators of risk management strategy adoption to prevent animal diseases in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    For Dutch fattening pig farms, this study explored (1) farmers’ perceptions towards animal disease risks and animal health risk management; (2) factors underlying farmers’ adoption of the two risk management strategies, namely, biosecurity measures and animal health programs. The risks included ende

  16. Communication Strategies Revisited: Looking beyond Interactional and Psycholinguistic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rahmani Doqaruni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Second language (L2 communication strategies (CSs have traditionally been dealt with through either interactional or psychological perspectives. However, this paper is a critical attempt to question the status of the particular kinds of psycholinguistic and interactional approaches that currently dominate the field of second language acquisition (SLA. In this way, it expands the significance of CSs by examining the other important dimensions of language within L2 contexts that affect/are affected by CSs. The new paths to dealing with CSs proposed in this paper rely on three aspects. First, the abundant use of CSs in non-native teacher talk within L2 classroom contexts is dealt with. Second, the neglected role of discourse-based CSs in previous studies is taken into account. Third, the particular relevance of CSs to noticing function of output hypothesis is considered. By challenging prevailing views and concepts, and by critically examining theoretical assumptions, the ultimate goal is to argue for a re-conceptualization of CSs within SLA research.

  17. Electronic word-of-mouth: successful communication strategies for restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Gavin; Longart, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – A great deal has been discussed about the importance of using social media in marketing communications programmes because of mistrust in marketer-generated communications and more particularly for generating electronic word of mouth (e-WOM). However, it is not clear what types and styles of communication serve better the purpose using effectively social media for generating positive e-WOM. This study is aimed at exploring the types and styles of communication that work more effectiv...

  18. The Effect of Communication Strategy Training on the Development of EFL Learners' Strategic Competence and Oral Communicative Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the effect of communication strategy instruction on EFL students' oral communicative ability and their strategic competence. In a 14-week English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course (English Use II) based on Communicative Language Teaching approach, 80 learners were divided into two groups. The strategy training group ([Formula: see text]) received CS training based on a training program designed for the purpose of the present research, whereas the control group ([Formula: see text]) received only the normal communicative course using Click On 3, with no explicit focus on CSs. The communication strategies targeted in the training program included circumlocution (paraphrase), appeal for help, asking for repetition, clarification request, confirmation request, self-repair, and guessing. Pre- and post-test procedures were used to find out the effect of strategy training on language proficiency and CS use. The effect of the training was assessed by three types of data collection: the participants' pre- and post-IELTS speaking test scores, transcription data from the speaking IELTS test, and 'Click On' Exit Test scores. The findings revealed that participants in the strategy training group significantly outperformed the control group in their IELTS speaking test scores. The results of the post-test transcription data also confirmed that the participants in the strategy training group used more CSs, which could be attributed to the CS training program. The findings of the present research have implications for language teachers, and syllabus designers.

  19. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Lidya Ayuni

    2013-01-01

    Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the…

  20. Developing a customer-centric digital marketing communication strategy : Commissioner Salusfin Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Lokteva, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The present study relates to the field of digital marketing communication. The purpose of the study is to create a customer-centric digital marketing communication strategy for Salusfin, a technological start-up company in need of an effective digital strategy. The key issue of the study is to provide an insight on how digital marketing communication tools can fulfil the needs and benefit the company while adding value for the customers. The research questions addressed in the study are 1. Wh...

  1. Exploring new communication strategies for a global brand : transmedia storytelling and gamification

    OpenAIRE

    Brieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Marketing is changing and companies or brands try to find new ways to engage consumers and involve them in their advertising efforts. There are two new communication strategies that might be able to lead the way into a new area of advertising and marketing: transmedia storytelling and gamification. The research questions were how to use such strategies in the communication or branding environment and how to use them when a global brand wants to communicate across cultures while adapting the a...

  2. Dynamics of the public concern and risk communication program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The public concern about electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure varies due to different reasons. A part of them are connected with the better and higher quality of information that people receive from science, media, Internet, social networks, industry, but others are based on good communication programs performed by the responsible institutions, administration and persons. Especially, in Bulgaria, public concern follows interesting changes, some of them in correlation with the European processes of concern, but others following the economic and political processes in the country. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the public concern over the last 10 years. Our explanation of the decrease of the people's complaints against EMF exposure from base stations for mobile communication is as a result of our risk communication program that is in implementation for >10 years.

  3. Presymptomatic risk assessment for chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Padhukasahasram

    Full Text Available The prevalence of common chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs far overshadows the prevalence of both monogenic and infectious diseases combined. All CNCDs, also called complex genetic diseases, have a heritable genetic component that can be used for pre-symptomatic risk assessment. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that tag risk haplotypes across the genome currently account for a non-trivial portion of the germ-line genetic risk and we will likely continue to identify the remaining missing heritability in the form of rare variants, copy number variants and epigenetic modifications. Here, we describe a novel measure for calculating the lifetime risk of a disease, called the genetic composite index (GCI, and demonstrate its predictive value as a clinical classifier. The GCI only considers summary statistics of the effects of genetic variation and hence does not require the results of large-scale studies simultaneously assessing multiple risk factors. Combining GCI scores with environmental risk information provides an additional tool for clinical decision-making. The GCI can be populated with heritable risk information of any type, and thus represents a framework for CNCD pre-symptomatic risk assessment that can be populated as additional risk information is identified through next-generation technologies.

  4. Principles to enable leaders to navigate the harsh realities of crisis and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara J

    2010-07-01

    Leadership during a crisis that involves the physical safety and emotional or financial wellbeing of those being led offers an intense environment that may not allow for on-the-job training. One of the challenges faced by crisis leaders is to communicate effectively the courses of action needed to allow for a reduction of harm to individuals and the ultimate restoration of the group, organisation or community. The six principles of crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) give leaders tools to navigate the harsh realities of speaking to employees, media, partners and stakeholders during an intense crisis. CERC also helps leaders to avoid the five most common communication mistakes during crises. Much of the harmful individual and group behaviour predicted in a profound crisis can be mitigated with effective crisis and emergency risk communication. A leader must anticipate what mental stresses followers will be experiencing and apply appropriate communication strategies to attempt to manage these stresses among staff or the public and preserve or repair the organisation's reputation. In an emergency, the right message at the right time is a 'resource multiplier' - it helps leaders to get their job done.

  5. Communication Research in Aviation and Space Operations: Symptoms and Strategies of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The day-to-day operators of today's aerospace systems work under increasing pressures to accomplish more with less. They work in operational systems which are complex, technology-based, and high-risk; in which incidents and accidents have far-reaching and costly consequences. For these and other reasons, there is concern that the safety net formerly built upon redundant systems and abundant resources may become overburdened. Although we know that human ingenuity can overcome incredible odds, human nature can also fail in unpredictable ways. Over the last 20 years, a large percentage of aviation accidents and incidents have been attributed to human errors rather than hardware or environmental factors alone. A class of errors have been identified which are not due to a lack of individual, technical competencies. Rather, they are due to the failure of teams to utilize readily available resources or information in a timely fashion. These insights began a training revolution in the aviation industry called Cockpit Resource Management, which later became known as Crew Resource Management (CRM) as its concepts and applications extended to teams beyond the flightdeck. Then, as now, communication has been a cornerstone in CRM training since crew coordination and resource management largely resides within information transfer processes--both within flightcrews, and between flightcrews and the ground operations teams that support them. The research I will describe takes its roots in CRM history as we began to study communication processes in order to discover symptoms of crew coordination problems, as well as strategies of effective crew management. On the one hand, communication is often the means or the tool by which team members manage their resources, solve problems, maintain situational awareness and procedural discipline. Conversely, it is the lack of planning and resource management, loss of vigilance and situational awareness, and non-standard communications that are

  6. Communication Research in Aviation and Space Operations: Symptoms and Strategies of Crew Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The day-to-day operators of today's aerospace systems work under increasing pressures to accomplish more with less. They work in operational systems which are complex, technology-based, and high-risk; in which incidents and accidents have far-reaching and costly consequences. For these and other reasons, there is concern that the safety net formerly built upon redundant systems and abundant resources may become overburdened. Although we know that human ingenuity can overcome incredible odds, human nature can also fail in unpredictable ways. Over the last 20 years, a large percentage of aviation accidents and incidents have been attributed to human errors rather than hardware or environmental factors alone. A class of errors have been identified which are not due to a lack of individual, technical competencies. Rather, they are due to the failure of teams to utilize readily available resources or information in a timely fashion. These insights began a training revolution in the aviation industry called Cockpit Resource Management, which later became known as Crew Resource Management (CRM) as its concepts and applications extended to teams beyond the flightdeck. Then, as now, communication has been a cornerstone in CRM training since crew coordination and resource management largely resides within information transfer processes--both within flightcrews, and between flightcrews and the ground operations teams that support them. The research I will describe takes its roots in CRM history as we began to study communication processes in order to discover symptoms of crew coordination problems, as well as strategies of effective crew management. On the one hand, communication is often the means or the tool by which team members manage their resources, solve problems, maintain situational awareness and procedural discipline. Conversely, it is the lack of planning and resource management, loss of vigilance and situational awareness, and non-standard communications that are

  7. Alcohol impairs predation risk response and communication in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Acosta Oliveira

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.

  8. Risk management in methodologies of information technology and communications projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carrillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/02 - Accepted: 2013/12/13At present there are methodologies that have several alternatives and methods to manage projects of Information and Communication Technologies. However, these do not cover a solution for the technology events that can occur in the industry, government, education, among others. In the technology market there are several models to identify and analyze risks according to relevant aspects of their area of specialty e.g. projects, in software development, communications, information security and business alignment. For this reason, this research conducted an evaluation of risk management activities of the methodologies used mostly to know which of them includes more correspondence with basic elements of IT using a rating scale.

  9. The influence of narrative risk communication on feelings of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-05-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of narrative and non-narrative risk communication about sunbed use on ease of imagination and feelings of cancer risk. A total of 233 female sunbed users in the general Dutch population were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a narrative message (i.e., personal testimonial), a non-narrative cognitive message (i.e., factual risk information using cognitive-laden words), or a non-narrative affective message (i.e., factual risk information using affective-laden words). Ease of imagination and feelings of risk were assessed directly after the risk information was given (T1). Three weeks after the baseline session, feelings of risk were measured again (T2). The results revealed that sunbed users who were exposed to narrative risk information could better imagine themselves developing skin cancer and reported higher feelings of skin cancer risk at T1. Moreover, ease of imagination mediated the effects of message type on feelings of risk at T1 and T2. The findings provide support for the effects of narrative risk communication in influencing feelings of cancer risk through ease of imagination. Cancer prevention programmes may therefore benefit from including narrative risk information. Future research is important to investigate other mechanisms of narrative information and their most effective content and format. What is already known on this subject? Evidence is growing for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours. Narratives have increasingly been considered as an effective format for persuasive risk messages and studies have shown narrative risk communication to be effective in influencing cognitive risk beliefs. What does this study add? Increasing understanding of how feelings of cancer

  10. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor de

  11. Intelligent communication: The future of EMF discourse and risk governance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, Isaac A, E-mail: isaac.jamieson@imperial.ac.u [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, St. Mary' s Campus, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    It is proposed that to help facilitate progress in electromagnetic field (EMF) risk governance and actively address potential concerns whilst encouraging environmentally-sound technical advancement, the ground rules of stakeholder participation / debate may benefit from being radically overhauled to encourage more openness, trust, understanding, transparency and innovation. It is further proposed that two-way communication should be actively promoted, as should proactive thinking and informed discussions of risk (which address realistically the concerns of all parties). The creation/development/adoption of enhanced best practice solutions and precautionary principle measures should also be encouraged.

  12. Identification of risks stemming from new communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessis, Vasileios; Taylor, J.R.; Kozin, Igor

    Advanced distributed communication technologies play an important role today in the control and maintenance of safety -critical systems. However, the excessively optimistic reliance on the new technology without ecognizing the threats against its successful functioning, being able to maintain...... barriers or/and eliminate or reduce the risks may result in impairments compromising the opportunities. At the current state of knowledge it is even unclear whether we can develop trustful causal paths between hazards of different natures and their consequences. Hazard identification and risk analysis have...

