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Sample records for risk classification significantly

  1. Significance, definition, classification and risk factors of chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stimulating agents are considered. 15. Physicians should reduce the dose or extend the administration interval, depending on kidney function, when administering drugs that are renally excreted. 16. NSAIDs, contrast media and diuretics are high-grade risk factors for a decline (often permanent) in kidney function in patients.

  2. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hansen, T W; Christensen, M K

    2008-01-01

    subjects with estimated risk below 5%. During the following 9.5 years the composite end point of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke (CEP) occurred in 204 subjects. CEP was predicted in all three groups by UACR (HRs: 2.1, 2.1 and 2.3 per 10-fold increase, all P...CRP in subjects with low-moderate risk and UACR and Nt-proBNP in subjects with known diabetes of cardiovascular disease changed HeartScore risk classification significantly in 19% of the population....

  3. Significance, definition, classification and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, A M

    2015-03-01

    Renal dysfunction or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found in 10% of the global population and is classified into five stages according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). No matter where a patient lives, estimation of the GFR is mandatory for decision-making and obtained by the simple measurement of a serum creatinine level. The objective of diagnosing CKD lies in its future prevention, early detection and proper treatment, which will prevent or delay functional deterioration. Primary hypertension (PH) occurs in 25% of South Africa (SA)s black population and is the putative cause of stage 5 CKD in 40 - 60% of these patients. Moreover, in this group, stage 5 CKD occurs at a relatively young age (35 - 45 years) compared with other population groups in whom stage 5 CKD resulting from PH usually occurs between 60 and 70 years of age. In the cohort study, PH has been found in 12 - 16% of black school learners (mean age 17 years) compared with 1.8 - 2% of other ethnic groups (mixed race, Asian, white). End-stage renal failure (ESRF) is the fifth most common cause of death in SA, excluding post-traumatic cases. In addition, undiagnosed or poorly controlled PH is a potent risk factor for other cardiovascular disease (CVD), e.g. congestive cardiac failure, myocardial infarction, stroke. Significant protein is also associated with CVD and protein >1 g/d is a significant risk factor for ESRF.

  4. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...

  5. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  6. Significance of perceptually relevant image decolorization for scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Divakaran, Govind; Soman, Kutti Padanyl

    2017-11-01

    Color images contain luminance and chrominance components representing the intensity and color information, respectively. The objective of this paper is to show the significance of incorporating chrominance information to the task of scene classification. An improved color-to-grayscale image conversion algorithm that effectively incorporates chrominance information is proposed using the color-to-gray structure similarity index and singular value decomposition to improve the perceptual quality of the converted grayscale images. The experimental results based on an image quality assessment for image decolorization and its success rate (using the Cadik and COLOR250 datasets) show that the proposed image decolorization technique performs better than eight existing benchmark algorithms for image decolorization. In the second part of the paper, the effectiveness of incorporating the chrominance component for scene classification tasks is demonstrated using a deep belief network-based image classification system developed using dense scale-invariant feature transforms. The amount of chrominance information incorporated into the proposed image decolorization technique is confirmed with the improvement to the overall scene classification accuracy. Moreover, the overall scene classification performance improved by combining the models obtained using the proposed method and conventional decolorization methods.

  7. Subclassification of autoimmune pancreatitis: a histologic classification with clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Vikram; Gupta, Rajib; Sainani, Nisha; Sahani, Dushyant V; Virk, Renu; Ferrone, Cristina; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Stone, John H; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Examination of pancreatic resection specimens from patients with AIP has shown that there are 2 subclasses of this disease. However, there is no widely accepted pathologic classification scheme and the clinical significance of such a classification remains to be established. In this study, we revisited the subclassification of AIP and examine whether this provides clinically and prognostically meaningful information. We evaluated 29 pancreatic resection specimens from patients with AIP. Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were recorded, as was evidence of extrapancreatic manifestations. In addition to a detailed and semiquantitative histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry for IgG4 was performed on pancreatic and extrapancreatic tissues. We also evaluated 48 consecutive cases of chronic pancreatitis, not otherwise specified. The resected specimens could readily be subclassified into 2 subtypes: type 1 (n=11) and type 2 (n=18). In comparison with patients with type 2 disease, patients with type 1 disease were significantly more likely to be males (P=0.09), older (P=0.02), and present with jaundice (P=0.01), and less likely to be associated with abdominal pain (P=0.04). On imaging, the pancreatic tail cut-off sign was exclusively seen in patients with type 2 disease (4 of 10 cases). Hypercellular inflamed interlobular stroma was unique to type 1 pattern (91%), whereas significant ductal injury in the form of microabscesses and ductal ulceration was almost exclusively seen in type 2 pattern (78%). Eight of 10 patients with a type 1 pattern had evidence of a systemic disease. Three patients with type 2 disease had recurrent episodes of pancreatitis after their pancreatic resection. In comparison with the cohort of chronic pancreatitis, not otherwise specified, type 2 AIP cases were less likely to be associated with a history of alcohol abuse, and showed significantly more foci of

  8. CT classification and clinical significance of rupture globe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Jinzhong; Zhang Guixiang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss CT appearances of the rupture globe, and CT classifications and their clinical significance. Materials and methods: Forty-nine rupture globes were verified; 79% patents were scanned within 24 hours. Axial plane scanning were done with 3 mm slice and 256 x 256 matrix. Bone and soft tissue conditions were adjusted to analyse the bone and globe structures. Results: CT showed that globe circle rupture in one point of 32%, two points of 20%, and multiple points of 28%. Thickening of globe circle was as follows: 5 mm in 10 globes, 6 mm in 24, and 7 mm in 9.20% injured globes were enlarged and 32% were contracted. 14 anterior chambers deepened more than 4 mm. 83% rupture globes also had intraglobe hemorrhage and 48% foreign bodies. 28% injured globes had exophthalmus, and 75% had injured parasinuses or orbits, or brain trauma. Conclusion: The authors classified the rupture globe into three types. Type III showed unrepaired that should ablate the injured globes, whereas type I and II had to repair and to debride

  9. An enhanced topologically significant directed random walk in cancer classification using gene expression datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sen Seah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technology has become one of the elementary tools for researchers to study the genome of organisms. As the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer is being increasingly appreciated through genomic analysis, cancerous classification is an emerging important trend. Significant directed random walk is proposed as one of the cancerous classification approach which have higher sensitivity of risk gene prediction and higher accuracy of cancer classification. In this paper, the methodology and material used for the experiment are presented. Tuning parameter selection method and weight as parameter are applied in proposed approach. Gene expression dataset is used as the input datasets while pathway dataset is used to build a directed graph, as reference datasets, to complete the bias process in random walk approach. In addition, we demonstrate that our approach can improve sensitive predictions with higher accuracy and biological meaningful classification result. Comparison result takes place between significant directed random walk and directed random walk to show the improvement in term of sensitivity of prediction and accuracy of cancer classification.

  10. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  11. Occult pneumothoraces in Chinese patients with significant blunt chest trauma: radiological classification and proposed clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryan K L; Graham, Colin A; Yeung, Janice H H; Ahuja, Anil T; Rainer, Timothy H

    2012-12-01

    vs. 1, p=0.02) than apical OPs. All apical and non-apical/basal OPs were successfully managed expectantly without associated mortality. This TCT classification of OP is proposed to help clinicians to decide on subsequent management of the OP. Basal OPs are significantly larger in size, and both basal and bilateral OPs are associated with higher severity of injury and longer hospital stay. These groups of patient may benefit from prophylactic tube thoracostomy instead of conservative treatment. On the other hand, apical and non-apical/basal groups is smaller in size, less severely injured and thus can be successfully managed expectantly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  13. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  14. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  15. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, Tommi, E-mail: t.p.tervonen@rug.n [University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor, E-mail: igor.linkov@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Figueira, Jose Rui, E-mail: figueira@ist.utl.p [Technical University of Lisbon, CEG-IST, Centre for Management Studies, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: jeffery.a.steevens@usace.army.mil; Chappell, Mark, E-mail: mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Merad, Myriam, E-mail: myriam.merad@ineris.f [INERIS BP 2, Societal Management of Risks Unit/Accidental Risks Division (France)

    2009-05-15

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  16. A Look at the Practice of Risk Classification: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alves Morais Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the increase in the number of patients in emergency services / emergency brought the need for screening / risk classification as a way to organize the urgency and emergency care in the health institutions. Objectives: know how to develop the risk classification practice in the Brazilian reality using the scientific production, the insertion of nurses in risk classification using the Brazilian scientific production. Methods: an integrative review was carried out, the data occurred during September 2015 in the following databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline, and the Latin American and Caribbean System of Information on Health Sciences (LILACS "GOOGLE SCHOLAR." Results: it found 9,874 articles and selected 33 for analysis. The results were organized in 04 categories: Risk classification as assistance qualifier; risk classification’s organization; operation weaknesses of the risk classification and nurse's role in risk classification. Conclusion: We conclude that the risk classification qualifies the assistance in emergency services; there are many difficulties for the risk classification’s operation and the nurse has been established as a professional with technical and legal competence to perform the risk classification.

  17. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Swinnen, S.P.; Vanhoof, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This

  18. Significance and basic patterns of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [de

  19. A graduated food addiction classification approach significantly differentiates obesity among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Karren-Lee; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Lovell, Geoff P

    2016-10-01

    This study examined a graduated severity level approach to food addiction classification against associations with World Health Organization obesity classifications (body mass index, kg/m 2 ) among 408 people with type 2 diabetes. A survey including the Yale Food Addiction Scale and several demographic questions demonstrated four distinct Yale Food Addiction Scale symptom severity groups (in line with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) severity indicators): non-food addiction, mild food addiction, moderate food addiction and severe food addiction. Analysis of variance with post hoc tests demonstrated each severity classification group was significantly different in body mass index, with each grouping being associated with increased World Health Organization obesity classifications. These findings have implications for diagnosing food addiction and implementing treatment and prevention methodologies of obesity among people with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Nurses' perception about risk classification in an emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Chaves de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Get to know how nurses perceive the accomplishment of risk classification in an emergency service. Methodology. In this qualitative study, 11 nurses were included with at least two months of experience in the risk classification of patients who visited the emergency service. Semistructured interviews were used to collect the information. The data were collected between August and December 2011. For data analysis, Bardin's theoretical framework was used. Results. The nurses in the study consider the risk classification as a work organization instruments that permits closer contact between nurses and patients. The nursing skills needed for risk classification were identified: knowledge about the scale used, clinical perspective, patience and agility. The availability of risk classification scales was the main facilitator of this work. The main difficulties were the disorganization of the care network and the health team's lack of knowledge of the protocol. Conclusion. Risk classification offers an opportunity for professional autonomy to the extent that it is the main responsible for regulating care at the entry door of the emergency services.

  1. Using QA classification to guide design and manage risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, J.; DeKlever, R.; Petrie, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Raytheon Services Nevada has developed a classification process based on probabilistic risk assessment, using accident/impact scenarios for each system classified. Initial classification analyses were performed for the 20 systems of Package IA of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The analyses demonstrated a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification which minimizes the use of direct engineering judgment. They provide guidance for ESF design and risk management through the identification of: The critical characteristics of each system that need to be controlled; and the parts of the information base that most need to be further developed through performance assessment or other efforts

  2. Feature selection based on SVM significance maps for classification of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Bron (Esther); M. Smits (Marion); J.C. van Swieten (John); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); S. Klein (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSupport vector machine significance maps (SVM p-maps) previously showed clusters of significantly different voxels in dementiarelated brain regions. We propose a novel feature selection method for classification of dementia based on these p-maps. In our approach, the SVM p-maps are

  3. Insurance loss coverage under restricted risk classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Mingjie; Radfall Charitable Trust

    2017-01-01

    Insurers hope to make profit through pooling policies from a large number of individuals. Unless the risk in question is similar for all potential customers, an insurer is exposed to the possibility of adverse selection by attracting only high-risk individuals. To counter this, insurers have traditionally employed underwriting principles, identifying suitable risk factors to subdivide their potential customers into homogeneous risk groups, based on which risk-related premiums can be charged. ...

  4. [Application of risk grading and classification for occupational hazards in risk management for a shipbuilding project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenfeng; Tan, Qiang; Wu, Shihua; Deng, Yingcong; Liu, Lifen; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the application of risk grading and classification for occupational hazards in risk management for a shipbuilding project. The risk management for this shipbuilding project was performed by a comprehensive application of MES evaluation, quality assessment of occupational health management, and risk grading and classification for occupational hazards, through the methods of occupational health survey, occupational health testing, and occupational health examinations. The results of MES evaluation showed that the risk of occupational hazards in this project was grade 3, which was considered as significant risk; Q value calculated by quality assessment of occupational health management was 0.52, which was considered to be unqualified; the comprehensive evaluation with these two methods showed that the integrated risk rating for this shipbuilding project was class D, and follow- up and rectification were needed with a focus on the improvement in health management. The application of MES evaluation and quality assessment of occupational health management in risk management for occupational hazards can achieve objective and reasonable conclusions and has good applicability.

  5. Significance, definition, classification and risk factors of chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal dysfunction or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is found in 10% of the global population and is classified into five stages according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). No matter where a patient lives, estimation of the GFR is mandatory for decision-making and obtained by the simple measurement of a ...

  6. Significance and Application of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis for the BI-RADS Classification of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Si-Qing; Yan, Jian-Xiang; Chen, Qing-Shi; Huang, Mei-Ling; Cai, Dong-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with dense breasts has a high rate of missed diagnosis, and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) could reduce organization overlapping and provide more reliable images for BI-RADS classification. This study aims to explore application of COMBO (FFDM+DBT) for effect and significance of BI-RADS classification of breast cancer. In this study, we selected 832 patients who had been treated from May 2013 to November 2013. Classify FFDM and COMBO examination according to BI-RADS separately and compare the differences for glands in the image of the same patient in judgment, mass characteristics display and indirect signs. Employ Paired Wilcoxon rank sum test was used in 79 breast cancer patients to find differences between two examine methods. The results indicated that COMBO pattern is able to observe more details in distribution of glands when estimating content. Paired Wilcoxon rank sum test showed that overall classification level of COMBO is higher significantly compared to FFDM to BI-RADS diagnosis and classification of breast (PBI-RADS classification in breast cancer in clinical.

  7. Classification of risks in the process of financial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Overchuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the concept «risk» in the process of financial planning is studied. The classification of risks was conducted. The article provides the full enough and detailed system of classification of risks in the process of financial planning. The author researches and provides the factors, which directly influence upon the size of risks, which accompany the process of financial planning. A complete set of isolated independent features was determined for each risk type. It was found out that a part of features depends only on the risk type and the other part is determined by the character of a risky situation. The article substantiates the presence of indeterminacy typical for dynamic and non-stationary environment and the risks of different nature and strength of influence on the efficiency of financial planning, which cause the necessity to develop and implement the effective system of financial planning at an enterprise.

  8. A risk informed safety classification for a Nordic NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenkaelae, K.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes a study to develop a safety classification proposal or classi- fication recommendations based on risks for selected equipment of a nuclear power plant. The application plant in this work is Loviisa NPP unit 1. The safety classification proposals are to be considered as an exercise in this pilot study and do not necessarily represent final proposals in a real situation. Comparisons to original safety classifications and technical specifications were made. The study concludes that it is possible to change safety classes or safety signifi- cances as considered in technical specifications and in in-service-inspections into both directions without endangering the safety or even by improving the safety. (au)

  9. Toward a Safety Risk-Based Classification of Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend of growing interest and demand for greater access of unmanned aircraft (UA) to the National Airspace System (NAS) as the ongoing development of UA technology has created the potential for significant economic benefits. However, the lack of a comprehensive and efficient UA regulatory framework has constrained the number and kinds of UA operations that can be performed. This report presents initial results of a study aimed at defining a safety-risk-based UA classification as a plausible basis for a regulatory framework for UA operating in the NAS. Much of the study up to this point has been at a conceptual high level. The report includes a survey of contextual topics, analysis of safety risk considerations, and initial recommendations for a risk-based approach to safe UA operations in the NAS. The next phase of the study will develop and leverage deeper clarity and insight into practical engineering and regulatory considerations for ensuring that UA operations have an acceptable level of safety.

  10. A Soft Intelligent Risk Evaluation Model for Credit Scoring Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khashei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the most important branches of business and finance. Classification models are the most popular and widely used analytical group of data mining approaches that can greatly help financial decision makers and managers to tackle credit risk problems. However, the literature clearly indicates that, despite proposing numerous classification models, credit scoring is often a difficult task. On the other hand, there is no universal credit-scoring model in the literature that can be accurately and explanatorily used in all circumstances. Therefore, the research for improving the efficiency of credit-scoring models has never stopped. In this paper, a hybrid soft intelligent classification model is proposed for credit-scoring problems. In the proposed model, the unique advantages of the soft computing techniques are used in order to modify the performance of the traditional artificial neural networks in credit scoring. Empirical results of Australian credit card data classifications indicate that the proposed hybrid model outperforms its components, and also other classification models presented for credit scoring. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered as an appropriate alternative tool for binary decision making in business and finance, especially in high uncertainty conditions.

  11. THEORETICAL QUESTIONS OF INVESTMENT RISK RESEARCH, ITS MAIN FEATURES AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadyrbaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines framework methodology of investment risk. The subject of the study are the basic theoretical positions directly related to the economic category of "investment risk". The purpose of this writing is the improvement of the methodology of the study of investment risk in the investment activity. This objective is to define the tasks, which consist in the formulation of the concept of "investment risk", the development of investment risk classification to provide investors with effective protection against such risks. The implementation  of the tasks will create conditions for the growth of investments in Russia. Currently, effective investment strategy for such an increase, is among the priority directions of development of the Russian economy.The article deals with logically interrelated study of basic economic categories, influencing directly on the investment risk. Author provided classification of investments in accordance with the level of risk. Examine the matter of the financial-economic category of the concept of "investment risk" and the classification of investment risks. Specified main features of the investment risk, which allowed to reveal specifics, which consists in the redistribution of capital in various types of assets in order to maximize profits or to obtain significant social effect.

  12. Effect of e-learning program on risk assessment and pressure ulcer classification - A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag

    2016-05-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a problem in health care. Staff competency is paramount to PU prevention. Education is essential to increase skills in pressure ulcer classification and risk assessment. Currently, no pressure ulcer learning programs are available in Norwegian. Develop and test an e-learning program for assessment of pressure ulcer risk and pressure ulcer classification. Forty-four nurses working in acute care hospital wards or nursing homes participated and were assigned randomly into two groups: an e-learning program group (intervention) and a traditional classroom lecture group (control). Data was collected immediately before and after training, and again after three months. The study was conducted at one nursing home and two hospitals between May and December 2012. Accuracy of risk assessment (five patient cases) and pressure ulcer classification (40 photos [normal skin, pressure ulcer categories I-IV] split in two sets) were measured by comparing nurse evaluations in each of the two groups to a pre-established standard based on ratings by experts in pressure ulcer classification and risk assessment. Inter-rater reliability was measured by exact percent agreement and multi-rater Fleiss kappa. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for continuous sum score variables. An e-learning program did not improve Braden subscale scoring. For pressure ulcer classification, however, the intervention group scored significantly higher than the control group on several of the categories in post-test immediately after training. However, after three months there were no significant differences in classification skills between the groups. An e-learning program appears to have a greater effect on the accuracy of pressure ulcer classification than classroom teaching in the short term. For proficiency in Braden scoring, no significant effect of educational methods on learning results was detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Advances in Risk Classification and Treatment Strategies for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Navin R.; Applebaum, Mark A.; Volchenboum, Samuel L.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.; Ambros, Peter F.; Nakagawara, Akira; Berthold, Frank; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Park, Julie R.; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Pearson, Andrew D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Risk-based treatment approaches for neuroblastoma have been ongoing for decades. However, the criteria used to define risk in various institutional and cooperative groups were disparate, limiting the ability to compare clinical trial results. To mitigate this problem and enhance collaborative research, homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts have been defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system. During the past 30 years, increasingly intensive, multimodality approaches have been developed to treat patients who are classified as high risk, whereas patients with low- or intermediate-risk neuroblastoma have received reduced therapy. This treatment approach has resulted in improved outcome, although survival for high-risk patients remains poor, emphasizing the need for more effective treatments. Increased knowledge regarding the biology and genetic basis of neuroblastoma has led to the discovery of druggable targets and promising, new therapeutic approaches. Collaborative efforts of institutions and international cooperative groups have led to advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma biology, refinements in risk classification, and stratified treatment strategies, resulting in improved outcome. International collaboration will be even more critical when evaluating therapies designed to treat small cohorts of patients with rare actionable mutations. PMID:26304901

  14. Intelligent Decision Support System for Bank Loans Risk Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保安; 马云飞; 俞莲

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Decision Support System (IISS) for Bank Loans Risk Classification (BLRC), based on the way of integration Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Expert System (ES), is proposed. According to the feature of BLRC, the key financial and non-financial factors are analyzed. Meanwhile, ES and Model Base (MB) which contain ANN are designed . The general framework,interaction and integration of the system are given. In addition, how the system realizes BLRC is elucidated in detail.

  15. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  16. CT classification of chronic pancreatitis and the significance for differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xueling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of chronic pancreatitis and a classification based on the CT manifestations was established. Methods: In total 59 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 43 males and 16 females, with an average age of 40 years old were enrolled in the study. History of acute pancreatitis was positive in 36 patients. Non contrast enhanced and contrast enhanced CT scans were performed. The sizes of lesions, contour of pancreas, as well as the number, density and margin of lesions were investigated on the CT images. Results: Atrophy of the entire pancreas was revealed in 27 patients (46%), complicated with different degree of calcification. Solitary cyst with amorphous wall calcification was demonstrated in 13 patients (22%); multiple intra-pancreatic and peri-pancreatic pseudo-cysts were shown in 7 patients (12%); dilated pancreatic duct was seen in 7 patients (12%); and regional well demarcated bulging of pancreas was presented in 5 patients (8%). Conclusion: The CT findings of chronic pancreatitis in our study could be classified into 5 types: atrophy type, solitary cystic type, multicystic type, pure pancreatic duct dilatation type and mass type. The classification had certain significance for the differential diagnosis and the etiological analysis of chronic pancreatitis. (authors)

  17. SUPERVISION OF CREDIT INSTITUTIONS SIGNIFICANT RISKS TO FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability of Romanian banking system is determined by the constant supervision of credit institutions significant risks. Accession of Romania to Union Banking requires the signing of a linked protocol between the central bank and European Central Bank regarding prudential supervision to ensure financial stability. This means that from the next year, the central bank will impose a new supervision of credit institutions in our country. And especially to those credit institutions that do not fall under European supervisors, according to the procedures of the ECB. Through this study we propose to specify the main elements of management of significant risks to ensure financial stability.

  18. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  19. Predicting disease risk using bootstrap ranking and classification algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohad Manor

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are widely used to search for genetic loci that underlie human disease. Another goal is to predict disease risk for different individuals given their genetic sequence. Such predictions could either be used as a "black box" in order to promote changes in life-style and screening for early diagnosis, or as a model that can be studied to better understand the mechanism of the disease. Current methods for risk prediction typically rank single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs by the p-value of their association with the disease, and use the top-associated SNPs as input to a classification algorithm. However, the predictive power of such methods is relatively poor. To improve the predictive power, we devised BootRank, which uses bootstrapping in order to obtain a robust prioritization of SNPs for use in predictive models. We show that BootRank improves the ability to predict disease risk of unseen individuals in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC data and results in a more robust set of SNPs and a larger number of enriched pathways being associated with the different diseases. Finally, we show that combining BootRank with seven different classification algorithms improves performance compared to previous studies that used the WTCCC data. Notably, diseases for which BootRank results in the largest improvements were recently shown to have more heritability than previously thought, likely due to contributions from variants with low minimum allele frequency (MAF, suggesting that BootRank can be beneficial in cases where SNPs affecting the disease are poorly tagged or have low MAF. Overall, our results show that improving disease risk prediction from genotypic information may be a tangible goal, with potential implications for personalized disease screening and treatment.

  20. RESEARCH ON RISK CLASSIFICATION METHOD OF ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the densely population and mobility characteristics of the crowd, generally accidents happened in assembly occupancies will trigger a chain reaction, and then bring heavy casualties and property loss, and result disastrous consequences. In the context of safety regulation resources limited, building risk classification system of assembly occupancies is important for "scientific predicting, and hierarchical controlling” In this paper, a software with a graphical user interface is designed using MATLAB GUI to analyze and calculate risks of stampede accident caused by gathered crowds in the video. A velocity extraction method based on cross-correlation algorithm is adopted, and the risk characteristic parameters such as velocity variance is also applied. In this way, real-time analysis and early-warning for risks of stampede accident in time and space can be achieved. Also, the algorithm is applied to the surveillance video of the stampede in Shanghai and its feasibility is proved. Empirical research shows that, the assembly occupancies risk rating model built in this paper has good effectiveness, simplicity and practicability, applies to the government safety regulation and organization safety management, and can improve the safety situation of assembly occupancies effectively.

  1. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. Frailty and Risk Classification for Life Annuity Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Olivieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Life annuities are attractive mainly for healthy people. In order to expand their business, in recent years, some insurers have started offering higher annuity rates to those whose health conditions are critical. Life annuity portfolios are then supposed to become larger and more heterogeneous. With respect to the insurer’s risk profile, there is a trade-off between portfolio size and heterogeneity that we intend to investigate. In performing this, there is a second and possibly more important issue that we address. In actuarial practice, the different mortality levels of the several risk classes are obtained by applying adjustment coefficients to population mortality rates. Such a choice is not supported by a rigorous model. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of a population with respect to mortality can formally be described with a frailty model. We suggest adopting a frailty model for risk classification. We identify risk groups (or classes within the population by assigning specific ranges of values to the frailty within each group. The different levels of mortality of the various groups are based on the conditional probability distributions of the frailty. Annuity rates for each class then can be easily justified, and a comprehensive investigation of insurer’s liabilities can be performed.

  3. Architecturally Significant Requirements Identification, Classification and Change Management for Multi-tenant Cloud-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    presented a framework for requirements classification and change management focusing on distributed Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) systems as well as complex software ecosystems that are built using PaaS and SaaS, such as Tools as a Service (TaaS). We have demonstrated...

  4. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  5. Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance: Bethesda Classification and Association with Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Macêdo Barcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To analyze patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS through a cytology review and the presence of microbiological agents, with consideration of colposcopy and semiannual tracking. Methods. 103 women with ASCUS were reviewed and reclassified: normal/inflammatory, ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL. If ASCUS confirmed, it was subclassified in reactive or neoplastic ASCUS, ASC-US, or ASC-H; and Regione Emilia Romagna Screening Protocol. Patients underwent a colposcopic examination, and test for Candida sp., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV were performed. Results. Upon review, ASCUS was diagnosis in 70/103 (67.9%, being 38 (54.2% reactive ASCUS and 32 (45.71% neoplastic ASCUS; 62 (88.5% ASC-US and 8 (11.41% ASC-H. ASCUS (Regione Protocol, respectively 1-5: 15 (21.4%, 19 (27.1%, 3 (27.1%, 16 (22.8%, and 1 (1.4%. A higher number of cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III in the biopsies of patients with ASC-H compared to ASC-US (P=.0021. High-risk HPV test and presence of CIN II/III are more frequent in ASC-H than ASC-US (P=.031. Conclusions. ASC-H is associated with clinically significant disease. High-risk HPV-positive status in the triage for colposcopy of patients with ASC-US is associated with increased of CIN.

  6. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, pgastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all pgastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  7. A proposal for a pharmacokinetic interaction significance classification system (PISCS) based on predicted drug exposure changes and its potential application to alert classifications in product labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaka, Akihiro; Kusama, Makiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the major causes of adverse events in pharmacotherapy, and systematic prediction of the clinical relevance of DDIs is an issue of significant clinical importance. In a previous study, total exposure changes of many substrate drugs of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 caused by coadministration of inhibitor drugs were successfully predicted by using in vivo information. In order to exploit these predictions in daily pharmacotherapy, the clinical significance of the pharmacokinetic changes needs to be carefully evaluated. The aim of the present study was to construct a pharmacokinetic interaction significance classification system (PISCS) in which the clinical significance of DDIs was considered with pharmacokinetic changes in a systematic manner. Furthermore, the classifications proposed by PISCS were compared in a detailed manner with current alert classifications in the product labelling or the summary of product characteristics used in Japan, the US and the UK. A matrix table was composed by stratifying two basic parameters of the prediction: the contribution ratio of CYP3A4 to the oral clearance of substrates (CR), and the inhibition ratio of inhibitors (IR). The total exposure increase was estimated for each cell in the table by associating CR and IR values, and the cells were categorized into nine zones according to the magnitude of the exposure increase. Then, correspondences between the DDI significance and the zones were determined for each drug group considering the observed exposure changes and the current classification in the product labelling. Substrate drugs of CYP3A4 selected from three therapeutic groups, i.e. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), calcium-channel antagonists/blockers (CCBs) and benzodiazepines (BZPs), were analysed as representative examples. The product labelling descriptions of drugs in Japan, US and UK were obtained from the websites of each regulatory body. Among 220

  8. Assessment of postmenopausal women and significant risk factors for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, Peter F; Marakovits, Kimberly A; O'Sullivan, David M

    2010-09-01

    The assessment of osteoporosis risk factors can help guide early intervention. The objective of this study was to analyze numerous potential risk factors to see which were associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Women aged 49 or greater presenting for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scans were recruited from radiology sites in the Hartford, Connecticut, area between January 2007 and March 2009, inclusive. Information was collected regarding primary and secondary risk factors for osteoporosis development, as well as family history and history of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Survey results were subsequently correlated with each woman's dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan results. In a sample of 619 women, history of fracture (odds ratio [OR], 12.49), weight less than 127 pounds (OR, 3.50), and use of anticoagulants (OR, 5.40) increased the chance of developing osteoporosis. In contrast, multiparity (OR, 0.45) and history of breast-feeding (OR, 0.38) decreased the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In women aged 49 to 54, breast-feeding was significantly protective, while low body mass index was most indicative of osteoporosis in women ages 55 to 64. Both previous fracture and low body mass index were associated with osteoporosis in women over age 64. The current results are consistent with other studies suggesting that previous fracture, low body weight, and use of anticoagulants increase the risk of osteoporosis. Our results also suggest that a history of pregnancy and breast-feeding protects against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in women aged 49 to 54.

  9. Deep learning architectures for multi-label classification of intelligent health risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Andrew; Li, Runzhi; Yang, Bei; Weng, Heng; Ou, Aihua; Hong, Huixiao; Zhou, Zhaoxian; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2017-12-28

    Multi-label classification of data remains to be a challenging problem. Because of the complexity of the data, it is sometimes difficult to infer information about classes that are not mutually exclusive. For medical data, patients could have symptoms of multiple different diseases at the same time and it is important to develop tools that help to identify problems early. Intelligent health risk prediction models built with deep learning architectures offer a powerful tool for physicians to identify patterns in patient data that indicate risks associated with certain types of chronic diseases. Physical examination records of 110,300 anonymous patients were used to predict diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver, a combination of these three chronic diseases, and the absence of disease (8 classes in total). The dataset was split into training (90%) and testing (10%) sub-datasets. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate prediction accuracy with metrics such as precision, recall, and F-score. Deep Learning (DL) architectures were compared with standard and state-of-the-art multi-label classification methods. Preliminary results suggest that Deep Neural Networks (DNN), a DL architecture, when applied to multi-label classification of chronic diseases, produced accuracy that was comparable to that of common methods such as Support Vector Machines. We have implemented DNNs to handle both problem transformation and algorithm adaption type multi-label methods and compare both to see which is preferable. Deep Learning architectures have the potential of inferring more information about the patterns of physical examination data than common classification methods. The advanced techniques of Deep Learning can be used to identify the significance of different features from physical examination data as well as to learn the contributions of each feature that impact a patient's risk for chronic diseases. However, accurate prediction of chronic disease risks remains a challenging

  10. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  11. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

  12. Classification of palaeoriver types in the Karoo and their significance with regard to uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1979-06-01

    A new classification scheme whereby straight, low- and high-sinuosity rivers are differentiated, is proposed. The system is based on angular ranges of a river channel of 0-90 degrees Celsius, 90-180 degrees Celsius and 180-270 degrees Celsius, which correspond to sinuosity values of 1,11; 1,57 and 3,33 respectively. Preliminary findings on palaeoriver types and associated uranium mineralisation in the Karoo are discussed. The grade and dimensions of uraniferous lenses appear to be directly related to the type of river which deposited the sandstones hosting them [af

  13. How significant is perceived environmental risk to business location decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, T.; Calzonetti, F.

    1996-01-01

    It has been argued that adverse perceptions of risk associated with high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) facilities will have significant impacts on the attraction of new, and the maintenance of existing business activities in areas in which adverse perceptions develop. We examine this proposition by the considering the importance of environmental amenities and a range of other factors to business location decisions using evidence from surveys of more than 400 manufacturing and business service establishments in Colorado and Utah. We show that the importance of environmental amenities varies according to a number of factors, in particular the type of product (manufactured product or business service), type of establishment (single-establishment firm or establishment of a multilocational firm) and establishment employment size. Policies designed to offset the loss of business activity that might result from adverse risk perceptions associated with HLNW facilities must therefore take into account how sensitive various forms of business activity present or likely to locate in any particular area might be to environmental factors

  14. Suffering from Loneliness Indicates Significant Mortality Risk of Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo S. Tilvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The harmful associates of suffering from loneliness are still in dispute. Objective. To examine the association of feelings of loneliness with all-cause mortality in a general aged population. Methods. A postal questionnaire was sent to randomly selected community-dwelling of elderly people (>74 years from the Finnish National Population Register. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, living conditions, functioning, health, and need for help. Suffering from loneliness was assessed with one question and participants were categorized as lonely or not lonely. Total mortality was retrieved from the National Population Information System. Results. Of 3687 respondents, 39% suffered from loneliness. Lonely people were more likely to be deceased during the 57-month follow-up (31% than subjects not feeling lonely (23%, <.001. Excess mortality (HR=1.38, 95% CI=1.21-1.57 of lonely people increased over time. After controlling for age and gender, the mortality risk of the lonely individuals was 1.33 (95% CI=1.17-1.51 and after further controlling for subjective health 1.17 (CI=1.02-1.33. The excess mortality was consistent in all major subgroups. Conclusion. Suffering from loneliness is common and indicates significant mortality risk in old age.

  15. How significant is perceived environmental risk to business location decisions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Calzonetti, F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    It has been argued that adverse perceptions of risk associated with high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) facilities will have significant impacts on the attraction of new, and the maintenance of existing business activities in areas in which adverse perceptions develop. We examine this proposition by the considering the importance of environmental amenities and a range of other factors to business location decisions using evidence from surveys of more than 400 manufacturing and business service establishments in Colorado and Utah. We show that the importance of environmental amenities varies according to a number of factors, in particular the type of product (manufactured product or business service), type of establishment (single-establishment firm or establishment of a multilocational firm) and establishment employment size. Policies designed to offset the loss of business activity that might result from adverse risk perceptions associated with HLNW facilities must therefore take into account how sensitive various forms of business activity present or likely to locate in any particular area might be to environmental factors.

  16. Risk classification and uncertainty propagation for virtual water distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jacob M.; Brumbelow, Kelly; Guikema, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    While the secrecy of real water distribution system data is crucial, it poses difficulty for research as results cannot be publicized. This data includes topological layouts of pipe networks, pump operation schedules, and water demands. Therefore, a library of virtual water distribution systems can be an important research tool for comparative development of analytical methods. A virtual city, 'Micropolis', has been developed, including a comprehensive water distribution system, as a first entry into such a library. This virtual city of 5000 residents is fully described in both geographic information systems (GIS) and EPANet hydraulic model frameworks. A risk classification scheme and Monte Carlo analysis are employed for an attempted water supply contamination attack. Model inputs to be considered include uncertainties in: daily water demand, seasonal demand, initial storage tank levels, the time of day a contamination event is initiated, duration of contamination event, and contaminant quantity. Findings show that reasonable uncertainties in model inputs produce high variability in exposure levels. It is also shown that exposure level distributions experience noticeable sensitivities to population clusters within the contaminant spread area. High uncertainties in exposure patterns lead to greater resources needed for more effective mitigation strategies.

  17. Amaurosis fugax: risk factors and prevalence of significant carotid stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvickström P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pia Kvickström,1 Bertil Lindblom,2,3 Göran Bergström,4,5 Madeleine Zetterberg2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, 4Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, 5Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and prevalence of carotid stenosis in patients with amaurosis fugax (AF.Method: Patients diagnosed with AF and subjected to carotid ultrasound in 2004–2010 in Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (n=302, were included, and data were retrospectively collected from medical records.Results: The prevalence of significant carotid stenosis was 18.9%, and 14.2% of the subjects were subjected to carotid endarterectomy. Significant associations with risk of having ≥70% stenosis were male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26–5.46, current smoking (aOR: 6.26; 95% CI: 2.62–14.93, diabetes (aOR: 3.68; 95% CI: 1.37–9.90 and previous vasculitis (aOR: 10.78; 95% CI: 1.36–85.5. A majority of the patients (81.4% was seen by an ophthalmologist prior to the first ultrasound. Only 1.7% of the patients exhibited retinal artery emboli at examination.Conclusion: The prevalence of carotid stenosis among patients with AF is higher than has previously been demonstrated in stroke patients. An association with previously reported vascular risk factors and with vasculitis is seen in this patient group. Ocular findings are scarce. Keywords: amaurosis fugax, carotid stenosis, carotid ultrasound, giant cell arteritis, transient ischemic attack, transient monocular visual loss

  18. Clinical significance of radioimmunological HPL findings in long-term management of premature delivery risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckhaeberle, K.-E.; Bilek, K.; Viehweg, B.; Kuehndel, K.; Colditz, U.; Baer, G.

    1981-01-01

    Premature birth is not only characterized by premature delivery action but it is ever more frequently interpreted as the disturbed fetoplacental unit syndrome. In an attempt to therapeutically prevent premature delivery the placental function should be monitored. Possible intrauterine survival should be assessed as accurately as possible against extrauterine survival in order that the necessary tocolysis time could be determined. In our observations, clinical significance was studied of radioimmunologically determined HPL values in the serum under tocolysis conditions at premature birth risk on the basis of postnatal classification of the postnatal condition and of the particularity of the adaptation phase of the neonates. The significance of HPL determination in checking the fetoplacental unit during tocolysis should be arrived at while also using other diagnostic techniques, such as oxytocinase or estriol, ultrasound biometry, cardiotocography. (author)

  19. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  20. Significance of data acquisition for a risk concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoemke, P.

    1975-01-01

    A risk assessment for the safety of nuclear power plants is now being developed in the FRG. This paper deals with the influence of input data on the estimation of risks and presents the data compilation of reliability data in the prototype compilation IRS-RWE. It will be stated that data compilation in power plants gives reasonable results and is an essential requirement for the introduction of risk estimation in nuclear safety. (orig.) [de

  1. Risk classification and cream skimming on the deregulated German insurance market

    OpenAIRE

    Beschorner, Patrick F. E.

    2003-01-01

    In a two-stage model insurance companies first decide upon risk classification and then compete in prices. I show that the observed heterogeneous behavior of similar firms is compatible with rational behavior. On the deregulated German insurance market individual application of classification schemes induces welfare losses due to cream skimming. Classification costs and pricing above marginal cost can be prevented by common industry-wide loss statistics which already exist to a rudimentary ex...

  2. An NRG Oncology/GOG study of molecular classification for risk prediction in endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Casey M; Tritchler, David L; Cohn, David E; Mutch, David G; Rush, Craig M; Lankes, Heather A; Creasman, William T; Miller, David S; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Geller, Melissa A; Powell, Matthew A; Backes, Floor J; Landrum, Lisa M; Timmers, Cynthia; Suarez, Adrian A; Zaino, Richard J; Pearl, Michael L; DiSilvestro, Paul A; Lele, Shashikant B; Goodfellow, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of a simplified, clinically accessible classification system for endometrioid endometrial cancers combining Lynch syndrome screening and molecular risk stratification. Tumors from NRG/GOG GOG210 were evaluated for mismatch repair defects (MSI, MMR IHC, and MLH1 methylation), POLE mutations, and loss of heterozygosity. TP53 was evaluated in a subset of cases. Tumors were assigned to four molecular classes. Relationships between molecular classes and clinicopathologic variables were assessed using contingency tests and Cox proportional methods. Molecular classification was successful for 982 tumors. Based on the NCI consensus MSI panel assessing MSI and loss of heterozygosity combined with POLE testing, 49% of tumors were classified copy number stable (CNS), 39% MMR deficient, 8% copy number altered (CNA) and 4% POLE mutant. Cancer-specific mortality occurred in 5% of patients with CNS tumors; 2.6% with POLE tumors; 7.6% with MMR deficient tumors and 19% with CNA tumors. The CNA group had worse progression-free (HR 2.31, 95%CI 1.53-3.49) and cancer-specific survival (HR 3.95; 95%CI 2.10-7.44). The POLE group had improved outcomes, but the differences were not statistically significant. CNA class remained significant for cancer-specific survival (HR 2.11; 95%CI 1.04-4.26) in multivariable analysis. The CNA molecular class was associated with TP53 mutation and expression status. A simple molecular classification for endometrioid endometrial cancers that can be easily combined with Lynch syndrome screening provides important prognostic information. These findings support prospective clinical validation and further studies on the predictive value of a simplified molecular classification system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between traditional clinical high-risk features and gene expression profile classification in uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Brandon T; Kim, Ryan S; Bretana, Maria E; Kegley, Eric; Schefler, Amy C

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the association between traditional clinical high-risk features of uveal melanoma patients and gene expression profile (GEP). This was a retrospective, single-center, case series of patients with uveal melanoma. Eighty-three patients met inclusion criteria for the study. Patients were examined for the following clinical risk factors: drusen/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes, vascularity on B-scan, internal reflectivity on A-scan, subretinal fluid (SRF), orange pigment, apical tumor height/thickness, and largest basal dimensions (LBD). A novel point system was created to grade the high-risk clinical features of each tumor. Further analyses were performed to assess the degree of association between GEP and each individual risk factor, total clinical risk score, vascularity, internal reflectivity, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage classification, apical tumor height/thickness, and LBD. Of the 83 total patients, 41 were classified as GEP class 1A, 17 as class 1B, and 25 as class 2. The presence of orange pigment, SRF, low internal reflectivity and vascularity on ultrasound, and apical tumor height/thickness ≥ 2 mm were not statistically significantly associated with GEP class. Lack of drusen/RPE changes demonstrated a trend toward statistical association with GEP class 2 compared to class 1A/1B. LBD and advancing AJCC stage was statistically associated with higher GEP class. In this cohort, AJCC stage classification and LBD were the only clinical features statistically associated with GEP class. Clinicians should use caution when inferring the growth potential of melanocytic lesions solely from traditional funduscopic and ultrasonographic risk factors without GEP data.

  4. A hazard and risk classification system for catastrophic rock slope failures in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, R.; Oppikofer, T.; Anda, E.; Blikra, L. H.; Böhme, M.; Bunkholt, H.; Dahle, H.; Devoli, G.; Eikenæs, O.; Fischer, L.; Harbitz, C. B.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Loew, S.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway carries out systematic geologic mapping of potentially unstable rock slopes in Norway that can cause a catastrophic failure. As catastrophic failure we describe failures that involve substantial fragmentation of the rock mass during run-out and that impact an area larger than that of a rock fall (shadow angle of ca. 28-32° for rock falls). This includes therefore rock slope failures that lead to secondary effects, such as a displacement wave when impacting a water body or damming of a narrow valley. Our systematic mapping revealed more than 280 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might represent localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number necessitates prioritization of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic monitoring and permanent monitoring and early-warning. In the past hazard and risk were assessed qualitatively for some sites, however, in order to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken, it was necessary to develop a quantitative hazard and risk classification system. A preliminary classification system was presented and discussed with an expert group of Norwegian and international experts and afterwards adapted following their recommendations. This contribution presents the concept of this final hazard and risk classification that should be used in Norway in the upcoming years. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures must be scenario-based, because intensity of deformation and present displacement rates, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass can vary significantly on a given slope. In addition, for each scenario the run-out of the rock mass has to be evaluated. This includes the secondary effects such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later

  5. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    . Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men......Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  6. Significance of earthquake risk in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sues, R.H.; Amico, P.J.; Campbell, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    During the last eight years, approximately 25 utility-sponsored probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) have been conducted for US nuclear reactors. Of these, ten have been published, seven of which have included complete seismic risk assessment. The results of the seven published PRAs are reviewed here in order to ascertain the significance of the risk due to earthquake initiating events. While PRA methodology has been in a state of development over the past seven years, and the results are subject to interpretation (as discussed in the paper), from the review conducted it is clear that earthquake-induced initiating events are important risk contributors. It is concluded that earthquake initiating events should not be dismissed, a priori, in any nuclear plant risk assessment. (orig.)

  7. ABC Classification of Risk Factors in Production Supply Chains with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification of risk factors in an uncertain environment is part of the risk management problem, which has a critical effect on the competitive advantage of production supply chain. The severities of consequences, their relative importance, and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are defined by risk management team, depending on their experience and the results of good practice. Fuzzy rating of the severities of consequences and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are described by linguistic expressions, which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The risk values, obtained by the materialization of the identified risk factors, are given precisely with the usage of fuzzy algebra rules. The classification criterion is defined as the distance between current risk value and extreme risk values. The proposed model enables determination of the priorities of risk factors. It is illustrated by an example with real-life data from a production supply chain in auto industry.

  8. A current perspective on the risk significance of steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The view currently held in the Sandia National Laboratory is that, in the case of a meltdown in the reactor core, the probability of a steam explosion is greater than was estimated in WASH-1400, but that the extent and effect of an explosion will be very much smaller than assumed in WASH-1400. This results in a far smaller total risk with regard to containment. In WASH-1400, a nominal conditional probability of 1% was assumed for a containment rupture in a PWR-type reactor, should a large part of the reactor fuel be subject to meltdown during the course of the accident. The German risk analysis study 'Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke' dated 1979 considers an explosion of a size sufficient to represent a threat to containment to be considerably more improbable than was assumed in WASH-1400. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk-associated SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC...... susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease....

  10. Rapid Classification and Identification of Multiple Microorganisms with Accurate Statistical Significance via High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Wang, Guanghui; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Drake, Steven K; Gucek, Marjan; Sacks, David B; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-06-05

    Rapid and accurate identification and classification of microorganisms is of paramount importance to public health and safety. With the advance of mass spectrometry (MS) technology, the speed of identification can be greatly improved. However, the increasing number of microbes sequenced is complicating correct microbial identification even in a simple sample due to the large number of candidates present. To properly untwine candidate microbes in samples containing one or more microbes, one needs to go beyond apparent morphology or simple "fingerprinting"; to correctly prioritize the candidate microbes, one needs to have accurate statistical significance in microbial identification. We meet these challenges by using peptide-centric representations of microbes to better separate them and by augmenting our earlier analysis method that yields accurate statistical significance. Here, we present an updated analysis workflow that uses tandem MS (MS/MS) spectra for microbial identification or classification. We have demonstrated, using 226 MS/MS publicly available data files (each containing from 2500 to nearly 100,000 MS/MS spectra) and 4000 additional MS/MS data files, that the updated workflow can correctly identify multiple microbes at the genus and often the species level for samples containing more than one microbe. We have also shown that the proposed workflow computes accurate statistical significances, i.e., E values for identified peptides and unified E values for identified microbes. Our updated analysis workflow MiCId, a freely available software for Microorganism Classification and Identification, is available for download at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/downloads.html . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Adding an alcohol-related risk score to an existing categorical risk classification for older adults: sensitivity to group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra R; Fink, Arlene; Verghese, Shinu; Beck, John C; Nguyen, Khue; Lavori, Philip

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate a new alcohol-related risk score for research use. Using data from a previously reported trial of a screening and education system for older adults (Computerized Alcohol-Related Problems Survey), secondary analyses were conducted comparing the ability of two different measures of risk to detect post-intervention group differences: the original categorical outcome measure and a new, finely grained quantitative risk score based on the same research-based risk factors. Three primary care group practices in southern California. Six hundred sixty-five patients aged 65 and older. A previously calculated, three-level categorical classification of alcohol-related risk and a newly developed quantitative risk score. Mean post-intervention risk scores differed between the three experimental conditions: usual care, patient report, and combined report (Ptrinary risk classification. The additional clinical value of the risk score relative to the categorical measure needs to be determined.

  12. Complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis in adults: risk classification for mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Barakat, Lydia A; Buenconsejo, Joan; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2003-04-16

    Complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis causes significant morbidity and mortality in adults. Lack of valid data regarding estimation of prognosis makes management of this condition difficult. To derive and externally validate a prognostic classification system for adults with complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis. Retrospective observational cohort study conducted from January 1990 to January 2000 at 7 Connecticut hospitals among 513 patients older than 16 years who experienced complicated left-sided native valve endocarditis and who were divided into derivation (n = 259) and validation (n = 254) cohorts. All-cause mortality at 6 months after baseline. In the derivation and validation cohorts, the 6-month mortality rates were 25% and 26%, respectively. Five baseline features were independently associated with 6-month mortality (comorbidity [P =.03], abnormal mental status [P =.02], moderate to severe congestive heart failure [P =.01], bacterial etiology other than viridans streptococci [Pclassification system. In the derivation cohort, patients were classified into 4 groups with increasing risk for 6-month mortality: 5%, 15%, 31%, and 59% (Pendocarditis can be accurately risk stratified using baseline features into 4 groups of prognostic severity. This prognostic classification system might be useful for facilitating management decisions.

  13. Classification of etiologic subtypes for transient ischemic attacks. Clinical significance of lacunar transient ischemic attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Yasumasa; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Eijiro; Morii, Fukiko; Koizumi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Lacunar transient ischemic attack (lacunar TIA) may have been underestimated because of diagnostic difficulties. The aim of our study was to classify TIAs by etiologic subtypes, especially using defined criteria for diagnosis of lacunar TIA and clarify clinical characteristics of lacunar TIA.105 TIA patients out of consecutive 1,244 patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to our hospital between January 2007 and June 2010 were enrolled in the present study. TIA was defined as an acute focal neurological deficit lasting less than 24 hours, suspected to be of cerebrovascular origin regardless of ischemic lesions on MRI. TIAs were classified to 5 etiologic subtypes; cardioembolic TIA, atherothrombotic TIA, lacunar TIA, other etiologies, and undetermined etiology and clinical characteristics in each subtype and the incidence of recurrent stroke after TIA were investigated. Lacunar TIA was diagnosed if the following criteria were fulfilled; presence of lacunar infarct on MRI and/or the presence of unilateral dysfunction of at least two of three body parts (face, arm, leg) in the absence of cortical dysfunction presumed due to subcortical ischemia. Absence of cardiac sources of embolism and large artery atherosclerosis. In 105 patients with TIA, lacunar TIA was the most frequent etiology (31%) followed by cardioembolic TIA (27%), atherothrombotic TIA (19%), undetermined etiology (18%), and other etiologies (6%). In patients with lacunar TIA, history of repeated TIA was more frequent and systolic blood pressure on admission was higher significantly than in cardioembolic TIA. Six of 105 patients had experienced recurrent stroke after TIA during admission. Among these 6 patients, 3 patients were diagnosed as lacunar infarctions. Lacunar TIA was most common TIA subtype in the present study. It is critical to identify lacunar TIA on admission because some patients with lacunar TIAs experience early recurrent stroke. (author)

  14. Coronary risk assessment by point-based vs. equation-based Framingham models: significant implications for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, William J; Polansky, Jesse M; Boscardin, W John; Fung, Kathy Z; Steinman, Michael A

    2010-11-01

    US cholesterol guidelines use original and simplified versions of the Framingham model to estimate future coronary risk and thereby classify patients into risk groups with different treatment strategies. We sought to compare risk estimates and risk group classification generated by the original, complex Framingham model and the simplified, point-based version. We assessed 2,543 subjects age 20-79 from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for whom Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) guidelines recommend formal risk stratification. For each subject, we calculated the 10-year risk of major coronary events using the original and point-based Framingham models, and then compared differences in these risk estimates and whether these differences would place subjects into different ATP-III risk groups (20% risk). Using standard procedures, all analyses were adjusted for survey weights, clustering, and stratification to make our results nationally representative. Among 39 million eligible adults, the original Framingham model categorized 71% of subjects as having "moderate" risk (20%) risk. Estimates of coronary risk by the original and point-based models often differed substantially. The point-based system classified 15% of adults (5.7 million) into different risk groups than the original model, with 10% (3.9 million) misclassified into higher risk groups and 5% (1.8 million) into lower risk groups, for a net impact of classifying 2.1 million adults into higher risk groups. These risk group misclassifications would impact guideline-recommended drug treatment strategies for 25-46% of affected subjects. Patterns of misclassifications varied significantly by gender, age, and underlying CHD risk. Compared to the original Framingham model, the point-based version misclassifies millions of Americans into risk groups for which guidelines recommend different treatment strategies.

  15. Assurance of Fault Management: Risk-Significant Adverse Condition Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Fault Management (FM) systems are ranked high in risk-based assessment of criticality within flight software, emphasizing the importance of establishing highly competent domain expertise to provide assurance for NASA projects, especially as spaceflight systems continue to increase in complexity. Insight into specific characteristics of FM architectures seen embedded within safety- and mission-critical software systems analyzed by the NASA Independent Verification Validation (IVV) Program has been enhanced with an FM Technical Reference (TR) suite. Benefits are aimed beyond the IVV community to those that seek ways to efficiently and effectively provide software assurance to reduce the FM risk posture of NASA and other space missions. The identification of particular FM architectures, visibility, and associated IVV techniques provides a TR suite that enables greater assurance that critical software systems will adequately protect against faults and respond to adverse conditions. The role FM has with regard to overall asset protection of flight software systems is being addressed with the development of an adverse condition (AC) database encompassing flight software vulnerabilities.Identification of potential off-nominal conditions and analysis to determine how a system responds to these conditions are important aspects of hazard analysis and fault management. Understanding what ACs the mission may face, and ensuring they are prevented or addressed is the responsibility of the assurance team, which necessarily should have insight into ACs beyond those defined by the project itself. Research efforts sponsored by NASAs Office of Safety and Mission Assurance defined terminology, categorized data fields, and designed a baseline repository that centralizes and compiles a comprehensive listing of ACs and correlated data relevant across many NASA missions. This prototype tool helps projects improve analysis by tracking ACs, and allowing queries based on project, mission

  16. Health risk and significance of mercury in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Tse, H F

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has long been recognised as a global pollutant, because it can remain in the atmosphere for more than 1 year. The mercury that enters the environment is generally acknowledged to have two sources: natural and anthropogenic. Hg takes three major forms in the environment, namely methyl-Hg (MeHg), Hg(0) and Hg(2+). All three forms of Hg adversely affect the natural environment and pose a risk to human health. In particular, they may damage the human central nervous system, leading to cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. MeHg is bioavailable and can be bioaccumulated within food webs. Therefore, several methods of eliminating Hg from the soil and the aquatic system have been proposed. The focus of this article is on phytoremediation, as this technique provides a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods.

  17. Medical risk assessment in dentistry: use of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, S; Shehabi, Z; Morgan, C

    2016-02-12

    Medical risk assessment is essential to safe patient management and the delivery of appropriate dental care. The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) Classification is widely used within medicine and dentistry, but has received significant criticism. This is the first UK survey to assess the consistency of medical risk assessment in dentistry. (i) To determine the use and consistency of the ASA PS among dentists and anaesthetists. (ii) To consider the appropriateness of the ASA PS in relation to dental treatment planning and delivery of care. A cross-sectional online questionnaire was distributed to anaesthetists and dental practitioners in general practice, community and hospital dental services. Questions focused on professional backgrounds, use of the ASA PS, alternative approaches to risk assessment in everyday practice and scoring of eight hypothetical patients using ASA PS. There were 101 responses, 82 were complete. Anaesthetists recorded ASA PS score more frequently than dental practitioners and found it more useful. Inconsistencies were evident in the assignment of ASA PS scores both between and within professional groups. Many dental practitioners did not use or find ASA PS helpful, with significant inconsistencies in its use. An awareness of alternative assessment scales may be useful across settings. Accepting its limitations, it would be helpful for all dentists to be educated in ASA PS and its use in medical risk assessment, particularly in relation to conscious sedation.

  18. A classification of risk factors in serious juvenile offenders and the relation between patterns of risk factors and recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; Van Marle, Hjalmar

    2010-02-01

    There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk.

  19. Waste-acceptance criteria and risk-based thinking for radioactive-waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The US system of radioactive-waste classification and its development provide a reference point for the discussion of risk-based thinking in waste classification. The official US system is described and waste-acceptance criteria for disposal sites are introduced because they constitute a form of de facto waste classification. Risk-based classification is explored and it is found that a truly risk-based system is context-dependent: risk depends not only on the waste-management activity but, for some activities such as disposal, it depends on the specific physical context. Some of the elements of the official US system incorporate risk-based thinking, but like many proposed alternative schemes, the physical context of disposal is ignored. The waste-acceptance criteria for disposal sites do account for this context dependence and could be used as a risk-based classification scheme for disposal. While different classes would be necessary for different management activities, the waste-acceptance criteria would obviate the need for the current system and could better match wastes to disposal environments saving money or improving safety or both

  20. Identifying colon cancer risk modules with better classification performance based on human signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoli; Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Lina; Feng, Chenchen; Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Wan; Huang, Hao; Jia, Xu; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Du, Youwen; Li, Weiguo; Shi, Yuchen; He, Weiming

    2014-10-01

    Identifying differences between normal and tumor samples from a modular perspective may help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for colon cancer. Many cancer studies have shown that signaling transduction and biological pathways are disturbed in disease states, and expression profiles can distinguish variations in diseases. In this study, we integrated a weighted human signaling network and gene expression profiles to select risk modules associated with tumor conditions. Risk modules as classification features by our method had a better classification performance than other methods, and one risk module for colon cancer had a good classification performance for distinguishing between normal/tumor samples and between tumor stages. All genes in the module were annotated to the biological process of positive regulation of cell proliferation, and were highly associated with colon cancer. These results suggested that these genes might be the potential risk genes for colon cancer. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Customized oligonucleotide microarray gene expression-based classification of neuroblastoma patients outperforms current clinical risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthuer, André; Berthold, Frank; Warnat, Patrick; Hero, Barbara; Kahlert, Yvonne; Spitz, Rüdiger; Ernestus, Karen; König, Rainer; Haas, Stefan; Eils, Roland; Schwab, Manfred; Brors, Benedikt; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2006-11-01

    To develop a gene expression-based classifier for neuroblastoma patients that reliably predicts courses of the disease. Two hundred fifty-one neuroblastoma specimens were analyzed using a customized oligonucleotide microarray comprising 10,163 probes for transcripts with differential expression in clinical subgroups of the disease. Subsequently, the prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM) was applied to a first set of patients with maximally divergent clinical courses (n = 77). The classification accuracy was estimated by a complete 10-times-repeated 10-fold cross validation, and a 144-gene predictor was constructed from this set. This classifier's predictive power was evaluated in an independent second set (n = 174) by comparing results of the gene expression-based classification with those of risk stratification systems of current trials from Germany, Japan, and the United States. The first set of patients was accurately predicted by PAM (cross-validated accuracy, 99%). Within the second set, the PAM classifier significantly separated cohorts with distinct courses (3-year event-free survival [EFS] 0.86 +/- 0.03 [favorable; n = 115] v 0.52 +/- 0.07 [unfavorable; n = 59] and 3-year overall survival 0.99 +/- 0.01 v 0.84 +/- 0.05; both P model, the PAM predictor classified patients of the second set more accurately than risk stratification of current trials from Germany, Japan, and the United States (P < .001; hazard ratio, 4.756 [95% CI, 2.544 to 8.893]). Integration of gene expression-based class prediction of neuroblastoma patients may improve risk estimation of current neuroblastoma trials.

  2. Statistical concepts of a priori and a posteriori risk classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Valdez, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday we face all kinds of risks, and insurance is in the business of providing us a means to transfer or share these risks, usually to eliminate or reduce the resulting financial burden, in exchange for a predetermined price or tariff. Actuaries are considered professional experts in the

  3. Credit Risk Evaluation Using a C-Variable Least Squares Support Vector Classification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, K. K.

    Credit risk evaluation is one of the most important issues in financial risk management. In this paper, a C-variable least squares support vector classification (C-VLSSVC) model is proposed for credit risk analysis. The main idea of this model is based on the prior knowledge that different classes may have different importance for modeling and more weights should be given to those classes with more importance. The C-VLSSVC model can be constructed by a simple modification of the regularization parameter in LSSVC, whereby more weights are given to the lease squares classification errors with important classes than the lease squares classification errors with unimportant classes while keeping the regularized terms in its original form. For illustration purpose, a real-world credit dataset is used to test the effectiveness of the C-VLSSVC model.

  4. A novel risk classification system for 30-day mortality in children undergoing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Arianne I.; Jones, Tamekia L.; Huang, Eunice Y.; Davis, Robert L.

    2018-01-01

    A simple, objective and accurate way of grouping children undergoing surgery into clinically relevant risk groups is needed. The purpose of this study, is to develop and validate a preoperative risk classification system for postsurgical 30-day mortality for children undergoing a wide variety of operations. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project-Pediatric participant use file data for calendar years 2012–2014 was analyzed to determine preoperative variables most associated with death within 30 days of operation (D30). Risk groups were created using classification tree analysis based on these preoperative variables. The resulting risk groups were validated using 2015 data, and applied to neonates and higher risk CPT codes to determine validity in high-risk subpopulations. A five-level risk classification was found to be most accurate. The preoperative need for ventilation, oxygen support, inotropic support, sepsis, the need for emergent surgery and a do not resuscitate order defined non-overlapping groups with observed rates of D30 that vary from 0.075% (Very Low Risk) to 38.6% (Very High Risk). When CPT codes where death was never observed are eliminated or when the system is applied to neonates, the groupings remained predictive of death in an ordinal manner. PMID:29351327

  5. Prometheus unbound - challenges of risk evaluation, risk classification, and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1999-11-01

    For dealing with risks in a rational fashion, it is necessary to characterize risks and use the parameters of characterization as tools for designing appropriate actions. This reports suggests a set of criteria that one can use in evaluating risks. These criteria include: - Damage potential, i.e. the amount of damage that the hazard can cause; - probability of occurrence, i.e. the likelihood that a specific damage will occur; - incertitude, i.e., the remaining uncertainties that are not covered by the assessment of probabilities (subdivided in statistical uncertainties, genuine uncertainty, and ignorance); - ubiquity which defines the geographic dispersion of potential damages (intragenerational justice); - persistency which defines the temporal extension of potential damages (intergenerational justice); - irreversibility which describes the impossible restoration of the situation to the state before the damage occurred (possible restoration are e.g. reforestation and cleaning of water); - delay effects which characterize the time of latency between the initial event and the actual impact of damage. The time of latency could be of physical, chemical or biological nature; and - potential of mobilization which is understood as violation of individual, social or cultural interests and values generating social conflicts and psychological reactions by affected people. (orig.)

  6. Supply chain risk management: review, classification and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to be more efficient, firms have adopted strategies such as outsourcing, global partnerships and lean practices. Although such strategies have tremendous abilities to improve the efficiencies but simultaneously they make the firms vulnerable to market uncertainties, dependencies and disruptions. Moreover, natural calamities and manmade crises have also put negative impact on strategic, operational and tactical performance of supply chains. These factors have triggered the interest of academia and industry to consider the risk issues as prime concerns. To capture the more fine-grained elements of diversified risk issues related to the supply chain we employ a multi-layered top town taxonomy to classify and codify the literature and put forward the probable dimensions for future research. We further study the pool of SCRM literature focusing on coordination, decision making and sector-wise SCRM implementation issues and derive relevant propositions.

  7. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of thymoma: ability of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in predicting the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the Masaoka-Koga staging system and its prognostic significance on disease-free survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Priola, Sandro Massimo; Gned, Dario; Ducco, Lorena; Veltri, Andrea; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Fornari, Alessandro; Ferrero, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance for distinguishing thymomas according to WHO and Masaoka-Koga classifications and in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) by using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Forty-one patients were grouped based on WHO (low-risk vs. high-risk) and Masaoka-Koga (early vs. advanced) classifications. For prognosis, seven patients with recurrence at follow-up were grouped separately from healthy subjects. Differences on ADC levels between groups were tested using Student-t testing. Logistic regression models and areas under the ROC curve (AUROC) were estimated. Mean ADC values were different between groups of WHO (low-risk = 1.58 ± 0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; high-risk = 1.21 ± 0.23 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; p < 0.0001) and Masaoka-Koga (early = 1.43 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; advanced = 1.31 ± 0.31 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; p = 0.016) classifications. Mean ADC of type-B3 (1.05 ± 0.17 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec) was lower than type-B2 (1.32 ± 0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; p = 0.023). AUROC in discriminating groups was 0.864 for WHO classification (cut-point = 1.309 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; accuracy = 78.1 %) and 0.730 for Masaoka-Koga classification (cut-point = 1.243 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; accuracy = 73.2 %). Logistic regression models and two-way ANOVA were significant for WHO classification (odds ratio[OR] = 0.93, p = 0.007; p < 0.001), but not for Masaoka-Koga classification (OR = 0.98, p = 0.31; p = 0.38). ADC levels were significantly associated with DFS recurrence rate being higher for patients with ADC ≤ 1.299 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec (p = 0.001; AUROC, 0.834; accuracy = 78.0 %). ADC helps to differentiate high-risk from low-risk thymomas and discriminates the more aggressive type-B3. Primary tumour ADC is a prognostic indicator of recurrence. (orig.)

  8. Classification of jobs at risk of exposure and protection of pregnancy and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Dominguez, M.; Perucha Ortega, M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Haro Madero, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the method followed in our hospital for the classification of jobs by defining simple criteria and establishing levels of risk and its application, the result obtained and the implications for the implementation of the RD 298/2009.

  9. Feasibility Study of Land Cover Classification Based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Landslide Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilanki Dahigamuwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable land cover leads to excessive damage from landslides and other natural hazards, whereas the presence of vegetation is expected to mitigate rainfall-induced landslide potential. Hence, unexpected and rapid changes in land cover due to deforestation would be detrimental in landslide-prone areas. Also, vegetation cover is subject to phenological variations and therefore, timely classification of land cover is an essential step in effective evaluation of landslide hazard potential. The work presented here investigates methods that can be used for land cover classification based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, derived from up-to-date satellite images, and the feasibility of application in landslide risk prediction. A major benefit of this method would be the eventual ability to employ NDVI as a stand-alone parameter for accurate assessment of the impact of land cover in landslide hazard evaluation. An added benefit would be the timely detection of undesirable practices such as deforestation using satellite imagery. A landslide-prone region in Oregon, USA is used as a model for the application of the classification method. Five selected classification techniques—k-nearest neighbor, Gaussian support vector machine (GSVM, artificial neural network, decision tree and quadratic discriminant analysis support the viability of the NDVI-based land cover classification. Finally, its application in landslide risk evaluation is demonstrated.

  10. Long-term Prostate-specific Antigen Velocity in Improved Classification of Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E; Kamstrup, Pia R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether adding long-term prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) to baseline PSA values improves classification of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and mortality in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long-term PSAV improves classification of PCa risk...