  13. A communication strategy to improve nutrition in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M; Nobbe, E

    1985-01-01

    As an experimental project, the Nutrition Communication and Behavior Change Component (NCBC) of the Indonesian Nutrition Development Program (UPGK) showed how social marketing could further the national program's goal of significantly improving the nutrition of Indonesia's young children and pregnant and nursing women. The social marketing approach successfully developed nutrition communication materials that were responsive to the needs, desires, and resources of the communities, particularly of the mothers and volunteer nutrition workers. Between 1977-79 Dr. I.B. Mantra, NCBC Director, established administrative and community infrastructures modeled after UPGK in 5 culturally diverse areas in Indonesia. In mid-1979, with technical assistance from Manoff International, the project departed from the approach of the national plan and embarked upon an unprecedented course with the formative evaluation of educational messages and a communication strategy. The success of the NCBC Component was to be judged by whether education -- as the sole intervention -- could produce significant improvements in the nutritional status of children and the improved nutrient intake of pregnant and lactating women in project communities. The 1st step was to design and execute qualitative research on the health and nutritional problems of children under 3 and pregnant and nursing women, consisting of in-depth household interviews, concept testing with mothers, and focus group interviews with kaders and community opinion leaders. Surveying was based on issues identified earlier by the Ministry of Health as most severe for the population overall. The qualitative investigation identified the need for change or reinforcement in particular nutrition-related behaviors. The target audience of mothers was segmented according to their needs during designated maternal stages and by the age-related dietary needs of their children under 3 years of age. This meant that only the most useful

  14. An investigation of risk management strategies in projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Asadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk is considered as an inseparable part of any project and since all the effective factors in projects are not predictable, risk management is inevitable. One of the biggest administrative problems with internal projects is the managers’ neglect of the importance of risk management which leads to delay in projects delivery and increase of the cost of the projects. Since not all risks are regarded as threats but also as opportunities, risk management is considered as a balance factor between the loss of threats and the profit earned through opportunities. It has focused on some strategies for successful implementation of risk management in projects as well. In the risk management, the most logical way of planning is managing risk before taking risk. This study investigated risk and risk management, its aims, components, and different stages of risk to reach the expected aims and outcomes of the study.

  15. Cancer Risk-Promoting Information: The Communication Environment of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Rachel F; Kohler, Racquel E; Viswanath, K

    2017-09-01

    Young adulthood represents a time of myriad transitions, which leave young adults (YAs) more susceptible to the influences of cancer risk-promoting information. The tobacco, alcohol, indoor tanning, and food and beverage industries engage in aggressive marketing strategies through both traditional and social media to target this age group to consume their products, which have known links to cancer. Despite this barrage of messaging, detailed data are lacking on the communication behaviors of subgroups of this diverse age group, particularly those from low SES. This paper explores the available data on media usage among YAs and describes the cancer risk-promoting information environment, with a focus on communication inequalities and their implications for cancer research and control. Nationally representative data on media consumption patterns indicate that the majority of YAs access a diverse range of traditional and social media platforms, but these data do not fully describe differences at the intersection of age and important factors such as SES, gender, race/ethnicity, or urban/rural residence. Meanwhile, risk-promoting information is heavily marketed to YAs across media, with an increasing focus on using social media sites to normalize products and evade marketing restrictions. Gaps in the available data on YAs' media consumption behaviors, coupled with aggressive risk-promoting marketing strategies toward YAs, may impede cancer control efforts. Relationships between exposure to various cancer risk-promoting information, concurrent risk behaviors, SES disparities, and communication inequalities should be investigated to develop innovative and effective control programs and policies to promote cancer control in this important group. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Precommitted Investment Strategy versus Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a Dual Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with optimal investment strategy for a dual risk model. We assume that the company can invest into a risk-free asset and a risky asset. Short-selling and borrowing money are allowed. Due to lack of iterated-expectation property, the Bellman Optimization Principle does not hold. Thus we investigate the precommitted strategy and time-consistent strategy, respectively. We take three steps to derive the precommitted investment strategy. Furthermore, the time-consistent investment strategy is also obtained by solving the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. We compare the precommitted strategy with time-consistent strategy and find that these different strategies have different advantages: the former can make value function maximized at the original time t=0 and the latter strategy is time-consistent for the whole time horizon. Finally, numerical analysis is presented for our results.

  17. Public communication, risk perception, and the viability of preventive vaccination against communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Because of the nature of preventive vaccination programs, the viability of these public health interventions is particularly susceptible to public perceptions. This is because vaccination relies on a concept of 'herd immunity', achievement of which requires rational public behavior that can only be obtained through full and accurate communication about risks and benefits. This paper describes how irrational behavior that threatens the effectiveness of vaccination programs--both in crisis and non-crisis situations--can be tied to public perceptions created by media portrayals of health risks. I concentrate on childhood vaccination as an exemplar of 'non-crisis' preventive vaccination, and on the recent flu vaccine shortage as a 'crisis' situation. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary to resolve these threats through better public communication.

  18. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  19. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  20. Neurocysticercosis: risk and primary prevention strategies update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Ramirez Amaya, Antonio; Enander, Richard A; Gute, David M

    2010-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis results from the infestation of the central nervous system with invading tapeworm larvae. Though uncommon in the US prior to 1965, new cases are currently being diagnosed at an unprecedented rate. Drawing on environmental health, intervention and risk data retrieved from standard/alternative databases and in-country sources, we present an update and summary of modifiable risk factors and field-tested primary prevention measures. While points of intervention, subpopulations at risk and overall magnitude of the problem are addressed, particular attention is paid to defining risk reduction measures that can be adopted by individuals and high risk groups in the near-term to interrupt or eliminate pathways of exposure leading to disease transmission. Though global eradication is not attainable in the near future, effective preventative measures exist and should be taken now by international travellers and workers, US/foreign government agencies, and individuals living in endemic regions to reduce human suffering.

  1. The London polonium incident: lessons in risk communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Public responses to large-scale radiological incidents are often thought to be disproportionate to the objective risk and can involve widespread societal disruption. Recent experiences of the (200)Po incident in central London suggest that public responses depend heavily on the nature of the incident and the effectiveness of risk communication efforts. This paper describes the outcome of several studies done in the aftermath of the (200)Po incident that suggest the reaction of the public on this occasion was muted, even for those directly affected. However, the desire for accurate, up-to-date and individually-tailored information was strong, and satisfaction with the efforts of the responding agencies was mediated by this information provision. A small minority of individuals was difficult to reassure effectively. This group may confer a particular drain on resources. Lessons for the risk communication efforts of public health responders are identified, in particular the importance of helping individuals to identify their risk of exposure, understand the difference between acute and chronic effects of exposure, and appreciate the meaning of any test results. Attempts at providing reassurance in the absence of specific information are likely to be counterproductive in any future radiological incident.

  2. Relevance Theory, Action Theory and Second Language Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.

    2004-01-01

    The discussion in this article offers a comparison between Relevance Theory as an account of human communication and Herbert Clark's (1996) sociocognitive Action Theory approach. It is argued that the differences are fundamental and impact analysis of all kinds of naturally occurring communicative data, including that produced by non-native…

  3. Strategies for Teaching Social and Emotional Intelligence in Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmar, Lucia Stretcher; Hynes, Geraldine E.; Hill, Kathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating social and emotional skills (EI) training into the business communication curriculum is important for preparing students to function effectively in a global workplace with its complex informal networks, intercultural issues, team emphasis, and participatory leadership. EI skills enhance communication behavior in work groups and…

  4. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  5. Strategies for Teaching Social and Emotional Intelligence in Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmar, Lucia Stretcher; Hynes, Geraldine E.; Hill, Kathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating social and emotional skills (EI) training into the business communication curriculum is important for preparing students to function effectively in a global workplace with its complex informal networks, intercultural issues, team emphasis, and participatory leadership. EI skills enhance communication behavior in work groups and…

  6. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  7. Therapeutic communication part 2: strategies that can enhance the quality of the emergency care consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'gara, Paula E; Fairhurst, Wendy

    2004-10-01

    Therapeutic, patient-centred communication as well as being desirable in its own right may also have the potential to improve satisfaction, health outcomes and change health behaviours in Emergency Care. This paper, the second of two, identifies from a substantive literature review five specific communication strategies that, when employed in an Emergency Care consultation, could significantly enhance its therapeutic potential. The five strategies: questioning, listening and noticing, communicating empathy, establishing and incorporating the patient's cares and concerns and concluding the consultation have been derived from the purposeful selection and analysis of communication research between 1990 and 2002.

  8. Navigation strategy with the spacecraft communications blackout for Mars entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xichen; Xia, Yuanqing

    2015-02-01

    Future Mars missions require precision entry navigation capability, especially in the presence of communications blackout. On the mission of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), there was a 70-s communications blackout period during atmospheric entry phase. In allusion to the spacecraft communications blackout encountered, this paper predicts an upper-bound for any possible blackout period firstly, improves the default integrated navigation measurements based on IMU and surface radiometric beacons, and proposes innovative attitude observation model based on IMU and range observation model based on orbiters finally. To verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed observation models in the presence of communications blackout, unscented Kalman filter is utilized to demonstrate the navigation performance. The results show that navigation errors based on improved observation models proposed in this paper degrade an order of magnitude compared with the default observation models even if the communications blackout takes place, which satisfies the requirements of future Mars landing missions.

  9. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  10. Communicating Radiation Risk to the Population of Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, N; Taira, Y; Yoshida, K; Nakashima-Hashiguchi, K; Orita, M; Yamashita, S

    2016-09-01

    Radiological specialists from Nagasaki University have served on the medical relief team organized at Fukushima Medical University Hospital (Fukushima City) ever since the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, we have conducted the radiation crisis communication efforts by spreading correct information on the health effects of radiation as 'advisors on radiation health risk control'. Nagasaki University has been assisting the reconstruction efforts of Kawauchi Village in Fukushima Prefecture, which was the first village to declare that residents could safely return to their homes because radiation doses were found to be at comparatively low levels. In April 2013, Nagasaki University and the Kawauchi government office concluded an agreement concerning comprehensive cooperation toward reconstruction of the village. As a result, we established a satellite facility of the university in the village. In conclusion, training of specialists who can take responsibility for long-term risk communication regarding the health effects of radiation as well as crisis communication in the initial phase of the accident is an essential component of all such recovery efforts. Establishment of a training system for such specialists will be very important both for Japan and other countries worldwide.

  11. New digital communication strategies: the effects of personalized and interactive political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    In communication research, it has been claimed that two important characteristics of online political communication, personalized and interactive two-way communication, can mobilize citizens to become more politically involved. In a survey-embedded experiment, we examine whether levels of

  12. New digital communication strategies: the effects of personalized and interactive political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Noort; S. Kruikemeier; R. Vliegenthart

    2012-01-01

    In communication research, it has been claimed that two important characteristics of online political communication, personalized and interactive two-way communication, can mobilize citizens to become more politically involved. In a survey-embedded experiment, we examine whether levels of personaliz

  13. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-03-02

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  14. Seasonal and pandemic influenza: the role of communication and preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, A; Di Thiene, D; De Giusti, M; La Torre, G

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate, timely, and data-driven health information is a very important issue in preventive strategies against influenza. Intuitively, a link between willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and against pandemic influenza exists, given the similarities in decision-making for this vaccine. International and national literature reviews suggest that progress has been made in order to incorporate and disseminate crisis risk communication principles into public health practice, as such investments in public health could be important for building capacity and practice which aid in the realization of countermeasures in response to a future pandemic and epidemic situation. This study emphasizes the lack of perception by Health Care Workers (HCWs) of the importance of being immunized against seasonal and pandemic influenza and the doubts concerning safety. In the future, particular efforts are needed during vaccination campaigns, to provide more information to HCWs and the general population regarding role and safety of such vaccines.

  15. Communicative Strategies Used by Spouses of Individuals with Communication Disorders Related to Stroke-Induced Aphasia and Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    Background: A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative…

  16. Communication strategies for two models of discrete energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    in a battery and transmissions are interrupted if the battery runs out of energy. We address communication in slot-based energy harvesting systems, where the transmitter communicates with ON-OFF signaling: in each slot it can either choose to transmit (ON) or stay silent (OFF). Two different models...... of harvesting and communication are addressed. In the first model an energy quantum can arrive, with a certain probability, in each slot. The second model is based on a frame of size F: energy arrives periodically over F slots, in batches containing a random number of energy quanta. We devise achievable...

  17. Between public controversies and risk perception: the paradoxes of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, P.B. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomique (INRA / SERD et CRIDE), 38 - Grenoble (France); Marris, C. [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, UMR CNRS 173, 78 - Versailles (France). Institut Lavoisier; Remy, E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines et CRIDE, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    The author have tried to show that traditional risk analysis exhibits some severe shortcomings in areas where the danger is new and the scientific knowledge is limited and controversial. In such contexts, the traditional dichotomy between objective and subjective risk is not of much help, is not adapted here. The first elements of analysis proposed in the tentative paper suggest that in such contexts, risk communication should be based on participatory methods such as forums for debate. The stake is therefore the democratization of assessment procedure and the development of different means which allow to couple risk and technology assessment. (author)

  18. “Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    A letter is presented in response to the article "Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?" by Robert Anderson, Stephen Bianchi, and Lisa Goldberg, which appeared in the November/December 2012 issue.......A letter is presented in response to the article "Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?" by Robert Anderson, Stephen Bianchi, and Lisa Goldberg, which appeared in the November/December 2012 issue....