  11. [Nutritional risk screening and its clinical significance in 706 children hospitalized in the surgical department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lu-Ting; Li, Rong; Zhao, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yin-Hua; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Meng-Ying; Cao, Jia; Li, Xiao-Nan

    2013-10-01

    To investigate nutritional risk and its relationship with clinical outcome in children hospitalized in the surgical department, and to provide a scientific basis for clinical nutrition management. Nutritional risk screening was performed on 706 children hospitalized in the surgical department using the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth. The data on nutritional support during hospitalization, incidence of infectious complications, length of hospital stay, post operative length of hospital stay and total hospital expenses were recorded. Of the 706 cases, 11.5% had high nutritional risk, 46.0% had moderate nutritional risk, and 42.5% had low nutritional risk. Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, intestinal obstruction and congenital heart disease were the three most common types of high nutritional risk. The incidence of high nutritional risk was significantly higher in infants than in other age groups (Pnutritional risk received parenteral nutrition. Children with high nutritional risk were significantly more likely to have weight loss than children with low nutritional risk (Pnutritional risk had significantly increased incidence of infectious complications, length of hospital stay, post operative length of hospital stay and total hospital expenses compared with those with moderate or low nutritional risk (Pnutritional risk is seen in children hospitalized in the surgical department. Nutritional risk score is correlated with clinical outcome. Nutritional support for these children is not yet properly provided. Nutritional risk screening and standard nutritional support should be widely applied among hospitalized children.

  12. Potency values from the local lymph node assay: application to classification, labelling and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, S E; Api, A-M; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Gamer, A; Jowsey, I R; Kern, P; Kimber, I; Lea, L; Lloyd, P; Mehmood, Z; Steiling, W; Veenstra, G; Woolhiser, M; Hennes, C

    2010-02-01

    Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for classification and labelling. Second, is there any reason to revise the recommendation of a previous ECETOC Task Force regarding specific EC3 values used for sub-categorisation of substances based upon potency? Third, what recommendations can be made regarding classification and labelling of preparations under GHS? Finally, consider how to integrate LLNA data into risk assessment and provide a rationale for using concentration responses and corresponding no-effect concentrations. Although skin sensitising chemicals having high EC3 values may represent only relatively low risks to humans, it is not possible currently to define an EC3 value below 100% that would serve as an appropriate threshold for classification and labelling. The conclusion drawn from reviewing the use of distinct categories for characterising contact allergens was that the most appropriate, science-based classification of contact allergens according to potency is one in which four sub-categories are identified: 'extreme', 'strong', 'moderate' and 'weak'. Since draining lymph node cell proliferation is related causally and quantitatively to potency, LLNA EC3 values are recommended for determination of a no expected sensitisation induction level that represents the first step in quantitative risk assessment. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk classification priorities in an emergency unit and outcomes of the service provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva Marconato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to check the association of the proposed priorities of the institutional protocol of risk classification with the outcomes and evaluate the profile of the care provided in an emergency unit. Method: observational epidemiological study based on data from the computerized files of a Reference Emergency Unit. Care provided to adults was evaluated regarding risk classification and outcomes (death, hospitalization and hospital discharge based on the information recorded in the emergency bulletin. Results: the mean age of the 97,099 registered patients was 43.4 years; 81.5% cases were spontaneous demand; 41.2% had been classified as green, 15.3% yellow, 3.7% blue, 3% red and 36.and 9% had not received a classification; 90.2% of the patients had been discharged, 9.4% hospitalized and 0.4% had died. Among patients who were discharged, 14.7% had been classified as yellow or red, 13.6% green or blue, and 1.8% as blue or green. Conclusion: the protocol of risk classification showed good sensitivity to predict serious situations that can progress to death or hospitalization.

  14. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee's evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable

  15. Integrated genomic and immunophenotypic classification of pancreatic cancer reveals three distinct subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Martin; Cibin, Silvia; Zlobec, Inti; Vassella, Erik; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella M M; Terracciano, Luigi; Eichmann, Micha; Worni, Mathias; Gloor, Beat; Perren, Aurel; Karamitopoulou, Eva

    2018-04-16

    Current clinical classification of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unable to predict prognosis or response to chemo- or immunotherapy and does not take into account the host reaction to PDAC-cells. Our aim is to classify PDAC according to host- and tumor-related factors into clinically/biologically relevant subtypes by integrating molecular and microenvironmental findings. A well-characterized PDAC-cohort (n=110) underwent next-generation sequencing with a hotspot cancer panel, while Next-generation Tissue-Microarrays were immunostained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-L1, p63, hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) and DNA mismatch-repair proteins. Previous data on FOXP3 were integrated. Immune-cell counts and protein expression were correlated with tumor-derived driver mutations, clinicopathologic features (TNM 8. 2017), survival and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like tumor budding.  Results: Three PDAC-subtypes were identified: the "immune-escape" (54%), poor in T- and B-cells and enriched in FOXP3+Tregs, with high-grade budding, frequent CDKN2A- , SMAD4- and PIK3CA-mutations and poor outcome; the "immune-rich" (35%), rich in T- and B-cells and poorer in FOXP3+Tregs, with infrequent budding, lower CDKN2A- and PIK3CA-mutation rate and better outcome and a subpopulation with tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT), mutations in DNA damage response genes (STK11, ATM) and the best outcome; and the "immune-exhausted" (11%) with immunogenic microenvironment and two subpopulations: one with PD-L1-expression and high PIK3CA-mutation rate and a microsatellite-unstable subpopulation with high prevalence of JAK3-mutations. The combination of low budding, low stromal FOXP3-counts, presence of TLTs and absence of CDKN2A-mutations confers significant survival advantage in PDAC-patients. Immune host responses correlate with tumor characteristics leading to morphologically recognizable PDAC-subtypes with prognostic/predictive significance. Copyright ©2018

  16. A new patient classification for laser resurfacing and peels: predicting responses, risks, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Nabil

    2002-01-01

    Traditional classifications for skin treatment modalities are based on skin characteristics, the most important being skin color. Other factors are considered as well, such as oiliness, thickness, pathology, and sensitivity. While useful, these classifications are occasionally inadequate in predicting and explaining the outcome of some peels, dermabrasions, or laser resurfacing procedures. Why, for example, would a Korean patient with a light white skin inadvertently develop more hyperpigmentation than his darker skinned French counterpart? The new classification introduced here is based on the racial and genetic origins of patients. It suggests that racial genetic predisposition is the determining factor in human response to skin injury, including skin treatments. This classification takes into account both skin and features, rather than skin alone. It offers a new approach in evaluating patients scheduled for skin peels or laser resurfacing, in the hope of helping physicians to better predict reactions, select the appropriate type and intensity of the skin treatment and, ultimately, better control the outcome. Six categories (sub-races) are described: Nordics, Europeans, Mediterraneans, Indo-Pakistanis, Africans, and Asians. The reaction of each sub-race to peels, laser resurfacing, or dermabrasion is analyzed. The risks associated with each group are noted. This new classification provides physicians with a practical way to evaluate patients prior to treatment, with a view to determining each patient's suitability, postoperative reaction, the likelihood of complications, and likely result.

  17. Prognostic value of a novel risk classification of microvascular invasion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chuang; Fu, Xu; Yan, Xiaopeng; Jia, Wenjun; Mao, Liang; Jin, Huihan; Qiu, Yudong

    2017-01-17

    The present research aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of a novel risk classification of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection. A total of 295 consecutive HCC patients underwent hepatectomy were included in our study. We evaluated the degree of MVI according to the following three features: the number of invaded microvessels (≤5 vs >5), the number of invading carcinoma cells (≤ 50 vs >50), the distance of invasion from tumor edge (≤1 cm vs >1 cm). All patients were divided into three groups according to the three risk factors of MVI: non-MVI group (n=180), low-MVI group (n=60) and high-MVI group (n=55). The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates of high-MVI group were significantly poorer than those of low-MVI and non-MVI groups (Prisk factors for OS after hepatectomy. High-MVI, type of resection and tumor size were risk factors for RFS. In subgroup analyses, the OS and RFS rates of low-MVI and non-MVI groups were better than high-MVI group regardless of tumor size. In high-MVI group, anatomical liver resection (n=28) showed better OS and RFS rates compared with non-anatomical liver resection (n=29) (P=0.012 and P=0.002). The novel risk classification of MVI based on histopathological features is valuable for predicting prognosis of HCC patients after hepatectomy.

  18. Feelings of nurses in the reception and risk classification evaluation in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Midori Sakai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal feelings of nurses who host with risk assessment and classification in an emergency room of a pubic hospital. Methods: it is a qualitative research approach with 12 nurses interviewed. The data were analyzed, categorized and discussed according to the theoretical framework of work psychodynamics. Results: the nurses expressed feelings of satisfaction in meeting the user needs assistance. They reported feeling as fear, stress and fatigue due to the sharp pace of work, gaps in health care network and situations of violence. They highlighted coping strategies to reduce the burden of this assignment, how to share the completion of the screening with the nursing staff. Conclusion: the host with risk assessment and classification favors the autonomy of nurses and provide greater accountability to this professional users, but the limitations of available resources to solve the complaint of patients generate physical and psychological burden to this worker.

  19. Feelings of nurses in the reception and risk classification evaluation in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Midori Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal feelings of nurses who host with risk assessment and classification in an emergency room of a pubic hospital. Methods: it is a qualitative research approach with 12 nurses interviewed. The data were analyzed, categorized and discussed according to the theoretical framework of work psychodynamics. Results: the nurses expressed feelings of satisfaction in meeting the user needs assistance. They reported feeling as fear, stress and fatigue due to the sharp pace of work, gaps in health care network and situations of violence. They highlighted coping strategies to reduce the burden of this assignment, how to share the completion of the screening with the nursing staff. Conclusion: the host with risk assessment and classification favors the autonomy of nurses and provide greater accountability to this professional users, but the limitations of available resources to solve the complaint of patients generate physical and psychological burden to this worker.

  20. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism predicts hypertension, and iridological constitutional classification enhances the risk for hypertension in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Joo-Jang; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between iridological constitution and angiotensinogen (AGN) gene polymorphism in hypertensives. In addition to angiotensin converting enzyme gene, AGN genotype is also one of the most well studied genetic markers of hypertension. Furthermore, iridology, one of complementary and alternative medicine, is the diagnosis of the medical conditions through noting irregularities of the pigmentation in the iris. Iridological constitution has a strong familial aggregation and is implicated in heredity. Therefore, the study classified 87 hypertensive patients with familial history of cerebral infarction and controls (n = 88) according to Iris constitution, and determined AGN genotype. As a result, the AGN/TT genotype was associated with hypertension (chi2 = 13.413, p iridological constitutional classification increased the relative risk for hypertension in the subjects with AGN/T allele. These results suggest that AGN polymorphism predicts hypertension, and iridological constitutional classification enhances the risk for hypertension associated with AGN/T in a Korean population.

  1. The diagnosis and management of pre-invasive breast disease: Flat epithelial atypia – classification, pathologic features and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitt, Stuart J

    2003-01-01

    Flat epithelial atypia is a descriptive term that encompasses lesions of the breast terminal duct lobular units in which variably dilated acini are lined by one to several layers of epithelial cells, which are usually columnar in shape and which display low-grade cytologic atypia. Observational studies have suggested that at least some of these lesions may represent either a precursor of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or the earliest morphological manifestation of DCIS. In contrast, the limited available clinical follow-up data suggest that the risk of both local recurrence and progression of these lesions to invasive cancer is extremely low, supporting the notion that categorizing such lesions as 'clinging carcinoma' and managing them as if they were fully developed DCIS will result in overtreatment of many patients. Additional studies are needed to better understand the biological nature and clinical significance of these lesions

  2. Measurement of ECG abnormalities and cardiovascular risk classification: a cohort study of primary care patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.; Bots, M.L.; Rutten, F.H.; den Ruijter, H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Vaartjes, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: GPs need accurate tools for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. Abnormalities in resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) relate to increased CV risk. Aim: To determine whether measurement of ECG abnormalities on top of established risk estimation (SCORE) improves CV risk classification in a

  3. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V.; Vallow, Laura A.; McDonough, Michelle; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G.; Peterson, Jennifer L.; Adkisson, Cameron D.; Serago, Christopher; McLaughlin, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  4. Cleft lip and palate review: Epidemiology, risk factors, quality of life, and importance of classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Supit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most occurring craniofacial anomaly in human, resulting from a complex etiology involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. The defect carries lifelong morbidity and economic burden. Children with clefts will require continuous medical interventions for at least the first 18 years of life, affecting many aspects of their lives. The extent and complexity of clefts vary infinitely, later determining individual management and outcome. Identification and classification play significant roles in initial assessment of these unique cleft cases, which affect options for following correctional attempts. Some classifications even allow measurement of progress after anatomical repositioning, and success rate after surgical repairs. The challenge of developing one such widely inclusive classification is discussed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 226-39Keywords: Cleft lip, cleft palate, congenital anomaly, cleft  classfications

  5. Risk factors and classification of stillbirth in a Middle Eastern population: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjachen Maducolil, Mariam; Abid, Hafsa; Lobo, Rachael Marian; Chughtai, Ambreen Qayyum; Afzal, Arjumand Muhammad; Saleh, Huda Abdullah Hussain; Lindow, Stephen W

    2017-12-21

    To estimate the incidence of stillbirth, explore the associated maternal and fetal factors and to evaluate the most appropriate classification of stillbirth for a multiethnic population. This is a retrospective population-based study of stillbirth in a large tertiary unit. Data of each stillbirth with a gestational age >/=24 weeks in the year 2015 were collected from electronic medical records and analyzed. The stillbirth rate for our multiethnic population is 7.81 per 1000 births. Maternal medical factors comprised 52.4% in which the rates of hypertensive disorders, diabetes and other medical disorders were 22.5%, 20.8% and 8.3%, respectively. The most common fetal factor was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (22.5%) followed by congenital anomalies (21.6%). All cases were categorized using the Wigglesworth, Aberdeen, Tulip, ReCoDe and International Classification of Diseases-perinatal mortality (ICD-PM) classifications and the rates of unclassified stillbirths were 59.2%, 46.6%, 16.6%, 11.6% and 7.5%, respectively. An autopsy was performed in 9.1% of cases reflecting local religious and cultural sensitivities. This study highlighted the modifiable risk factors among the Middle Eastern population. The most appropriate classification was the ICD-PM. The low rates of autopsy prevented a detailed evaluation of stillbirths, therefore it is suggested that a minimally invasive autopsy [postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] may improve the quality of care.

  6. An integrated PRA module for fast determination of risk significance and improvement effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jyh-Der

    2004-01-01

    With the widely use of PRA technology in risk-informed applications, to predict the changes of CDF and LERF becomes a standard process for risk-informed applications. This paper describes an integrated PRA module prepared for risk-informed applications. The module contains a super risk engine, a super fault tree engine, an advanced PRA model and a tool for data base maintenance. The individual element of the module also works well for purpose other than risk-informed applications. The module has been verified and validated through a series of scrupulous benchmark tests with similar software. The results of the benchmark tests showed that the module has remarkable accuracy and speed even for an extremely large-size top-logic fault tree as well as for the case in which large amount of MCSs may be generated. The risk monitor for nuclear power plants in Taiwan is the first application to adopt the module. The results predicted by the risk monitor are now accepted by the regulatory agency. A tool to determine the risk significance according to the inspection findings will be the next application to adopt the module in the near future. This tool classified the risk significance into four different color codes according to the level of increase on CDF. Experience of application showed that the flexibility, the accuracy and speed of the module make it useful in any risk-informed applications when risk indexes must be determined by resolving a PRA model. (author)

  7. TCF7L2 variant genotypes and type 2 diabetes risk in Brazil: significant association, but not a significant tool for risk stratification in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mill JG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic polymorphisms of the TCF7L2 gene are strongly associated with large increments in type 2 diabetes risk in different populations worldwide. In this study, we aimed to confirm the effect of the TCF7L2 polymorphism rs7903146 on diabetes risk in a Brazilian population and to assess the use of this genetic marker in improving diabetes risk prediction in the general population. Methods We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene in 560 patients with known coronary disease enrolled in the MASS II (Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study Trial and in 1,449 residents of Vitoria, in Southeast Brazil. The associations of this gene variant to diabetes risk and metabolic characteristics in these two different populations were analyzed. To access the potential benefit of using this marker for diabetes risk prediction in the general population we analyzed the impact of this genetic variant on a validated diabetes risk prediction tool based on clinical characteristics developed for the Brazilian general population. Results SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the MASS-II population (OR = 1.57 per T allele, p = 0.0032, confirming, in the Brazilian population, previous reports of the literature. Addition of this polymorphism to an established clinical risk prediction score did not increased model accuracy (both area under ROC curve equal to 0.776. Conclusion TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele is associated with a 1.57 increased risk for type 2 diabetes in a Brazilian cohort of patients with known coronary heart disease. However, the inclusion of this polymorphism in a risk prediction tool developed for the general population resulted in no improvement of performance. This is the first study, to our knowledge, that has confirmed this recent association in a South American population and adds to the great consistency of this finding in studies around the world

  8. Automatic classification of 6-month-old infants at familial risk for language-based learning disorder using a support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Marzieh; Rezvani, Zahra; Benasich, April A

    2016-07-01

    This study assesses the ability of a novel, "automatic classification" approach to facilitate identification of infants at highest familial risk for language-learning disorders (LLD) and to provide converging assessments to enable earlier detection of developmental disorders that disrupt language acquisition. Network connectivity measures derived from 62-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording were used to identify selected features within two infant groups who differed on LLD risk: infants with a family history of LLD (FH+) and typically-developing infants without such a history (FH-). A support vector machine was deployed; global efficiency and global and local clustering coefficients were computed. A novel minimum spanning tree (MST) approach was also applied. Cross-validation was employed to assess the resultant classification. Infants were classified with about 80% accuracy into FH+ and FH- groups with 89% specificity and precision of 92%. Clustering patterns differed by risk group and MST network analysis suggests that FH+ infants' EEG complexity patterns were significantly different from FH- infants. The automatic classification techniques used here were shown to be both robust and reliable and should provide valuable information when applied to early identification of risk or clinical groups. The ability to identify infants at highest risk for LLD using "automatic classification" strategies is a novel convergent approach that may facilitate earlier diagnosis and remediation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk-informed Analytical Approaches to Concentration Averaging for the Purpose of Waste Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D.W.; Pinkston, K.E.; Barr, C.S.; Bradford, A.H.; Ridge, A.Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has developed a concentration averaging approach and guidance for the review of Department of Energy (DOE) non-HLW determinations. Although the approach was focused on this specific application, concentration averaging is generally applicable to waste classification and thus has implications for waste management decisions as discussed in more detail in this paper. In the United States, radioactive waste has historically been classified into various categories for the purpose of ensuring that the disposal system selected is commensurate with the hazard of the waste such that public health and safety will be protected. However, the risk from the near-surface disposal of radioactive waste is not solely a function of waste concentration but is also a function of the volume (quantity) of waste and its accessibility. A risk-informed approach to waste classification for near-surface disposal of low-level waste would consider the specific characteristics of the waste, the quantity of material, and the disposal system features that limit accessibility to the waste. NRC staff has developed example analytical approaches to estimate waste concentration, and therefore waste classification, for waste disposed in facilities or with configurations that were not anticipated when the regulation for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (i.e. 10 CFR Part 61) was developed. (authors)

  10. Analysis of human error and organizational deficiency in events considering risk significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Yoonik; Kim, Say Hyung; Kim, Chansoo; Chung, Chang Hyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed human and organizational deficiencies in the trip events of Korean nuclear power plants. K-HPES items were used in human error analysis, and the organizational factors by Jacobs and Haber were used for organizational deficiency analysis. We proposed the use of CCDP as a risk measure to consider risk information in prioritizing K-HPES items and organizational factors. Until now, the risk significance of events has not been considered in human error and organizational deficiency analysis. Considering the risk significance of events in the process of analysis is necessary for effective enhancement of nuclear power plant safety by focusing on causes of human error and organizational deficiencies that are associated with significant risk

  11. New FIGO and Swedish intrapartum cardiotocography classification systems incorporated in the fetal ECG ST analysis (STAN) interpretation algorithm: agreements and discrepancies in cardiotocography classification and evaluation of significant ST events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Per; Norén, Håkan; Carlsson, Ann

    2018-02-01

    The updated intrapartum cardiotocography (CTG) classification system by FIGO in 2015 (FIGO2015) and the FIGO2015-approached classification by the Swedish Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologist in 2017 (SSOG2017) are not harmonized with the fetal ECG ST analysis (STAN) algorithm from 2007 (STAN2007). The study aimed to reveal homogeneity and agreement between the systems in classifying CTG and ST events, and relate them to maternal and perinatal outcomes. Among CTG traces with ST events, 100 traces originally classified as normal, 100 as suspicious and 100 as pathological were randomly selected from a STAN database and classified by two experts in consensus. Homogeneity and agreement statistics between the CTG classifications were performed. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were evaluated in cases with clinically hidden ST data (n = 151). A two-tailed p ST events, heterogeneities were significant and agreements moderate to almost perfect (STAN2007 vs. FIGO2015 0.86, 0.72; STAN2007 vs. SSOG2017 0.92, 0.84; FIGO2015 vs. SSOG2017 0.94, 0.87). Significant ST events occurred more often combined with STAN2007 than with FIGO2015 classification, but not with SSOG2017; correct identification of adverse outcomes was not significantly different between the systems. There are discrepancies in the classification of CTG patterns and significant ST events between the old and new systems. The clinical relevance of the findings remains to be shown. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  12. APPLICATION OF MULTIPLE LOGISTIC REGRESSION, BAYESIAN LOGISTIC AND CLASSIFICATION TREE TO IDENTIFY THE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS INFLUENCING CRASH SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAD TAZIK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying cases in which road crashes result in fatality or injury of drivers may help improve their safety. In this study, datasets of crashes happened in TehranQom freeway, Iran, were examined by three models (multiple logistic regression, Bayesian logistic and classification tree to analyse the contribution of several variables to fatal accidents. For multiple logistic regression and Bayesian logistic models, the odds ratio was calculated for each variable. The model which best suited the identification of accident severity was determined based on AIC and DIC criteria. Based on the results of these two models, rollover crashes (OR = 14.58, %95 CI: 6.8-28.6, not using of seat belt (OR = 5.79, %95 CI: 3.1-9.9, exceeding speed limits (OR = 4.02, %95 CI: 1.8-7.9 and being female (OR = 2.91, %95 CI: 1.1-6.1 were the most important factors in fatalities of drivers. In addition, the results of the classification tree model have verified the findings of the other models.

  13. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: CoCoNet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-06-01

    There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings.

  14. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:27310982

  15. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna

    2016-04-01

    Unstable rock slopes that can cause large failures of the rock-avalanche type have been mapped in Norway for almost two decades. Four sites have earlier been characterized as high-risk objects based on expertise of few researchers. This resulted in installing continuous monitoring systems and set-up of an early-warning system for those four sites. Other unstable rock slopes have not been ranked related to their hazard or risk. There are ca. 300 other sites known of which 70 sites were installed for periodic deformation measurements using multiple techniques (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, extensometers, measurement bolts, and others). In 2012 a systematic hazard and risk classification system for unstable rock slopes was established in Norway and the mapping approach adapted to that in 2013. Now, the first 22 sites were classified for hazard, consequences and risk using this classification system. The selection of the first group of sites to be classified was based on an assumed high hazard or risk and importance given to the sites by Norwegian media and the public. Nine of the classified 22 unstable rock slopes are large sites that deform inhomogeneously or are strongly broken up in individual blocks. This suggests that different failure scenarios are possible that need to be analyzed individually. A total of 35 failure scenarios for those nine unstable rock slopes were considered. The hazard analyses were based on 9 geological parameters defined in the classification system. The classification system will be presented based on the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. This slope has a well developed back scarp that exposes 150 m preceding displacement. The lateral limits of the unstable slope are clearly visible in the morphology and InSAR displacement data. There have been no single structures observed that allow sliding kinematically. The lower extend of the displacing rock mass is clearly defined in InSAR data and by a zone of higher rock fall activity. Yearly

  16. [Nursing care mapping for patients at risk of falls in the Nursing Interventions Classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Melissa de Freitas; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2014-08-01

    Identifying the prescribed nursing care for hospitalized patients at risk of falls and comparing them with the interventions of the Nursing Interventions Classifications (NIC). A cross-sectional study carried out in a university hospital in southern Brazil. It was a retrospective data collection in the nursing records system. The sample consisted of 174 adult patients admitted to medical and surgical units with the Nursing Diagnosis of Risk for falls. The prescribed care were compared with the NIC interventions by the cross-mapping method. The most prevalent care were the following: keeping the bed rails, guiding patients/family regarding the risks and prevention of falls, keeping the bell within reach of patients, and maintaining patients' belongings nearby, mapped in the interventions Environmental Management: safety and Fall Prevention. The treatment prescribed in clinical practice was corroborated by the NIC reference.

  17. From risk management to uncertainty management: a significant change in project management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-jun; ZHANG Yue-song

    2006-01-01

    Starting with the meanings of the terms "risk" and "uncertainty,"" he paper compares uncertainty management with risk management in project management. We bring some doubt to the use of "risk" and "uncertainty" interchangeably in project management and deem their scope, methods, responses, monitoring and controlling should be different too. Illustrations are given covering terminology, description, and treatment from different perspectives of uncertainty management and risk management. Furthermore, the paper retains that project risk management (PRM) processes might be modified to facilitate an uncertainty management perspective,and we support that project uncertainty management (PUM) can enlarge its contribution to improving project management performance, which will result in a significant change in emphasis compared with most risk management.

  18. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Prognostic significance of visceral pleural invasion in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of TNM classification for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyo Sup; Park, In Kyu; Lee, Chang Young; Chung, Kyung Young

    2009-08-01

    The next revision to the TNM classification for lung cancer (the seventh edition) is scheduled to be released in 2009. However, the definition of visceral pleural invasion (VPI), which is a non-size-based T2 descriptor, still lacks in detail, and its validation is not included. We analyzed 1046 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with T1, T2, or T3 diseases from 1990 to 2005, and subclassified into p0-p3 according to the degrees of pleural invasion. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Then, all patients were subdivided into nine groups according to tumor size and pleural invasion, and we compared survival differences, primarily focusing on T2a and T2b diseases according to the seventh edition. There was no survival difference between patients with p1 and p2, thus we regarded p1 or p2 as VPI. There was survival difference between two groups, which are expected to be classified as T2b. The behavior of tumors larger than 5cm but 7cm or less with VPI was similar to T3 tumors. VPI is a poor prognostic factor of NSCLC, and the penetration through the elastic layer of the visceral pleura regardless of its exposure on the pleural surface (pl and p2) should be defined as VPI. This study also indicates that VPI influences T stage dependent on tumor size, and it can be suggested that tumors of larger than 5cm but 7cm or less with VPI should be upgraded to T3 stage.

  20. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  1. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazwani N K; Rohayu C O; Fathoni U; Baharuddin, Inz

    2013-01-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  2. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk Map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazwani N K; Rohayu C O; Fathoni U; Baharuddin, I N Z; Azwin Z A

    2013-01-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  3. Acute myeloid leukemia in the era of precision medicine: recent advances in diagnostic classification and risk stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous myeloid malignancy that occurs more commonly in adults, and has an increasing incidence, most likely due to increasing age. Precise diagnostic classification of AML requires clinical and pathologic information, the latter including morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Risk stratification in AML requires cytogenetics evaluation as the most important predictor, with genetic mutations providing additional necessary information. AML with normal cytogenetics comprises about 40%-50% of all AML, and has been intensively investigated. The currently used 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms has been proposed to be updated in 2016, also to include an update on the classification of AML, due to the continuously increasing application of genomic techniques that have led to major advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of AML. The purpose of this review is to describe some of these recent major advances in the diagnostic classification and risk stratification of AML

  4. Acute myeloid leukemia in the era of precision medicine: recent advances in diagnostic classification and risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Rina

    2016-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous myeloid malignancy that occurs more commonly in adults, and has an increasing incidence, most likely due to increasing age. Precise diagnostic classification of AML requires clinical and pathologic information, the latter including morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Risk stratification in AML requires cytogenetics evaluation as the most important predictor, with genetic mutations providing additional necessary information. AML with normal cytogenetics comprises about 40%-50% of all AML, and has been intensively investigated. The currently used 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms has been proposed to be updated in 2016, also to include an update on the classification of AML, due to the continuously increasing application of genomic techniques that have led to major advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of AML. The purpose of this review is to describe some of these recent major advances in the diagnostic classification and risk stratification of AML.

  5. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaye, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  6. Classification and occurrence of clinically significant drug interactions with irinotecan and oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Idzinga, FSF; Smit, WM; de Graaf, JC; Coenen, JLLM; Sleijfer, DT; Brouwers, JRBJ

    Background: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with cytotoxic drugs may significantly influence the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify drug interactions with irinotecan and oxaliplatin reported in the literature, to assess

  7. Prognostic significance of neurological signs in high-risk infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Elisa G.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of

  8. Prognostic significance of neurological signs in high-risk infants - a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, E.G.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the significance of specific neurological signs in infancy, in particular in infants at risk for developmental problems such as cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search was performed using the databases PubMed, Embase, Web of

  9. Application of classification algorithms for analysis of road safety risk factor dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Hoon; Rhee, Wonjong; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2015-02-01

    Transportation continues to be an integral part of modern life, and the importance of road traffic safety cannot be overstated. Consequently, recent road traffic safety studies have focused on analysis of risk factors that impact fatality and injury level (severity) of traffic accidents. While some of the risk factors, such as drug use and drinking, are widely known to affect severity, an accurate modeling of their influences is still an open research topic. Furthermore, there are innumerable risk factors that are waiting to be discovered or analyzed. A promising approach is to investigate historical traffic accident data that have been collected in the past decades. This study inspects traffic accident reports that have been accumulated by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) since 1973 for which each accident report contains around 100 data fields. Among them, we investigate 25 fields between 2004 and 2010 that are most relevant to car accidents. Using two classification methods, the Naive Bayes classifier and the decision tree classifier, the relative importance of the data fields, i.e., risk factors, is revealed with respect to the resulting severity level. Performances of the classifiers are compared to each other and a binary logistic regression model is used as the basis for the comparisons. Some of the high-ranking risk factors are found to be strongly dependent on each other, and their incremental gains on estimating or modeling severity level are evaluated quantitatively. The analysis shows that only a handful of the risk factors in the data dominate the severity level and that dependency among the top risk factors is an imperative trait to consider for an accurate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CLASSIFICATION OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS AND INTERNAL DERANGEMENT .1. DIAGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE OF CLINICAL AND RADIOGRAPHIC SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGENGA, B; DEBONT, LGM; VANDERKUIJL, B; BOERING, G

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis primarily depends on the history and present status of the patient, and on the examiner's expertise in physical examination and interpretation of conventional radiographs. In order to evaluate the diagnostic significance of clinical and radiographic variables, the

  11. Malignancy Risk Assessment in Patients with Thyroid Nodules Using Classification and Regression Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Taghipour Zahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to investigate the utility of classification and regression trees (CART classifier to differentiate benign from malignant nodules in patients referred for thyroid surgery. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of 271 patients referred to the Sadoughi Hospital during 2006–2011 were collected. In a two-step approach, a CART classifier was employed to differentiate patients with a high versus low risk of thyroid malignancy. The first step served as the screening procedure and was tailored to produce as few false negatives as possible. The second step identified those with the lowest risk of malignancy, chosen from a high risk population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV of the optimal tree were calculated. Results. In the first step, age, sex, and nodule size contributed to the optimal tree. Ultrasonographic features were employed in the second step with hypoechogenicity and/or microcalcifications yielding the highest discriminatory ability. The combined tree produced a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% (95% CI: 29.9–98.9 and 94.1% (95% CI: 78.9–99.0, respectively. NPV and PPV were 66.7% (41.1–85.6 and 97.0% (82.5–99.8, respectively. Conclusion. CART classifier reliably identifies patients with a low risk of malignancy who can avoid unnecessary surgery.

  12. European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: External Validation, Variability, and Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Enrique; Carrasco-Valiente, Julia; Blanca-Pedregosa, Ana; Barco-Sánchez, Beatriz; Fernandez-Rueda, Jose Luis; Molina-Abril, Helena; Valero-Rosa, Jose; Font-Ugalde, Pilar; Requena-Tapia, Maria José

    2017-04-01

    To externally validate the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculator (RC) and to evaluate its variability between 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. We prospectively catalogued 1021 consecutive patients before prostate biopsy for suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). The risk of PCa and significant PCa (Gleason score ≥7) from 749 patients was calculated according to ERSPC-RC (digital rectal examination-based version 3 of 4) for 2 consecutive PSA tests per patient. The calculators' predictions were analyzed using calibration plots and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve). Cohen kappa coefficient was used to compare the ability and variability. Of 749 patients, PCa was detected in 251 (33.5%) and significant PCa was detected in 133 (17.8%). Calibration plots showed an acceptable parallelism and similar discrimination ability for both PSA levels with an area under the curve of 0.69 for PCa and 0.74 for significant PCa. The ERSPC showed 226 (30.2%) unnecessary biopsies with the loss of 10 significant PCa. The variability of the RC was 16% for PCa and 20% for significant PCa, and a higher variability was associated with a reduced risk of significant PCa. We can conclude that the performance of the ERSPC-RC in the present cohort shows a high similitude between the 2 PSA levels; however, the RC variability value is associated with a decreased risk of significant PCa. The use of the ERSPC in our cohort detects a high number of unnecessary biopsies. Thus, the incorporation of ERSPC-RC could help the clinical decision to carry out a prostate biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can a Modified Bosniak Classification System Risk Stratify Pediatric Cystic Renal Masses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Amanda F; Carrasco, Alonso; Colvin, Alexandra N; Meyers, Mariana L; Cost, Nicholas G

    2018-03-20

    We characterize and apply the modified Bosniak classification system to a cohort of children with cystic renal lesions and known surgical pathology. We identified all patients at our institution with cystic renal masses who also underwent surgery for these lesions. Patients without available preoperative imaging or pathology were excluded. All radiological imaging was independently reviewed by a pediatric radiologist blinded to pathological findings. Imaging characteristics (size, border, septations, calcifications, solid components, vascularity) were recorded from the most recent preoperative ultrasounds and computerized tomograms. The modified Bosniak classification system was applied to these scans and then correlated with final pathology. A total of 22 patients met study criteria. Median age at surgery was 6.1 years (range 11 months to 16.8 years). Of the patients 12 (54.5%) underwent open nephrectomy, 6 (27.3%) open partial nephrectomy, 2 (9.1%) laparoscopic cyst decortication, 1 (4.5%) open renal biopsy and 1 (4.5%) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Final pathology was benign in 9 cases (41%), intermediate in 6 (27%) and malignant in 7 (32%). All malignant lesions were modified Bosniak class 4, all intermediate lesions were modified class 3 or 4 and 8 of 9 benign lesions (89%) were modified class 1 or 2. Cystic renal lesions in children with a modified Bosniak class of 1 or 2 were most often benign, while class 3 or 4 lesions warranted surgical excision since more than 90% of masses harbored intermediate or malignant pathology. The modified Bosniak classification system appears to allow for a reasonable clinical risk stratification of pediatric cystic renal masses. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  15. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  16. Ranking of risk significant components for the Davis-Besse Component Cooling Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Utilities that run nuclear power plants are responsible for testing pumps and valves, as specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) that are required for safe shutdown, mitigating the consequences of an accident, and maintaining the plant in a safe condition. These inservice components are tested according to ASME Codes, either the earlier requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, or the more recent requirements of the ASME Operation and Maintenance Code, Section IST. These codes dictate test techniques and frequencies regardless of the component failure rate or significance of failure consequences. A probabilistic risk assessment or probabilistic safety assessment may be used to evaluate the component importance for inservice test (IST) risk ranking, which is a combination of failure rate and failure consequences. Resources for component testing during the normal quarterly verification test or postmaintenance test are expensive. Normal quarterly testing may cause component unavailability. Outage testing may increase outage cost with no real benefit. This paper identifies the importance ranking of risk significant components in the Davis-Besse component cooling water system. Identifying the ranking of these risk significant IST components adds technical insight for developing the appropriate test technique and test frequency

  17. Classification of rare missense substitutions, using risk surfaces, with genetic- and molecular-epidemiology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavtigian, Sean V; Byrnes, Graham B; Goldgar, David E; Thomas, Alun

    2008-11-01

    Many individually rare missense substitutions are encountered during deep resequencing of candidate susceptibility genes and clinical mutation screening of known susceptibility genes. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are among the most resequenced of all genes, and clinical mutation screening of these genes provides an extensive data set for analysis of rare missense substitutions. Align-GVGD is a mathematically simple missense substitution analysis algorithm, based on the Grantham difference, which has already contributed to classification of missense substitutions in BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2. However, the distribution of genetic risk as a function of Align-GVGD's output variables Grantham variation (GV) and Grantham deviation (GD) has not been well characterized. Here, we used data from the Myriad Genetic Laboratories database of nearly 70,000 full-sequence tests plus two risk estimates, one approximating the odds ratio and the other reflecting strength of selection, to display the distribution of risk in the GV-GD plane as a series of surfaces. We abstracted contours from the surfaces and used the contours to define a sequence of missense substitution grades ordered from greatest risk to least risk. The grades were validated internally using a third, personal and family history-based, measure of risk. The Align-GVGD grades defined here are applicable to both the genetic epidemiology problem of classifying rare missense substitutions observed in known susceptibility genes and the molecular epidemiology problem of analyzing rare missense substitutions observed during case-control mutation screening studies of candidate susceptibility genes. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Are preoperative histology and MRI useful for classification of endometrial cancer risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body, Noemie; Lavoué, Vincent; De Kerdaniel, Olivier; Foucher, Fabrice; Henno, Sébastien; Cauchois, Aurélie; Laviolle, Bruno; Leblanc, Marc; Levêque, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 guidelines of the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) classify patients with endometrial cancer into three risk groups for lymph node invasion and recurrence on the basis of MRI and histological analysis of an endometrial specimen obtained preoperatively. The classification guides therapeutic choices, which may include pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative assessment to help identify intermediate- or high-risk patients requiring lymphadenectomy. The study included all patients who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer between January 2010 and December 2013 at either Rennes University Hospital or Vannes Regional Hospital. The criteria for eligibility included a preoperative assessment with MRI and histological examination of an endometrial sample. A histological comparison was made between the preoperative and surgical specimens. Among the 91 patients who underwent a full preoperative assessment, the diagnosis of intermediate- or high-risk endometrial cancer was established by MRI and histology with a sensitivity of 70 %, specificity of 82 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 87 %, negative predictive value (NPV) of 61 %, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.8 and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.3. The risk group was underestimated in 32 % of patients and overestimated in 7 % of patients. MRI underestimated endometrial cancer stage in 20 % of cases, while endometrial sampling underestimated the histological type in 4 % of cases and the grade in 9 % of cases. The preoperative assessment overestimated or underestimated the risk of recurrence in nearly 40 % of cases, with errors in lesion type, grade or stage. Erroneous preoperative risk assessment leads to suboptimal initial surgical management of patients with endometrial cancer

  19. Network Diffusion-Based Prioritization of Autism Risk Genes Identifies Significantly Connected Gene Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Mosca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is marked by a strong genetic heterogeneity, which is underlined by the low overlap between ASD risk gene lists proposed in different studies. In this context, molecular networks can be used to analyze the results of several genome-wide studies in order to underline those network regions harboring genetic variations associated with ASD, the so-called “disease modules.” In this work, we used a recent network diffusion-based approach to jointly analyze multiple ASD risk gene lists. We defined genome-scale prioritizations of human genes in relation to ASD genes from multiple studies, found significantly connected gene modules associated with ASD and predicted genes functionally related to ASD risk genes. Most of them play a role in synapsis and neuronal development and function; many are related to syndromes that can be in comorbidity with ASD and the remaining are involved in epigenetics, cell cycle, cell adhesion and cancer.

  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY PATIENTS INTO LOW AND HIGH BLEEDING RISK GROUPS USING THROMBELASTOGRAPHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Title: CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY PATIENTS INTO LOW AND HIGH BLEEDING RISK GROUPS USING THROMBELASTOGRAPHY Objectives: Orthognathic surgery involves surgical manipulation of jaw and face skeletal structure. A subgroup of patients undergoing orthognathic surgery suffers from excessive...... into account the complex interplay between coagulation factors, blood platelets and components of the fibrinolytic system. Patients undergoing orthognathic surgery were included in this prospective study, and their preoperative thrombelastographic data were collected and compared to their intraoperative blood...... predictive values. An α angleex above 67o did with 95% certainty predict a blood loss below 400 mL, and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8. Conclusion: By means of the α angleex it is possible to separate orthognathic surgery patients according...

  1. A genome-wide association study demonstrates significant genetic variation for fracture risk in Thoroughbred racehorses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Thoroughbred racehorses are subject to non-traumatic distal limb bone fractures that occur during racing and exercise. Susceptibility to fracture may be due to underlying disturbances in bone metabolism which have a genetic cause. Fracture risk has been shown to be heritable in several species but this study is the first genetic analysis of fracture risk in the horse. Results Fracture cases (n = 269) were horses that sustained catastrophic distal limb fractures while racing on UK racecourses, necessitating euthanasia. Control horses (n = 253) were over 4 years of age, were racing during the same time period as the cases, and had no history of fracture at the time the study was carried out. The horses sampled were bred for both flat and National Hunt (NH) jump racing. 43,417 SNPs were employed to perform a genome-wide association analysis and to estimate the proportion of genetic variance attributable to the SNPs on each chromosome using restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Significant genetic variation associated with fracture risk was found on chromosomes 9, 18, 22 and 31. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 (62.05 Mb – 62.15 Mb) and one SNP on chromosome 1 (14.17 Mb) reached genome-wide significance (p fracture than cases, p = 1 × 10-4), while a second haplotype increases fracture risk (cases at 3.39 times higher risk of fracture than controls, p = 0.042). Conclusions Fracture risk in the Thoroughbred horse is a complex condition with an underlying genetic basis. Multiple genomic regions contribute to susceptibility to fracture risk. This suggests there is the potential to develop SNP-based estimators for genetic risk of fracture in the Thoroughbred racehorse, using methods pioneered in livestock genetics such as genomic selection. This information would be useful to racehorse breeders and owners, enabling them to reduce the risk of injury in their horses. PMID:24559379

  2. Correlation of Estradiol Serum Levels with Classification of Osteoporosis Risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in Menopause Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maya Puspita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In postmenopausal women, decreasing estrogen levels is a marker of ovarian dysfunction. Hypoestrogenic state has known increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the correlation between estradiol serum levels with classification of osteoporosis risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in menopausal women. Methods: This study was case series study which examined estradiol serum in menopausal women by ELISA and assess the osteoporosis risk using osteoporosis risk classification OSTA. Total 47 samples was collected at Dr. H.Adam malik, dr. Pirngadi, and RSU Networking in Medan. This research was conducted from May to December 2016. Data were statistically analyzed, and presented with Spearman test. Results: In this study, we found the mean levels of estradiol in menopausal women was 18.62 ± 16.85 ng / ml with OSTA osteoporosis risk score of 2.09 ± 2.45. There was a significant positive correlation between estradiol and risk of osteoporosis OSTA with correlation coefficient r = 0.825 and p <0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong positive correlation between serum levels of estradiol with OSTA osteoporosis risk assessment in menopausal women.

  3. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. I: Conceptual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated a risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived GM foods. The results of this research are presented in three papers. This paper describes the conceptual development of the proposed RBCS that focuses on two categories of adverse health effects: (1) toxic and antinutritional effects, and (2) allergenic effects. The factors that may affect the level of potential health risks of GM foods are identified. For each factor identified, criteria for differentiating health risk potential are developed. The extent to which a GM food satisfies applicable criteria for each factor is rated separately. A concern level for each category of health effects is then determined by aggregating the ratings for the factors using predetermined aggregation rules. An overview of the proposed scheme is presented, as well as the application of the scheme to a hypothetical GM food.

  4. Risk-Aware Planetary Rover Operation: Autonomous Terrain Classification and Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Fuchs, Thoams J.; Steffy, Amanda; Maimone, Mark; Yen, Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and avoiding terrain hazards (e.g., soft soil and pointy embedded rocks) are crucial for the safety of planetary rovers. This paper presents a newly developed groundbased Mars rover operation tool that mitigates risks from terrain by automatically identifying hazards on the terrain, evaluating their risks, and suggesting operators safe paths options that avoids potential risks while achieving specified goals. The tool will bring benefits to rover operations by reducing operation cost, by reducing cognitive load of rover operators, by preventing human errors, and most importantly, by significantly reducing the risk of the loss of rovers.

  5. Interpretation of risk significance of passive component aging using probabilistic structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.; Atwood, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. Except as initiating events, the possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. The NRC is sponsoring a project at INEL to investigate the risk significance of passive components as they age. For this project, we developed a technique to calculate the failure probability of passive components over time, and demonstrated the technique by applying it to a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system. A decreasing yearly rupture rate for this weld was calculated instead of the increasing rupture rate trend one might expect. We attribute this result to infant mortality; that is, most of those initial flaws that will eventually lead to rupture will do so early in life. This means that although each weld in a population may be wearing out, the population as a whole can exhibit a decreasing rupture rate. This observation has implications for passive components in commercial nuclear plants and other facilities where aging is a concern. For the population of passive components that exhibit a decreasing failure rate, risk increase is not a concern. The next step of the work is to identify the attributes that contribute to this decreasing rate, and to determine any attributes that would contribute to an increasing failure rate and thus to an increased risk

  6. Classification of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Significance Analysis of Microarray-Gene Set Reduction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (AC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are two major histology subtypes, accounting for roughly 40% and 30% of all lung cancer cases, respectively. Since AC and SCC differ in their cell of origin, location within the lung, and growth pattern, they are considered as distinct diseases. Gene expression signatures have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for distinguishing AC and SCC. Gene set analysis is regarded as irrelevant to the identification of gene expression signatures. Nevertheless, we found that one specific gene set analysis method, significance analysis of microarray-gene set reduction (SAMGSR, can be adopted directly to select relevant features and to construct gene expression signatures. In this study, we applied SAMGSR to a NSCLC gene expression dataset. When compared with several novel feature selection algorithms, for example, LASSO, SAMGSR has equivalent or better performance in terms of predictive ability and model parsimony. Therefore, SAMGSR is a feature selection algorithm, indeed. Additionally, we applied SAMGSR to AC and SCC subtypes separately to discriminate their respective stages, that is, stage II versus stage I. Few overlaps between these two resulting gene signatures illustrate that AC and SCC are technically distinct diseases. Therefore, stratified analyses on subtypes are recommended when diagnostic or prognostic signatures of these two NSCLC subtypes are constructed.

  7. Geotechnical Risk Classification for Underground Mines / Klasyfikacja Poziomu Zagrożenia Geotechnicznego W Kopalniach Podziemnych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Underground mining activities are prone to major hazards largely owing to geotechnical reasons. Mining combined with the confined working space and uncertain geotechnical data leads to hazards having the potential of catastrophic consequences. These incidents have the potential of causing multiple fatalities and large financial damages. Use of formal risk assessment in the past has demonstrated an important role in the prediction and prevention of accidents in risk prone industries such as petroleum, nuclear and aviation. This paper proposes a classification system for underground mining operations based on their geotechnical risk levels. The classification is done based on the type of mining method employed and the rock mass in which it is carried out. Mining methods have been classified in groups which offer similar geotechnical risk. The rock mass classification has been proposed based on bulk rock mass properties which are collected as part of the routine mine planning. This classification has been subdivided for various stages of mine planning to suit the extent of available data. Alpha-numeric coding has been proposed to identify a mining operation based on the competency of rock and risk of geotechnical failures. This alpha numeric coding has been further extended to identify mining activity under `Geotechnical Hazard Potential (GHP)'. GHP has been proposed to be used as a preliminary tool of risk assessment and risk ranking for a mining activity. The aim of such classification is to be used as a guideline for the justification of a formal geotechnical risk assessment. Górnictwo podziemne pociąga za sobą różnorakie zagrożenia spowodowane przez uwarunkowania geotechniczne. Urabianie złoża w połączeniu z pracą w zamkniętej przestrzeni oraz z niepewnymi danymi geotechnicznymi powodować może zagrożenia, które w konsekwencji prowadzić mogą do wypadków, a te potencjalnie powodować mogą skutki śmiertelne dla osób oraz poważne straty

  8. Significant association between RGS14 rs12654812 and nephrolithiasis risk among Guangxi population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Chen, Yang; Lin, Haisong; Liao, Ming; Li, Tianyu; Tong, Lei; Wei, Suchun; Xian, Xiaoying; Zhu, Jia; Chen, Jianxin; Tian, Jiarong; Wang, Qiuyan; Mo, Zengnan

    2018-03-26

    Nephrolithiasis is a worldwide health problem that affects almost all populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between rs12654812 of regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) gene and nephrolithiasis in the Chinese population. A total of 1541 participators including 830 cases and 711 controls were included from Guangxi area in China. Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen were analyzed between the case group and control group. We found that the G/A+A/A genotypes of rs12654812 had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk after adjusting age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, and hypertension, compared with G/G genotype (OR = 1.361, 95% CI = 1.033-1.794, P = .029). This hazardous effect was more pronounced in subgroup of age < 50, ever smoking, ever drinking, creatinine normal, and high uric acid. The G/A genotype of rs12654812 also had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk compared with G/G genotype. The A allele of rs12654812 significantly increased the risk of nephrolithiasis compared with the G allele after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and hypertension (OR = 1.277, 95% CI = 1.013-1.609, P = .038). Our results suggest that the RGS14 polymorphism is involved in the etiology of nephrolithiasis and thus may be a genetic marker for nephrolithiasis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Risk factors of significant pain syndrome 90 days after minor thoracic injury: trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Raoul; Emond, Marcel; Bergeron, Eric; LeSage, Natalie; Camden, Stéphanie; Guimont, Chantal; Vanier, Laurent; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to identify the risk factors of clinically significant pain at 90 days in patients with minor thoracic injury (MTI) discharged from the emergency department (ED). A prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted in four Canadian EDs from November 2006 to November 2010. All consecutive patients aged 16 years or older with MTI were eligible at discharge from EDs. They underwent standardized clinical and radiologic evaluations at 1 and 2 weeks, followed by standardized telephone interviews at 30 and 90 days. A pain trajectory model characterized groups of patients with different pain evolutions and ascertained specific risk factors in each group through multivariate analysis. In this cohort of 1,132 patients, 734 were eligible for study inclusion. The authors identified a pain trajectory that characterized 18.2% of the study population experiencing clinically significant pain (>3 of 10) at 90 days after a MTI. Multivariate modeling found two or more rib fractures, smoking, and initial oxygen saturation below 95% to be predictors of this group of patients. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first prospective study of trajectory modeling to detect risk factors associated with significant pain at 90 days after MTI. These factors may help in planning specific treatment strategies and should be validated in another prospective cohort. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. International classification of function, disability and health framework for fall risk stratification in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls is an important cause for mortality and morbidity in older adults. The fall risk assessment is an integral component of fall prevention in older adults. The international classification of function, disability and health (ICF can be an ideal comprehensive model for fall risk assessment. There is lack of information relating ICF and fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults. In this study we tried to assess the fall risk using different domains of ICF using various clinical tools. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through convenient sampling method from geriatric clinic (OPD of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The study was single session cross-section design. The body mass index (BMI, grip strength, depression score (Geriatric depression scale:short form; GDS-S and co morbidities were used to assess body function and structure domain, timed up and go (TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS and elderly fall screening test (EFST scores were used for activity domain, selfreported cause of fall, medications and uses of assistive device for environmental factors. Then the association of body function and structure, activity and environmental factors were determined with falls. There was an association of fall in analysis in subjects with no fall and one or more falls for, BMI, grip strength (kg, GDS-S score, no. of co morbidities, chronic pain, TUG, BBS, TUG (s, BBS, EFST, slip/trip, walking cane, hypoglycemic and antihypertensives medications (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio.The diabetes, and hyper tension showed association for adjusted odds ratio only. In subjects with one fall and more than one fall, TUG, BBS, EFST, GDS-S score, NSAIDS and antidepressants use showed a significant association with fall (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio. The ICF may be used in routine for fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults.

  11. Clinical significance of combined detection of CYFRA21-1, NSE and CEA in classification and staging of patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu He; Li Yanhua; Liang Weida; Zhang Qin

    2011-01-01

    To explore clinical value of combined detection of CYFRA21-1, NSE and CEA in classification and staging of patients with lung cancer, the CYFRA21-1, NSE and CEA levels in pleural effusion in 330 patients with lung cancer and in 43 patients with benign were detected by the electrochemiluminescence. The results showed that CYFRA21-1, NSE and CEA levels in pleural effusion in patients with lung cancer group were significantly higher than that of in benign group (P<0.01). The positive rate of tumor markers in different pathological type lung cancer were different,which CYFRA21-1 positive rate in squamous cell cancer group was highest with 65.5%; CEA positive rate in glands cancer group was supreme with 65.0%; the NSE positive rate in differentiation cancer group was highest with 79.5%. The positive rate in three markers combined detection was higher than that in one item detection. The tumor marker levels in lung cancer were positively related with clinical staging. The higher of tumor marker levels and the more late of clinical staging, and the clinical III∼IV period was obviously higher than that I∼II period (P<0.05). The combined detection of CYFRA21-1, NSE and CEA may enhance the positive rate in lung cancer detection, and may have significant clinical value in the classification and staging of patients with lung cancer. (authors)

  12. Risk-Significant Adverse Condition Awareness Strengthens Assurance of Fault Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    As spaceflight systems increase in complexity, Fault Management (FM) systems are ranked high in risk-based assessment of software criticality, emphasizing the importance of establishing highly competent domain expertise to provide assurance. Adverse conditions (ACs) and specific vulnerabilities encountered by safety- and mission-critical software systems have been identified through efforts to reduce the risk posture of software-intensive NASA missions. Acknowledgement of potential off-nominal conditions and analysis to determine software system resiliency are important aspects of hazard analysis and FM. A key component of assuring FM is an assessment of how well software addresses susceptibility to failure through consideration of ACs. Focus on significant risk predicted through experienced analysis conducted at the NASA Independent Verification Validation (IVV) Program enables the scoping of effective assurance strategies with regard to overall asset protection of complex spaceflight as well as ground systems. Research efforts sponsored by NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance defined terminology, categorized data fields, and designed a baseline repository that centralizes and compiles a comprehensive listing of ACs and correlated data relevant across many NASA missions. This prototype tool helps projects improve analysis by tracking ACs and allowing queries based on project, mission type, domaincomponent, causal fault, and other key characteristics. Vulnerability in off-nominal situations, architectural design weaknesses, and unexpected or undesirable system behaviors in reaction to faults are curtailed with the awareness of ACs and risk-significant scenarios modeled for analysts through this database. Integration within the Enterprise Architecture at NASA IVV enables interfacing with other tools and datasets, technical support, and accessibility across the Agency. This paper discusses the development of an improved workflow process utilizing this

  13. Coronary artery disease in a rural population of Bangladesh: is dyslipidemia or adiposity a significant risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Krishna Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are on the increase worldwide and more in the developing countries. Coronary artery disease (CAD constitutes the major brunt of CVD. Despite the increasing morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh has a few published data on CAD in rural population. This study addressed the prevalence of CAD and its risk factors in rural population of Bangladesh. Study methods: Sixteen villages were purposively selected in a rural area. A population census was conducted in the selected area. The census yielded eligible participants, who reached at least eighteen years of age. Those who willingly consented to participate were enlisted. Each participant was interviewed regarding CAD risk (age, sex, social class, occupation, illness, family history. Anthropometry (height, weight, waist- and hip-girth was recorded. Resting blood pressure (BP was measured. Blood sample was collected for fasting blood glucose (FBG, total cholesterol (Chol, triglycerides (Tg, low density lipoproteins (LDL, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL and high density (HDL. All participants having FBG>5.5mmol/l or systolic (SBP ³135 or diastolic BP (DBP ³85mmHg underwent electrocardiography (ECG. A team of cardiologists selected and accomplished exercise tolerance test (ETT and echocardiography (Echo. Results: The prevalence of CAD was 4.5% (95% CI: 3.85 – 5.15. Compared with the female (3.5%, CI, 2.76 – 4.24 the male participants had significantly higher prevalence of CAD (6.0%, CI, 4.83 – 7.13. Comparison of characteristics between participants with and without CAD showed that age, SBP, DBP and FBG were significantly higher in CAD group. Bivariate analysis showed that age, sex, social class, glycemic status, metabolic syndrome (MetS and smoking were significantly related to CAD. Stepwise logistic regression proved only male sex, rich social class, hypertension and diabetes had independent risk of CAD; whereas, age, obesity

  14. The problem of "significant risk": exploring the public health impact of criminalizing HIV non-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Using criminal law powers to respond to people living with HIV (PHAs) who expose sexual partners to HIV or transmit the virus to them is a prominent global HIV public policy issue. While there are widespread concerns about the public health impact of HIV-related criminalization, the social science literature on the topic is limited. This article responds to that gap in knowledge by reporting on the results of qualitative research conducted with service providers and PHAs in Canada. The article draws on a studies in the social organization of knowledge perspective and insights from critical criminology and work on the "medico-legal borderland." It investigates the role played by the legal concept of "significant risk" in coordinating criminal law governance and its interface with public health and HIV prevention. In doing so, the article emphasizes that exploring the public health impact of criminalization must move past the criminal law--PHA dyad to address broader social and institutional processes relevant to HIV prevention. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews, this article explores how criminal law governance shapes the activities of providers engaged in HIV prevention counseling, conceptualized as a complex of activities linking clinicians, public health officials, front-line counselors, PHAs, and others. It emphasizes three key findings: (1) the concept of significant risk poses serious problems to risk communication in HIV counseling and contributes to contradictory advice about disclosure obligations; (2) criminalization discourages PHAs' openness about HIV non-disclosure in counseling relationships; and (3) the recontextualization of public health interpretations of significant risk in criminal proceedings can intensify criminalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preoperative immobility significantly impacts the risk of postoperative complications in bariatric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Rana M; Helm, Melissa; Gould, Jon C; Kindel, Tammy L

    2018-03-05

    Preoperative immobility in general surgery patients has been associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. It is unknown if immobility affects bariatric surgery outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of immobility on 30-day postoperative bariatric surgery outcomes. This study took place at a university hospital in the United States. The Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program 2015 data set was queried for primary minimally invasive bariatric procedures. Preoperative immobility was defined as limited ambulation most or all the time. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine if immobile patients are at increased risk (odds ratio [OR]) for 30-day complications. There were 148,710 primary minimally invasive bariatric procedures in 2015. Immobile patients had an increased risk of mortality (OR 4.59, Pbariatric surgery outcomes. Immobile patients have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study provides an opportunity for the development of multiple quality initiatives to improve the safety and perioperative complication profile for immobile patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Schistosoma mansoni reinfection: Analysis of risk factors by classification and regression tree (CART modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Gazzinelli

    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is an effective chemotherapy for schistosomiasis mansoni and a mainstay for its control and potential elimination. However, it does not prevent against reinfection, which can occur rapidly in areas with active transmission. A guide to ranking the risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni reinfection would greatly contribute to prioritizing resources and focusing prevention and control measures to prevent rapid reinfection. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship among the socioeconomic, demographic, and epidemiological factors that can influence reinfection by S. mansoni one year after successful treatment with PZQ in school-aged children in Northeastern Minas Gerais state Brazil. Parasitological, socioeconomic, demographic, and water contact information were surveyed in 506 S. mansoni-infected individuals, aged 6 to 15 years, resident in these endemic areas. Eligible individuals were treated with PZQ until they were determined to be negative by the absence of S. mansoni eggs in the feces on two consecutive days of Kato-Katz fecal thick smear. These individuals were surveyed again 12 months from the date of successful treatment with PZQ. A classification and regression tree modeling (CART was then used to explore the relationship between socioeconomic, demographic, and epidemiological variables and their reinfection status. The most important risk factor identified for S. mansoni reinfection was their "heavy" infection at baseline. Additional analyses, excluding heavy infection status, showed that lower socioeconomic status and a lower level of education of the household head were also most important risk factors for S. mansoni reinfection. Our results provide an important contribution toward the control and possible elimination of schistosomiasis by identifying three major risk factors that can be used for targeted treatment and monitoring of reinfection. We suggest that control measures that target

  17. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  18. A multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-based risk model to determine the risk of significant prostate cancer prior to biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J; Hayen, Andrew; Thompson, James E; Moses, Daniel; Shnier, Ron; Böhm, Maret; Abuodha, Magdaline; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Ting, Francis; Barentsz, Jelle; Roobol, Monique; Vass, Justin; Rasiah, Krishan; Delprado, Warick; Stricker, Phillip D

    2017-12-01

    To develop and externally validate a predictive model for detection of significant prostate cancer. Development of the model was based on a prospective cohort including 393 men who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) before biopsy. External validity of the model was then examined retrospectively in 198 men from a separate institution whom underwent mpMRI followed by biopsy for abnormal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level or digital rectal examination (DRE). A model was developed with age, PSA level, DRE, prostate volume, previous biopsy, and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) score, as predictors for significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 with >5% grade 4, ≥20% cores positive or ≥7 mm of cancer in any core). Probability was studied via logistic regression. Discriminatory performance was quantified by concordance statistics and internally validated with bootstrap resampling. In all, 393 men had complete data and 149 (37.9%) had significant prostate cancer. While the variable model had good accuracy in predicting significant prostate cancer, area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80, the advanced model (incorporating mpMRI) had a significantly higher AUC of 0.88 (P prostate cancer. Individualised risk assessment of significant prostate cancer using a predictive model that incorporates mpMRI PIRADS score and clinical data allows a considerable reduction in unnecessary biopsies and reduction of the risk of over-detection of insignificant prostate cancer at the cost of a very small increase in the number of significant cancers missed. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Significance of metabolites in the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals consumed by human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the significance of metabolites to the ERA of human pharmaceuticals. The predicted exposure concentrations (PECs) in surface water were estimated for a total of 24 selected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their metabolites using a life cycle based emission estimation model combined with a multimedia fate model with Monte-Carlo calculations. With the eco-toxicity data, the hazard quotients (HQs) of the metabolites were compared with those of individual parents alone. The results showed that PEC or toxicity or both of the metabolites was predicted to be higher than that of their parent APIs, which resulted in a total of 18 metabolites (from 12 parents) that have greater HQs than their parents. This result clearly demonstrated that some metabolites may potentially pose greater risk than their parent APIs in the water environment. Therefore, significance of metabolites should be carefully evaluated for monitoring strategy, priority setting, and scoping of the environmental risk assessment of APIs. The method used in the present work may serve as a pragmatic approach for the purpose of preliminary screening or priority setting of environmental risk posed by both APIs and their metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  1. Logistic regression and multiple classification analyses to explore risk factors of under-5 mortality in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, K.R.; Islam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Logistic regression (LR) analysis is the most common statistical methodology to find out the determinants of childhood mortality. However, the significant predictors cannot be ranked according to their influence on the response variable. Multiple classification (MC) analysis can be applied to identify the significant predictors with a priority index which helps to rank the predictors. The main objective of the study is to find the socio-demographic determinants of childhood mortality at neonatal, post-neonatal, and post-infant period by fitting LR model as well as to rank those through MC analysis. The study is conducted using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 where birth and death information of children were collected from their mothers. Three dichotomous response variables are constructed from children age at death to fit the LR and MC models. Socio-economic and demographic variables significantly associated with the response variables separately are considered in LR and MC analyses. Both the LR and MC models identified the same significant predictors for specific childhood mortality. For both the neonatal and child mortality, biological factors of children, regional settings, and parents socio-economic status are found as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd significant groups of predictors respectively. Mother education and household environment are detected as major significant predictors of post-neonatal mortality. This study shows that MC analysis with or without LR analysis can be applied to detect determinants with rank which help the policy makers taking initiatives on a priority basis. (author)

  2. Modelling the Happiness Classification of Addicted, Addiction Risk, Threshold and Non-Addicted Groups on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapmaz, Fatma; Totan, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model the happiness classification of university students--grouped as addicted, addiction risk, threshold and non-addicted to internet usage--with compatibility analysis on a map as happiness, average and unhappiness. The participants in this study were 400 university students from Turkey. According to the results of…

  3. Quantification of CT images for the classification of high- and low-risk pancreatic cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Lior; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Attiyeh, Marc; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Allen, Peter J.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of 7%1 due to the late stage at diagnosis and the ineffectiveness of current therapeutic strategies. Given the poor prognosis, early detection at a pre-cancerous stage is the best tool for preventing this disease. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), cystic tumors of the pancreas, represent the only radiographically identifiable precursor lesion of pancreatic cancer and are known to evolve stepwise from low-to-high-grade dysplasia before progressing into an invasive carcinoma. Observation is usually recommended for low-risk (low- and intermediate-grade dysplasia) patients, while high-risk (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma) patients undergo resection; hence, patient selection is critically important in the management of pancreatic cysts.2 Radiologists use standard criteria such as main pancreatic duct size, cyst size, or presence of a solid enhancing component in the cyst to optimally select patients for surgery.3 However, these findings are subject to a radiologist's interpretation and have been shown to be inconsistent with regards to the presence of a mural nodule or solid component.4 We propose objective classification of risk groups based on quantitative imaging features extracted from CT scans. We apply new features that represent the solid component (i.e. areas of high intensity) within the cyst and extract standard texture features. An adaptive boost classifier5 achieves the best performance with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.73 and accuracy of 77.3% for texture features. The random forest classifier achieves the best performance with AUC of 0.71 and accuracy of 70.8% with the solid component features.

  4. A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T.S.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

  5. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  6. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G X Wong

    Full Text Available Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients.We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188, and those without (n = 4,195. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization.On admission, female gender (p38°C (p38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27-2.61, nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94-2.12, ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15-1.46, ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25-0.64, hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-1.002 and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988-0.998. At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98.Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant bleeding were identified. This model may be useful to complement clinical judgement in triaging adult dengue patients given the dynamic nature of acute dengue, particularly in pre-identifying those less likely to develop clinically significant bleeding.

  7. Creation and implementation of a certification system for insurability and fire risk classification for forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica Loewe M.; Victor Vargas; Juan Miguel Ruiz; Andrea Alvarez C.; Felipe Lobo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the Chilean insurance market sells forest fire insurance policies and agricultural weather risk policies. However, access to forest fire insurance is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a significant proportion (close to 50%) of forest plantations being without coverage. Indeed, the insurance market that sells forest fire insurance...

  8. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. II: Graded testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this proposed approach to graded testing, products that are classified as Level I would have met baseline testing requirements that are comparable to what is widely applied to premarket assessment of GM foods at present. In most cases, Level I products would require no further testing, or very limited confirmatory analyses. For products classified as Level II or higher, additional testing would be required, depending on the type of the substance, prior dietary history, estimated exposure level, prior knowledge of toxicity of the substance, and the nature of the concern related to unintended changes in the modified food. Level III testing applies only to the assessment of toxic and antinutritional effects from intended changes and is tailored to the nature of the substance in question. Since appropriate test methods are not currently available for all effects of concern, future research to strengthen the testing of GM foods is discussed.

  9. Impact of chromosome alterations, genetic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) on the classification and risk stratification of MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Bani Bandana; Banerjee, Debasis; Agarwal, Mohan B

    2018-03-01

    The advent of technological development has undoubtedly advanced biological and molecular inputs for better understanding the heterogeneous hematopoietic pre-malignant disorder of the stem cells known as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Chromosomal rearrangements, including del(3q/5q/7q/11q/12p/20q), loss of 5/7/Y, trisomy 8/19, i(17q), etc. frequently detected in MDS with variable frequencies and combinations, are the integral components of the 5-tier risk-stratification and WHO-2016 classification. Observations on mutations in genes involved in RNA-splicing, DNA methylation, chromatin modification, transcription factor, signal transduction/kinases, RAS pathway, cohesin complex, DNA repair and other pathways have given insights in independent effects and biological interaction of co-occurrence on disease-phenotype and treatment outcome. However, recent concepts of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) and idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) have urged a re-definition of mutational events in non-clonal cytopenia and non-MDS healthy elderly but with a higher risk of overt leukemia. Considering gene mutations, chromosomal alterations, CHIP, ICUS and their significance in classification and risk-scoring certainly presents a comprehensive picture of disease-phenotype towards better understanding of MDS-pathogenesis, its evolution to AML and its response to therapeutic agents. The present review summarizes chromosomal and gene mutations, co-existence of mutational complexity, and WHO-2016 classification and risk-stratifications of MDS to facilitate a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PRECHOROIDAL CLEFT IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Se Woong; Son, Dae Yong; Bae, Kunho

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P age-related macular degeneration (P age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.