  19. [Allergic risk of transgenic food: prevention strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, Denise-Anne

    2002-01-01

    Numerous allergens proceed from foods. The allergic risk of transgenic foods needs to be evaluated according recommendations from the Joint Expert Committee FAO/WHO. Potential issues are the risk of cross reactivity with existing allergens, the modification of allergenicity of the transgenic protein induced by a modified metabolism in the host, the modified allergenicity of the proteins of the transgenic plant, a potential neo-allergenicity of the transgenic protein, and the risk of dissemination through pollens, inducing a respiratory sensitization then a cross food allergy. The algorithm includes three steps for evaluation: first the search for significant homology of the protein with allergens listed in allergen databanks, or the identity of a sequence of six aminoacids with known allergens, then a cross reactivity explored through the binding to IgEs from patients allergic to the source of the gene, or allergic to organisms of the same group or botanical family, and finally the extent of the pepsine resistance. The risk of immunogenicity has to be studied with appropriate animal models. A post-marketing surveillance is recommended for monitoring of adverse effects. The structure of an Allergo-Vigilance Network, the tools for efficiency and the groups at higher risk will be discussed.

  20. Effective training strategies for teaching communication skills to physicians: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Marianne; van Rijssen, H Jolanda; Schellart, Antonius J M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2011-08-01

    Physicians need good communication skills to communicate effectively with patients. The objective of this review was to identify effective training strategies for teaching communication skills to qualified physicians. PubMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and COCHRANE were searched in October 2008 and in March 2009. Two authors independently selected relevant reviews and assessed their methodological quality with AMSTAR. Summary tables were constructed for data-synthesis, and results were linked to outcome measures. As a result, conclusions about the effectiveness of communication skills training strategies for physicians could be drawn. Twelve systematic reviews on communication skills training programmes for physicians were identified. Some focused on specific training strategies, whereas others emphasized a more general approach with mixed strategies. Training programmes were effective if they lasted for at least one day, were learner-centred, and focused on practising skills. The best training strategies within the programmes included role-play, feedback, and small group discussions. Training programmes should include active, practice-oriented strategies. Oral presentations on communication skills, modelling, and written information should only be used as supportive strategies. To be able to compare the effectiveness of training programmes more easily in the future, general agreement on outcome measures has to be established. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From Strategic Perspective: Investigating Teacher-Employed Communication Strategies in EFL Classroom Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Yaghoubi-Notash

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have laid emphasis on the nature and patterns of strategy employment in EFL context. Most studies, however, tend to examine those strategies in learner performance. In this study, the researchers investigated the types of communication strategies used by teachers teaching elementary level learners compared to those who are teaching at advanced levels. To this end, 16 (8 elementary and 8 advanced teachers’ verbal classroom performance were recorded and analyzed for characterizing the strategy types. Four full classroom sessions were recorded and transcribed of each teacher’s teaching. T-test results indicated that propositional reduction strategies were employed more significantly on the part of teachers teaching advanced-levels. There are a number of important pedagogical implications for teachers and learners regarding teaching experience, syllabus design, and curriculum development which are discussed. Keywords: Communication strategies, Teacher-employed strategies, Avoidance strategy, Message abandonment

  2. Web-based Information Tools and Communication and Participation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report summarizes the activities and the action-oriented research work of Pilot Project 4 (PP4) “Web-based Information Tools and Communication and Participation Strategies“. Research objectives were divided in two areas: a) communication issues, namely the development of a Project-Homepage with interactive elements (http://www.sustainable-hyderabad.in/ ) and two documentary films and b) participation issues, namely citizens participation in India as a whole and in Hyderabad in particular....

  3. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  4. Mass communication and development: impact depends on strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wete, F N

    1988-01-01

    Development scholars are moving toward an emphasis on noneconomic factors (social values, social advancement, equality, individual freedom) and their interactions with labor, capital, and technology. People are now conceptualized as the agents of change, and they in turn must be convinced of the need for change. This new approach implies a need for a review of the role of mass communication in development. A central question is whether development makes possible mass communication development or do improved mass communication facilities--and the resulting increase in the flow of information--make possible economic and social development. Although there have undoubtedly been incidents in which self-serving politicians have used mass communication to oppress the masses, the mass media has the potential to be a powerful force in the education of the society, the sharing of consciousness, the creation of nationhood, and the promotion of socioeconomic development. Mass communication is, for example, vital in the development approach that accords importance to self-sufficiency at the village level. The mass media can be used in such cases to transmit information of a background nature to a group or community about their expressed needs and to disseminate innovations that may need these needs. In the final analysis, mass media's role in development depends on the media's messages reaching the target audiences. This underscores the importance of analyzing in advance who will be the recipients of a mass media campaign and encouraging community involvement in communications planning.

  5. Performance Management Integrating Strategy Execution, Methodologies, Risk, and Analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Cokins, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Praise for Praise for Performance Management: Integrating Strategy Execution, Methodologies, Risk, and Analytics. "A highly accessible collection of essays on contemporary thinking in performance management. Readers will get excellent overviews on the Balanced Scorecard, strategy maps, incentives, management accounting, activity-based costing, customer lifetime value, and sustainable shareholder value creation.". — Robert S. Kaplan , Harvard Business School; coauthor of The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action, The Execution Premium , and many other books. "Gary

  6. Communication Strategies Used by Pre-Service English Teachers of Different Proficiency Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Yicely Castro Garcés

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of a research study carried out in the Bachelor of Arts in English program of study at a Colombian university. It aims at identifying the communication strategies used by four pre-service English teachers with A2 and B2 levels of language proficiency and, also, at examining how these communication strategies facilitate or hinder the development of communicative skills. Data collection instruments included audio recordings of three tasks: (1 open-ended questionnaire, (2 sentence translation, and (3 picture description. The participants’ speech was transcribed and categorized allowing us to identify and examine the role played by communication strategies which varied depending on the choice the participants made of using either avoidance or compensatory strategies.

  7. Basic Communications Strategy : Bison Round Up 2013 [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using Decision Tree Analysis, this Basic Communications Strategy for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge's (NWR) 2013 Bison Round Up outlines actions...

  8. Basic Communications Strategy : Bison Round Up 2014 [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using Decision Tree Analysis, this Basic Communications Strategy for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge's (NWR) 2013 Bison Round Up outlines actions...

  9. [Effective communication strategies to frame the trainer-trainee dialogue in the clinical setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachoud, D; Félix, S; Monti, M

    2015-11-04

    Communication between trainer and trainee plays a central role in teaching and learning in the clinical environment. There are various strategies to frame the dialogue between trainee and trainer. These strategies allow trainers to be more effective in their supervision, which is important in our busy clinical environment. Communication strategies are well adapted to both in- and out-patient settings, to both under- and postgraduate contexts. This article presents three strategies that we think are particularly useful. They are meant to give feedback, to ask questions and to present a case.

  10. On communicating earthquake risk in low-activity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Wachowicz, M.; Bernabé, M. A.; Iturrioz, T.

    2009-04-01

    The assessment of natural risks for emergency response and preparedness planning is a transversal discipline that can be studied from many perspectives, including social, political and earth sciences. Accordingly, people with different profiles and backgrounds working on the topic should use of a common language in order to avoid misunderstandings, improve information dissemination, and at the end, facilitate preparedness and response measurements in the right direction. Some ideas aimed at identifying communication barriers between all parties and suppressing them are presented, using the example of regional seismic risk studies of low-hazard areas, where the rare occurrence of destructive events complicates the situation. First, factors related to the actual awareness, the degree of understanding and the interest for getting the information about a given a natural risk, are analyzed taking into account that they differ from user to user (civil protection official, scientist, general public). Subsequently, choices of parameters used to typify seismic risk and ways of representing them graphically are proposed. Finally, whether the incidence of the lack of a common language increases risk vulnerability is discussed.

  11. A Taxonomy of Representation Strategies in Iconic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Carlos; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-08-01

    Predicting whether the intended audience will be able to recognize the meaning of an icon or pictograph is not an easy task. Many icon recognition studies have been conducted in the past. However, their findings cannot be generalized to other icons that were not included in the study, which, we argue, is their main limitation. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive taxonomy of icons that is intended to enable the generalization of the findings of recognition studies. To accomplish this, we analyzed a sample of more than eight hundred icons according to three axes: lexical category, semantic category, and representation strategy. Three basic representation strategies were identified: visual similarity; semantic association; and arbitrary convention. These representation strategies are in agreement with the strategies identified in previous taxonomies. However, a greater number of subcategories of these strategies were identified. Our results also indicate that the lexical and semantic attributes of a concept influence the choice of representation strategy.

  12. Marketing Communication Strategy Through Social Media To Increase Children Book Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Wardaya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the marketing communication strategy of children's books through social media in increasing sales. Qualitative research methods with the interpretive paradigm and the phenomenological approach were used in this research. The focus of this research was to observe about the children's books marketing communication strategy using social media, for instance with Facebook and Twitter to attract consumer’s interest in order to increase children's books ...

  13. Communication Strategy, Central Banking and Credibility Bonus - A Study dealing with Impossible Trinity in Indian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Yanamandra

    2012-01-01

    The Communication strategy for central banks is traditionally interlinked with one of theirimportant mandates – conduct of monetary policy. Credibility to central bank actions inthe process is achieved by keeping the market expectations more closely synchronisedwith its own, through the art of communication. However, the management of“Impossible Trinity” in the context of Emerging Market Economies expands the scope ofcommunication strategy of central banks to horizons other than the conduct o...

  14. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  15. Debate: a teaching strategy to improve verbal communication and critical-thinking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, M; Schoener, L; Hood, L

    1996-01-01

    Debate is presented as a valuable learning activity for teaching critical thinking and improving communication skills. Included in the discussion are a brief history of the use of debate as a teaching strategy, the responsibilities of the teacher and learner when using debate in the classroom, and its many advantages for developing competencies in communication and critical thinking.

  16. Unsettling Assumptions and Boundaries: Strategies for Developing a Critical Perspective about Business and Management Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Cockburn, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a collaborative class strategy and an introductory activity were used to develop students' thinking about business and management communication. The article focuses on teachers who want to integrate critical perspectives about business communication into their classes. A course ethos, learning groups, and an introductory…

  17. A Communication-Less Distributed Voltage Control Strategy for a Multi-Bus AC Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Tan, Yongdong; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a communication-less distributed voltage control strategy for a multi-bus AC islanded microgrid. First, a Kalman Filter-based network voltage estimator is proposed to obtain voltage responses without communication links in the presence of load disturbances. Then, a voltage opt...

  18. An Evaluation of Strategies for Training Staff to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Clarissa S.; Dunning, Johnna L.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a functional communication system frequently used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders who experience severe language delays (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Few empirical investigations have evaluated strategies for training direct care staff how to effectively implement PECS with…

  19. Unsettling Assumptions and Boundaries: Strategies for Developing a Critical Perspective about Business and Management Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Cockburn, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a collaborative class strategy and an introductory activity were used to develop students' thinking about business and management communication. The article focuses on teachers who want to integrate critical perspectives about business communication into their classes. A course ethos, learning groups, and an introductory…

  20. Foreign practice of introducing conventional communicative strategy in the implementation of the functions of government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zarytska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of conventional communicative strategy from the standpoint of foreign practice. Depending on scientific approaches to communications, business and management strategies based conventional communicative strategy implementation functions of government. It has certain methodological features and differences in different countries: UK, Germany, Australia, USA, Spain, Holland, Finland, New Zealand. Generalization showed that each state produces its conventional communicative strategy depending on the overall state objectives. However joint is considered important not only communication, but also the ability to communicate effectively, understand how to implement the vision of an opinion on relations between the state and society. Purpose conventional communicative strategy determined by the impact on the optimization of the authorities at the national and regional level, the processes of globalization, the experience of other states, its implementation in practical activities as well as their lack of predictive scenarios of the process of optimizing the functions of government. Demonstrated the appropriateness of existing methodologies to use in domestic practice of public administration.