  11. Correlation between classification in risk categories and clinical aspects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriella Novelli; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-12-08

    to correlate classification in risk categories with the clinical profiles, outcomes and origins of patients. analytical cross-sectional study conducted with 697 medical forms of adult patients. The variables included: age, sex, origin, signs and symptoms, exams, personal antecedents, classification in risk categories, medical specialties, and outcome. The Chi-square and likelihood ratio tests were used to associate classifications in risk categories with origin, signs and symptoms, exams, personal antecedents, medical specialty, and outcome. most patients were women with an average age of 44.5 years. Pain and dyspnea were the symptoms most frequently reported while hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common comorbidities. Classifications in the green and yellow categories were the most frequent and hospital discharge the most common outcome. Patients classified in the red category presented the highest percentage of ambulance origin due to surgical reasons. Those classified in the orange and red categories also presented the highest percentage of hospitalization and death. correlation between clinical aspects and outcomes indicate there is a relationship between the complexity of components in the categories with greater severity, evidenced by the highest percentage of hospitalization and death. correlacionar as categorias de classificação de risco com perfil clínico, desfechos e procedência. estudo transversal analítico realizado com 697 fichas de atendimento de pacientes adultos. Variáveis estudadas: idade, sexo, procedência, sinais e sintomas, exames, antecedentes pessoais, categorias da classificação de risco, especialidade médica de atendimento e desfecho. Para associar as categorias de classificação de risco com procedência, sinais e sintomas, exames, antecedentes pessoais, especialidade médica e desfecho, utilizaram-se o teste qui-quadrado e a razão de verossimilhança. pacientes do sexo feminino foram a maioria e com média de

  12. Genetic variation in VEGF does not contribute significantly to the risk of congenital cardiovascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R Griffin

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have investigated the role of common promoter variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene in causing congenital cardiovascular malformation (CVM. However, results have been discrepant between studies and no study to date has comprehensively characterised variation throughout the gene. We genotyped 771 CVM cases, of whom 595 had the outflow tract malformation Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, and carried out TDT and case-control analyses using haplotype-tagging SNPs in VEGF. We carried out a meta-analysis of previous case-control or family-based studies that had typed VEGF promoter SNPs, which included an additional 570 CVM cases. To identify rare variants potentially causative of CVM, we carried out mutation screening in all VEGF exons and splice sites in 93 TOF cases. There was no significant effect of any VEGF haplotype-tagging SNP on the risk of CVM in our analyses of 771 probands. When the results of this and all previous studies were combined, there was no significant effect of the VEGF promoter SNPs rs699947 (OR 1.05 [95% CI 0.95-1.17]; rs1570360 (OR 1.17 [95% CI 0.99-1.26]; and rs2010963 (OR 1.04 [95% CI 0.93-1.16] on the risk of CVM in 1341 cases. Mutation screening of 93 TOF cases revealed no VEGF coding sequence variants and no changes at splice consensus sequences. Genetic variation in VEGF appears to play a small role, if any, in outflow tract CVM susceptibility.

  13. Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA): classification of suicidal events in the FDA's pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Kelly; Oquendo, Maria A; Gould, Madelyn; Stanley, Barbara; Davies, Mark

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the link between antidepressants and suicidal behavior and ideation (suicidality) in youth, adverse events from pediatric clinical trials were classified in order to identify suicidal events. The authors describe the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment (C-CASA), a standardized suicidal rating system that provided data for the pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antidepressants conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Adverse events (N=427) from 25 pediatric antidepressant clinical trials were systematically identified by pharmaceutical companies. Randomly assigned adverse events were evaluated by three of nine independent expert suicidologists using the Columbia classification algorithm. Reliability of the C-CASA ratings and agreement with pharmaceutical company classification were estimated. Twenty-six new, possibly suicidal events (behavior and ideation) that were not originally identified by pharmaceutical companies were identified in the C-CASA, and 12 events originally labeled as suicidal by pharmaceutical companies were eliminated, which resulted in a total of 38 discrepant ratings. For the specific label of "suicide attempt," a relatively low level of agreement was observed between the C-CASA and pharmaceutical company ratings, with the C-CASA reporting a 50% reduction in ratings. Thus, although the C-CASA resulted in the identification of more suicidal events overall, fewer events were classified as suicide attempts. Additionally, the C-CASA ratings were highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.89). Utilizing a methodical, anchored approach to categorizing suicidality provides an accurate and comprehensive identification of suicidal events. The FDA's audit of the C-CASA demonstrated excellent transportability of this approach. The Columbia algorithm was used to classify suicidal adverse events in the recent FDA adult antidepressant safety analyses and has also been mandated to be applied to all

  14. Duplications of the neuropeptide receptor gene VIPR2 confer significant risk for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vacic, Vladimir

    2011-03-24

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have a prominent role in the aetiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500-kilobase) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 (ref. 2), 3q29 (ref. 3), 15q13.3 (ref. 2) and 22q11.2 (ref. 4) and microduplication at 16p11.2 (ref. 5). However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia. Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362-kilobase region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus 2 of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample. All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kilobases upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signalling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered vasoactive intestinal peptide signalling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and indicate the VPAC2 receptor as a potential target for the development of new antipsychotic drugs.

  15. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  16. Risk and prognostic significance of metachronous contralateral testicular germ cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapveld, M.; van den Belt-Dusebout, A. W.; Gietema, J. A.; de Wit, R.; Horenblas, S.; Witjes, J. A.; Hoekstra, H. J.; Kiemeney, L. A. L. M.; Louwman, W. J.; Ouwens, G. M.; Aleman, B. M. P.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) patients are at increased risk of developing a contralateral testicular germ cell tumour (CTGCT). It is unclear whether TGCT treatment affects CTGCT risk. METHODS: The risk of developing a metachronous CTGCT (a CTGCT diagnosed >= 6 months after a

  17. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, J Halskou; Ahlehoff, O; Dreyer, L

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a well-known cardiovascular risk factor. Less is known about cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, we investigated the risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events in patients diagnosed...

  18. Managing Sensitive Information: DOD Can More Effectively Reduce the Risk of Classification Errors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Davi M; Borseth, Ann; Fenton, Mattias; Hatton, Adam; Hills, Barbara; Keefer, David; Mayfield, David; Reid, Jim; Richardson, Terry; Schwartz, Marc

    2006-01-01

    .... While some DoD components and their subordinate commands appear to manage effective programs, GAO identified weaknesses in others in the areas of classification management training, self-inspections...

  19. Example-Dependent Cost-Sensitive Classification with Applications in Financial Risk Modeling and Marketing Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Bahnsen, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Several real-world binary classification problems are example-dependent cost-sensitive in nature, where the costs due to misclassification vary between examples and not only within classes. However, standard binary classification methods do not take these costs into account, and assume a constant cost of misclassification errors. This approach is not realistic in many real-world applications. For example in credit card fraud detection, failing to detect a fraudulent transaction may have an ec...

  20. Duplications of the Neuropeptide Receptor VIPR2 Confer Significant Risk for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacic, Vladimir; McCarthy, Shane; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Murray, Fiona; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Peoples, Aine; Makarov, Vladimir; Yoon, Seungtai; Bhandari, Abhishek; Corominas, Roser; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Krause, Verena; Larach-Walters, Verónica; Welsh, David K.; Craig, David; Kelsoe, John R.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Aquila, Marie Dell; Morris, Derek W.; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Insel, Paul A.; McClellan, Jon; King, Mary-Claire; Karayiorgou, Maria; Levy, Deborah L.; DeLisi, Lynn E.; Sebat, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) play a prominent role in the etiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders1. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500 kb) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 2, 3q29 3, 15q13.3 2 and 22q11.2 4 and microduplication at 16p11.2 5. However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia (P= 4.0×10-5, OR = 16.14 [3.06, ∞]). Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362 kb region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus two of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample (p-value= 5.7×10-7, odds ratio (OR) = 14.1 [3.5, 123.9]). All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kb upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signaling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered VIP signaling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and suggest VIPR2 as a potential target for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21346763

  1. Derivation of a No-Significant-Risk-Level (NSRL) for diethanolamine (DEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingxuan; Amacher, David E; Whittaker, Margaret H

    2014-02-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) has been listed on the State of California's Proposition 65 List. This listing is based in part on tumors reported in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year dermal carcinogenicity study in mice which found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in B6C3F₁ mice based on increased incidences of liver neoplasms in both sexes, and increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms in males. Although considerable controversy exists on the relevance of the NTP study to humans, industries are obligated to comply with the Proposition 65 labeling requirement and drinking water discharge prohibition, unless they are able to demonstrate that DEA levels in their products are below a specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL). The State of California has not published an NSRL for DEA. In this article, a NSRL of 5.6 μg/day and a life-stage-adjusted NSRL(adj) of 1.4 μg/day are derived from the NTP carcinogenicity study using a benchmark dose modeling method based on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female mice, in accordance with the guidelines of California EPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density

  3. Anabolic steroids detected in bodybuilding dietary supplements - a significant risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, V; Kicman, A T; Evans-Brown, M; McVeigh, J; Cowan, D A; Wilson, C; Coles, S J; Walker, C J

    2015-07-01

    Twenty-four products suspected of containing anabolic steroids and sold in fitness equipment shops in the United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed for their qualitative and semi-quantitative content using full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), accurate mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), UV-Vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, X-ray crystallography enabled the identification of one of the compounds, where reference standard was not available. Of the 24 products tested, 23 contained steroids including known anabolic agents; 16 of these contained steroids that were different to those indicated on the packaging and one product contained no steroid at all. Overall, 13 different steroids were identified; 12 of these are controlled in the UK under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. Several of the products contained steroids that may be considered to have considerable pharmacological activity, based on their chemical structures and the amounts present. This could unwittingly expose users to a significant risk to their health, which is of particular concern for naïve users. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.T.; Hartley, R.S.; Jones, J.L. Jr.; Kido, C.; Phillips, J.H.

    1992-08-01

    Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk. A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components, while addressing multiple risk issues

  5. Significance and basic patterns of risk communication; Bedeutung und Grundzuege der Risikokommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermeier, O.P. [Gerling Akademie fuer Risikoforschung AG, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Gerling Akademie fuer Risikoforschung AG, Zurich (Switzerland)]|[Augsburg Univ. (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [Deutsch] Die nahezu philosophischen Ueberlegungen zum Thema Risiko belegen, dass alle Risikodiskussionen von den Besitzindividualisten, Buerokraten, Betroffenheitsaktivisten und Fundamentalisten dominiert werden. Jede risikorelevante Gruppierung versucht ihre Gruppenegoismen durchzusetzen. Risikokommunikation wird als Prozess des sozialen Aushandelns aufgefasst. (HP)

  6. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk

  7. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of

  8. Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of risk factors and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Port, Alexander D; Swan, Ryan; Campbell, J Peter; Chan, R V Paul; Chiang, Michael F

    2018-04-19

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors. We review the existing literature addressing various possible ROP risk factors. Although there have been contradictory reports, and the risk may vary between different populations, understanding ROP risk factors is essential to develop predictive models, to gain insights into pathophysiology of retinal vascular diseases and diseases of prematurity, and to determine future directions in management of and research in ROP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Head multidetector computed tomography: emergency medicine physicians overestimate the pretest probability and legal risk of significant findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Jerry Ray; Herrick, John

    2012-02-01

    This study focuses on clinically assigned prospective estimated pretest probability and pretest perception of legal risk as independent variables in the ordering of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) head scans. Our primary aim is to measure the association between pretest probability of a significant finding and pretest perception of legal risk. Secondarily, we measure the percentage of MDCT scans that physicians would not order if there was no legal risk. This study is a prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of patients 18 years and older for whom emergency medicine physicians ordered a head MDCT. We collected a sample of 138 patients subjected to head MDCT scans. The prevalence of a significant finding in our population was 6%, yet the pretest probability expectation of a significant finding was 33%. The legal risk presumed was even more dramatic at 54%. These data support the hypothesis that physicians presume the legal risk to be significantly higher than the risk of a significant finding. A total of 21% or 15% patients (95% confidence interval, ±5.9%) would not have been subjected to MDCT if there was no legal risk. Physicians overestimated the probability that the computed tomographic scan would yield a significant result and indicated an even greater perceived medicolegal risk if the scan was not obtained. Physician test-ordering behavior is complex, and our study queries pertinent aspects of MDCT testing. The magnification of legal risk vs the pretest probability of a significant finding is demonstrated. Physicians significantly overestimated pretest probability of a significant finding on head MDCT scans and presumed legal risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A quantitative approach for risk-informed safety significance categorization in option-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    OPTION-2 recommends that Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) should be categorized into four groups according to their safety significance as well as whether they are safety-related or not. With changes to the scope of SSCs covered by 10 CFR 50, safety-related components which categorized into low safety significant SSC (RISC-3 SSC) can be exempted from the existing conservative burden (or requirements). As OPTION-2 paradigm is applied, a lot of SSCs may be categorized into RISC-3 SSCs. Changes in treatment of the RISC-3 SSCs will be recommended and then finally the recommended changes shall be evaluated. Consequently, before recommending the changes in treatment, probable candidate SSCs for the changes in treatment need to be identified for efficient risk-informed regulation and application (RIRA). Hence, in this work, a validation focused on the RISC-3 SSCs is proposed to identify probable candidate SSCs. Burden to Importance Ratio (BIR) is utilized as a quantitative measure for the validation. BIR is a measure representing the extent of resources or requirements imposed on a SSC with respect to the value of the importance measure of the SSC. Therefore SSCs having high BIR can be considered as probable candidate SSCs for the changes in treatment. In addition, the final decision whether RISC-3 SSCs can be considered as probable candidate SSCs or not should be made by an expert panel. For the effective decision making, a structured mathematical decision-making process is constructed based on Belief Networks (BBN) to overcome demerits of conventional group meeting based on unstructured discussion for decision-making. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach, the approach is applied to 22 components selected from 512 In-Service Test (IST) components of Ulchin unit 3. The results of the application show that the proposed approach can identify probable candidate SSCs for changes in treatment. The identification of the

  11. Physical distance, genetic relationship, age, and leprosy classification are independent risk factors for leprosy in contacts of patients with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moet, F Johannes; Pahan, David; Schuring, Ron P; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan H

    2006-02-01

    Close contacts of patients with leprosy have a higher risk of developing leprosy. Several risk factors have been identified, including genetic relationship and physical distance. Their independent contributions to the risk of developing leprosy, however, have never been sufficiently quantified. Logistic-regression analysis was performed on intake data from a prospective cohort study of 1037 patients newly diagnosed as having leprosy and their 21,870 contacts. Higher age showed an increased risk, with a bimodal distribution. Contacts of patients with paucibacillary (PB) leprosy with 2-5 lesions (PB2-5) and those with multibacillary (MB) leprosy had a higher risk than did contacts of patients with single-lesion PB leprosy. The core household group had a higher risk than other contacts living under the same roof and next-door neighbors, who again had a higher risk than neighbors of neighbors. A close genetic relationship indicated an increased risk when blood-related children, parents, and siblings were pooled together. Age of the contact, the disease classification of the index patient, and physical and genetic distance were independently associated with the risk of a contact acquiring leprosy. Contact surveys in leprosy should be not only focused on household contacts but also extended to neighbors and consanguineous relatives, especially when the patient has PB2-5 or MB leprosy.

  12. Significant inter-observer variation in the diagnosis of extrapancreatic necrosis and type of pancreatic collections in acute pancreatitis - An international multicenter evaluation of the revised Atlanta classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternby, Hanna; Verdonk, Robert C; Aguilar, Guadalupe; Dimova, Alexandra; Ignatavicius, Povilas; Ilzarbe, Lucas; Koiva, Peeter; Lantto, Eila; Loigom, Tonis; Penttilä, Anne; Regnér, Sara; Rosendahl, Jonas; Strahinova, Vanya; Zackrisson, Sophia; Zviniene, Kristina; Bollen, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    For consistent reporting and better comparison of data in research the revised Atlanta classification (RAC) proposes new computed tomography (CT) criteria to describe the morphology of acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim of this study was to analyse the interobserver agreement among radiologists in evaluating CT morphology by using the new RAC criteria in patients with AP. Patients with a first episode of AP who obtained a CT were identified and consecutively enrolled at six European centres backwards from January 2013 to January 2012. A local radiologist at each center and a central expert radiologist scored the CTs separately using the RAC criteria. Center dependent and independent interobserver agreement was determined using Kappa statistics. In total, 285 patients with 388 CTs were included. For most CT criteria, interobserver agreement was moderate to substantial. In four categories, the center independent kappa values were fair: extrapancreatic necrosis (EXPN) (0.326), type of pancreatitis (0.370), characteristics of collections (0.408), and appropriate term of collections (0.356). The fair kappa values relate to discrepancies in the identification of extrapancreatic necrotic material. The local radiologists diagnosed EXPN (33% versus 59%, P < 0.0001) and non-homogeneous collections (35% versus 66%, P < 0.0001) significantly less frequent than the central expert. Cases read by the central expert showed superior correlation with clinical outcome. Diagnosis of EXPN and recognition of non-homogeneous collections show only fair agreement potentially resulting in inconsistent reporting of morphologic findings. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying HIV most-at-risk groups in Malawi for targeted interventions. A classification tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques B O; Madise, Nyovani; Kuepie, Mathias; Zulu, Eliya M; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-05-28

    To identify HIV-socioeconomic predictors as well as the most-at-risk groups of women in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey. Malawi The study used a sample of 6395 women aged 15-49 years from the 2010 Malawi Health and Demographic Surveys. Individual HIV status: positive or not. Findings from the Pearson χ(2) and χ(2) Automatic Interaction Detector analyses revealed that marital status is the most significant predictor of HIV. Women who are no longer in union and living in the highest wealth quintiles households constitute the most-at-risk group, whereas the less-at-risk group includes young women (15-24) never married or in union and living in rural areas. In the light of these findings, this study recommends: (1) that the design and implementation of targeted interventions should consider the magnitude of HIV prevalence and demographic size of most-at-risk groups. Preventive interventions should prioritise couples and never married people aged 25-49 years and living in rural areas because this group accounts for 49% of the study population and 40% of women living with HIV in Malawi; (2) with reference to treatment and care, higher priority must be given to promoting HIV test, monitoring and evaluation of equity in access to treatment among women in union disruption and never married or women in union aged 30-49 years and living in urban areas; (3) community health workers, households-based campaign, reproductive-health services and reproductive-health courses at school could be used as canons to achieve universal prevention strategy, testing, counselling and treatment.

  14. Examination of risk significant configuration during low power and shutdown with ORION and PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Kyu; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper suggests an approach to calculate the increased CDF corresponding to Orange and Red states in ORION program and analyzed the result of calculation. This approach is expected to be useful for checking the adequacy of the LPSD PSA. And also, the result of this calculation can provide the information about which SSCs for certain SF are more sensitive to risk in particular POS. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to ensure the safety of the public. Based on this philosophy EPRI developed Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) program as a qualitative assessment to better manage the risk during low power and shutdown event after the Vogtle loss of vital AC power and RHR event in 1990. Each risk level of RED, ORANGE color status caused by the degradation of each key safety function might be different depend on the importance of each key safety function. However we can't know how much different. If we know the quantitative information about the risk level represented by color, we can take and prepare concrete actions to reduce the risk level of the plant with rescheduling maintenance, strengthen surveillance for important safety function, and developing outage management strategy. The probabilistic safety analysis for low power and shutdown period can provide risk information with quantitative value related on the degradation of redundancy and diversity level for the safety functions during outage. In this study, we calculated the increased Core Damage frequency (CDF) of each RED and ORANGE states in ORION program caused by the degradation of each key safety function by modifying LPSD PSA model. The result of calculation and analysis could be effective to check adequacy and find improvement for these two methods.

  15. Relative significance of heat transfer processes to quantify tradeoffs between complexity and accuracy of energy simulations with a building energy use patterns classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarinejad, Mohammad

    This dissertation develops rapid and accurate building energy simulations based on a building classification that identifies and focuses modeling efforts on most significant heat transfer processes. The building classification identifies energy use patterns and their contributing parameters for a portfolio of buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is "Building classification can provide minimal required inputs for rapid and accurate energy simulations for a large number of buildings". The critical literature review indicated there is lack of studies to (1) Consider synoptic point of view rather than the case study approach, (2) Analyze influence of different granularities of energy use, (3) Identify key variables based on the heat transfer processes, and (4) Automate the procedure to quantify model complexity with accuracy. Therefore, three dissertation objectives are designed to test out the dissertation hypothesis: (1) Develop different classes of buildings based on their energy use patterns, (2) Develop different building energy simulation approaches for the identified classes of buildings to quantify tradeoffs between model accuracy and complexity, (3) Demonstrate building simulation approaches for case studies. Penn State's and Harvard's campus buildings as well as high performance LEED NC office buildings are test beds for this study to develop different classes of buildings. The campus buildings include detailed chilled water, electricity, and steam data, enabling to classify buildings into externally-load, internally-load, or mixed-load dominated. The energy use of the internally-load buildings is primarily a function of the internal loads and their schedules. Externally-load dominated buildings tend to have an energy use pattern that is a function of building construction materials and outdoor weather conditions. However, most of the commercial medium-sized office buildings have a mixed-load pattern, meaning the HVAC system and operation schedule dictate

  16. Communicating risk: news media reportage of a significant nuclear contamination incident in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.P.; Macgill, S.M.

    1988-02-01

    The way the mass media reported a controversial discharge incident at British Nuclear Fuel's reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in November 1983 is discussed. Apart from the Windscale fire in 1957 this was the most serious radiation incident at any nuclear installation in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to use that incident to develop a more complete understanding of the way information about risk is communicated through the news media. Two issues, in particular, are assessed. First, the accuracy of the reports of events and how factual, technical or scientific aspects of risk are portrayed through the news media. Secondly, risk evaluation is studied: what value judgements are made, what sentiments of alarm, danger and hazard are presented. (author)

  17. Infant-Mother Attachment Classification: Risk and Protection in Relation to Changing Maternal Caregiving Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental Psychology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The relations between early infant-mother attachment and children's social competence and behavior problems during the preschool and early school-age period were examined in more than 1,000 children under conditions of decreasing, stable, and increasing maternal parenting quality. Infants' Strange Situation attachment classifications predicted…

  18. Use of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Risk Score (DPTRS) for improving the accuracy of the risk classification of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosenko, Jay M; Skyler, Jay S; Mahon, Jeffrey; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Greenbaum, Carla J; Rafkin, Lisa E; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C; Matheson, Della; Cuthbertson, David; Herold, Kevan C; Eisenbarth, George; Palmer, Jerry P

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE We studied the utility of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Risk Score (DPTRS) for improving the accuracy of type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk classification in TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS) participants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The cumulative incidence of T1D was compared between normoglycemic individuals with DPTRS values >7.00 and dysglycemic individuals in the TNNHS (n = 991). It was also compared between individuals with DPTRS values 7.00 among those with dysglycemia and those with multiple autoantibodies in the TNNHS. DPTRS values >7.00 were compared with dysglycemia for characterizing risk in Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) (n = 670) and TNNHS participants. The reliability of DPTRS values >7.00 was compared with dysglycemia in the TNNHS. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of T1D for normoglycemic TNNHS participants with DPTRS values >7.00 was comparable to those with dysglycemia. Among those with dysglycemia, the cumulative incidence was much higher (P 7.00 than for those with values 7.00). Dysglycemic individuals in DPT-1 were at much higher risk for T1D than those with dysglycemia in the TNNHS (P 7.00. The proportion in the TNNHS reverting from dysglycemia to normoglycemia at the next visit was higher than the proportion reverting from DPTRS values >7.00 to values <7.00 (36 vs. 23%). CONCLUSIONS DPTRS thresholds can improve T1D risk classification accuracy by identifying high-risk normoglycemic and low-risk dysglycemic individuals. The 7.00 DPTRS threshold characterizes risk more consistently between populations and has greater reliability than dysglycemia.

  19. Relationship between obesity and the risk of clinically significant depression: Mendelian randomisation study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hung, Chi-Fa

    2014-07-01

    Obesity has been shown to be associated with depression and it has been suggested that higher body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of depression and other common mental disorders. However, the causal relationship remains unclear and Mendelian randomisation, a form of instrumental variable analysis, has recently been employed to attempt to resolve this issue.

  20. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  1. An assessment of the risk significance of human errors in selected PSAs and operating events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, R.L. Jr.; El-Bassioni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Sensitivity studies based on Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) for a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor are described. In each case human errors modeled in the PSAs were categorized according to such factors as error type, location, timing, and plant personnel involved. Sensitivity studies were then conducted by varying the error rates in each category and evaluating the corresponding change in total core damage frequency and accident sequence frequency. Insights obtained are discussed and reasons for differences in risk sensitivity between plants are explored. A separate investigation into the role of human error in risk-important operating events is also described. This investigation involved the analysis of data from the USNRC Accident Sequence Precursor program to determine the effect of operator-initiated events on accident precursor trends, and to determine whether improved training can be correlated to current trends. The findings of this study are also presented. 5 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  2. Secondhand smoke risk in infants discharged from an NICU: potential for significant health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L; Evans, Patricia W; Green, Charles E; Northrup, Thomas F; Dodrill, Carrie L; Fox, Jeffery M; Tyson, Jon E; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2011-11-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated > 12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans. Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected. Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p < .01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p < .05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p < .02). The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.

  3. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  4. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Scott, D. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Ecology Lab.; Rowe, C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, San Juan (PR); Bedford, J.; Whicker, W. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of this report is to establish a protocol for assessing risks to non-human populations exposed to environmental stresses typically found on many DOE sites. The authors think that they can achieve this by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments, and by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables (such as age-specific survivorship, reproductive output, age at maturity and longevity). This research is needed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, and radiation with concomitant exposure to chemicals. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization. The experimental facility will allow them to develop a credible assessment tool for appraising ecological risks, and to evaluate the effects of radionuclide/chemical synergisms on non-human species. This report summarizes work completed midway of a 3-year project that began in November 1996. Emphasis to date has centered on three areas: (1) developing a molecular probe to measure stable chromosomal aberrations known as reciprocal translocations, (2) constructing an irradiation facility where the statistical power inherent in replicated mesocosms can be used to address the response of non-human organisms to exposures from low levels of radiation and metal contaminants, and (3) quantifying responses of organisms living in contaminated mesocosms and field sites.'

  5. Duplications of the Neuropeptide Receptor VIPR2 Confer Significant Risk for Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Vacic, Vladimir; McCarthy, Shane; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Murray, Fiona; Chou, Hsun-Hua; Peoples, Aine; Makarov, Vladimir; Yoon, Seungtai; Bhandari, Abhishek; Corominas, Roser; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Krause, Verena; Larach-Walters, Verónica; Welsh, David K.

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED PMID:21346763 Rare copy number variants (CNVs) play a prominent role in the etiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders 1 . Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500 kb) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 2 , 3q29 3 , 15q13.3 2 and 22q11.2 4 and microduplication at 16p11.2 5 . However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant ...

  6. Two significant experiences related to radon in a high risk area in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, C.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.-L.; Fuente, I.; Quindos, L.; Soto, J.; Quindos-Poncela, L.S.; Arteche, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas and it is currently accepted as being responsible for lung cancer in some cases. One of the most important sources of indoor radon is from the soil. The RADON content of soil is also a very important factor to be taken into account. The natural radiation map of Spain (MARNA) classifies the country into three regions with different levels of natural gamma radiation. There are some areas in Spain with high levels of natural radiation one of those is the province of Salamanca. Western part of this province presents a population of 20 000 inhabitants and 7% of the houses have an indoor radon concentration above 400 Bq·m -3 . In this high risk area, the village of Villar de la Yegua is of special interest: 11% of the houses in this village have an indoor radon level below 400 Bq·m -3 , 89% have above 400 Bq·m -3 and 71% of the houses have a radon concentration above 1000 Bq·m -3 . An old uranium mine site close to this village has been selected for the construction of an experimental pilot house. It is a two story house located in the place with a very high 226 Ra concentration in soil. Radon in soil at 1 m depth has an average level of 250 kBq·m -3 . We present in this work the characteristics of the experimental unit located in this high risk area and we describe the zone where one of the Spanish villages with the highest radon concentration is located. This is a very interesting place for further research on indoor radon concentration and it is a unique opportunity of testing radon monitors, radon passive detectors and remedial actions for the mitigation of radon in real conditions. It is common to carry out intercomparison exercises under laboratory conditions. Nonetheless, it is not so common to develop these exercises in real conditions as we have in the experimental unit we present here. We offer in this work the possibility for other research groups of testing their equipment in this unit and we also show the evolution of

  7. [Smoking fewer cigarettes per day may determine a significant risk reduction in developing smoking attributable diseases? Is there a risk reduction for e-cigarette users?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Luca; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Among Italian smokers--about 10 millions in 2013--about 600,000 began using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) in last years. About 10% of e-cig users quitted smoking tobacco, whereas the 90% was dual users. Among them, about three out of four decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day), but did not quit. How many fewer cigarettes a smoker has to smoke to obtain significant health benefits? Is there a threshold? In order to observe a significant 27% reduction in the risk of developing lung cancer, a smoker must reduce the number of cig/day by at least 50%, while for the other smoking-related diseases (acute myocardial infarction - AMI, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), halving the number of cig/day did not drive to a significant risk reduction. Even smoking 5 cig/day increases the risk of AMI, whereas it significantly lowers the risk of lung cancer. Obviously, quitting smoking is the best choice to highly reduce risks for all smoking-related diseases. Therefore, in order to achieve significant risk reductions, e-cig users should quit smoking as first choice, or, if they feel it is impossible to them, reduce the consumption of traditional cigarettes to less than 5 cig/day.

  8. Dietary patterns and significance of nutrition for women with low-risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Sales de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate dietary patterns and significance of diet for pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in eight health units in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with 201 pregnant women. The following instruments were used: a socio-economic and health questionnaire, the Free-Word Association Test, and a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components and factor analysis. Poisson regression with 5% significance level was used. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: current Brazilian pattern (beans, rice, processed meats, fats, refined grains, pasta and pastries, soft drink, sugar and sweets, cookies and crackers; healthy pattern (fruits and fruit juices, vegetables, whole grains, seafood, dairy products; and energy-rich pattern (salty deep-fried snacks, popcorn, packaged snacks, instant noodles, tubers, and chicken. Women who did not receive nutrition guidance during prenatal care showed less chance of adherence to the current Brazilian dietary pattern (PR=0.87, and therefore their level of consumption of foods commonly present in Brazilian diets was low. For most women, the significance of diet was reported as important and healthy, but it was not associated with any of the diet patterns identified. However, the women who did not consider that during pregnancy diet should be healthy showed greater chance of adherence to the energy-rich pattern (PR=1.18. This finding deserves special attention since excessive weight gain can have a negative effect on pregnancy. Conclusion: Nutrition guidance during prenatal care and the way pregnant women perceive their eating habits can influence their food choices during pregnancy.

  9. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Statistical concepts of a priori and a posteriori risk classification in insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Valdez, E.

    2012-01-01

    Everyday we face all kinds of risks, and insurance is in the business of providing us a means to transfer or share these risks, usually to eliminate or reduce the resulting financial burden, in exchange for a predetermined price or tariff. Actuaries are considered professional experts in the

  11. Characterization and classification of patients with different levels of cardiac death risk by using Poincaré plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Javier; Voss, Andreas; Caminal, Pere; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Giraldo, Beatriz F

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac death risk is still a big problem by an important part of the population, especially in elderly patients. In this study, we propose to characterize and analyze the cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems using the Poincaré plot. A total of 46 cardiomyopathy patients and 36 healthy subjets were analyzed. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was used to stratify patients with low risk (LR: LVEF > 35%, 16 patients), and high risk (HR: LVEF ≤ 35%, 30 patients) of heart attack. RR, SBP and T Tot time series were extracted from the ECG, blood pressure and respiratory flow signals, respectively. Parameters that describe the scatterplott of Poincaré method, related to short- and long-term variabilities, acceleration and deceleration of the dynamic system, and the complex correlation index were extracted. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the support vector machines (SVM) classification methods were used to analyze the results of the extracted parameters. The results showed that cardiac parameters were the best to discriminate between HR and LR groups, especially the complex correlation index (p = 0.009). Analising the interaction, the best result was obtained with the relation between the difference of the standard deviation of the cardiac and respiratory system (p = 0.003). When comparing HR vs LR groups, the best classification was obtained applying SVM method, using an ANOVA kernel, with an accuracy of 98.12%. An accuracy of 97.01% was obtained by comparing patients versus healthy, with a SVM classifier and Laplacian kernel. The morphology of Poincaré plot introduces parameters that allow the characterization of the cardiorespiratory system dynamics.

  12. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  13. A foot risk classification system to predict diabetic amputation in Pima Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, J A; Reiber, G E; Nelson, R G; Greene, T

    1996-07-01

    To quantify the contribution of various risk factors to the risk of amputation in diabetic patients and to develop a foot risk scoring system based on clinical data. A population case-control study was undertaken. Eligible subjects were 1) 25-85 years of age, 2) diabetic, 3) 50% or more Pima or Tohono O'odham Indian, 4) lived in the Gila River Indian Community, and 5) had had at least one National Institutes of Health research examination. Case patients had had an incident lower extremity amputation between 1983 and 1992; control subjects had no amputation by 1992. Medical records were reviewed to determine risk conditions and health status before the pivotal event that led to the amputation. Sixty-one people with amputations were identified and compared with 183 control subjects. Men were more likely to suffer amputation than women (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% CI 2.6-15), and people with diabetic eye, renal, or cardiovascular disease were more likely to undergo amputation than those without (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.7-12). The risk of amputation was almost equally associated with these foot risk factors: peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, bony deformities, and a history of foot ulcers. After controlling for demographic differences and diabetes severity, the ORs for amputation with one foot risk factor was 2.1 (95% CI 1.4-3.3), with two risk factors, 4.5 (95% CI 2.9-6.9), and with three or four risk factors, 9.7 (95% CI 6.3-14.8). Male Sex, end-organ complications of eye, heart, and kidney, and poor glucose control were associated with a higher amputation rate. Peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, deformity, and a prior ulcer were similarly equally associated with an increased risk of lower extremity amputation.

  14. Carboxyhemoglobin levels as a predictor of risk for significant hyperbilirubinemia in African-American DAT(+) infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzman, D L; Gatien, E; Ajayi, S; Wong, R J

    2016-05-01

    To compare the degree of hemolysis in a group of direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positive (pos) African-American (AA) infants as measured by carboxyhemoglobin corrected (COHbc) for carbon monoxide in ambient air to a similar group of DAT negative (neg) ABO incompatible infants and a group without blood group incompatibility. To determine if COHbc is a better predictor of significant hyperbilirubinemia than DAT status. A prospective study of 180 AA infants from the Well-Baby Nursery of an inner city community hospital, all of whose mothers were type O pos. Infants (60) were ABO incompatible DAT pos, 60 were ABO incompatible DAT neg and 60 were type O(+). Blood for COHbc was drawn at the time of the infants' initial bilirubin and the infants' precise percentile on the Bhutani nomogram was calculated. Mean COHbc of type O(+) infants was 0.76±0.21 and 0.78±0.24% for ABO incompatible DAT neg infants (P=0.63). Mean CoHbc for the ABO incompatible DAT pos infants was 1.03±0.41% (P0.90% (area under the curve(AUC) 0.8113). This was similar to the AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curve using any titer strength of DAT pos as a cutoff (0.7960). Although not greatly superior to the titer strength of DAT pos, COHbc is useful in determining if the etiology of severe hyperbilirubinemia is a hemolytic process.

  15. Clinical significance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization on hospital admission: one-year infection risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P Ridgway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA nasal colonization among inpatients is a well-established risk factor for MRSA infection during the same hospitalization, but the long-term risk of MRSA infection is uncertain. We performed a retrospective cohort study to determine the one-year risk of MRSA infection among inpatients with MRSA-positive nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests confirmed by positive nasal culture (Group 1, patients with positive nasal PCR but negative nasal culture (Group 2, and patients with negative nasal PCR (Group 3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were adults admitted to a four-hospital system between November 1, 2006 and March 31, 2011, comprising 195,255 admissions. Patients underwent nasal swab for MRSA PCR upon admission; if positive, nasal culture for MRSA was performed; if recovered, MRSA was tested for Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL. Outcomes included MRSA-positive clinical culture and skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI. Group 1 patients had a one-year risk of MRSA-positive clinical culture of 8.0% compared with 3.0% for Group 2 patients, and 0.6% for Group 3 patients (p<0.001. In a multivariable model, the hazard ratios for future MRSA-positive clinical culture were 6.52 (95% CI, 5.57 to 7.64 for Group 1 and 3.40 (95% CI, 2.70 to 4.27 for Group 2, compared with Group 3 (p<0.0001. History of MRSA and concurrent MRSA-positive clinical culture were significant risk factors for future MRSA-positive clinical culture. Group 1 patients colonized with PVL-positive MRSA had a one-year risk of MRSA-positive clinical culture of 10.1%, and a one-year risk of MRSA-positive clinical culture or SSTI diagnosis of 21.7%, compared with risks of 7.1% and 12.5%, respectively, for patients colonized with PVL-negative MRSA (p = 0.04, p = 0.005, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MRSA nasal colonization is a significant risk factor for future MRSA infection; more so if detected by

  16. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pacheco H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Héctor González-Pacheco,1 Jesús Vargas-Barrón,2 Maite Vallejo,2 Yigal Piña-Reyna,3 Alfredo Altamirano-Castillo,1 Pedro Sánchez-Tapia,1 Carlos Martínez-Sánchez1 1Coronary Care Unit, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Clinical Research, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Catheterization Laboratory, National Institute of Cardiology in Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, 80%–90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ≥50% determined through coronary angiography is not well described. Methods: We studied 3,447 patients with a diagnosis of ACS and significant CAD with stenosis ≥50%, as shown on angiography. We recorded the presence of conventional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In addition, we analyzed the lipid profiles within the first 24 hours of admission. We analyzed the studied population and compared findings according to sex.Results: Most patients (81.7% were male. ST-elevation myocardial infarction was present in 51.3% of patients, and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome was present in 48.7%. The most frequent risk factor was smoking, which was present in 68% of patients, followed by hypertension (57.8%, dyslipidemia (47.5%, and diabetes (37.7%. In women, the most frequent risk factors were hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, whereas in men, smoking was the most frequent. We identified at least one risk factor in 95.7% of all patients, two or three risk factors in 62%, and four risk factors in 8.6% of patients. The lipid profile analysis revealed that

  17. Potential risk for healthy siblings to develop schizophrenia: evidence from pattern classification with whole-brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meijie; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Liu, Zhening; Hu, Dewen

    2012-03-28

    Recent resting-state functional connectivity MRI studies using group-level statistical analysis have demonstrated the inheritable characters of schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to use pattern classification as a means to investigate schizophrenia inheritance based on the whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity at the individual subject level. One-against-one pattern classifications were made amongst three groups (i.e. patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, healthy siblings, and healthy controls after preprocessing), resulting in an 80.4% separation between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, a 77.6% separation between schizophrenia patients and their healthy siblings, and a 78.7% separation between healthy siblings and healthy controls, respectively. These results suggest that the healthy siblings of schizophrenia patients have an altered resting-state functional connectivity pattern compared with healthy controls. Thus, healthy siblings may have a potential higher risk for developing schizophrenia compared with the general population. Moreover, this pattern differed from that of schizophrenia patients and may contribute to the normal behavior exhibition of healthy siblings in daily life.

  18. Managing Sensitive Information: DOD Can More Effectively Reduce the Risk of Classification Errors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Davi M; Borseth, Ann; Fenton, Mattias; Hatton, Adam; Hills, Barbara; Keefer, David; Mayfield, David; Reid, Jim; Richardson, Terry; Schwartz, Marc

    2006-01-01

    ...) information security program are increasing the risk of misclassification. DoD's information security program is decentralized to the DoD component level, and the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (OUSD...

  19. Search of significant features in a direct non parametric pattern recognition method. Application to the classification of a multiwire spark chamber picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccheri, R.; Coffaro, P.; Di Gesu, V.; Salemi, S.; Colomba, G.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary results are given of the application of a direct non parametric pattern recognition method to the classification of the pictures of a multiwire spark chamber. The method, developed in an earlier work for an optical spark chamber, looks promising. The picture sample used has with respect to the previous one, the following characteristis: a) the event pictures have a more complicated structure; b) the amount of background sparks in an event is greater; c) there exists a kind of noise which is almost always present in some structured way (double sparkling, bursts...). New features have been used to characterize the event pictures; the results show that the method could be also used as a super filter to reduce the cost of further analysis. (Auth.)

  20. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases

  1. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  2. Restructuring supervision and reconfiguration of skill mix in community pharmacy: Classification of perceived safety and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Fay; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2016-01-01

    Broadening the range of services provided through community pharmacy increases workloads for pharmacists that could be alleviated by reconfiguring roles within the pharmacy team. To examine pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians (PTs)' perceptions of how safe it would be for support staff to undertake a range of pharmacy activities during a pharmacist's absence. Views on supervision, support staff roles, competency and responsibility were also sought. Informed by nominal group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a random sample of 1500 pharmacists and 1500 PTs registered in England. Whilst focused on community pharmacy practice, hospital pharmacy respondents were included, as more advanced skill mix models may provide valuable insights. Respondents were asked to rank a list of 22 pharmacy activities in terms of perceived risk and safety of these activities being performed by support staff during a pharmacist's absence. Descriptive and comparative statistic analyses were conducted. Six-hundred-and-forty-two pharmacists (43.2%) and 854 PTs (57.3%) responded; the majority worked in community pharmacy. Dependent on agreement levels with perceived safety, from community pharmacists and PTs, and hospital pharmacists and PTs, the 22 activities were grouped into 'safe' (n = 7), 'borderline' (n = 9) and 'unsafe' (n = 6). Activities such as assembly and labeling were considered 'safe,' clinical activities were considered 'unsafe.' There were clear differences between pharmacists and PTs, and sectors (community pharmacy vs. hospital). Community pharmacists were most cautious (particularly mobile and portfolio pharmacists) about which activities they felt support staff could safely perform; PTs in both sectors felt significantly more confident performing particularly technical activities than pharmacists. This paper presents novel empirical evidence informing the categorization of pharmacy activities into 'safe,' 'borderline' or 'unsafe

  3. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rosswog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. METHODS: A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n = 75 for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n = 411 for risk score development, and a validation set (n = 209. Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. RESULTS: The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9 ± 3.4 vs 63.6 ± 14.5 vs 31.0 ± 5.4; P < .001, and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients.

  4. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Carolina; Schmidt, Rene; Oberthuer, André; Juraeva, Dilafruz; Brors, Benedikt; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Simon, Thorsten; Berthold, Frank; Hero, Barbara; Faldum, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n=75) for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n=411) for risk score development, and a validation set (n=209). Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9±3.4 vs 63.6±14.5 vs 31.0±5.4; P<.001), and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    test positive to negative, whereas the breed and neighbor factors were not found to be important for small herds. Organic production was associated with remaining test positive, but not with becoming test positive. The results emphasize the importance of external and internal biosecurity measures....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...

  7. Research on the domestic application strategy of classification of SSCs with risk information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Jung Kwan [Atomic Creative Technology Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    In this study, US NRC's regulatory position for risk-informed SSC categorization was reviewed, and the methodology for risk-informed SSC categorization suggested by NEI was reviewed. The importance measure analysis for safety class pumps and valves in KSNP was performed and re-categorization of those pumps and valves was performed. The option 2 implementation experience of US utilities were collected and the cost-benefit analysis result was analyzed. Based on that, the cost-benefit analysis was tried for the case of option 2 implementation in Korea. Finally, the institutionalization method for Korea was suggested.

  8. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  9. Prognostic significance of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis: Histopathologic worsening and a short time between biopsies is associated with significantly increased risk for end stage renal disease and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriens, Cristina; Chen, Sixia; Karp, David R; Saxena, Ramesh; Sambandam, Kamalanathan; Chakravarty, Eliza; James, Judith A; Merrill, Joan T

    2017-12-01

    Approximately half of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) develop lupus nephritis (LN), a major cause of morbidity and early mortality in that disease. Prolonged renal inflammation is associated with irreversible kidney damage which confers a 30% risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), making early, aggressive treatment mandatory. Failure to achieve therapeutic response or recurrence of renal flare often prompts repeat biopsy. However, the role of repeat biopsy in determining long-term renal prognosis remains controversial. For this reason repeat biopsies are usually not utilized unless clinical evidence of refractory or recurrent disease is already present, despite known mismatches between clinical and biopsy findings. The current study quantifies the degree to which histopathologic worsening between first and second biopsies and duration between them predicts ESRD and death. Medical records of 141 LN patients with more than one biopsy were obtained from a single large urban medical center. Cases were attained using billing codes for diagnosis and procedures from 1/1999-1/2015. Biopsy worsening was defined as unfavorable histopathologic classification transitions and/or increased chronicity; if neither were present, the patient was defined as non-worsening. We used Cox proportional hazard models to study the relationship between ESRD and survival adjusting for covariates which included age at first biopsy, gender, race, initial biopsy class, and initial induction therapy. Of 630 patients screened, 141 had more than one biopsy. Advancing chronicity was detected in 48 (34.0%) and a renal class switch to worse grade of pathology was found in 54 (38.3%). At least one of these adverse second biopsy features was reported in 79 (56.0%) patients. Five years following initial biopsy, 28 (35.4%) of those with worsening histopathology on second biopsy developed ESRD, compared to 6 (9.7%) of non-worsening patients and 10 (12.7%) of patients with worsening

  10. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  11. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude

  12. Risk classification for nuclear facilities in connection with the illegal use of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.; Naegele, G.; Sellinschegg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown, and illustrated by an example, that specific conditions at a nuclear facility to a large extent determine the probability of a successful illegal attack against that facility. Therefore, a categorization of nuclear materials according to the associated hazards alone, as practised currently, does not appear to be sufficient for the establishment of a balanced national physical protection system. In this paper a possible way of categorizing nuclear facilities according to the associated risks, determined as objectively as possible, is discussed. It is felt that initially the analysis should be restricted to the determination of the conditional risks, associated with illegal acquisition and use of radioactive materials by a postulated hostile or similar group. (author)

  13. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuk Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P=0.191 than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks.

  15. Severe obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: comparison from two international classification systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Valerio

    Full Text Available There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or the World Health Organization (WHO curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors.Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors.The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001. The CDC 99(th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2, higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3 and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9 than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥ 2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1. Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, in particular in children ≤ 10 years.Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99(th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age.

  16. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. III: Evaluation using a panel of reference foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory evaluation of four functional components of a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods in a concordance study. Two independent raters assigned concern levels to 20 reference GM foods using a rating form based on the proposed RBCS. The four components of evaluation were: (1) degree of concordance, (2) distribution across concern levels, (3) discriminating ability of the scheme, and (4) ease of use. At least one of the 20 reference foods was assigned to each of the possible concern levels, demonstrating the ability of the scheme to identify GM foods of different concern with respect to potential health risk. There was reasonably good concordance between the two raters for the three separate parts of the RBCS. The raters agreed that the criteria in the scheme were sufficiently clear in discriminating reference foods into different concern levels, and that with some experience, the scheme was reasonably easy to use. Specific issues and suggestions for improvements identified in the concordance study are discussed.

  17. Time-dependent analysis of incidence, risk factors and clinical significance of pneumothorax after percutaneous lung biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Woo Hyeon; Park, Chang Min; Yoon, Soon Ho; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Hwang, Eui Jin; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Goo, Jin Mo

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the time-dependent incidence, risk factors and clinical significance of percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB)-related pneumothorax. From January 2012-November 2015, 3,251 patients underwent 3,354 cone-beam CT-guided PLBs for lung lesions. Cox, logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to identify time-dependent risk factors of PLB-related pneumothorax, risk factors of drainage catheter insertion and those of prolonged catheter placement, respectively. Pneumothorax occurred in 915/3,354 PLBs (27.3 %), with 230/915 (25.1 %) occurring during follow-ups. Risk factors for earlier occurrence of PLB-related pneumothorax include emphysema (HR=1.624), smaller target (HR=0.922), deeper location (HR=1.175) and longer puncture time (HR=1.036), while haemoptysis (HR=0.503) showed a protective effect against earlier development of pneumothorax. Seventy-five cases (8.2 %) underwent chest catheter placement. Mean duration of catheter placement was 3.2±2.0 days. Emphysema (odds ratio [OR]=2.400) and longer puncture time (OR=1.053) were assessed as significant risk factors for catheter insertion, and older age (parameter estimate=1.014) was a predictive factor for prolonged catheter placement. PLB-related pneumothorax occurred in 27.3 %, of which 25.1 % developed during follow-ups. Smaller target size, emphysema, deeply-located lesions were significant risk factors of PLB-related pneumothorax. Emphysema and older age were related to drainage catheter insertion and prolonged catheter placement, respectively. • One-fourth of percutaneous lung biopsy (PLB)-related pneumothorax occurs during follow-up. • Smaller, deeply-located target and emphysema lead to early occurrence of pneumothorax. • Emphysema is related to drainage catheter insertion for PLB-related pneumothorax. • Older age may lead to prolonged catheter placement for PLB-related pneumothorax. • Tailored management can be possible with time-dependent information of PLB-related pneumothorax.

  18. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of DSM-5 Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in Services for Individuals at Ultra High Risk for Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; De Micheli, Andrea; Cappucciati, Marco; Rutigliano, Grazia; Davies, Cathy; Ramella-Cravaro, Valentina; Oliver, Dominic; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Rocchetti, Matteo; Gavaghan, Lauren; Patel, Rashmi; McGuire, Philip

    2018-02-15

    The diagnostic and prognostic significance of the DSM-5-defined Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (DSM-5-APS) in individuals undergoing an ultra high risk (UHR) clinical assessment for suspicion of psychosis risk is unknown. Prospective cohort study including all consecutive help-seeking individuals undergoing both a DSM-5-APS and a Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States (CAARMS 12/2006) assessment for psychosis risk at the Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS) UHR service (March 2013-April 2014). The diagnostic significance of DSM-5-APS was assessed with percent overall agreement, prevalence bias adjusted kappa, Bowker's test, Stuart-Maxwell test, residual analysis; the prognostic significance with Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier failure function, time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) and net benefits analysis. The impact of specific revisions of the DSM-5-APS was further tested. In 203 help-seeking individuals undergoing UHR assessment, the agreement between the DSM-5-APS and the CAARMS 12/2006 was only moderate (kappa 0.59). Among 142 nonpsychotic cases, those meeting DSM-5-APS criteria had a 5-fold probability (HR = 5.379) of developing psychosis compared to those not meeting DSM-5-APS criteria, with a 21-month cumulative risk of psychosis of 28.17% vs 6.49%, respectively. The DSM-5-APS prognostic accuracy was acceptable (AUC 0.76 at 24 months) and similar to the CAARMS 12/2006. The DSM-5-APS designation may be clinically useful to guide the provision of indicated interventions within a 7%-35% (2-year) range of psychosis risk. The removal of the criterion E or C of the DSM-5-APS may improve its prognostic performance and transdiagnostic value. The DSM-5-APS designation may be clinically useful in individuals accessing clinical services for psychosis prevention. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Hip dysplasia: a significant risk factor for the development of hip osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    joint space width (JSW) /=60 yr of age. Of factors entered into logistic regression analyses, only age (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P LT 0.001 for left hips) and hip dysplasia (P LT 0.001 for right hips and P = 0.004 for left hips) were significantly associated with hip OA prevalence in women. In men......, only hip dysplasia was associated with hip OA prevalence, P LT 0.001 in right hips and P = 0.001 in left hips. CONCLUSIONS: Of the individual risk factors investigated in this study, only age and hip dysplasia were associated with the development of hip osteoarthritis.......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional survey of 2232 women and 1336 men (age range 20-91 yr) was to investigate individual risk factors for hip joint osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Standardized, weight-bearing pelvic radiographs were evaluated. Radiological hip joint OA was defined as minimum...

  20. Risk Factors for the Failure of Spinal Burst Fractures Treated Conservatively According to the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS: A Retrospective Cohort Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieliang Shen

    Full Text Available The management of thoracolumbar (TL burst fractures is still controversial. The thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS algorithm is now widely used to guide clinical decision making, however, in clinical practice, we come to realize that TLICS also has its limitations for treating patients with total scores less than 4, for which conservative treatment may not be optimal in all cases.The aim of this study is to identify several risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment of TL burst fractures according to TLICS algorithm.From June 2008 to December 2013, a cohort of 129 patients with T10-l2 TL burst fractures with a TLISC score ≤3 treated non-operatively were identified and included into this retrospective study. Age, sex, pain intensity, interpedicular distance (IPD, canal compromise, loss of vertebral body height and kyphotic angle (KA were selected as potential risk factors and compared between the non-operative success group and the non-operative failure group.One hundred and four patients successfully completed non-operative treatment, the other 25 patients were converted to surgical treatment because of persistent local back pain or progressive neurological deficits during follow-up. Our results showed that age, visual analogue scale (VAS score and IPD, KA were significantly different between the two groups. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that VAS score and IPD could be considered as significant predictors for the failure of conservative treatment.The recommendation of non-operative treatment for TLICS score ≤3 has limitations in some patients, and VAS score and IPD could be considered as risk factors for the failure of conservative treatment. Thus, conservative treatment should be decided with caution in patients with greater VAS scores or IPD. If non-operative management is decided, a close follow-up is necessary.

  1. Significance of specificity of Tinetti B-POMA test and fall risk factor in third age of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdić, Dijana; Pecar, Dzemal

    2006-02-01

    As for the third age, psychophysical abilities of humans gradually decrease, while the ability of adaptation to endogenous and exogenous burdens is going down. In 1987, "Harada" et al. (1) have found out that 9.5 million persons in USA have difficulties running daily activities, while 59% of them (which is 5.6 million) are older than 65 years in age. The study has encompassed 77 questioned persons of both sexes with their average age 71.73 +/- 5.63 (scope of 65-90 years in age), chosen by random sampling. Each patient has been questioned in his/her own home and familiar to great extent with the methodology and aims of the questionnaire. Percentage of questioned women was 64.94% (50 patients) while the percentage for men was 35.06% (27 patients). As for the value of risk factor score achieved conducting the questionnaire and B-POMA test, there are statistically significant differences between men and women, as well as between patients who fell and those who never did. As for the way of life (alone or in the community), there are no significant statistical differences. Average results gained through B-POMA test in this study are statistically significantly higher in men and patients who did not provide data about falling, while there was no statistically significant difference in the way of life. In relation to the percentage of maximum number of positive answers to particular questions, regarding gender, way of life and the data about falling, there were no statistically significant differences between the value of B-POMA test and the risk factor score (the questionnaire).

  2. The Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system based on Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) correlates with risk of major amputation and time to wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Luke X; Branco, Bernardino C; Armstrong, David G; Mills, Joseph L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the new Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system correlates with important clinical outcomes for limb salvage and wound healing. A total of 201 consecutive patients with threatened limbs treated from 2010 to 2011 in an academic medical center were analyzed. These patients were stratified into clinical stages 1 to 4 on the basis of the SVS WIfI classification. The SVS objective performance goals of major amputation, 1-year amputation-free survival (AFS) rate, and wound healing time (WHT) according to WIfI clinical stages were compared. The mean age was 58 years (79% male, 93% with diabetes). Forty-two patients required major amputation (21%); 159 (78%) had limb salvage. The amputation group had a significantly higher prevalence of advanced stage 4 patients (P healing. As the clinical stage progresses, the risk of major amputation increases, 1-year AFS declines, and WHT is prolonged. We further demonstrated benefit of revascularization to improve WHT in selected patients, especially those in stage 3. Future efforts are warranted to incorporate the SVS WIfI classification into clinical decision-making algorithms in conjunction with a comorbidity index and anatomic classification. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy: perioperative bleeding as a significant risk factor for postoperative hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Amanda L; Souza, Alessandra F; Martins, Maria A P; Fraga, Marina G; Travassos, Denise V; Oliveira, Ana C B; Ribeiro, Daniel D; Silva, Tarcília A

    2018-01-01

    : To investigate perioperative and postoperative bleeding, complications in patients under therapy with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs submitted to oral surgery. To evaluate the risk of bleeding and safety for dental surgery, a retrospective chart review was performed. Medical and dental records of patients taking oral antithrombotic drugs undergoing dental surgery between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Results were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test, t test or the χ test. One hundred and seventy-nine patients underwent 293 surgical procedures. A total of eight cases of perioperative and 12 episodes of postoperative bleeding were documented. The complications were generally managed with local measures and did not require hospitalization. We found significant association of postoperative hemorrhage with increased perioperative bleeding (P = 0.043) and combination of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy (P bleeding is 8.8 times bigger than procedures without perioperative bleeding. Dental surgery in patients under antithrombotic therapy might be carried out without altering the regimen because of low risk of perioperative and postoperative bleeding. However, patients with increased perioperative bleeding should be closely followed up because of postoperative complications risk.

  4. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing a Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, M; Citak, M; Tilkorn, D-J; Meindl, R; Schildhauer, T A; Fehmer, T

    2011-11-01

    Retrospective chart review. The aim of our study was to evaluate the mortality rate and further specific risk factors for Fournier's gangrene in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Division of Spinal Cord Injury, BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. All patients with a SCI and a Fournier's gangrene treated in our hospital were enrolled in this study. Following parameters were taken form patients medical records: age, type of SCI, cause of Fournier's gangrene, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, co morbidity factors and mortality rate. In addition, laboratory parameter including the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score and microbiological findings were analyzed. Clinical diagnosis was made via histological examination. A total of 16 male patients (15 paraplegic and one tetraplegic) were included in the study. In 81% of all cases, the origin of Fournier's gangrene was a pressure sore. The median LRINEC score on admission was 6.5. In the vast majority of cases, a polybacterial infection was found. No patient died during the hospital stay. The mean number of surgical debridements before soft tissue closure was 1.9 and after a mean time interval of 39.1 days wound closure was performed in all patients. Pressure sores significantly increase the risk of developing Fournier's gangrene in patients with SCI. We reported the results of our patients to increase awareness among physicians and training staff working with patients with a SCI in order to expedite the diagnosis.

  5. Significant Risk Factors for Postoperative Enlargement of Basal Ganglia Hematoma after Frameless Stereotactic Aspiration: Antiplatelet Medication and Concomitant IVH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Wonsoo; Park, Jaechan

    2017-09-01

    Frameless stereotactic aspiration of a hematoma can be the one of the treatment options for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia. Postoperative hematoma enlargement, however, can be a serious complication of intracranial surgery that frequently results in severe neurological deficit and even death. Therefore, it is important to identify the risk factors of postoperative hematoma growth. During a 13-year period, 101 patients underwent minimally invasive frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma. Patients were classified into two groups according to whether or not they had postoperative hematoma enlargement in a computed tomography scan. Baseline demographic data and several risk factors, such as hypertension, preoperative hematoma growth, antiplatelet medication, presence of concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), were analysed via a univariate statistical study. Nine of 101 patients (8.9%) showed hematoma enlargement after frameless stereotactic aspiration. Among the various risk factors, concomitant IVH and antiplatelet medication were found to be significantly associated with postoperative enlargement of hematomas. In conclusion, our study revealed that aspirin use and concomitant IVH are factors associated with hematoma enlargement subsequent to frameless stereotactic aspiration for basal ganglia hematoma.

  6. Identification of high-risk cutaneous melanoma tumors is improved when combining the online American Joint Committee on Cancer Individualized Melanoma Patient Outcome Prediction Tool with a 31-gene expression profile-based classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Laura K; Farberg, Aaron S; Middlebrook, Brooke; Johnson, Clare E; Lassen, Natalie; Oelschlager, Kristen M; Maetzold, Derek J; Cook, Robert W; Rigel, Darrell S; Gerami, Pedram

    2017-05-01

    A significant proportion of patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)-defined early-stage cutaneous melanoma have disease recurrence and die. A 31-gene expression profile (GEP) that accurately assesses metastatic risk associated with primary cutaneous melanomas has been described. We sought to compare accuracy of the GEP in combination with risk determined using the web-based AJCC Individualized Melanoma Patient Outcome Prediction Tool. GEP results from 205 stage I/II cutaneous melanomas with sufficient clinical data for prognostication using the AJCC tool were classified as low (class 1) or high (class 2) risk. Two 5-year overall survival cutoffs (AJCC 79% and 68%), reflecting survival for patients with stage IIA or IIB disease, respectively, were assigned for binary AJCC risk. Cox univariate analysis revealed significant risk classification of distant metastasis-free and overall survival (hazard ratio range 3.2-9.4, P risk by GEP but low risk by AJCC. Specimens reflect tertiary care center referrals; more effective therapies have been approved for clinical use after accrual. The GEP provides valuable prognostic information and improves identification of high-risk melanomas when used together with the AJCC online prediction tool. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Classifying Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes seventeen game classifications. The classifications were chosen on the basis of diversity, ranging from pre-digital classification (e.g. Murray 1952), over game studies classifications (e.g. Elverdam & Aarseth 2007) to classifications of drinking games (e.g. LaBrie et...... al. 2013). The analysis aims at three goals: The classifications’ internal consistency, the abstraction of classification criteria and the identification of differences in classification across fields and/or time. Especially the abstraction of classification criteria can be used in future endeavors...... into the topic of game classifications....

  8. Development of free statistical software enabling researchers to calculate confidence levels, clinical significance curves and risk-benefit contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Mukherjee, R.K.; Gebski, V.J.

    2003-01-01

    Confidence levels, clinical significance curves, and risk-benefit contours are tools improving analysis of clinical studies and minimizing misinterpretation of published results, however no software has been available for their calculation. The objective was to develop software to help clinicians utilize these tools. Excel 2000 spreadsheets were designed using only built-in functions, without macros. The workbook was protected and encrypted so that users can modify only input cells. The workbook has 4 spreadsheets for use in studies comparing two patient groups. Sheet 1 comprises instructions and graphic examples for use. Sheet 2 allows the user to input the main study results (e.g. survival rates) into a 2-by-2 table. Confidence intervals (95%), p-value and the confidence level for Treatment A being better than Treatment B are automatically generated. An additional input cell allows the user to determine the confidence associated with a specified level of benefit. For example if the user wishes to know the confidence that Treatment A is at least 10% better than B, 10% is entered. Sheet 2 automatically displays clinical significance curves, graphically illustrating confidence levels for all possible benefits of one treatment over the other. Sheet 3 allows input of toxicity data, and calculates the confidence that one treatment is more toxic than the other. It also determines the confidence that the relative toxicity of the most effective arm does not exceed user-defined tolerability. Sheet 4 automatically calculates risk-benefit contours, displaying the confidence associated with a specified scenario of minimum benefit and maximum risk of one treatment arm over the other. The spreadsheet is freely downloadable at www.ontumor.com/professional/statistics.htm A simple, self-explanatory, freely available spreadsheet calculator was developed using Excel 2000. The incorporated decision-making tools can be used for data analysis and improve the reporting of results of any

  9. Helicobacter pylori Infection is a Significant Factor Risk for Hyperhomocysteinemia in the Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudabeh Fallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to determine whether seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori infection was an independent risk factor for hyperhomocysteinemia patients with cardiovascular disease. The H. pylori IgG, IgA and homocystein levels in 96 patients with cardiovascular disease and 64 participants free of cardiovascular disease as control subjects were determined by ELISA assay. The results showed that seropositivity to H. pylori IgG and IgA levels of coronary artery disease (CADpatients was significantly higher than the controls and CAD patients with H. pylori IgG and IgA negative antibodies. A significant correlation was found between the seropositivity to H. pylori IgG and homocysteine levels of CAD patients in comparison with the controls and CAD patients with seronegativity to H. pylori IgG and IgA (r=0.233, P= 0.019 . The involvement of H. pylori infection in atherosclerosis process was based on the chronic inflammation, which might facilitate the CAD-related pathologies. The effect of the presence of H. pylori infection on homocysteine levels elevation in the CAD patients (as a risk factor independent of other traditional factors was remarkable.

  10. A method for risk-informed safety significance categorization using the analytic hierarchy process and bayesian belief networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    A risk-informed safety significance categorization (RISSC) is to categorize structures, systems, or components (SSCs) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) into two or more groups, according to their safety significance using both probabilistic and deterministic insights. In the conventional methods for the RISSC, the SSCs are quantitatively categorized according to their importance measures for the initial categorization. The final decisions (categorizations) of SSCs, however, are qualitatively made by an expert panel through discussions and adjustments of opinions by using the probabilistic insights compiled in the initial categorization process and combining the probabilistic insights with the deterministic insights. Therefore, owing to the qualitative and linear decision-making process, the conventional methods have the demerits as follows: (1) they are very costly in terms of time and labor, (2) it is not easy to reach the final decision, when the opinions of the experts are in conflict and (3) they have an overlapping process due to the linear paradigm (the categorization is performed twice - first, by the engineers who propose the method, and second, by the expert panel). In this work, a method for RISSC using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and bayesian belief networks (BBN) is proposed to overcome the demerits of the conventional methods and to effectively arrive at a final decision (or categorization). By using the AHP and BBN, the expert panel takes part in the early stage of the categorization (that is, the quantification process) and the safety significance based on both probabilistic and deterministic insights is quantified. According to that safety significance, SSCs are quantitatively categorized into three categories such as high safety significant category (Hi), potentially safety significant category (Po), or low safety significant category (Lo). The proposed method was applied to the components such as CC-V073, CV-V530, and SI-V644 in Ulchin Unit

  11. The high-density lipoprotein-adjusted SCORE model worsens SCORE-based risk classification in a contemporary population of 30 824 Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    .8 years of follow-up, 339 individuals died of CVD. In the SCORE target population (age 40-65; n = 30,824), fewer individuals were at baseline categorized as high risk (≥5% 10-year risk of fatal CVD) using SCORE-HDL compared with SCORE (10 vs. 17% in men, 1 vs. 3% in women). SCORE-HDL did not improve...... with SCORE, but deteriorated risk classification based on NRI. Future guidelines should consider lower decision thresholds and prioritize CVD morbidity and people above age 65....