  1. COMMUNICATIVE PROVOCATION AS A STRATEGY OF DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR IN EVERY-DAY CONFLICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova Olga Sergeevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concentrated on the issue of systematization and classification of strategies and tactics of individual's verbal behavior in a number of typical situations associated with disharmonious communication. Its scientific originality is defined by the necessity to present the provocation phenomenon as a category of communicative linguistics and linguistic pragmatics. The use of discourse analysis and descriptive pragmatic interpretation of real communication forms have enabled the revelation of various patterns of destructive verbal behavior that could provoke a communicative conflict. Communicative provocation is described as a strategy of destructive behavior aimed at dragging a communication partner into a conflict interaction or creating conditions for its occurrence. The provocation strategy is implemented in disharmonious interactions by means of individual or complex communication tactics including not only the aggressive ones: indignation, reproach, deliberate false informing, exaggerated demonstration of emotions, but also such tolerant tactics as praise, advice, apology, assurances, admiration, persuasion, etc. Two forms of communicative provocation are represented in the article. A direct provocation presupposes personal involvement of a provocateur in the conflict interaction while an indirect one allows its initiator stay aside from the open confrontation. In the latter case the provocateur stimulates and demonstrates the parties' conflict of interests, which leads to the communication harmony disruption.

  2. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...... and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream...

  3. Strategic crisis and risk communication during a prolonged natural hazard event: lessons learned from the Canterbury earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Potter, S.; Becker, J.; Doyle, E. E.; Jones, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    While communication products are developed for monitoring and forecasting hazard events, less thought may have been given to crisis and risk communication plans. During larger (and rarer) events responsible science agencies may find themselves facing new and intensified demands for information and unprepared for effectively resourcing communications. In a study of the communication of aftershock information during the 2010-12 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (New Zealand), issues are identified and implications for communication strategy noted. Communication issues during the responses included reliability and timeliness of communication channels for immediate and short decision time frames; access to scientists by those who needed information; unfamiliar emergency management frameworks; information needs of multiple audiences, audience readiness to use the information; and how best to convey empathy during traumatic events and refer to other information sources about what to do and how to cope. Other science communication challenges included meeting an increased demand for earthquake education, getting attention on aftershock forecasts; responding to rumor management; supporting uptake of information by critical infrastructure and government and for the application of scientific information in complex societal decisions; dealing with repetitive information requests; addressing diverse needs of multiple audiences for scientific information; and coordinating communications within and outside the science domain. For a science agency, a communication strategy would consider training scientists in communication, establishing relationships with university scientists and other disaster communication roles, coordinating messages, prioritizing audiences, deliberating forecasts with community leaders, identifying user needs and familiarizing them with the products ahead of time, and practicing the delivery and use of information via scenario planning and exercises.

  4. Effectiveness of communication strategies for deaf or hard of hearing workers in group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In group settings, background noise and an obstructed view of the speaker are just a few of the issues that can make workplace communication difficult for an individual who is deaf or hard of hearing. Accommodation strategies such as amplification of the speaker's voice or the use of text-based alternatives exist to address these issues. However, recent studies have shown that there are still unmet needs related to workplace communication in group settings for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. Identify the most common strategies used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to improve communication in group settings and gauge the perceived effectiveness of those strategies. An online survey was conducted with individuals who self-identified as deaf or hard of hearing. The survey presented specific communication strategies based on three functional approaches (aural/oral, text, visual). The strategies applied to both receptive and expressive communication in five different meeting types ranging in size and purpose. 161 adults (age 22-90 yrs.) with limited hearing ability completed the survey. Text-based strategies were typically the least frequently used strategies in group settings, yet they ranked high in perceived effectiveness for receptive and expressive communication. Those who used an interpreter demonstrated a strong preference for having a qualified interpreter present in the meeting rather than an interpreter acting remotely. For expressive communication, participants in general preferred to use their own voice or signing abilities and ranked those strategies as highly effective. A more accessible workplace for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing would incorporate more ubiquitous text-based strategy options. Also, qualified interpreters, when used, should be present in the meeting for maximum effectiveness.

  5. The DEVELOP National Program's Strategy for Communicating Applied Science Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Favors, J.; Kelley, C.; Miller, T. N.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's DEVELOP National Program conducts rapid feasibility projects that enable the future workforce and current decision makers to collaborate and build capacity to use Earth science data to enhance environmental management and policy. The program communicates its results and applications to a broad spectrum of audiences through a variety of methods: "virtual poster sessions" that engage the general public through short project videos and interactive dialogue periods, a "Campus Ambassador Corps" that communicates about the program and its projects to academia, scientific and policy conference presentations, community engagement activities and end-of-project presentations, project "hand-offs" providing results and tools to project partners, traditional publications (both gray literature and peer-reviewed), an interactive website project gallery, targeted brochures, and through multiple social media venues and campaigns. This presentation will describe the various methods employed by DEVELOP to communicate the program's scientific outputs, target audiences, general statistics, community response and best practices.

  6. A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT. Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP, which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS. This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.

  7. A Parameter Communication Optimization Strategy for Distributed Machine Learning in Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilin; Tu, Hangdi; Ren, Yongjian; Wan, Jian; Zhou, Li; Li, Mingwei; Wang, Jue; Yu, Lifeng; Zhao, Chang; Zhang, Lei

    2017-09-21

    In order to utilize the distributed characteristic of sensors, distributed machine learning has become the mainstream approach, but the different computing capability of sensors and network delays greatly influence the accuracy and the convergence rate of the machine learning model. Our paper describes a reasonable parameter communication optimization strategy to balance the training overhead and the communication overhead. We extend the fault tolerance of iterative-convergent machine learning algorithms and propose the Dynamic Finite Fault Tolerance (DFFT). Based on the DFFT, we implement a parameter communication optimization strategy for distributed machine learning, named Dynamic Synchronous Parallel Strategy (DSP), which uses the performance monitoring model to dynamically adjust the parameter synchronization strategy between worker nodes and the Parameter Server (PS). This strategy makes full use of the computing power of each sensor, ensures the accuracy of the machine learning model, and avoids the situation that the model training is disturbed by any tasks unrelated to the sensors.

  8. Silent reintroduction of wild-type poliovirus to Israel, 2013 - risk communication challenges in an argumentative atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliner, E; Moran-Gilad, J; Grotto, I; Somekh, E; Kopel, E; Gdalevich, M; Shimron, E; Amikam, Y; Leventhal, A; Lev, B; Gamzu, R

    2014-02-20

    Israel has been certified as polio-free by the World Health Organization and its routine immunisation schedule consists of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) only. At the end of May 2013, the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH) has confirmed the reintroduction of wild-type poliovirus 1 into the country. Documented ongoing human-to-human transmission necessitated a thorough risk assessment followed by a supplemental immunisation campaign using oral polio vaccine (OPV). The unusual situation in which ongoing poliovirus transmission was picked up through an early warning system of sewage monitoring without active polio cases, brought about significant challenges in risk communication. This paper reviews the challenges faced by the MOH and the communication strategy devised, in order to facilitate and optimise the various components of the public health response, particularly vaccination. Lessons learned from our recent experience may inform risk communication approaches in other countries that may face a similar situation as global polio eradication moves towards the 'End game'.

  9. Communication Strategies in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising (DTCA): Application of the Six Segment Message Strategy Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ilwoo; Park, Jin Seong

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses a void in the literature on direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) with a theory-based content analysis. The findings indicate that Taylor's communication strategy wheel provides insight into what and how pharmaceutical marketers communicate with consumers by means of DTCA. Major findings are summarized as follows: (a) In most DTC ads, informational and transformational message themes and creative approaches were simultaneously used, indicating a combination strategy; (b) DTCA message themes were associated with creative strategies in alignment with Taylor's framework; and (c) message themes and creative strategies varied across therapeutic categories and DTCA categories with different levels of ad spending. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Teacher-employed Communication Strategies: Investigating Function Type Occurrence in Iranian EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Yaghoubi Notash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication strategies, as goal-oriented lines of action to obviate breakdowns in the flow of communication, have been the subject of extensive studies in SLA. While student-employed strategies have been duly investigated in the literature, those employed by teachers in the classroom context continue to be inadequately addressed. Moreover, characterizing functions of communication strategies (CSs rather than their types as a research interest can offer new insights for research. Accordingly, the present study concentrated on the function of CSs employed by 16 teachers across elementary (8 and advanced levels (8 teaching spoken English in private institutes in Tabriz, Iran. A modified version of Jamshidnejad’s (2011 functions of communication strategies was employed as the framework for defining functions. T-test results indicated a significant difference regarding ‘maintaining the flow of conversation’ between elementary and advanced level teachers. As with other function types, no significant differences could be revealed. Keywords: communication strategies, teacher-employed strategies, strategy functions

  11. Fukushima nuclear incident: the challenges of risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew G; Pengilley, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the Sanriku coast of Japan, which resulted in multiple tsunamis. The earthquake and tsunami damaged several nuclear power stations, with the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant being the worst affected, which led Japan to declare a State of Nuclear Emergency. As of November 9, 2011, the National Police Agency of Japan reported a death toll of 15 836 people, with 3664 people still reported missing, following the earthquake and tsunami. Australian radiation health advisers were deployed to Tokyo early in the nuclear emergency to assist the Australian Embassy in assessing the radiological threat, to provide risk advice to Embassy staff and Australian citizens in Japan, and to plan for any further deterioration in the nuclear situation. This article explores the challenges of risk assessment, risk communication, and contingency planning for expatriate staff in the worst nuclear incident since Chernobyl, outlines what measures were successful in addressing heightened perceived risks, and identifies areas where further research is required, particularly in a radiological context.

  12. Social Action through Educational Strategies: Ethics and the Election of Communication Etudies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Lluís del OLMO-ARRIAGA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of social action through educational strategies inspires the weight of ethic factors to choose Communication studies. It allows aprioristic data about the ethics in the future journalists and mass media professionals. It also collaborates in the marketing strategies. In our study we analyze the impact of ethics and values in the students’ choice of Communication studies in the Spanish University. We analyze the impact degree of ethics and Christian values in the selection process. We observe a high influence of ethics (humanistic and holistic ethics in the training, religious orientation as a factor considered to select the Communication studies.

  13. The evolution of individual variation in communication strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Pen, Ido; Komdeur, Jan; Weissing, Franz J.; Doebeli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is a process in which senders provide information via signals and receivers respond accordingly. This process relies on two coevolving conventions: a "sender code" that determines what kind of signal is to be sent given the sender's state; and a "receiver code" that determines the appr

  14. Teaching Strategies for a Course in Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jerry K.

    This paper presents approaches and perspectives for anyone interested in designing university courses in the field of political communication. These include focusing on a single political figure or a single issue, focusing on a political genre, focusing on the mass media in relationship to political success, focusing on media exploitation, and…

  15. Managing Organizational Legitimacy: Communication Strategies for Organizations in Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Joseph Eric

    2001-01-01

    Considers how crisis situations can cause internal and external stakeholders to question the legitimacy of organizations. Notes that when faced with a crisis, organizations are compelled to communicate strategically with stakeholders to manage legitimacy. Synthesizes literature on organizational legitimacy, crisis management, and niche-width…

  16. Communicating Flood Risk with Street-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, B. F.; Matthew, R.; Houston, D.; Cheung, W. H.; Karlin, B.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Luke, A.; Contreras, S.; Goodrich, K.; Feldman, D.; Basolo, V.; Serrano, K.; Reyes, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world face significant and growing flood risks that require an accelerating adaptation response, and fine-resolution urban flood models could serve a pivotal role in enabling communities to meet this need. Such models depict impacts at the level of individual buildings and land parcels or "street level" - the same spatial scale at which individuals are best able to process flood risk information - constituting a powerful tool to help communities build better understandings of flood vulnerabilities and identify cost-effective interventions. To measure understanding of flood risk within a community and the potential impact of street-level models, we carried out a household survey of flood risk awareness in Newport Beach, California, a highly urbanized coastal lowland that presently experiences nuisance flooding from high tides, waves and rainfall and is expected to experience a significant increase in flood frequency and intensity with climate change. Interviews were completed with the aid of a wireless-enabled tablet device that respondents could use to identify areas they understood to be at risk of flooding and to view either a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood map or a more detailed map prepared with a hydrodynamic urban coastal flood model (UCI map) built with grid cells as fine as 3 m resolution and validated with historical flood data. Results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the UCI and FEMA maps at communicating the spatial distribution of flood risk, gender differences in how the maps affect flood understanding, and spatial biases in the perception of flood vulnerabilities.