  12. Histology-based classification predicts pattern of recurrence and improves risk stratification in primary retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Marcus C.B.; Brennan, Murray F.; Kuk, Deborah; Agaram, Narasimhan P.; Antonescu, Cristina; Qin, Li-Xuan; Moraco, Nicole; Crago, Aimee M.; Singer, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prognostic significance of histologic type/subtype in a large series of patients with primary resected retroperitoneal sarcoma. Summary Background Data The histologic diversity and rarity of retroperitoneal sarcoma has hampered the ability to predict patient outcome. Methods From a single-institution, prospective database, 675 patients treated surgically for primary, non-metastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma during 1982–2010 were identified and histologic type/subtype was reviewed. Clinicopathologic variables were analyzed for association with disease-specific death (DSD), local recurrence (LR), and distant recurrence (DR). Results Median follow-up for survivors was 7.5 years. The predominant histologies were well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Five-year cumulative incidence of DSD was 31%, and factors independently associated with DSD were R2 resection, resection of ≥3 contiguous organs, and histologic type. Five-year cumulative incidence for LR was 39% and for DR was 24%. R1 resection, age, tumor size, and histologic type were independently associated with LR; size, resection of ≥3 organs, and histologic type were independently associated with DR. Liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma were associated with late recurrence and DSD (as long as 15 years from diagnosis). For solitary fibrous tumor, local recurrence was uncommon (sarcoma. Histology predicts the pattern and incidence of LR and DR and will aid in more accurate patient counseling and selection of patients for adjuvant therapy trials. PMID:25915910

  13. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  14. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  16. New vascular classification of port-wine stains: improving prediction of Sturge-Weber risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, R; Aylett, S E; Robinson, K; Chong, W K; Martinez, A E; Kinsler, V A

    2014-10-01

    Facial port-wine stains (PWSs) are usually isolated findings; however, when associated with cerebral and ocular vascular malformations they form part of the classical triad of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). To evaluate the associations between the phenotype of facial PWS and the diagnosis of SWS in a cohort with a high rate of SWS. Records were reviewed of all 192 children with a facial PWS seen in 2011-13. Adverse outcome measures were clinical (seizures, abnormal neurodevelopment, glaucoma) and radiological [abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], modelled by multivariate logistic regression. The best predictor of adverse outcomes was a PWS involving any part of the forehead, delineated at its inferior border by a line joining the outer canthus of the eye to the top of the ear, and including the upper eyelid. This involves all three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, but corresponds well to the embryonic vascular development of the face. Bilateral distribution was not an independently significant phenotypic feature. Abnormal MRI was a better predictor of all clinical adverse outcome measures than PWS distribution; however, for practical reasons guidelines based on clinical phenotype are proposed. Facial PWS distribution appears to follow the embryonic vasculature of the face, rather than the trigeminal nerve. We propose that children with a PWS on any part of the 'forehead' should have an urgent ophthalmology review and a brain MRI. A prospective study has been established to test the validity of these guidelines. © The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. The significance of biological, environmental, and social risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the significance of several risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort of Brazilian men. Subjects and methods: Men ≥ 40 years-old participating in a prostate cancer screening program between December 2006 and April 2011 in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, were evaluated to determine the prevalence, relative risk (RR and 95% CI of prostate cancer according to age, race, ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer, educational level, and history of vasectomy, increased blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and urethritis. Results In 2121 men included in this study, prostate cancer prevalence was 0.6% for men between 40-49 years versus 2.0% (adjusted RR = 2.58, 7.7% (adjusted RR = 5.76, and 8.4% (adjusted RR = 4.88 for men 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and ≥ 70 years, respectively (p 0.05; 6.1% in African descendants, in comparison to 3.0% in non-African descendants (adjusted RR = 3.17, p 0.05; and 4.8% in participants with incomplete elementary school level or lower, compared to 2.2% in men with complete elementary school level or higher education (adjusted RR = 1.85, p > 0.05. Men with/without history of vasectomy, increased blood pressure, diabetes, and urethritis had a prostate cancer prevalence of 0.8%/3.0% (adjusted RR = 0.23, p > 0.05, 3.8%/2.2% (adjusted RR = 1.16, p > 0.05, 3.7%/2.6% (adjusted RR = 1.39, p > 0.05, and 2.6%/2.6% (adjusted RR = 0.99, p > 0.05, respectively. Conclusions Risk factors associated with an increased prevalence of prostate cancer in this cohort included increasing age and African ethnicity.

  18. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  19. Post-migration living difficulties as a significant risk factor for PTSD in immigrants: a primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimilano Aragona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: recent research shows that severe/very severe post-migration living difficulties (PMLD have a negative impact on the mental health and social integration of refugees and asylum seekers. This study focuses on the role of PMLD in primary care “ordinary” immigrants.

    Methods: 443 primary care immigrants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire measuring the number and severity of pre-migratory potentially traumatic events (PTE, PMLD, and the current prevalence of a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The frequency of PMLD was assessed in the whole sample and compared in patients with and without PTSD. The effect of the number of PMLD on the risk of having a PTSD was studied by means of a regression analysis, adjusted by the number of PTE.

    Results: 391 patients completed the questionnaire and were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of PTSD was 10.2%. In the whole sample the most frequent PMLD were “no permission to work” (38.6% and “poverty” (34.5%. All PMLD (except “communication difficulties” were more frequent in patients with a PTSD. The number of PMLD significantly increased the likelihood to have a PTSD independently from PTE. Conclusions: severe/very severe post-migration living difficulties (PMLD increase significantly the risk of PTSD in primary care “ordinary” migrants. Our hypothesis is that they have a retraumatizing effect on individuals who are already vulnerable and with a low capacity to handle resettlement stress due to their previous traumatic history. The implications in clinical practice and for immigration policies are discussed.

  20. Stepping reaction time and gait adaptability are significantly impaired in people with Parkinson's disease: Implications for fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Allen, Natalie E; Brodie, Matthew A; Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Canning, Colleen G; Menant, Jasmine C

    2018-02-01

    Decline in the ability to take effective steps and to adapt gait, particularly under challenging conditions, may be important reasons why people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have an increased risk of falling. This study aimed to determine the extent of stepping and gait adaptability impairments in PD individuals as well as their associations with PD symptoms, cognitive function and previous falls. Thirty-three older people with PD and 33 controls were assessed in choice stepping reaction time, Stroop stepping and gait adaptability tests; measurements identified as fall risk factors in older adults. People with PD had similar mean choice stepping reaction times to healthy controls, but had significantly greater intra-individual variability. In the Stroop stepping test, the PD participants were more likely to make an error (48 vs 18%), took 715 ms longer to react (2312 vs 1517 ms) and had significantly greater response variability (536 vs 329 ms) than the healthy controls. People with PD also had more difficulties adapting their gait in response to targets (poorer stepping accuracy) and obstacles (increased number of steps) appearing at short notice on a walkway. Within the PD group, higher disease severity, reduced cognition and previous falls were associated with poorer stepping and gait adaptability performances. People with PD have reduced ability to adapt gait to unexpected targets and obstacles and exhibit poorer stepping responses, particularly in a test condition involving conflict resolution. Such impaired stepping responses in Parkinson's disease are associated with disease severity, cognitive impairment and falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prostate-specific antigen cancer volume: a significant prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients at intermediate risk of failing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, Scott P.; Pollack, Alan; Zagars, Gunar K.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the pretreatment serum prostate-specific antigen level (PSAL) is the single-most significant predictor of local and biochemical control in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, it is relatively insensitive for patients with a PSAL in the intermediate range (4-20 ng/ml). PSA density (PSAD) has been shown to be slightly more predictive of outcome than PSAL for this intermediate risk group; however, this improvement is small and of little use clinically. PSA cancer volume (PSACV), an estimate of cancer volume based on PSA, has recently been described and has been purported to be more significant t than PSAL in predicting early biochemical failure after radiotherapy. We report a detailed comparison between this new prognostic factor, PSAL, and PSAD. Methods and Materials: The records of 356 patients treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy for regionally localized (T1-4,Nx,M0) adenocarcinoma of the prostate were reviewed. Each patient had a PSAL, biopsy Gleason score, and pretreatment prostate volume by transrectal ultrasonography. The median PSAL was 9.3 ng/ml and 66% had Gleason scores in the 2-6 range. The median radiation dose was 66.0 Gy and the median follow-up for those living was 27 months. PSACV was calculated using a formula which takes into account PSAL, pretreatment prostate ultrasound volume, and Gleason score. The median PSACV was 1.43 cc. Biochemical failure was defined as increases in two consecutive follow-up PSA levels, one increase by a factor > 1.5, or an absolute increase of > 1 ng/ml. Local failure was defined as a cancer-positive prostate biopsy, obtained for evidence of tumor progression. Results: The distributions of PSACV and PSAL were similar and, when normalized by log transformation, were highly correlated (p < 0.0001, linear regression). There was a statistically significant relationship between PSACV and several potential prognostic factors including PSAL, PSAD, stage, Gleason score, and

  2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype is not a significant genetic risk factor for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in Croatian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Danko; Sertić, Jadranka; Ćorić, Marijana; Konjevoda, Paško; Batinić, Danica; Milošević, Danko

    2015-01-01

    The association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is controversial. Only scarce information on European populations is available. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and its impact on INS in children from Croatia. Ninety-five children with INS were investigated: 30 with minimal change disease (MCD), 35 with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MesPGN) and 30 with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The control group consisted of 73 healthy adults. ACE gene was analyzed using the PCR method. The results were correlated with clinical features, renal morphology and response to immunosuppresive therapy. There was no correlation of ACE genotype with gender, age of the disease onset, level of proteinuria, presence of hematuria or hypertension, and GFR at onset of the disease. No statistically significant differences in ACE genotype or allele frequencies between the controls and whole group of patients, MCD group, MesPGN group, FSGS group, steroid sensitive (SS) patients, steroid resistant (SR) patients, as well as each other, were found, although DD genotype tended to be more frequent in FSGS patients, SR patients, and frequent relapsers. Among 11 children treated with cyclophosphamide the D allele was significantly higher among non-responders (p = 0.003). DD genotype is not a genetic risk factor for acquiring INS nor significant phenotype modifier regarding to clinical and pathohistological picture and response to steroids in Croatian children. The potential application of ACE genotyping in predicting cyclophosphamide response deserves further investigation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Constructing criticality by classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machacek, Erika

    2017-01-01

    " in the bureaucratic practice of classification: Experts construct material criticality in assessments as they allot information on the materials to the parameters of the assessment framework. In so doing, they ascribe a new set of connotations to the materials, namely supply risk, and their importance to clean energy......, legitimizing a criticality discourse.Specifically, the paper introduces a typology delineating the inferences made by the experts from their produced recommendations in the classification of rare earth element criticality. The paper argues that the classification is a specific process of constructing risk....... It proposes that the expert bureaucratic practice of classification legitimizes (i) the valorisation that was made in the drafting of the assessment framework for the classification, and (ii) political operationalization when enacted that might have (non-)distributive implications for the allocation of public...

  4. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited.A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls, and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG assay.Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively.A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection.C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas.

  5. Significance of clinical and biologic features in Stage 3 neuroblastoma: a report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meany, Holly J; London, Wendy B; Ambros, Peter F; Matthay, Katherine K; Monclair, Tom; Simon, Thorsten; Garaventa, Alberto; Berthold, Frank; Nakagawara, Akira; Cohn, Susan L; Pearson, Andrew D J; Park, Julie R

    2014-11-01

    International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) Stage 3 neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous disease. Data from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) database were analyzed to define patient and tumor characteristics predictive of outcome. Of 8,800 patients in the INRG database, 1,483 with INSS Stage 3 neuroblastoma and complete follow-up data were analyzed. Secondary analysis was performed in 1,013 patients (68%) with MYCN-non-amplified (NA) tumors. Significant prognostic factors were identified via log-rank test comparisons of survival curves. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify factors independently predictive of event-free survival (EFS). Age at diagnosis (P INSS Stage 3 neuroblastoma patients, age at diagnosis, MYCN status and histology predict outcome. Patients <547 days of age with MYCN-NA tumors that lack chromosome 11q aberrations or those with serum ferritin <96 ng/ml have excellent prognosis and should be considered for therapy reduction. Prospective clinical trials are needed to identify optimal therapy for those patients ≥ 547 days of age with undifferentiated histology or elevated serum ferritin. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Multi-informant assessment of siblings of youth with autism spectrum disorder: Parent-child discrepancies in at-risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, James A; Tomeny, Theodore S; Barry, Tammy D

    2017-09-01

    The behavioral and emotional functioning of typically-developing (TD) siblings of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been frequently assessed in the literature; however, these assessments typically include only one informant, rarely considering differences between parent and self-reports of sibling adjustment. This study examined parent-youth reported informant discrepancies in behavioral and emotional functioning, including whether parent and youth reports yielded the same conclusions regarding TD sibling risk status. Among 113 parents and TD siblings of youth with ASD, TD siblings self-reported more overall, conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems (compared to parent reports). Although few siblings were considered at-risk, those who were identified were not usually identified as at-risk on both informants' reports. Moreover, ASD symptoms, broader autism phenotype symptoms, parent mental health concerns, and social support from parents were all related to differences in at-risk classification between parent- and sibling self-report. This paper highlights the necessity of multi-informant reporting when considering TD sibling psychological functioning. This study helps to address gaps in the literature on assessment of emotional and behavioral functioning of TD siblings of youth with ASD. The results highlight the importance of utilizing both parent- and self-report when identifying TD siblings at-risk for maladjustment. Although few siblings were considered at-risk, those who were identified were not usually identified as such on both informants' reports, and a variety of sibling- and parent-factors were associated with differences in at-risk classification. Thus, inclusion and examination of both parent- and self-report of TD sibling psychological functioning is vital for accurately identifying numbers of TD siblings at-risk of maladjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  8. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children At Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties. PMID:26869730

  9. Prostate specific cancer volume: a significant prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients at intermediate risk of failing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankford, S.P.; Pollack, A.; Zagars, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Although the pretreatment serum prostate specific antigen level (PSAL) is the single most significant predictor of local and biochemical control in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, it is relatively insensitive for patients with a PSAL in the intermediate range (4-20 ng/ml). PSA density (PSAD) has been shown to be slightly more predictive of outcome than PSAL for this intermediate risk group; however, this improvement is small and of little use clinically. PSA cancer volume (PSACV) is an estimate of cancer volume based on PSA that was recently described by D'Amico and Propert (IJROBP 32:232, 1995) as providing significant and independent prognostic information in addition to PSAL. We report here a detailed comparison between this new prognostic factor, PSAL, and PSAD. Methods and Materials: The records of 356 patients treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy for regionally localized (T1-4, Nx, M0) adenocarcinoma of the prostate were reviewed. Each patient had a PSAL, biopsy Gleason score, and pretreatment prostate volume by transrectal ultrasonography. The median PSAL was 9.3 ng/ml and 66% had Gleason scores in the 2-6 range. The median radiation dose was 66.0 Gy and the median follow-up for those living was 27 months. PSACV is a calculated parameter that takes into account PSAL (total PSA), ultrasonographic prostate volume (estimate of PSA from benign epithelium), and Gleason grade (estimate of PSA per tumor volume). The median PSACV was 1.43 cc. Biochemical failure was defined as increases in two consecutive follow-up PSA levels, one increase by a factor > 1.5, or an absolute increase of > 1 ng/ml. Local failure was defined as a cancer-positive prostate biopsy, usually undertaken because of evidence of biochemical failure. Results: The distributions of PSACV and PSAL were similar and, when normalized by log-transformation, were highly correlated (p 4 cc, as compared to those with a PSACV ≤ 0.5 cc, was over 30%. Conclusion

  10. Classification of radiation-hazardous objects by the ecological risk rate, based on the concept of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The principal categories of the radiation-hazardous objects (RHO) (nuclear fuel cycle plants (NFC including NPP); ships with nuclear engine units and appropriate service facilities; units related with nuclear weapons (design, manufacture, storage, etc.); contaminated territories in the result nuclear accidents and nuclear facilities tests; civil enterprises using the radioactive sources) with real accident risk from radioactive substances (RS) release into environment are considered. For assessment of the ecological risk rate from RHO the International Nuclear Event Scale implemented by IAEA for NPP use is suggested. By opinion of the specialists the INES criteria could be used for radiation events assessment to other RHO that gives possibility for RHO arrangement by the potential hazard rate for environment in the case of accident. For RHO qualitative classification the main parameters assessment influencing on radioactive release risk (amount (total activity) of radioactive substances; possibility of chain reaction development; strength of technological parameters, etc.) was suggested. On the base of the INES all above-listed RHO kinds in the case of accident could be conditionally separated into three categories: 1. most radiation dangerous objects, on which could be severe and serious radiation accidents (corresponding to 4-7 INES levels); 2. RHO on which there is risk for accidents accompanying with RS release (accidents up to 4 INES level). 3. RHO without practical possibility for event (incidents - not higher 3 INES level). Introduction of suggested classification gives possibility for RHO safety control requirements rationalizing to radiation monitoring purposes for both RHO and the local systems

  11. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days for subsequent risk of childhood overweight in an Asian cohort: significance of parental overweight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, I M; Bernard, J Y; Chen, L-W; Tint, M T; Pang, W W; Soh, S E; Saw, S-M; Shek, L P-C; Godfrey, K M; Gluckman, P D; Chong, Y-S; Yap, F; Kramer, M S; Lee, Y S

    2018-01-01

    Many studies have identified early-life risk factors for subsequent childhood overweight/obesity, but few have evaluated how they combine to influence risk of childhood overweight/obesity. We examined associations, individually and in combination, of potentially modifiable risk factors in the first 1000 days after conception with childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity in an Asian cohort. Six risk factors were examined: maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg m -2 ), paternal overweight/obesity at 24 months post delivery, maternal excessive gestational weight gain, raised maternal fasting glucose during pregnancy (⩾5.1 mmol l -1 ), breastfeeding duration childhood adiposity and risk of overweight/obesity. Early-life and preconception intervention programmes may be more effective in preventing overweight/obesity if they concurrently address these multiple modifiable risk factors.

  12. Identification of Sexually Abused Female Adolescents at Risk for Suicidal Ideations: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hebert, Martine; Chagnon, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression,…

  13. The presence of advanced lesions and associating risk factors for advanced cervical carcinoma in patients with atypical sguamous cells of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L L; Chen, W; Fan, Y Y; Wang, M L; Wang, L N

    2015-01-01

    To characterize histopathological status, high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection status, and associated risk factors in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). Cervical biopsies obtained from 130 ASCUS patients were subjected to histopathological examination and hr-HPV testing. Associations between advanced lesions and hr-HPV load or age were analyzed, and the confounding factors for high-grade cervical lesions were identified. Cervical biopsies from ASCUS patients had a wide range of pathological states, ranging from normal to invasive cervical carcinoma. High-risk HPV infection was significantly associated with advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients; hr-HPV infection and the number of gestations were risk factors for developing advanced cervical disease. A significant portion of ASCUS patients harbor advanced cervical lesions. The number of gestations and hr-HPV infection can increase the risk of developing advanced cervical lesions in ASCUS patients.

  14. Risk adjustment models for interhospital comparison of CS rates using Robson's ten group classification system and other socio-demographic and clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colais, Paola; Fantini, Maria P; Fusco, Danilo; Carretta, Elisa; Stivanello, Elisa; Lenzi, Jacopo; Pieri, Giulia; Perucci, Carlo A

    2012-06-21

    Caesarean section (CS) rate is a quality of health care indicator frequently used at national and international level. The aim of this study was to assess whether adjustment for Robson's Ten Group Classification System (TGCS), and clinical and socio-demographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of CS rates. The study population includes 64,423 deliveries in Emilia-Romagna between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, classified according to theTGCS. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hospital relative risks of CS compared to a reference category. Analyses were carried out in the overall population and separately according to the Robson groups (groups I, II, III, IV and V-X combined). Adjusted relative risks (RR) of CS were estimated using two risk-adjustment models; the first (M1) including the TGCS group as the only adjustment factor; the second (M2) including in addition demographic and clinical confounders identified using a stepwise selection procedure. Percentage variations between crude and adjusted RRs by hospital were calculated to evaluate the confounding effect of covariates. The percentage variations from crude to adjusted RR proved to be similar in M1 and M2 model. However, stratified analyses by Robson's classification groups showed that residual confounding for clinical and demographic variables was present in groups I (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and III (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, spontaneous labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and to a minor extent in groups II (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour) and IV (multiparous, excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥37 weeks, induced or CS before labour). The TGCS classification is useful for inter-hospital comparison of CS section rates, but

  15. Risk assessments using the Strain Index and the TLV for HAL, Part I: Task and multi-task job exposure classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellusch, Jay M; Bao, Stephen S; Silverstein, Barbara A; Merryweather, Andrew S; Thiese, Mathew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Garg, Arun

    2017-12-01

    The Strain Index (SI) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL) use different constituent variables to quantify task physical exposures. Similarly, time-weighted-average (TWA), Peak, and Typical exposure techniques to quantify physical exposure from multi-task jobs make different assumptions about each task's contribution to the whole job exposure. Thus, task and job physical exposure classifications differ depending upon which model and technique are used for quantification. This study examines exposure classification agreement, disagreement, correlation, and magnitude of classification differences between these models and techniques. Data from 710 multi-task job workers performing 3,647 tasks were analyzed using the SI and TLV for HAL models, as well as with the TWA, Typical and Peak job exposure techniques. Physical exposures were classified as low, medium, and high using each model's recommended, or a priori limits. Exposure classification agreement and disagreement between models (SI, TLV for HAL) and between job exposure techniques (TWA, Typical, Peak) were described and analyzed. Regardless of technique, the SI classified more tasks as high exposure than the TLV for HAL, and the TLV for HAL classified more tasks as low exposure. The models agreed on 48.5% of task classifications (kappa = 0.28) with 15.5% of disagreement between low and high exposure categories. Between-technique (i.e., TWA, Typical, Peak) agreement ranged from 61-93% (kappa: 0.16-0.92) depending on whether the SI or TLV for HAL was used. There was disagreement between the SI and TLV for HAL and between the TWA, Typical and Peak techniques. Disagreement creates uncertainty for job design, job analysis, risk assessments, and developing interventions. Task exposure classifications from the SI and TLV for HAL might complement each other. However, TWA, Typical, and Peak job exposure techniques all have

  16. Significant vestibular system impairment is common in a cohort of elderly patients referred for assessment of falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Gary P; McCaslin, Devin L; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G

    2008-01-01

    Falls in elderly patients are associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost to the healthcare system. The development of falls risk assessment programs have represented a method of responding to what is known about injurious falls. The multidimensional assessments involve the comparison against normative data of a patient's performance on metrics known to influence the likelihood of future falls. The factors assessed usually include falls and medication history, measures of mentation, depression, orthostatic hypotension, simple or choice reaction time, gait stability, postural stability, and the integrity of the patient's vision, somesthetic, and vestibular senses. This investigation was conducted to measure the proportion of patients referred for falls risk assessment who have evidence of vestibular system impairment. Qualitative, retrospective review of data collected from 2003 to 2007. The cohort was 185 consecutive patients referred for multidimensional assessments of falls risk. Patients underwent quantitative assessments of peripheral and central vestibular system function consisting of electro- or videonystagmography (i.e., ENG/VNG), and sinusoidal harmonic acceleration testing. Results of these tests were compared to normative data. We found that 73% of the sample who underwent vestibular system assessment had quantitative evidence of either peripheral or central vestibular system impairment. Our results suggest that quantitative assessments of the vestibulo-ocular reflex should be conducted on patients who are evaluated for falls risk. These examinations should include at least caloric testing and, where available, rotational testing.

  17. Significant relationships between a simple marker of redox balance and lifestyle behaviours; Relevance to the Framingham risk score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Seyedsadjadi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been closely linked to the progressive cell damage associated with emerging non-communicable disease (NCDs. Early detection of these biochemical abnormalities before irreversible cell damage occurs may therefore be useful in identifying disease risk at an individual level. In order to test this hypothesis, this study assessed the relationship between a simple measure of redox status and lifestyle risk factors for NCDs, and the population-based risk score of Framingham. In a cross-sectional study design, 100 apparently healthy middle-aged males (n = 48 and females (n = 52 were asked to complete a comprehensive lifestyle assessment questionnaire, followed by body fat percentage and blood pressure measurements, and blood collection. The ratio of plasma total antioxidant capacity to hydroperoxide (TAC/HPX was used as an index of redox balance. One-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyse the association between TAC/HPX, lifestyle components and other plasma biomarkers. The TAC/HPX ratio was higher in males compared to females (t96 = 2.34, P = 0.021. TAC/HPX was also lower in participants with poor sleep quality (t93 = 2.39, P = 0.019, with high sleep apnoea risk (t62.2 = 3.32, P = 0.002, with high caffeine (F(2, 93 = 3.97, P = 0.022 and red meat intake (F(2, 93 = 5.55, P = 0.005. These associations were independent of gender. Furthermore, the TAC/HPX ratio decreased with increasing body fat percentage (F(2, 95 = 4.74, P = 0.011 and depression score (t94 = 2.38, P = 0.019, though these associations were dependent on gender. Importantly, a negative association was observed between TAC/HPX levels and the Framingham risk score in both males (r(45 = -0.39, P = 0.008 and females (r(50 = -0.33, P = 0.019 that was independent of other Framingham risk score components. Findings from this study suggests that a relatively simple measure of redox balance such as the TAC/HPX ratio may be a sensitive

  18. Web-based thyroid imaging reporting and data system: Malignancy risk of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance thyroid nodules calculated by a combination of ultrasonography features and biopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Shin, Jung Hee; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Seon-Ok; Lee, Won-Hong; Song, Dong Eun; Kim, Tae Yong; Chung, Ki-Wook; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2018-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to construct a web-based predictive model using ultrasound characteristics and subcategorized biopsy results for thyroid nodules of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) to stratify the risk of malignancy. Data included 672 thyroid nodules from 656 patients from a historical cohort. We analyzed ultrasound images of thyroid nodules and biopsy results according to nuclear atypia and architectural atypia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to predict whether nodules were diagnosed as malignant or benign. The ultrasound features, including spiculated margin, marked hypoechogenicity, calcifications, biopsy results, and cytologic atypia, showed significant differences between groups. A 13-point risk scoring system was developed, and the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the development and validation sets were 0.837 and 0.830, respectively (http://www.gap.kr/thyroidnodule_b3.php). We devised a web-based predictive model using the combined information of ultrasound characteristics and biopsy results for AUS/FLUS thyroid nodules to stratify the malignant risk. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  20. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan T.; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hall, Gillian C.; Ford, Ian; Mills, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment. Methods The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions. Results Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4–2.6]. High dose was classified as 40–80mg daily and low dose 10–20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2–12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9–2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0–2.2] for HDS. Conclusions The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small. PMID:26983033

  1. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001. Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59 for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy.

  2. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  3. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/World Heart Federation universal definition of myocardial infarction classification system and the risk of cardiovascular death: observations from the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial (Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition With Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaca, Marc P; Wiviott, Stephen D; Braunwald, Eugene; Murphy, Sabina A; Ruff, Christian T; Antman, Elliott M; Morrow, David A

    2012-01-31

    The availability of more sensitive biomarkers of myonecrosis and a new classification system from the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) have led to evolution of the classification of MI. The prognostic implications of MI defined in the current era have not been well described. We investigated the association between new or recurrent MI by subtype according to the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/World Health Federation Task Force for the Redefinition of MI Classification System and the risk of cardiovascular death among 13 608 patients with acute coronary syndrome in the Trial to Assess Improvement in Therapeutic Outcomes by Optimizing Platelet Inhibition with Prasugrel-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 38 (TRITON-TIMI 38). The adjusted risk of cardiovascular death was evaluated by landmark analysis starting at the time of the MI through 180 days after the event. Patients who experienced an MI during follow-up had a higher risk of cardiovascular death at 6 months than patients without an MI (6.5% versus 1.3%, P<0.001). This higher risk was present across all subtypes of MI, including type 4a (peri-percutaneous coronary intervention, 3.2%; P<0.001) and type 4b (stent thrombosis, 15.4%; P<0.001). After adjustment for important clinical covariates, the occurrence of any MI was associated with a 5-fold higher risk of death at 6 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-7.1), with similarly increased risk across subtypes. MI is associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death, with a consistent relationship across all types as defined by the universal classification system. These findings underscore the clinical relevance of these events and the importance of therapies aimed at preventing MI.

  4. Use of data mining techniques to investigate disease risk classification as a proxy for compromised biosecurity of cattle herds in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biosecurity is at the forefront of the fight against infectious diseases in animal populations. Few research studies have attempted to identify and quantify the effectiveness of biosecurity against disease introduction or presence in cattle farms and, when done, they have relied on the collection of on-farm data. Data on environmental, animal movement, demographic/husbandry systems and density disease determinants can be collated without requiring additional specific on-farm data collection activities, since they have already been collected for some other purposes. The aim of this study was to classify cattle herds according to their risk of disease presence as a proxy for compromised biosecurity in the cattle population of Wales in 2004 for risk-based surveillance purposes. Results Three data mining methods have been applied: logistic regression, classification trees and factor analysis. Using the cattle holding population in Wales, a holding was considered positive if at least bovine TB or one of the ten most frequently diagnosed infectious or transmissible non-notifiable diseases in England and Wales, according to the Veterinary Investigation Surveillance Report (VIDA had been diagnosed in 2004. High-risk holdings can be described as open large cattle herds located in high-density cattle areas with frequent movements off to many locations within Wales. Additional risks are associated with the holding being a dairy enterprise and with a large farming area. Conclusion This work has demonstrated the potential of mining various livestock-relevant databases to obtain generic criteria for individual cattle herd biosecurity risk classification. Despite the data and analytical constraints the described risk profiles are highly specific and present variable sensitivity depending on the model specifications. Risk profiling of farms provides a tool for designing targeted surveillance activities for endemic or emerging diseases

  5. Endogenously generated DNA nucleobase modifications source, and significance as possible biomarkers of malignant transformation risk, and role in anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinski, Ryszard; Gackowski, Daniel; Cooke, Marcus S

    2018-01-01

    The DNA of all living cells undergoes continuous structural and chemical alteration, which may be derived from exogenous sources, or endogenous, metabolic pathways, such as cellular respiration, replication and DNA demethylation. It has been estimated that approximately 70,000 DNA lesions may be generated per day in a single cell, and this has been linked to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. However, it is puzzling why potentially mutagenic DNA modifications, occurring at a similar level in different organs/tissue, may lead to organ/tissue specific cancers, or indeed non-malignant disease - what is the basis for this differential response? We suggest that it is perhaps the precise location of damage, within the genome, that is a key factor. Finally, we draw attention to the requirement for reliable methods for identification and quantification of DNA adducts/modifications, and stress the need for these assays to be fully validated. Once these prerequisites are satisfied, measurement of DNA modifications may be helpful as a clinical parameter for treatment monitoring, risk group identification and development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of multiple obesity indices for cardiovascular disease risk classification in South Asian adults: The CARRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani A Patel

    Full Text Available We comparatively assessed the performance of six simple obesity indices to identify adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a diverse and contemporary South Asian population.8,892 participants aged 20-60 years in 2010-2011 were analyzed. Six obesity indices were examined: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-height ratio (WHtR, waist-hip ratio (WHR, log of the sum of triceps and subscapular skin fold thickness (LTS, and percent body fat derived from bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. We estimated models with obesity indices specified as deciles and as continuous linear variables to predict prevalent hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol and report associations (prevalence ratios, PRs, discrimination (area-under-the-curve, AUCs, and calibration (index χ2. We also examined a composite unhealthy cardiovascular profile score summarizing glucose, lipids, and blood pressure.No single obesity index consistently performed statistically significantly better than the others across the outcome models. Based on point estimates, WHtR trended towards best performance in classifying diabetes (PR = 1.58 [1.45-1.72], AUC = 0.77, men; PR = 1.59 [1.47-1.71], AUC = 0.80, women and hypertension (PR = 1.34 [1.26,1.42], AUC = 0.70, men; PR = 1.41 [1.33,1.50], AUC = 0.78, women. WC (mean difference = 0.24 SD [0.21-0.27] and WHtR (mean difference = 0.24 SD [0.21,0.28] had the strongest associations with the composite unhealthy cardiovascular profile score in women but not in men.WC and WHtR were the most useful indices for identifying South Asian adults with prevalent diabetes and hypertension. Collection of waist circumference data in South Asian health surveys will be informative for population-based CVD surveillance efforts.

  7. The prevalence and significance of a short QT interval in 18,825 low-risk individuals including athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhutia, Harshil; Malhotra, Aneil; Parpia, Sameer; Gabus, Vincent; Finocchiaro, Gherardo; Mellor, Greg; Merghani, Ahmed; Millar, Lynne; Narain, Rajay; Sheikh, Nabeel; Behr, Elijah R; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The short QT syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy characterised by accelerated repolarisation which manifests as a short QT interval on the ECG. The definition of a short QT interval is debated, ranging from <390 to ≤320 ms, and its clinical significance in healthy young individuals is unknown. We assessed the prevalence and medium-term significance of an isolated short QT interval in a diverse young British population. Between 2005 and 2013, 18 825 apparently healthy people aged 14-35 years underwent cardiovascular evaluation with history, physical examination and ECG. QT intervals were measured by cardiologists using 4 recommended guidelines (Seattle 2013, Heart Rhythm Society 2013, European Society of Cardiology 2010 and American Heart Association 2009). The prevalence of a short QT interval was 0.1% (26 patients, ≤320 ms), 0.2% (44 patients, ≤330 ms), 7.9% (1478 patients, <380 ms), 15.8% (2973 patients, <390 ms). Male gender and Afro-Caribbean ethnicity had the strongest association with short QT intervals. Athletes had shorter QT intervals than non-athletes but athletic status did not predict short QT intervals. Individuals with short QT intervals ≤320 ms did not report syncope or a sinister family history, and during a follow-up period of 5.3±1.2 years, there were no deaths in this group. The prevalence of a short QT interval depends on the recommended cut-off value. Even at values ≤320 ms, there was an excellent medium-term prognosis among 14 people followed. We conclude that a definition of ≤320 ms is realistic to prevent overdiagnosis and excessive investigations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Feasibility of using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for evaluation of fall-related risk factors in acute rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih W; Lin, Li F; Chou, Lin C; Wu, Mei J; Liao, Chun D; Liou, Tsan H

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported the use of an International Classification of Functioning (ICF) core set that can provide a holistic framework for evaluating the risk factors of falls; however, data on the feasibility of applying this core set are lacking. To investigate the feasibility of applying the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set in the case of patients in an acute-rehabilitation setting. A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design. Acute-rehabilitation ward. A total of 273 patients who experienced fall at acute-rehabilitation ward. The data on falls were collected from the hospital's Nursing Information System (NIS) and the fall-reporting system (Adverse Event Reporting System, AERS) between 2010 and 2013. The relationship of both systems to the fall-related ICF core set was analyzed to assess the feasibility of their clinical application. We evaluated the feasibility of using the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set by using the frequency and the percentage of the fall patients in of the listed categories. The fall-related ICF risk-factor core set category b735 (muscle tone functions) exhibited a high feasibility (85.95%) for clinical application, and the category b730 (muscle power functions) covered 77.11% of the patients. The feasibility of application of the category d410 (change basic body position) was also high in the case of all fall patients (81.69%). In the acute-rehabilitation setting, the feasibility of application of the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set is high. The fall-related ICF risk-factor core set can help multidisciplinary teams develop fall-prevention strategies in acute rehabilitation wards.