  17. 风险沟通与疫苗相关事件%Risk Communication in Vaccine-related Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑登峰

    2012-01-01

    The public lost confidence for vaccine safety due to vaccine related events, Its impacts is far greater than the event itself. When an event happ ened, it is an important to response the crisis by rational interpretation of the events. Based on the analysis of domestic and international risk communication experience and the research progress, the risk communication was introduced into risk management of vaccine related events. The strategy of risk communication in vaccine related events from three aspects : preventive communication, emergency risk communication and afterward disposal.%疫苗相关事件所导致的公众对疫苗安全的不信任,其危害程度远大于事件本身.当事件发生时,公众能够理性而客观的解读事件是应对危机的重要基础.该文在分析国内外风险沟通研究进展和经验的基础上,将风险沟通理论引入到疫苗相关事件的风险管理中.从预防性沟通、应急性沟通和善后处理三个方面探讨预防接种中的风险沟通策略.

  18. Quasi-Experiment Study on Effectiveness Evaluation of Health Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Jong; Choi, Jae Wook; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Jiwon Monica

    2016-07-01

    This experimental study examined differences in doctor-patient relationships according to the health communication strategies during cases of medical malpractices occurred at primary medical institution. A total of 116 subjects aged in their 20s-50s was sampled. The first medical malpractice scenario chosen was the medical malpractice case most frequently registered at the Korean Medical Association Mutual Aid and the second scenario was associated with materials and devices as the cause of malpractice. Four types of crisis communication strategy messages were utilized, consisting of denial, denial + ingratiation, apology, and apology + ingratiation. Subjects were classified into four research groups by crisis communication strategy to measure levels of trust, control mutuality, commitment, and satisfaction, before and after the occurrence of medical malpractice and application of communication strategies. The findings of this study revealed that the apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, showed a smaller difference before and after the application of communication strategies in all variables of trust (F = 8.080, F = 5.768), control mutuality (F = 8.824, F = 9.081), commitment (F = 9.815, F = 8.301), and satisfaction (F = 8.723, F = 5.638). Further, a significant interaction effect was shown between variables. The apology strategy, compared with the denial strategy, was effective in the improvement of doctor-patient relationships in both Scenarios I and II. For Scenario I, the apology strategy without ingratiation boosted commitment and satisfaction, but for Scenario II, utilizing the apology strategy with ingratiation boosted the effectiveness of trust and commitment.

  19. Investigating strategies used by hospital pharmacists to effectively communicate with patients during medication counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Bernadette A M; Watson, Bernadette M; Barras, Michael A; Cottrell, William Neil

    2017-10-01

    Medication counselling opportunities are key times for pharmacists and patients to discuss medications and patients' concerns about their therapy. Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) describes behavioural, motivational and emotional processes underlying communication exchanges. Five CAT strategies (approximation, interpretability, discourse management, emotional expression and interpersonal control) permit identification of effective communication. To invoke CAT to investigate communication strategies used by hospital pharmacists during patient medication counselling. This was a theory-based, qualitative study using transcribed audiorecordings of patients and hospital pharmacists engaged in medication counselling. Recruited pharmacists practised in inpatient or outpatient settings. Eligible patients within participating pharmacists' practice sites were prescribed at least three medications to manage chronic disease(s). The extent to which pharmacists accommodate, or not, to patients' conversational needs based on accommodative behaviour described within CAT strategies. Twelve pharmacists engaged four patients (48 total interactions). Exemplars provided robust examples of pharmacists effectively accommodating or meeting patients' conversational needs. Non-accommodation mainly occurred when pharmacists spoke too quickly, used terms not understood by patients and did not include patients in the agenda-setting phase. Multiple strategy use resulted in communication patterns such as "information-reassurance-rationale" sandwiches. Most pharmacists effectively employed all five CAT strategies to engage patients in discussions. Pharmacists' communication could be improved at the initial agenda-setting phase by asking open-ended questions to invite patients' input and allow patients to identify any medication-related concerns or issues. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Innovation, Corporate Strategy, and Cultural Context: What Is the Mission for International Business Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijn, Jan; O'Hair, Dan; Weggeman, Mathieu; Ledlow, Gerald; Hall, H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Reviews relevant literature in the areas of communication and innovation and explores how efforts toward innovative practices are directly related to globalism and business strategy. Focuses on issues associated with national culture, corporate culture, and professional culture that are relevant to strategies for researching business communication…

  1. Interactive uncertainty reduction strategies and verbal affection in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Schouten, A.P.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the language-based strategies that computer-mediated communication (CMC) users employ to reduce uncertainty in the absence of nonverbal cues. Specifically, this study investigated the prevalence of three interactive uncertainty reduction strategies (i.e.,

  2. Marketing Crises in Tourism: Communication Strategies in the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Herrero, Alfonso; Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1998-01-01

    Compares crisis-response strategies of marketing-communication professionals in tourism organizations (TOs) in the United States and Spain. Reports the extent to which they use proven crisis-management strategies. Indicates significant differences between the countries' TOs in both their extant plans for responding to marketing crises and in their…

  3. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. J. Bos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An engineered nanomaterial (ENM may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  4. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  5. Scenarios for Evolving Seismic Crises: Possible Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steacy, S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in operational earthquake forecasting mean that we are very close to being able to confidently compute changes in earthquake probability as seismic crises develop. For instance, we now have statistical models such as ETAS and STEP which demonstrate considerable skill in forecasting earthquake rates and recent advances in Coulomb based models are also showing much promise. Communicating changes in earthquake probability is likely be very difficult, however, as the absolute probability of a damaging event is likely to remain quite small despite a significant increase in the relative value. Here, we use a hybrid Coulomb/statistical model to compute probability changes for a series of earthquake scenarios in New Zealand. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the forecasts and suggest a number of possible mechanisms that might be used to communicate results in an actual developing seismic crisis.

  6. Barriers and strategies for improving communication between inpatient and outpatient mental health clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Susan E; Sherin, Jonathan E; Chan, Jeffrey A; Hermann, Richard C

    2011-11-01

    To explore hospital leaders' perceptions of organisational factors as barriers and/or facilitators in improving inpatient-outpatient (IP-OP) communication. Semistructured in-person interviews. Constant comparative method of qualitative data. Inpatient psychiatry units in 33 general medical/surgical and specialty psychiatric hospitals in California and Massachusetts (USA). Psychiatry chair/chief, service director or medical director. Importance to leadership, resources, organisational structure and culture. A majority of hospital leaders rated the IP-OP communication objective as highly or moderately important. Hospitals with good IP-OP communication had structures in place to support communication or had changed/implemented new procedures to enhance communication, and anticipated clinicians would 'buy in' to the goal of improved communication. Hospitals reporting no improvement efforts were less likely to have structures supporting IP-OP communication, anticipated resistance among clinicians and reported a need for technological resources such as electronic health records, integrated IT and secure online communication. Most leaders reported a need for additional staff time and information, knowledge or data. For many hospitals, successfully improving communication will require overcoming organisational barriers such as cultures not conducive to change and lack of resources and infrastructure. Creating a culture that values communication at discharge may help improve outcomes following hospitalisation, but changes in healthcare delivery in the past few decades may necessitate new strategies or changes at the systems level to address barriers to effective communication.

  7. SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY FOR PINT PLEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Jani; Le Quang, Louis Vinh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide adequate knowledge about social media as a marketing tool and to improve the social media marketing communication efforts of Pint Please by incorporating a development plan and an action plan for one year. The commissioner of this thesis, Pint Please, is mobile application company located in Oulu. Their application is about rating beers, discovering new beers and beer recommendations. It is also a social platform where you can share findings with your...

  8. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brennan, M.; Bánáti, D.; Lion, R.; Meertens, R.M.; Rowe, G.; Siegrist, M.; Verbeke, W.; Vereijken, C.M.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attit

  9. INTENTIONAL COMBINATIVITY OF COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES AND TACTICS AS A FACTOR OFA SUCCESSFUL POLITICAL SELF-PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchuk O. N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Combinativity of speech strategies and tactics in a public political address as markers of a general intention within a framework of a background strategy of self-presentation is considered. The research methods of speech architectonic are determined. Structural and composite elements of a presidential speech are analyzed. Communicative strategies and tactics as means of an effective self-presentation are described

  10. Women, mercury and artisanal gold mining : Risk communication and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, J. J.; Veiga, M. M.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    Artisanal miners employ rudimentary techniques for minéral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labour intensive, highly disorganized and illegal conditions. Gold is the main mineral extracted by artisanal miners, and the ecological and human health impacts resulting from mercury (Hg) use in gold extraction warrant special consideration. More than 30% of world's 13 million artisanal miners are women and, as they are often perceived to be less suited for labour intensive mining methods, the majority of women work in the processing aspect of artisanal mining, including amalgamation with Hg. As women are also predominantly responsible for food preparation, they are in an excellent position to respond to health risks associated with consumption of Hg-contaminated foods in impacted areas. In addition to their influence on consumption habits, women in artisanal mining communities may be in a position to effect positive change with respect to the technologies employed. Thus, gender sensitive approaches are necessary to reduce exposure risks to women and their families, promote clean technologies and support the development of stronger, healthier artisanal mining communities. This paper describes the roles of women in artisanal gold mining, highlights their importance in reducing the Hg exposure in these communities, and provides insight into how risks from Hg pollution can effectively be communicated and mitigated.

  11. Public relations in risk communication: risk pr. The importance of public relations for risk communication; Public Relations in der Risikokommunikation: Risiko-PR. Die Bedeutung von Public Relations fuer die Risikokommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, K.

    2001-07-01

    Risks have become a central problem of our time, as is reflected in concepts like 'society at risk' and 'anti-technological attitude', in group protest against risks and against those who cause them, and last but not least in the critical attitude of the media. Against this background, organisations must needs enter the public discussion and be able to communicate professionally and convincingly in order to ensure their own success and further existence. The book describes the basic problems of risk research and risk communications and discusses inhowfar, and how, public relations strategies and instruments can help here. [German] Risiken werden verstaerkt zum Problem unserer Zeit. Das belegen nicht nur Begriffe wie 'Risikogesellschaft' und 'Technikfeindlichkeit', die in letzter Zeit an Bedeutung gewonnen haben, sondern auch und vor allem nachhaltige Proteste von engagierten Gruppierungen gegen Risiken und deren Verursacher oder auch die kritische Berichterstattung der Medien. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es fuer Organisationen erforderlich, in die oeffentliche Auseinandersetzung um Risiken einzusteigen und hier professionell und ueberzeugend zu kommunizieren, um den Organisationserfolg und Organisationsbestand zu sichern. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die Grundprobleme der Risikoforschung und Risikokommunikation und diskutiert, ob und inwieweit Public Relations bei der Loesung dieser Probleme helfen koennen, da insbesondere Public Relations gezielt Strategien und Instrumente nutzen, um beispielsweise den Wissensstand der Oeffentlichkeit zu verbessern und den Dialog mit relevanten Teiloeffentlichkeiten zu foerdern. (orig.)

  12. Non-communicable diseases in the South-East Asia region: burden, strategies and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Garg, Renu; Fric, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a global health and developmental emergency, as they cause premature deaths,exacerbate poverty and threaten national economies. In 2008, they were the top killers in the South-East Asia region, causing 7.9 million deaths; the number of deaths is expected to increase by 21% over the next decade. One-third of the 7.9 million deaths (34%) occurred in those strategies for the prevention and control of NCDs include (i) reducing exposure to risk factors through health promotion and primary prevention, (ii) early diagnosis and management of people with NCDs, and (iii) surveillance to monitor trends in risk factors and diseases. Tackling NCDs calls for a paradigm shift: from addressing each NCD separately to collectively addressing a cluster of diseases in an integrated manner, and from using a biomedical approach to a public health approach guided by the principles of universal access and social justice. High levels of commitment and multisectoral actions are needed to reverse the growing burden of NCDs in the South-East Asia region.

  13. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  14. Use of Communication Strategies by Tourism-Oriented EFL Learners in Relation to Gender and Perceived Language Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the relationship of gender, perceived language ability with communication strategy use by tourism-oriented EFL learners studying at the universities in the Southwest China to improve and maintain their oral communication in English. The Communication Strategy Questionnaire was used for data collection, and the…

  15. Using Communication Strategies to Promote Sexual Health: Can Mass Media Get in Bed with the "Female" Condom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sarah Mariel; Austin, S. Bryn

    2010-01-01

    Many public health students receive little, if any, formal training in communicating health information to the public. Public health practitioners, however, are regularly asked to use communication strategies to convey health information. The lesson plan was designed to teach students mass communication strategies in the context of sexual health…

  16. Integrated Performance Management strategy, risk and sustainability Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lux, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview about an integrated approach to Performance Management, meaning strategy formulation and implementation. A step-wise approach is illustrated to arrive at strategic goals and to implement them by defi key performance indicators, actions and responsibilities. Modern approachesto trend analysis are introduced in order to make more predictable statements. Risk management as the other side of strategy implementation is suggested to get integrated into the process of ...

  17. Nursing educator perspectives of overseas qualified nurses' intercultural clinical communication: barriers, enablers and engagement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Susan; Manias, Elizabeth; Woodward-Kron, Robyn

    2015-09-01

    To understand the intercultural communication experiences and associated communication training needs of overseas qualified nurses in the Australian healthcare system from the unique perspectives of nurse educators teaching in accredited bridging programmes. Overseas qualified nurses are an integral part of the nursing workforce in migration destination countries. Communication training needs are more complex when there are cultural, ethnic and language differences between nurses, other health professionals and patients. A qualitative, exploratory research design using semi-structured interviews. All (nine) organisations involved in conducting the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency approved preregistration bridging programmes for overseas qualified nurses within the state of Victoria, Australia, were involved in the study. Participants were 12 nurse educators employed in these organisations. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Three macro themes emerged about the overseas qualified nurses' intercultural communication: (1) pre-existing barriers and enablers to intercultural communication, for example, nurses' reluctance to engage in communicative strategies that build rapport with patients, (2) transitional behaviours and impact on communication, including maintenance of perceived cultural hierarchies between health professionals and (3) development of communicative competence, including expanding one's repertoire of conversational gambits. The findings point to the domains and causes of communication challenges facing overseas qualified nurses in new healthcare settings as well as strategies that the nurse educators and nurses can adopt. Communication cannot be merely regarded as a skill that can be taught in a didactic programme. Comprehensive understanding is needed about the sociocultural dimensions of these nurses' orientation, which can impact on how they communicate in their new healthcare settings. The findings can act as triggers for discussion

  18. Enhancing risk communication for more effective epidemic control in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shih-Ming; Liu, Li-Ling; Chin, Ko-Chien

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how to more effectively conduct risk communication to increase the probability of successful control of an epidemic in Taiwan. The epidemic control of H1N1 in Taiwan in 2010 was studied. We used factor analysis and Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) to obtain the total influence for each factor and to determine the critical factors among them. After being processed using proposed operational procedures, we obtained the critical factors and found that the government plays the key role in successful epidemic control. To reduce the resistance to efforts that seek to prevent pandemic crises, some necessary intervention activities, such as fairly and honorably exploring the complete relevant information and revealing the side effects of vaccines in a manner that is easily understood, were recommended. These could lead to an increase in immunizations among Taiwanese people by gaining their trust and commitment, thus achieving control of this epidemic.

  19. Didactic strategy to contribute to the development of communicative competence in Health Psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Molina Gómez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: the cognitive, socio-cultural and communicative language teaching approach reveals the importance of syntactic speech closely related to semantic and pragmatic dimensions and aimed at understanding, analysis and construction of discourse. Objective: to design a didactic strategy that contributes to the development of communicative competence. Methods: pedagogic research on the teaching- learning process of Spanish grammar for first year students of Health Psychology in the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos. The amount of knowledge students have on grammatical contents and functionality of the structures in the text and their perception and the one from former teachers on the importance of grammatical knowledge and the way it is addressed were determined. Methods used: analytic and synthetic; logical and historical; inductive and deductive; systemic, structural and modeling; as well as a desk study, surveys, diagnostic testing and consulting experts. Results: the methodologies for teaching grammar in previous educational levels do not enhance the development of communicative competence. Changes were made on the syllabus according to the cognitive, communicative and sociocultural approach and a teaching strategy successfully assessed by experts and involving the treatment of grammar from a communicative-functional perspective using this approach was proposed. Conclusions: a teaching strategy based on the cognitive, communicative and sociocultural approach for teaching Spanish grammar contributes to the development of communicative competence.

  20. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  1. The Importance of Communication Patterns in Implementing Change Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Kenneth H.; Hersey, Paul

    1973-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to provide school administrators with some new ways of thinking about the process of change in the hopes that these strategies will be used in planning and implementing change in their own school systems. (Author)

  2. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the U.S. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the American respondents. Both groups desired transparent communications in decision processes and would support educational strategies that foster behavior change for reduction of environmental risks. On the basis of the findings, the paper discusses the changes that would potentially improve non-formal and formal environmental education in China from the perspectives of program foci and approaches.

  3. Maternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with their mothers at 13 and 18 months of age. Results indicate that overall, mothers of low-risk and high-risk infants were highly and similarly responsive to their infants' communicative behaviors. However, examination of infant vocal and gestural communication development together with maternal verbal responses and translations (i.e. verbally labeling a gesture referent) suggests that delays in early communication development observed among high-risk infants may alter the input that these infants receive; this in turn may have cascading effects on the subsequent development of communication and language. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Portfolio optimisation with Equally-weighted risk contributions strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kladnik, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Markowitz has lifted portfolio theory to scientific level by introducing mean-variance framework. Minimum Variance portfolio, unique portfolio on the mean-variance efficient portfolio, has attracted a lot of interest as it is independent of returns expectations. However, the approach has plenty of limitations. Maillard et al (2009) have presented related approach of Equally-weighted Risk Contributions (ERC) portfolio strategy, where risk contributions of the various portfolio components a...

  5. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  6. Developing tools and strategies for communicating climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, D.; Yam, E. M.; Perkins, L.

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that the public views zoos and aquariums as reliable and trusted sources for information on conservation. Additionally, visiting zoos and aquariums helps people reconsider their connections to conservation issues and solutions. The Aquarium of the Pacific, an AZA-accredited institution that serves the most ethnically diverse population of all aquariums in the nation, is using exhibit space, technology, public programming, and staff professional development to present a model for how aquariums can promote climate literacy. Our newest galleries and programs are designed to immerse our visitors in experiences that connect our live animal collection to larger themes on ocean change. The Aquarium is supporting our new programming with a multifaceted staff professional development that exposes our interpretive staff to current climate science and researchers as well as current social science on public perception of climate science. Our staff also leads workshops for scientists; these sessions allow us to examine learning theory and develop tools to communicate science and controversial subjects effectively. Through our partnerships in the science, social science, and informal science education communities, we are working to innovate and develop best practices in climate communication.

  7. Public Health Concern on Fukushima Radiation Risks in Korea and Response Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chaewon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-Ro, Seoul 139-781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of public perception on radiation risks by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and aims to suggest the appropriate strategies for minimizing social anxiety and managing the risk effectively on the basis of those features. In South Korea, the nearest country to Japan, fishery sales decreased 20% in 2013 due to consumers' fears over radiation contaminated seafood products. Public health concern is also increasing. The characteristics of public perception on the risk are the key factors of social anxiety, which are 'ongoing hazard' and 'uncertainty'. They can be translated same as the concepts of 'fear' and 'unknown risk', the psychometric factors of risk perception described in Slovic (1989)'s qualitative characteristics. News on a series of hazardous situations such as radioactive water leaks or radioactive steam at Fukushima is continually reported. Noting no expectation of accident settlement in near future, media coverage which has the expression of 'the maximum permissible level of radiation' without any translation of the measured dosimetric quantity causes the public's phobic fear. Uncertainties on health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans are not only the causes of fear but the challenges in building trust in risk communications. Rumours appear under ambiguous and uncertain situation with a lack of information. The communications among public authorities, related institutes, experts and the public become very important since the public health concern on radiation contamination turns into attention to the system of inspection, distribution, and regulation of imported food. The public shows deep interest in the safety standard of guidelines used in regulatory policy and safety management, which leads to a desire for participation in policy making process. Situational crisis communication theory can be applied to the situation quoted and

  8. Cancer risk elicitation and communication: lessons from the psychology of risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Stefanek, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    Cancer risk perceptions are a key predictor of risk-reduction practices, health behaviors, and processing of cancer information. Nevertheless, patients and the general public (as well as health care providers) exhibit a number of errors and biases in the way they think about risk, such that their risk perceptions and decisions deviate greatly from those prescribed by normative decision models and by experts in risk assessment. For example, people are more likely to engage in screening behaviors such as mammography when faced with loss-based messages than gain-framed messages, and they often ignore the base rate of a given disease when assessing their own risk of obtaining this disease. In this article, we review many of the psychological processes that underlie risk perception and discuss how these processes lead to such deviations. Among these processes are difficulties with use of numerical information (innumeracy), cognitive processes (eg, use of time-saving heuristics), motivational factors (eg, loss and regret aversion), and emotion. We conclude with suggestions for future research in the area, as well as implications for improving the elicitation and communication of personal cancer risk.

  9. The Effect of Conflict Goals on Avoidance Strategies: What Does Not Communicating Communicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Fink, Edward L.; Cai, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Avoidance is proposed to be a goal-directed behavior rather than a behavior that reflects passivity or inaction. To evaluate this proposition, a typology of conflict goals and a typology of conflict avoidance strategies are created, and the relationship between nonavoidance strategies and the elements of these 2 typologies are evaluated within a…

  10. Intimate partner violence victims as mothers: their messages and strategies for communicating with children to break the cycle of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insetta, Emily R; Akers, Aletha Y; Miller, Elizabeth; Yonas, Michael A; Burke, Jessica G; Hintz, Lindsay; Chang, Judy C

    2015-02-01

    Children whose mothers are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk of adverse health and psychosocial consequences, including becoming victims or perpetrators of violence in their own relationships. This study aimed to understand the role mothers may play in preventing the perpetuation of violence in their children's lives. We performed semistructured interviews with 18 IPV victims who are mothers and were living at the Women's Center & Shelter of Greater Pittsburgh from July through November 2011. We sought to understand how they communicate with their children about IPV and relationships. These mothers described a desire to explain their IPV experience and offer advice about avoiding violence in relationships. As foundations for these discussions, they emphasized the importance of close relationships and open communication with their children. Although mothers are interested in talking about IPV and relationships and identify communication strategies for doing so, many have never discussed these topics with their children. These mothers need and want an intervention to help them learn how to communicate with their children to promote healthy relationships. Development of a program to facilitate communication between IPV victims and their children could create an important tool to empower mothers to break the cross-generational cycle of domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Communication Strategies of the Chinese Dairy Industry Manufacturers to Rebuild Reputation and Maintain a Quality Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Sanlu tainted milk powder crisis in China in 2008, the entire powdered milk manufacturing industry, and in many ways the food industry as a whole, faced a crisis of reputation and consumer confidence. Through a study of the organisation and public relationships of dairy companies, the crisis communication strategies they used, and how they cultivated relationships, this paper explores how companies within the milk industry rebuilt their reputations to a point where customers and other key elements of the public once again felt confident about their products. This study explores the organisation­-public relationships (OPRs cultivation strategies of the dairy companies and the communication strategies they used to rebuild the industry's reputation after the Sanlu crisis. The author interviewed dairy company personnel and consumers in China (N=18 and conducted secondary document research. The communication strategies that dairy companies used to maintain their relationship with the public are analysed. This study develops the theory of relationship management and provides suggestions for other companies to utilise should they face an industry crisis in the future. The cultivation strategies the dairy companies use to maintain their relationship with the public is hard to separate from communication strategy employed after the crisis.

  12. Vernacular design based on sustainable disaster’s mitigation communication and education strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani, E-mail: nova.zp@gmail.com, E-mail: alvanov@fsrd.itb.ac.id [Visual Communication Design Study Program, Faculty of Art and Design, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesa No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won’t be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.

  13. Evaluation of intensified behaviour change communication strategies in an artemisinin resistance setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; de Beyl, Celine Zegers; Ly, Po; Shafique, Muhammad; Boukheng, Thavrin; Rang, Chandary; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Sintasath, David

    2016-04-30

    In Cambodia, behaviour change communication (BCC) represents an integral component of malaria efforts aimed at fighting artemisinin resistant parasites and achieving elimination. The multi-pronged BCC interventions include interpersonal communication through village health volunteers (VHVs) and village malaria workers (VMWs), broadcasting malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment messages via TV, radio and mobile broadcasting units (MBUs), distributing information education and communication (IEC) materials and introducing mobile malaria workers (MMWs) in endemic villages. This was a cross sectional household survey using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach, conducted in December 2012. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach was used; 30 villages were selected (15 in each stratum) and a total of 774 households were interviewed. This survey aimed to assess the potential added effect of 'intense' BCC interventions in three Western provinces. Conducted 2 years after start of these efforts, 'non-intense' BCC (niBBC) interventions (e.g., radio or TV) were compared to "intense" BCC (iBBC) implemented through a set of interpersonal communication strategies such as VMWs, VHVs, mobile broadcasting units and listener viewer clubs. In both groups, the knowledge of the mode of malaria transmission was high (96.9 vs 97.2 %; p = 0.83), as well as of fever as a symptom (91.5 vs 93.5 %; p = 0.38). Knowledge of local risk factors, such as staying in the forest (39.7 vs 30.7 %; p = 0.17) or the farm (7.1 vs 5.1 %; p = 0.40) was low in both groups. Few respondents in either group knew that they must get tested if they suspected malaria (0.3 vs 0.1; p = 0.69). However, iBBC increased the discussions about malaria in the family (51.7 vs 35.8 %; p = 0.002) and reported prompt access to treatment in case of fever (77.1 vs 59.4 %; p resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  14. Risk Communication of Groundwater Quality in Northern Malawi, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, R.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi lies in Africa's Great Rift Valley. Its western border is defined by Lake Malawi, the third largest lake in Africa. Over 80% of Malawians live in rural areas and 90% of the labor force is associated with agriculture. More than half of the population lives below the poverty line. Area characteristics indicate a high likelihood of nitrate and total coliform in community drinking water. Infants exposed to high nitrate are at risk of developing methemoglobinemia. In addition, diarrheal diseases from unsafe drinking water are one of the top causes of mortality in children under five. Without sufficient and sustainable supplies of clean water, these challenges will continue to threaten Malawi's ability to overcome the devastating impact of diarrheal diseases on its population. Therefore, Malawi remains highly dependent on outside assistance and influence to reduce or eliminate the threat posed by unsafe drinking water. This research presents a literature review of nitrate and total coliform groundwater quality and a proposed risk communication plan for drinking water in northern Malawi.

  15. Marketing Communication Strategy Through Social Media To Increase Children Book Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Wardaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the marketing communication strategy of children's books through social media in increasing sales. Qualitative research methods with the interpretive paradigm and the phenomenological approach were used in this research. The focus of this research was to observe about the children's books marketing communication strategy using social media, for instance with Facebook and Twitter to attract consumer’s interest in order to increase children's books sales. The results of this study show that the children's book marketing communication strategies in publisher’s social media are fully and interactively utilized, as seen from the various activities posted on Facebook and Twitter. As well as the positive response from consumers who show their interest and desire to buy books offered or follow the event being held in order to increase sales.

  16. Specific factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potančok, Martin; Voříšek, Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare facilities use a number of information system/information and communication technologies. Each healthcare facility faces a need to choose sourcing strategies most suitable to ensure provision of information system/information and communication technology services, processes and resources. Currently, it is possible to observe an expansion of sourcing possibilities in healthcare informatics, which creates new requirements for sourcing strategies. Thus, the aim of this article is to identify factors influencing information system/information and communication technology sourcing strategies in healthcare facilities. The identification was based on qualitative research, namely, a case study. This study provides a set of internal and external factors with their impact levels. The findings also show that not enough attention is paid to these factors during decision-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Interpersonal Communication Instruction in the Non-Traditional Context: Teaching Communication Strategies in a Hospice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieweger, Margaret A.

    While many health care delivery systems are criticized for the dehumanizing way they treat patients, hospice care presents a refreshing alternative to health care for the terminally ill. Patients appropriate for hospice care are those with six months or less to live. Interpersonal communication education is an important component of hospice care…

  18. Oncologists' strategies and barriers to effective communication about the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Tozer, Richard; Mazzotta, Paolo

    2013-07-01

    Communicating about the end of life with patients has been reported as one of the most difficult and stressful part of the work of oncologists. Despite this fact, oncologists receive little training in this area, and many do not communicate effectively with patients. The purpose of this analysis, part of a larger study examining oncologists' experiences of patient loss, was to explore oncologists' communication strategies and communication barriers when discussing end-of-life issues with patients. Twenty oncologists were interviewed at three hospitals about their communication strategies on end-of-life issues with patients. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed the strategies to effective communication about the end of life included: being open and honest; having ongoing, early conversations; communicating about modifying treatment goals; and balancing hope and reality. Barriers to implementing these strategies fell broadly into three domains, including physician factors, patient factors, and institutional factors. Physician factors included difficulty with treatment and palliation, personal discomfort with death and dying, diffusion of responsibility among colleagues, using the "death-defying mode," lack of experience, and lack of mentorship. Patient factors included, patients and/or families being reluctant to talk about the end of life, language barriers, and younger age. Institutional factors included stigma around palliative care, lack of protocol about end-of-life issues; and lack of training for oncologists on how to talk with patients about end-of-life issues. We conclude by drawing implications from our study and suggest that further research and intervention are necessary to aid oncologists in achieving effective communication about end-of-life issues.

  19. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Existence of optimal consumption strategies in markets with longevity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, Jan; Vellekoop, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Survival bonds are financial instruments with a payoff that depends on human mortality rates. In markets that contain such bonds, agents optimizing expected utility of consumption and terminal wealth can mitigate their longevity risk. To examine how this influences optimal portfolio strategies and c

  1. Resilient flood risk strategies: Institutional preconditions for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersonius, B. (Berry); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); Zethof, M. (Marit); Kelder, E. (Ellen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThere is a growing recognition of resilience enhancement as an additional objective for adaptation. This will typically involve enhancing the preparedness and capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change. Within flood risk practice, resilient strategies focus on reducing impacts

  2. Sources of risk and management strategies among food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of risk and management strategies among food crop farmers in ... of 30 farming communities from the three agroecological zones of the state's ... 46.1%; drought, 32.7%; pest and diseases attack, 33.9% and erratic rainfall, 39.4%.

  3. Exploring technical and cultural appeals in strategic risk communication: the Fernald radium case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer Duffield

    2003-04-01

    Risk disputes are often characterized by tensions between technical and cultural understandings of risk and by communication practices that reflect those differing perspectives. This study considers how participants in risk debates draw upon and combine aspects of technical and cultural rationality as broad orientations to risk in expressing their views and formulating persuasive appeals during risk debates. Rhetorical theorist Kenneth Burke's (1984) concept of frames of acceptance is used to analyze a case study involving competing priorities for radium stored at the Fernald site, a former Department of Energy nuclear weapons facility. A rhetorical analysis is conducted using the transcript from a 1995 public meeting during which local residents and a nuclear medicine expert discussed priorities of Fernald site cleanup versus providing radium stored on site for promising cancer research. Two tensions are identified that fostered disagreement among discussants: the first a tension between a local or global context for the controversy and the second a tension between competing definitions of public participation for this issue. This study analyzes the rhetorical strategies by which participants in the Fernald radium debate articulated these tensions and argues that technical and cultural rationality (Plough & Krimsky, 1987) acted as sources of rhetorical invention influencing participants' individual frames of acceptance and the ways they defined and interpreted the situation and crafted persuasive appeals.

  4. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  5. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  6. Regulating partners in intimate relationships: the costs and benefits of different communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Sibley, Chris G

    2009-03-01

    This study tested the success of communication strategies used by relationship partners (N = 61 romantic couples) who were videotaped while trying to produce desired changes in each other. Strategies varying in valence (positive vs. negative) and directness (direct vs. indirect) were differentially associated with postdiscussion perceptions of success as well as ratings of demonstrated change in targeted features gathered at 3-month intervals during the following year. Direct strategies (positive and negative) were initially perceived as relatively unsuccessful but predicted increased change over the next 12 months as reported by the targeted partners and (for positive-direct strategies) as perceived by female agents. Positive-indirect strategies, in contrast, were associated with higher concurrent perceived success but did not predict later change. Increases in problem severity also forecasted lower relationship quality over time. These findings indicate that one mechanism through which regulation strategies impact relationship outcomes is the extent to which engaged strategies are successful at producing desired change.

  7. The evolution of risk and bailout strategy in banking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caux, Robert; McGroarty, Frank; Brede, Markus

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyse the long-term costs and benefits of bailout strategies in models of networked banking systems. Unlike much of the current literature on financial contagion that focuses on systemic risk at one point in time, we consider adaptive banks that adjust risk taking in response to internal system dynamics and regulatory intervention, allowing us to analyse the potentially crucial moral hazard aspect associated with frequent bailouts. We demonstrate that whereas bailout generally serves as an effective tool to limit the size of bankruptcy cascades in the short term, inappropriate intervention strategies can encourage risk-taking and thus be inefficient and detrimental to long term system stability. We analyse points of long-term optimal bailout and discuss their dependence on the structure of the banking network. In the second part of the paper, we demonstrate that bailout efficiency can be improved by taking into account information about the topology of and risk allocation on the banking network, and demonstrate that finely tuned intervention strategies aimed at bailing out banks in configurations with some degree of anti-correlated risk have superior performance. These results demonstrate that a suitable intervention policy may be a useful tool for driving the banking system towards a more robust structure.

  8. Doing Projects in a Foreign Language — Communications Management, Issues and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Deling

    The Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Co. Ltd. (QSLIC) smelter project involves a Chinese state-owned client, a Canadian engineering company, their American technology partner, several Chinese design institutes and international vendors. Proper technical communication plays an important role during the development of a project in a foreign language and across cultures. Using the QSLIC project as an example, this paper presents the role of Communications Manager and personal qualifications required, as well as technical communications management, issues and strategies, lessons learnt while doing smelter projects in China and Chinese business culture and etiquette.

  9. The Experience of Sexual Risk Communication in African American Families Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Mother-daughter communication plays an influential role in adolescent development. The impact of maternal HIV infection on family communication is not clear. This study explores how living with HIV impacts sexual risk communication between mothers and daughters and whether maternal HIV status influences adolescent choices about engagement in HIV…

  10. Comparative Analysis and Research on Chinese and Foreign Animation Creation and Communication Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淞译

    2015-01-01

    Animation is a cultural constitute of new cultural media, and it has obtained widely development. For many anime fans, to clearly recognize the diferences between Chinese and foreign animation creation and communication strategy, we can more fuly understand anime art characteristics and enjoy al sorts of fun brought by cartoon. This paper analyzes similarities of Chinese and foreign cartoon art, make comparisons of western and Chinese animation creation from aspects of creation way, communication strategy etc and put forward model of animation industry in accordance with Chinese characteristics.

  11. Risk management - unappreciated instrument of supply chain management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Machowiak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike Enterprise Risk Management, which is certainly quite well rooted in business practice, Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM still continues to be dynamically developing subject of academic research, whereas its practical applications are rather scarce. Material and methods: On the basis of broad review of the current state of the art in world literature, significant  relevancies to the core processes and enterprise strategy are discussed.   Results: The paper shows some interesting from the enterprise's performance and competitiveness point of view additional benefits, potentially resulting from the proactive, consistent and effective implementation of the SCRM system. Conclusions: Some additional advantages from proactive supply chain risk management account for perceiving SCRM as multifunctional instrument of strategic SC management, exceeding established understanding RM as security and threat-prevention  tool only. Positive influence from SCRM onto SC performance and competitiveness can make reasonable to enhance its position within SCM strategy.

  12. Resilient flood risk strategies: institutional preconditions for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Gersonius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of resilience enhancement as an additional objective for adaptation. This will typically involve enhancing the preparedness and capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change. Within flood risk practice, resilient strategies focus on reducing impacts from flooding through better prevention and preparedness. Such strategies will not only reduce existing risk levels, but could also make the social-ecological system more robust for extreme flood events. This is because they seek to prevent those impacts on the system from which recovery is extremely difficult without outside help. Besides that, resilient strategies increase the prospect for the realization of cobenefits, particularly when measures are selected within the spatial domain. Implementing resilient strategies, however, faces many difficulties, particularly in countries like the Netherlands and Poland where prevalent governance arrangements are aimed to facilitate resistant strategies, focusing exclusively on flood protection. We analyzed these implementation difficulties for the Island of Dordrecht, which is a front-runner case of resilient flood risk governance in the Netherlands. A theoretical framework based on relevant issues regarding governance arrangements was used to reflect on the identified gaps and barriers. Although all issues played a role in the case study, there seem to be no generic institutional design parameters that have to be applied for implementing resilient strategies. Even in the current institutional regime, it is possible to find ways of implementing a resilient strategy. The more general institutional precondition has to do with the political willingness to allow for collaboration and experimentation and to enable a more flexible use of current principles and rules.

  13. Mapping of Health Communication and Education Strategies Addressing the Public Health Dangers of Illicit Online Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison C; Mackey, Tim K; Attaran, Amir; Liang, Bryan A

    2016-01-01

    Illicit online pharmacies are a growing global public health concern. Stakeholders have started to engage in health promotion activities to educate the public, yet their scope and impact has not been examined. We wished to identify health promotion activities focused on consumer awareness regarding the risks of illicit online pharmacies. Organizations engaged on the issue were first identified using a set of engagement criteria. We then reviewed these organizations for health promotion programs, educational components, public service announcements, and social media engagement. Our review identified 13 organizations across a wide spectrum of stakeholders. Of these organizations, 69.2% (n = 9) had at least one type of health promotion activity targeting consumers. Although the vast majority of these organizations were active on Facebook or Twitter, many did not have dedicated content regarding online pharmacies (Facebook: 45.5%, Twitter: 58.3%). An online survey administered to 6 respondents employed by organizations identified in this study found that all organizations had dedicated programs on the issue, but only half had media planning strategies in place to measure the effectiveness of their programs. Overall, our results indicate that though some organizations are actively engaged on the issue, communication and education initiatives have had questionable effectiveness in reaching the public. We note that only a few organizations offered comprehensive and dedicated content to raise awareness on the issue and were effective in social media communications. In response, more robust collaborative efforts between stakeholders are needed to educate and protect the consumer about this public health and patient safety danger.

  14. Information and communication strategies for increasing information literacy in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddadian, F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews the effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT on learning and information literacy of students. Experimental method involving experimental and control groups was used. Pre-test and post-test were run to investigate the effectiveness of ICT. The statistical population of the research consisted of all male third year students of middle school (school year 89-90 in the city of Arak. After pre-certification testing and applying random cluster sampling, 64 students were selected and placed into two experimental and control groups. Data collection instruments were Educational Improvement Test and Standardized Information Literacy Questionnaire. Collected data were analysed using analysis of covariance method, t-test, and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Findings showed that general hypotheses of the research were true: ICT has a significant effect on learning rate of students, and there is a significant difference between the experimental group and control group regarding information literacy and its features. Based on the results of this study, we recommend educational authorities to apply ICT in educational canters in order to improve students’ learning and educational quality.

  15. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  16. Crisis and emergency risk communication in a pandemic: a model for building capacity and resilience of minority communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    As public health agencies prepare for pandemic influenza, it is evident from our experience with Hurricane Katrina that these events will occur in the same social, historical, and cultural milieu in which marked distrust of government and health disparities already exist. This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing that targeting messages to specific groups poses significant difficulties at that time, this article proposes a model of community engagement, disaster risk education, and crisis and emergency risk communication to prepare minority communities and government agencies to work effectively in a pandemic, build the capacity of each to respond, and strengthen the trust that is critical at such moments. Examples of such engagement and potential strategies to enhance trust include tools familiar to many health educators.

  17. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  18. Fairness based channel borrowing strategy in multimedia LEO satellite communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Fei; XU Hui; WU Shiqi

    2007-01-01

    A novel bandwidth allocation strategy along with a connection admission control technique was proposed to improve the utilization of network resources.It provides the network with better quality-of-service (QoS) guarantees,such as new call blocking probability (CBP) and handoff call dropping probability (CDP) in multimedia low earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks.Simulation results show that,compared with other bandwidth allocation schemes,the proposed scheme offers very low call dropping probability for real-time connections while,at the same time,keeping resource utilization high.Finally we discussed the fairness for the borrowed nonreal-time connections under three different channel borrowing methods.

  19. Communication Strategies in the Written Medium: The Effect of Language Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbari, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been written on 'communication strategies' (CS, in the sense of potentially conscious plans for solving problems encountered in reaching particular communicative goals, there still remain large gaps in our knowledge in this respect. One area worthy of attention, and not totally clarified, is whether these strategies are applied and workable in writing as frequently as they are in speaking tasks. Accordingly, the present study aimed at pitting the use of CS against language proficiency level in argumentative writing of Iranian university students. The results of the Chi-Square tests run for the purpose of investigating the hypotheses showed that language proficiency was highly related with the use of more Reconceptualization Strategies which are thought to be psycho linguistically more demanding compared with Substitution Strategies.

  20. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  1. 77 FR 10755 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Risk Communication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Risk Communication Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... the Risk Communication Advisory Committee, Office of Planning, Office of Policy and Planning,...

  2. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate informa

  3. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food-A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Fischer, A R H; Brennan, M; Bánáti, D; Lion, R; Meertens, R M; Rowe, G; Siegrist, M; Verbeke, W; Vereijken, C M J L

    2016-07-26

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.

  4. Analysis Community’s Coping Strategies and Local Risk Governance Framework in Relation to Landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Setiawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of people perception and analysis of the coping strategy to landslides are the two elements that are es-sential to determine the level of preparedness of communities to landslides. To know the preparedness of government and other stakeholders in facing landslide, the analysis risk governance framework was required. A survey using questionnaires with random sampling was applied to assess the level of people perception and people coping strategy related to landslide. Analysis of risk governance frame work was done at the district and sub-district level. ἀe study found that people perception related with landslide dominated by high and moderate level. Age and education are two factors that inḀuence the people’s perception to landslide. Local people applied four types coping strategy, which are: economic, structural, social and cultural coping strategy. Totally, 51.6% respondents have high level, 33.3% have moderate level and only 15.1% respondents that have low level of coping strategy. ἀe factors that inḀuence the level of coping strategy are education, income and building type.  Analysis of risk governance framework is limited to the three components including stakeholder involvement, risk management and risk communication. Based on the data analysis, the level of stakeholder involvement at the district scope was categorized on the moderate till high and the level of stakeholder involvement at sub-district level was categorized on the high level. Generally, the risk management of Karanganyar was categorized on the moderate level and high level and the risk management in Tawangmangu was categorized on the moderate level. ἀere are some elements must be improved on the risk governance framework, those are data management, the pattern of relationships among stakeholders, increased participation of NGOs, constructed and updated landslide risk map, enhancement of microᴀnance role in helping the com-munity when disaster strikes

  5. Bidding strategies that minimize risk with options and futures contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, C.W. Jr.; Sheble, G.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This research builds on earlier research in developing bidding strategies through the inclusion of options and future contracts. In the competitive environment, electric traders` profits depends on the implementation of a successful bidding strategy. Bidding strategies are studied in an environment in which distribution companies (DISTCOs) and generation companies (GENCOs), buy and sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. The market framework being used was proposed by Kumar and Sheble and allows participants to trade in the spot, future, planning and swap markets, and also gives rise to the use of option contracts. Bid-strategy research previously published by the authors focused on increasing electric generators` profit as they participated in a spot/cash market. Here the authors incorporate techniques such as game theory and decision analysis to minimize the risk to the electric utility or energy trader. The goal is to ensure reliable power system operation while also ensuring that contracts are fulfilled and traders adopting the strategies remain profitable. The developed strategies are tested in the electric market trading simulator which can be used off-line to predict whether bid strategies will be profitable and successful.

  6. COMMUNICATIVE ABILITY, LINGUISTIC ABILITY AND WRITING STRATEGY: WHICH IS CRUCIAL TO ENGLISH WRITING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Changhe

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims at discovering what among communicativeability, linguistic ability and writing strategy most affectsEnglish writing ability of non-English majors at China’s colleges.Through the analysis of communicative proficiencies andlinguistic proficiencies of four subjects obtained from theircompositions, it is found out that neither their communicativeability nor their linguistic ability is the key factor. Thus theauthor concludes that writing strategy may be crucial to Englishwriting. The preliminary conclusion is further confirmed withquestionnaires.

  7. City Placement: A New Element in the Strategy of Integrated Marketing Communication of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Szromnik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Explanation of the essence and features of the “city placement” strategy, while observing the changes in “classic” forms of marketing communications used by cities and regions, including main pros and implementation procedures.Methodology: This paper is conceptual and relies on diagnosis and analysis of “city placement” strategy implementation in a chosen Polish city as well as on the author’s professional experiences. Analysis of scarce existing marketing literature, including the n...

  8. Farmers risk perception and risk management strategies in an emerging mussel aquaculture industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Roth, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to provide empirical insight into how the mussel farmers perceive and manage risks. The results show that future price and demand of mussel are the high ranked perceived risk. Bad weather, oxygen depletion, harmful algal blooms, E-coli, change in governmental...... regulation and public view towards mussel culture are also considered important risk factors in mussel farming. On the other hand, produced at lowest possible cost, cooperative marketing, good relation with government, prioritize liquidity, adopt new technology and experience sharing are perceived most...... important risk management strategies. When developing and changing policies for farmers’ reliability and for the long-term sustainability of mussel aquaculture, policy-makers should consider those risks and risk management strategies which have been emphasized by the farmers....

  9. You Have Been Framed! How Antecedents of Information Need Mediate the Effects of Risk Communication Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, T.; Zaalberg, R.; Boer, de J.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the processes that mediate the effects of framing flood risks on people's information needs. Insight into the effects of risk frames is important for developing balanced risk communication that explains both risks and benefits of living near water. The research was inspired b

  10. On the Universality of Sequential Slotted Amplify and Forward Strategy in Cooperative Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ning, Haishi; Leung, Kin K

    2010-01-01

    While cooperative communication has many benefits and is expected to play an important role in future wireless networks, many challenges are still unsolved. Previous research has developed different relaying strategies for cooperative multiple access channels (CMA), cooperative multiple relay channels (CMR) and cooperative broadcast channels (CBC). However, there lacks a unifying strategy that is universally optimal for these three classical channel models. Sequential slotted amplify and forward (SSAF) strategy was previously proposed to achieve the optimal diversity and multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) for CMR. In this paper, the use of SSAF strategy is extended to CBC and CMA, and its optimality for both of them is shown. For CBC, a CBC-SSAF strategy is proposed which can asymptotically achieve the DMT upper bound when the number of cooperative users is large. For CMA, a CMA-SSAF strategy is proposed which even can exactly achieve the DMT upper bound with any number of cooperative users. In this way, SSAF strate...

  11. The communication grid: an introduction of a model of four communication strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of professionals in public relations consider themselves to be strategic managers and consultants. Surprisingly, they have difficulty in making clear what it really is that they manage and what their consultations truly represent, what aims they have and what strategies they use.

  12. Developing Mathematics Written Communication through Expository Writing Supported by Assessment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonor; Semana, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns expository writing in mathematics as well as the contribution of assessment strategies to the development of mathematics communication. We studied four 8th grade students (aged 12-13) working in a group, in order to perform three expository writing tasks, which were assisted by feedback and the use of supporting assessment…

  13. Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Millennial University Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Pieretti, Robert; Haberstock, Keith; Estrada, Jovany

    2016-01-01

    University instructors nationwide have been recognizing the increased importance of updating classroom teaching strategies to accommodate the needs of the millennial student generation. This article shares results of surveys of 323 university students in communication sciences and disorders and what they view as effective pedagogical strategies…

  14. Person-Centered Planning: Strategies to Encourage Participation and Facilitate Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jenny C.; Sheehey, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    Person-centered planning is a process that allows individuals, family members, and friends an opportunity to share information to develop a personal profile and a future vision for an individual. This article describes strategies and technology that teachers can use to promote parents' participation and facilitate communication while maintaining…

  15. Code Switching and Code-Mixing as a Communicative Strategy in Multilingual Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Mary W. J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how code switching and mixing are used as communication strategies in multilingual communities and discusses how to establish solidarity and rapport in multilingual discourse. Examples from the main languages spoken in Singapore--English, Mandarin, Hokkien, and Teochew--are used. (Author/OD)

  16. Communication Strategy Use and Negotiation of Meaning in Text Chat and Videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at investigating meaning negotiation and communication strategy use among nonnative speakers of English in text chat and videoconferencing. Learners in a Chinese and a Japanese university participated in text chats and videoconferences to discuss culture-related topics using English as the common language. Text chat scripts and…

  17. The President's Letter to Stockholders: An Examination of Corporate Communication Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Gary F.; Segars, Albert H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the content of president's letters of high and low performing firms to discover patterns in communication strategy. Finds six recurring themes: environment; growth; operating philosophy; markets and products; unfavorable financial reference; and favorable financial reference. Finds that high- and low performing firms can be correctly…

  18. Effective Pedagogical Strategies for Millennial University Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry-McKibbin, Celeste; Pieretti, Robert; Haberstock, Keith; Estrada, Jovany

    2016-01-01

    University instructors nationwide have been recognizing the increased importance of updating classroom teaching strategies to accommodate the needs of the millennial student generation. This article shares results of surveys of 323 university students in communication sciences and disorders and what they view as effective pedagogical strategies…

  19. The Influence of Learning Context and Age on the Use of L2 Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Serrano, Raquel; Llanes, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of foreign language learning context (three-month study-abroad; versus "at-home" instruction) and age (10-11-year-old children versus university students) on the development of effective foreign language communication strategies (CS) in monologue production. Participants (N = 95) were all Spanish/Catalan…

  20. The President's Letter to Stockholders: An Examination of Corporate Communication Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Gary F.; Segars, Albert H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the content of president's letters of high and low performing firms to discover patterns in communication strategy. Finds six recurring themes: environment; growth; operating philosophy; markets and products; unfavorable financial reference; and favorable financial reference. Finds that high- and low performing firms can be correctly…