  9. Residual tumor size and IGCCCG risk classification predict additional vascular procedures in patients with germ cell tumors and residual tumor resection: a multicenter analysis of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Christian; Pfister, David; Busch, Jonas; Bingöl, Cigdem; Ranft, Ulrich; Schrader, Mark; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Heidenreich, Axel; Albers, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Residual tumor resection (RTR) after chemotherapy in patients with advanced germ cell tumors (GCT) is an important part of the multimodal treatment. To provide a complete resection of residual tumor, additional surgical procedures are sometimes necessary. In particular, additional vascular interventions are high-risk procedures that require multidisciplinary planning and adequate resources to optimize outcome. The aim was to identify parameters that predict additional vascular procedures during RTR in GCT patients. A retrospective analysis was performed in 402 GCT patients who underwent 414 RTRs in 9 German Testicular Cancer Study Group (GTCSG) centers. Overall, 339 of 414 RTRs were evaluable with complete perioperative data sets. The RTR database was queried for additional vascular procedures (inferior vena cava [IVC] interventions, aortic prosthesis) and correlated to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification and residual tumor volume. In 40 RTRs, major vascular procedures (23 IVC resections with or without prosthesis, 11 partial IVC resections, and 6 aortic prostheses) were performed. In univariate analysis, the necessity of IVC intervention was significantly correlated with IGCCCG (14.1% intermediate/poor vs 4.8% good; p=0.0047) and residual tumor size (3.7% size risk features must initially be identified as high-risk patients for vascular procedures and therefore should be referred to specialized surgical centers with the ad hoc possibility of vascular interventions. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A significantly joint effect between arsenic and occupational exposures and risk genotypes/diplotypes of CYP2E1, GSTO1 and GSTO2 on risk of urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-H.; Yeh, S.-D.; Shen, K.-H.; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Juang, G.-D.; Hsu, L.-I; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, C.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, arsenic and occupational exposures are well-known risk factors for the development of urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, arsenic and occupational exposures on risk of UC could be modified by genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2E1 and glutathione S-transferase omega. A hospital-based case-control study consisted of 520 histologically confirmed UC cases, and 520 age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls were carried out from September 1998 to December 2007. Genotyping of CYP2E1, GSTO1 and GSTO2 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Subjects with both of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have a significantly increased UC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-4.4). Significantly increased UC risks of 1.5 and 1.9 were found for study subjects with high arsenic exposure and those who have been exposed to two or more occupational exposures, respectively. A significantly increased UC risk of 3.9 was observed in study subjects with H2-H2 diplotype of GSTO1 and GSTO2. The significantly highest UC risk of 9.0 was found for those with all environmental risk factors of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, arsenic and occupational exposures and two or more risk genotypes/diplotypes of CYP2E1, GSTO1 and GSTO2. Our findings suggest that a significantly joint effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, arsenic and occupational exposures and risk genotypes/diplotypes of CYP2E1, GSTO1 and GSTO2 on risk of UC was found.

  11. Significance of common variants on human chromosome 8q24 in relation to the risk of prostate cancer in native Japanese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoi Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common variants on human chromosome 8q24, rs1447295 (C/A and rs6983267 (T/G, have been recently linked to the prevalence of prostate cancer in European and American populations. Here, we evaluated whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1447295 and rs6983267 were associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer as well as latent prostate cancer in a native Japanese population. Results We analyzed genomic DNA samples from 391 sporadic prostate cancer patients, 323 controls who had died from causes unrelated to cancer and 112 Japanese men who were diagnosed as having latent prostate cancer based on autopsy results. The polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination using a fluorescent-based TaqMan assay. The A allele of rs1447295 was significantly associated with the risk of sporadic prostate cancer (p = 0.04; age-adjusted OR, 1.34, while the G allele of rs6983267 showed a trend towards being a high-risk allele (p = 0.06; age-adjusted OR, 1.27. No significant difference between these two polymorphisms and the risk of latent prostate cancer was observed in the present Japanese population. Conclusion Known variants on human chromosome 8q24 may be risk factors for sporadic prostate cancer in native Japanese men.

  12. The significance of OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in the risk assessment of gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hu; Shan, Liu; Bin, Lv

    2018-02-19

    Despite extensive research on the criteria for the assessment of gastric cancer risk using the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastritis/Intestinal-Metaplasia Assessment (OLGIM) systems, no comprehensive overview or systematic summary on their use is currently available. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of the OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in evaluating gastric cancer risk. We searched various databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane's library, for articles published before March 2017 on the association between OLGA/OLGIM stages and risk of gastric cancer. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.30 and Stata 14.0, with the odds ratio, risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval as the effect measures. A meta-analysis of six case-control studies and two cohort studies, comprising 2700 subjects, was performed. The meta-analysis of prospective case-control studies demonstrated a significant association between the OLGA/OLGIM stages III/IV and gastric cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score reflected heterogeneity in the case-control studies on OLGA. Subgroup analysis of high-quality (NOS score ≥ 5) studies showed an association between OLGA stage III/IV and increased risk of gastric cancer; the association was also high in the remaining study with low NOS score. The association between higher stages of gastritis defined by OLGA and risk of gastric cancer was significant. This correlation implies that close and frequent monitoring of such high-risk patients is necessary to facilitate timely diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  13. Three or more preoperative injections is the most significant risk factor for revision surgery after operative treatment of lateral epicondylitis: an analysis of 3863 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Ryan M; Cancienne, Jourdan M; Camp, Christopher L; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S; Werner, Brian C

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to identify the rate of failure of operative treatment of lateral epicondylitis, defined as progression to ipsilateral revision surgery, and associated patient-specific risk factors for failure. A national database was used to identify patients undergoing surgical treatment of lateral epicondylitis from 2005 to 2012. Patients undergoing concomitant procedures were excluded. Patients who then required subsequent ipsilateral extensor carpi radialis brevis débridement or release within 2 years were identified using similar methods. A multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate patient-related risk factors for revision surgery. In addition, the number of preoperative injections (1, 2, or ≥3) in the ipsilateral elbow was identified and included in the regression analysis. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each risk factor. Of 3863 patients who underwent operative treatment of lateral epicondylitis, 58 (1.5%) required ipsilateral revision surgery. Risk factors for revision surgery included age lateral epicondylitis in the studied population is low (1.5%). Risk factors for revision surgery include younger age, male gender, morbid obesity, tobacco use, and inflammatory arthritis. The most significant risk factor for revision surgery is having ≥3 ipsilateral preoperative injections. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelo de classificação de risco de crédito de empresas A model for the classification of companies credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Antonio Silva Brito

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O processo de gerenciamento de risco de crédito em instituições financeiras vem passando por uma revisão ao longo dos últimos anos. Nesse contexto, diversas novas técnicas de mensuração de risco de crédito e tomadores têm sido desenvolvidas e implementadas por grandes Bancos. O objetivo desta pesquisa é desenvolver um modelo de classificação de risco para avaliar o risco de crédito de empresas no mercado brasileiro. O modelo foi construído com base em uma amostra de empresas de capital aberto classificadas como solventes ou insolventes no período entre 1994 e 2004. A técnica estatística utilizada no desenvolvimento do modelo foi a regressão logística. As variáveis independentes são índices financeiros calculados a partir das demonstrações contábeis e utilizados para representar a situação econômico-financeira das empresas. A validação do modelo foi efetuada utilizando o método Jackknife e uma Curva ROC. Os resultados do estudo indicam que o modelo de classificação de risco desenvolvido prevê eventos de default com um ano de antecedência com bom nível de acurácia. Os resultados, também, indicam que as demonstrações contábeis contêm informações que possibilitam a classificação das empresas como prováveis solventes ou prováveis insolventes.The process of credit risk management in financial institutions has been revised in recent years. In this context, large banks have developed and implemented several new techniques for measuring borrowers credit risk. This research aims to develop a risk classification model to assess the credit risk of companies in the Brazilian market. The model was built based on a sample of publicly traded companies classified as solvent or insolvent during the period from 1994 to 2004. Logistic regression was used to develop the model. The independent variables of the model are financial ratios, calculated from the financial statements and used as proxies of companies economic

  15. Inventory of closed and abandoned mines : Methods for performing the inventory and for risk classification with diverse data availability levels

    OpenAIRE

    Luodes, Nike M.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional mining techniques have not been aware of the importance of the long term effects that the mining activity can cause: the main being represented by Acid Mine Drainage where chemical changes in sulphide rich tailings can bring in solution heavy metals, penetrate through the containing structure access and accumulate in the environment. The abandoned and unstable facilities located on the site can by their own represent risks for people and animals accessing the area. Several cou...

  16. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  17. Prognostic significance of smoking in addition to established risk factors in patients with Dukes B and C colorectal cancer: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, N; Xynos, I D; Amptulah, S; Karadima, M; Skopelitis, H; Tsavaris, N

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic significance of smoking in addition to established risk factors in patients with Dukes stage B and C colorectal cancer (CRC). 291 consecutive non-selected CRC patients were studied retrospectively. Twenty-three variables were examined using a regression statistical model to identify relevant prognostic factors related to disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). On multivariate analysis DFS was found to be negatively affected in patients with a smoking history of ≤10 pack-years vs. non-smokers (p<0.016). Additionally, performance status (PS)<90 (p<0.001), Dukes stage C (p<0.001) and elevated tumor markers (p<0.001) at the time of diagnosis were found to adversely affect DFS. Smoking also had a significant association with relapse. Patients with a smoking history of ≤10 pack-years had 2.45 (p<0.018) higher risk of recurrence compared to patients with no smoking history. OS was influenced by Karnofsky performance status (PS), Dukes stage, and elevated tumor markers. In particular patients with PS< 90 had a 4.69-fold higher risk of death (p<0.001) than patients with better PS. Stage C disease was associated with 2.27-fold higher risk of death (p<0.001) than stage B disease, and patients with elevated tumor markers at the time of diagnosis had 2.74-fold higher risk of death (p<0.014) when compared to those whose tumor markers were normal at presentation. Our study associates smoking and relapse incidence in non-clinical- trial CRC patients and reiterates the prognostic significance of PS, stage and tumor markers at the time of diagnosis.

  18. Environmental hazards from natural hydrocarbons seepage: Integrated classification of risk from sediment chemistry, bioavailability and biomarkers responses in sentinel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Piva, Francesco; Pacitti, Davide; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Potential effects of natural emissions of hydrocarbons in the marine environment have been poorly investigated. In this study, a multidisciplinary weight of evidence (WOE) study was carried out on a shallow seepage, integrating sediment chemistry with bioavailability and onset of subcellular responses (biomarkers) in caged eels and mussels. Results from different lines of evidence (LOEs) were elaborated within a quantitative WOE model which, based on logical flowcharts, provide synthetic indices of hazard for each LOE, before their integration in a quantitative risk assessment. Evaluations of different LOEs were not always in accordance and their overall elaboration summarized as Moderate the risk in the seepage area. This study provided first evidence of biological effects in organisms exposed to natural hydrocarbon emissions, confirming the limit of chemical characterization as stand-alone criteria for environmental quality assessment and the utility of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the good environmental status as required by Environmental Directives. -- Highlights: • Hazards from natural seepage were evaluated through a multidisciplinary WOE study. • Caged eels and mussels were chosen as bioindicator organisms. • Evaluations obtained from various LOEs were not always in accordance. • Biological effects of natural hydrocarbons release were demonstrated. • WOE approach could discriminate different levels of hazard in low impacted conditions. -- A multidisciplinary WOE study in a shallow coastal seepage summarized a Moderate level of risk based on integration of sediment chemistry with biological effects in caged organisms

  19. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  20. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Shiguang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  1. Classification of jobs at risk of exposure and protection of pregnancy and lactation; Clasificacion de puestos de trabajo con riesgo de exposicion y proteccion del embarazo y la lactancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Dominguez, M.; Perucha Ortega, M.; Sanchez Carmona, G.; Haro Madero, G.; Herrador Cordoba, M.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the method followed in our hospital for the classification of jobs by defining simple criteria and establishing levels of risk and its application, the result obtained and the implications for the implementation of the RD 298/2009.

  2. Frequency and Nature of Infectious Risk Moments During Acute Care Based on the INFORM Structured Classification Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Lauren; Passerini, Simone; Wolfensberger, Aline; Sax, Hugo; Manser, Tanja

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we sought to establish a comprehensive inventory of infectious risk moments (IRMs), defined as seemingly innocuous yet frequently occurring care manipulations potentially resulting in transfer of pathogens to patients. We also aimed to develop and employ an observational taxonomy to quantify the frequency and nature of IRMs in acute-care settings. DESIGN Prospective observational study and establishment of observational taxonomy. SETTING Intensive care unit, general medical ward, and emergency ward of a university-affiliated hospital. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs) METHODS Exploratory observations were conducted to identify IRMs, which were coded based on the surfaces involved in the transmission pathway to establish a structured taxonomy. Structured observations were performed using this taxonomy to quantify IRMs in all 3 settings. RESULTS Following 129.17 hours of exploratory observations, identified IRMs involved HCW hands, gloves, care devices, mobile objects, and HCW clothing and accessories. A structured taxonomy called INFORM (INFectiOus Risk Moment) was established to classify each IRM according to the source, vector, and endpoint of potential pathogen transfer. We observed 1,138 IRMs during 53.77 hours of structured observations (31.25 active care hours) for an average foundation of 42.8 IRMs per active care hour overall, and average densities of 34.9, 36.8, and 56.3 IRMs in the intensive care, medical, and emergency wards, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Hands and gloves remain among the most important contributors to the transfer of pathogens within the healthcare setting, but medical devices, mobile objects, invasive devices, and HCW clothing and accessories may also contribute to patient colonization and/or infection. The INFORM observational taxonomy and IRM inventory presented may benefit clinical risk assessment, training and education, and future research. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:272-279.

  3. ICU Acquisition Rate, Risk Factors, and Clinical Significance of Digestive Tract Colonization With Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsis, Marios; Karanika, Styliani; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2017-04-01

    -lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae ranged from 5% to 10%. Previous use of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase or carbapenems and recent hospitalization were independent risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae colonization, and colonization was associated with significantly higher frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae subsequent infection and increased mortality.

  4. The low risk of precancer after a screening result of human papillomavirus-negative/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance papanicolaou and implications for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Behrens, Catherine; Sharma, Abha; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Cuzick, Jack; Yang, Zi Hua; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-11-01

    Different US practice guidelines have conflicting recommendations for when women should return after a screening result of human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative with an equivocal Papanicolaou (Pap) result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (ie, return in either 3 or 5 years). One way to determine management is to compare the risk of precancer/cancer after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result with the risks after other negative screening results. For example, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result was similar to the risk after a negative Pap test, a 3-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women with negative Pap test results should return in 3 years. Alternatively, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result is similar to that after a cotest-negative result (HPV negative/Pap test negative), a 5-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women testing cotest negative should return in 5 years. The authors compared risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) and cervical cancer among women aged 30 years to 64 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern California with the following test results from 2003 through 2012: 17,191 women testing HPV negative/ASC-US; 980,268 women testing Pap test negative (regardless of HPV result); and 892,882 women testing cotest negative. The 5-year CIN3+ and cancer risks after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result were closer to the risks after a negative Pap test result (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.31% [P =.0019]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.031% [P =.4]) than after a negative cotest (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.11% [P<.0001]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.014% [P =.016]). Women testing HPV negative/ASC-US were found to have precancer/cancer risks that were more closely aligned with women with negative Pap test results, suggesting that women testing HPV negative/ASC-US should be managed similarly to women testing negative on Pap tests with a 3-year return for screening. © 2014

  5. Post-challenge hyperglycemia is a significant risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Mizuta, Toshihiko; Eguchi, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported that diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive patients. However, it is unclear whether or not post-challenge hyperglycemia is a risk factor. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between post-challenge hyperglycemia and hepatocarcinogenesis in HCV-positive patients. A total of 203 HCV-RNA-positive subjects (108 males, mean age 54.3±10.8 years; 95 females, mean age 56.6±10.3 years; genotype 1b/2a/2b/3a: 152/38/12/1) who underwent liver biopsy and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and who were treated with interferon (IFN) were enrolled in this study. None of the subjects had been treated with antidiabetic drugs. The subjects underwent ultrasonography and/or computed tomography every 6 months after the end of the IFN therapy. Thirteen patients, including one patient who achieved a sustained viral response (SVR) with IFN, developed HCC. On multivariate analysis, male sex, age >65 years, excessive alcohol consumption, non-SVR, liver steatosis area >5% in liver specimens, and 120-min post-challenge hyperglycemia were risk factors for the development of HCC. After matching subjects for sex, age, alcohol intake, and response to the IFN therapy, advanced fibrosis stages [hazard ratio (HR) 2.8], liver steatosis (HR 5.4), and 120-min post-challenge hyperglycemia (HR 4.9) were significant risk factors for the development of HCC. Furthermore, after matching for the fibrosis stage, liver steatosis (HR 5.7) and 120-min post-challenge hyperglycemia (HR 6.9) remained as significant factors for HCC development. Post-challenge hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for HCC in HCV-positive patients. (author)

  6. Microbiological sampling plan based on risk classification to verify supplier selection and production of served meals in food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, Evy; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landeghem, Filip; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Food service operations are confronted with a diverse range of raw materials and served meals. The implementation of a microbial sampling plan in the framework of verification of suppliers and their own production process (functionality of their prerequisite and HACCP program), demands selection of food products and sampling frequencies. However, these are often selected without a well described scientifically underpinned sampling plan. Therefore, an approach on how to set-up a focused sampling plan, enabled by a microbial risk categorization of food products, for both incoming raw materials and meals served to the consumers is presented. The sampling plan was implemented as a case study during a one-year period in an institutional food service operation to test the feasibility of the chosen approach. This resulted in 123 samples of raw materials and 87 samples of meal servings (focused on high risk categorized food products) which were analyzed for spoilage bacteria, hygiene indicators and food borne pathogens. Although sampling plans are intrinsically limited in assessing the quality and safety of sampled foods, it was shown to be useful to reveal major non-compliances and opportunities to improve the food safety management system in place. Points of attention deduced in the case study were control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw meat spread and raw fish as well as overall microbial quality of served sandwiches and salads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards an international classification for patient safety : the conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherman, H.; Castro, G.; Fletcher, M.; Hatlie, M.; Hibbert, P.; Jakob, R.; Koss, R.; Lewalle, P.; Loeb, J.; Perneger, Th.; Runciman, W.; Thomson, R.; Schaaf, van der T.W.; Virtanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Global advances in patient safety have been hampered by the lack of a uniform classification of patient safety concepts. This is a significant barrier to developing strategies to reduce risk, performing evidence-based research and evaluating existing healthcare policies relevant to patient safety.

  8. Radioactive facilities classification criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso C, H.A.; Riesle W, J.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate classification of radioactive facilities into groups of comparable risk constitutes one of the problems faced by most Regulatory Bodies. Regarding the radiological risk, the main facts to be considered are the radioactive inventory and the processes to which these radionuclides are subjected. Normally, operations are ruled by strict safety procedures. Thus, the total activity of the radionuclides existing in a given facility is the varying feature that defines its risk. In order to rely on a quantitative criterion and, considering that the Annual Limits of Intake are widely accepted references, an index based on these limits, to support decisions related to radioactive facilities, is proposed. (author)

  9. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  10. Prognostic significance of several histological features in intermediate and high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated with curative intent using surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, K.; Bernshaw, D.; Quinn, M.; Allen, D.; Rejeki, V.; Herschtal, A.; Jobling, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of the present study was to explore the prognostic significance of several histological features with respect to lymph node metastasis, failure-free survival (FeS), and overall survival (Os) in intermediate and high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated with curative intent. One hundred and eighty patients with endometrial cancer were treated with hysterectomy with or without lymphadenectomy and received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The mean follow-up period was 4.25 years (range 0.44-10.45 years). In multifactor analysis, fractional myometrial invasion (MI) (P = 0.047), histology (P < 0.001) and lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI) (P = 0.025) were significant predictors for FFS when nodal status was not included. When lymph node status was known, histology (P - 0.007) and LVSI (P = 0.014) remained significant factors for FFS. For OS, histology (P < 0.001) and fractional MI (P = 0.004) were the significant factors. Lymph node status could be predicted by tumour grading (P = 0.016) and absolute MI (P 0.002). Histology type and the presence of LVSI were the most important prognostic factors in high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Absolute MI and tumour grading were useful predictors of nodal spread.

  11. The clinical significance and risk factors of anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibody on maintenance hemodialysis patients: a two-year prospective follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is an immune response mediated by anti-PF4/heparin antibody, which is clinically characterized by thrombocytopenia and thromboembolic events. In this study, a prospective and multi-center clinical investigation 1 determined the positive rate of anti-PF4/heparin antibody in maintenance hemodialysis patients in China, 2 identified the related risk factors, and 3 further explored the effect of the anti-PF4/heparin antibody on bleeding, thromboembolic events, and risk of death in the patients. METHODS: The serum anti-PF4/heparin antibody was measured in 661 patients from nine hemodialysis centers, detected by IgG-specific ELISA and followed by confirmation with excess heparin. Risk factors of these patients were analyzed. Based on a two-year follow-up, the association between the anti-PF4/heparin antibody and bleeding, thromboembolic events, and risk of death in the patients was investigated. RESULTS: 1 The positivity rate of the anti-PF4/heparin antibody in maintenance hemodialysis patients was 5.6%. With diabetes as an independent risk factor, the positivity rate of the anti-PF4/heparin antibody decreased in the patients undergoing weekly dialyses ≥3 times. 2 The positivity rate of the anti-PF4/heparin antibody was not related to the occurrence of clinical thromboembolic events and was not a risk factor for death within two years in maintenance hemodialysis patients. 3 Negativity for the anti-PF4/heparin antibody combined with a reduction of the platelet count or combined with the administration of antiplatelet drugs yielded a significant increase in bleeding events. However, the composite determination of the anti-PF4/heparin antibody and thrombocytopenia, as well as the administration of antiplatelet drugs, was not predictive for the risk of thromboembolic events in the maintenance hemodialysis patients. CONCLUSIONS: A single detection of the anti-PF4/heparin antibody did not predict the occurrence

  12. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgawad S. El-Tahawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis. Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt. Results: The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in 3 age groups (8.35%. In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%. The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis. Conclusion: The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies.

  13. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S.; Bazh, Eman K.; Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis. Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt. Results: The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in 3 age groups (8.35%). In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%). The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis. Conclusion: The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies. PMID:29184371

  14. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S; Bazh, Eman K; Khalafalla, Reda E

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis. From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt. The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in 3 age groups (8.35%). In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%). The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis. The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies.

  15. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  16. Significant association between asthma risk and the GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Siqiao; Wei, Xuan; Gong, Chen; Wei, Jinmei; Chen, Zhangrong; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhibo; Deng, Jingmin

    2013-07-01

    Polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1 may be associated with asthma risk, yet several studies and meta-analyses have reported inconclusive results. Therefore, an updated meta-analysis was conducted. Literature searches were performed using the Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science databases until October 2012. Variant 'null' genotype was compared with wild-type 'present' in the pooled data. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0. A total of 26 case-control studies were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. In the overall population, a significant association was found for both the GSTM1 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.452; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.192-1.770) and GSTT1 polymorphism (OR = 1.792; 95% CI:1.293-2.483). For subgroup analysis by age, GSTM1 significantly increased risk for both children (OR = 1.368; 95% CI: 1.051-1.781) and adults (OR = 1.859; 95% CI: 1.183-2.921). For GSTT1, a significant association was only found in the adult population (OR = 2.312; 95%CI: 1.204-4.439). Based on subgroup analysis by ethnicity, a significant association for GSTM1 was found in Europe (OR = 1.303; 95% CI: 1.018-1.667), Africa (OR = 2.175; 95%CI: 1.560-3.031) and Latin America (OR = 2.265; 95%CI: 1.375-3.729). For GSTT1, significantly increased risk was found only for Asian (OR = 2.105; 95% CI: 1.101-4.025) and Russian (OR = 2.747; 95% CI: 1.071-7.046) populations. This meta-analysis provides evidence that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms may be risk factors for asthma. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. A comparison of CA125, HE4, risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA, and risk malignancy index (RMI for the classification of ovarian masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms is essential for creating a system for patient referrals. Therefore, the contributions of the tumor markers CA125 and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 as well as the risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA and risk malignancy index (RMI values were considered individually and in combination to evaluate their utility for establishing this type of patient referral system. METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed with ovarian masses through imaging analyses (n = 128 were assessed for their expression of the tumor markers CA125 and HE4. The ROMA and RMI values were also determined. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves according to the area under the curve (AUC for each method. RESULTS: The sensitivities associated with the ability of CA125, HE4, ROMA, or RMI to distinguish between malignant versus benign ovarian masses were 70.4%, 79.6%, 74.1%, and 63%, respectively. Among carcinomas, the sensitivities of CA125, HE4, ROMA (pre-and post-menopausal, and RMI were 93.5%, 87.1%, 80%, 95.2%, and 87.1%, respectively. The most accurate numerical values were obtained with RMI, although the four parameters were shown to be statistically equivalent. CONCLUSION: There were no differences in accuracy between CA125, HE4, ROMA, and RMI for differentiating between types of ovarian masses. RMI had the lowest sensitivity but was the most numerically accurate method. HE4 demonstrated the best overall sensitivity for the evaluation of malignant ovarian tumors and the differential diagnosis of endometriosis. All of the parameters demonstrated increased sensitivity when tumors with low malignancy potential were considered low-risk, which may be used as an acceptable assessment method for referring patients to reference centers.

  18. Classification of alcohol use disorders among nightclub patrons: associations between high-risk groups, sociodemographic factors and illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Raissa; Baldin, Yago; Carlini, Claudia M; Sanchez, Zila M

    2015-01-01

    Nightclubs are favorable environments for alcohol abuse and the use of other drugs among patrons. To identify patterns of alcohol use in a high-risk population and their relationship with sociodemographic factors and illicit drug use. A portal survey technique was used to recruit patrons in 31 nightclubs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A two stage sampling method allowed the selection of nightclubs and patrons within a nightclub. A total of 1057 patrons answered to a three stages-survey (nightclub entrance and exit face-to-face interviews and a day-after online questionnaire). Entrance survey offered information on sociodemographic data and history of drug use. The day-after survey used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT) that identified patterns of alcohol abuse disorders. Data were modeled using an ordered logit regression analysis, considering sample weights. Almost half of the nightclub patrons presented any alcohol use disorder (AUDIT score ≥8). Being male (OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.09-2.60) and single (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.05-2.76) increased the chances for more severe alcohol use disorders. Having a graduate degree (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.38-0.87) and age ≥35 years (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.27-0.85) decreased the chances of patrons' alcohol use disorders. The prevalence rates of past-year marijuana, cocaine and inhalants use increased with the increased level of alcohol use disorders. Patrons of nightclubs show higher prevalence rates for any alcohol use disorders than the general population. Patrons could benefit from governmental brief intervention or referral to treatment for alcohol used disorders disclosed in nightclubs.

  19. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinically Significant Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury after Non-Emergent Cardiac Catheterization - Risk Factors and Impact on Length of Hospital Stay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, W.; Yaqub, S.; Khawaja, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with clinically significant contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2007. Methodology: Case records of patients who underwent coronary angiography with a serum creatinine of >= 1.5 mg/dl at the time of procedure were evaluated. Clinically significant contrast induced nephropathy (CSCIN) was defined as either doubling of serum creatinine from baseline value within a week following the procedure or need for emergency hemodialysis after the procedure. Results: One hundred and sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 64.0 +- 11.5 years, 72% were males. Overall prevalence of CIN was 17% (rise of serum creatinine by A= 0.5 mg/dl) while that of clinically significant CIN (CSCIN) was 9.5% (11 patients). Patients with CSCIN had significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR: 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06 A= 0.91) and higher prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (p < 0.001, OR: 14.66; 95% CI = 3.30 - 65.08). Mean baseline serum creatinine was significantly higher, 3.0 +- 1.5 vs. 2.0 +- 1.1 mg/dl (p = 0.03, OR: 1.47; 95% CI = 1.03 - 2.11) whereas mean GFR estimated by Cockcroft-Gault formula was significantly lower at 25 +- 7.4 vs. 41.0 +- 14.6 ml/minute (p = 0.001, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84 A= 0.95) at the time of procedure in patients with CSCIN. Mean length of hospital stay was significantly higher in this group compared to those without CIN, 9.0 +- 5.1 vs. 3.0 +- 3.2 days (p = 0.001, OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12 - 1.54). Multivariate analysis revealed low GFR (p = 0.001, OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.82 - 0.95) and low ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.91) to be independent factors associated with CSCIN. No significant differences were noted between the two groups in patients with

  1. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  2. Classification and risk assessment of individuals with familial polyposis, Gardner's syndrome, and familial non-polyposis colon cancer from [3H]thymidine labeling patterns in colonic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, M.; Blattner, W.A.; Gardner, E.J.; Burt, R.W.; Lynch, H.; Deschner, E.; Winawer, S.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis has been developed to assist the binary classification and risk assessment of members of familial colon cancer kindreds. The analysis is based on the microautoradiographic observation of [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled epithelial cells in colonic mucosa of the kindred members. From biopsies of colonic mucosa which are labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine in vitro, the degree of similarity of each subject's cell-labeling pattern measured over entire crypts was automatically compared to the labeling patterns of high-risk and low-risk reference populations. Each individual was then presumptively classified and assigned to one of the reference populations, and a degree of risk for the classification was provided. In carrying out the analysis, a linear score was calculated for each individual relative to each of the reference populations, and the classification was based on the polarity of the score difference; the degree of risk was then quantitated from the magnitude of the score difference. When the method was applied to kindreds having either familial polyposis or familial non-polyposis colon cancer, it effectively segregated individuals affected with disease from others at low risk, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 71 to 92%. Further application of the method to asymptomatic family members believed to be at 50% risk on the basis of pedigree evaluation revealed a biomodal distribution to nearly zero or full risk. The accuracy and simplicity of this approach and its capability of revealing early stages of abnormal colonic epithelial cell development indicate potential for preclinical screening of subjects at risk in cancer-prone kindreds and for assisting the analysis of modes of inheritance

  3. Review article: A systematic review of emergency department incident classification frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew; McCarthy, Sally

    2017-10-11

    As in any part of the hospital system, safety incidents can occur in the ED. These incidents arguably have a distinct character, as the ED involves unscheduled flows of urgent patients who require disparate services. To aid understanding of safety issues and support risk management of the ED, a comparison of published ED specific incident classification frameworks was performed. A review of emergency medicine, health management and general medical publications, using Ovid SP to interrogate Medline (1976-2016) was undertaken to identify any type of taxonomy or classification-like framework for ED related incidents. These frameworks were then analysed and compared. The review identified 17 publications containing an incident classification framework. Comparison of factors and themes making up the classification constituent elements revealed some commonality, but no overall consistency, nor evolution towards an ideal framework. Inconsistency arises from differences in the evidential basis and design methodology of classifications, with design itself being an inherently subjective process. It was not possible to identify an 'ideal' incident classification framework for ED risk management, and there is significant variation in the selection of categories used by frameworks. The variation in classification could risk an unbalanced emphasis in findings through application of a particular framework. Design of an ED specific, ideal incident classification framework should be informed by a much wider range of theories of how organisations and systems work, in addition to clinical and human factors. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  4. Prognostic significance of P2RY8-CRLF2 and CRLF2 overexpression may vary across risk subgroups of childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hu; Chen, Xi; Huang, Yi; Su, Yongchun; Lu, Ling; Yu, Jie; Yin, Yibing; Bao, Liming

    2017-02-01

    The cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2) gene plays an important role in early B-cell development. Aberrations in CRLF2 activate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway that contributes to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The prognostic significance of CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion in various B-ALL risk subgroups has not been well established. Two hundred seventy-one patients with newly diagnosed childhood B-ALL were enrolled from a Chinese population. The prevalence of CRLF2 overexpression, CRLF2-P2RY8 fusion, CRLF2 F232C mutation, and JAK2 and IL7R mutational status were analyzed, and the prognostic impact of CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 on B-ALL was evaluated by assessing their influence on overall survival and event-free survival. CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 were found in 19% and 10%, respectively, in the whole cohort. No correlation between CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 was observed. CRLF2 F322C and IL7R mutations were not detected in B-ALL cases overexpressing CRLF2, and no JAK2 mutations were found in the whole cohort either. The results showed that CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 were associated with a poor outcome in unselected B-ALL. Moreover, in an intermediate risk B-ALL subgroup P2RY8-CRLF2 was correlated with worse survival, whereas in high- and low-risk subgroups, CRLF2 overexpression predicted a poor outcome. Our findings suggest that P2RY8-CRLF2 is an independent prognostic indicator in intermediate risk B-ALL, while CRLF2 overexpression is correlated with an inferior outcome in high- or low-risk B-ALL. Our study demonstrates that the impact of P2RY8-CRLF2 and CRLF2 overexpression on B-ALL survival may differ across risk subgroups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Research Design and Methods: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day or placebo...... units), oxLDL (44.9 (26.9 - 75.1) vs. 36.1 (23.4 - 55.5) U/l), and hsCRP (0.26 (0.03 - 2.41) vs. 0.12 (0.02 - 0.81) mg/dl) were significantly increased in PCOS patients vs. controls (geometric mean (+/- 2SD)). In PCOS, positive correlations were found between central fat mass and sCD36 (r=0.43), hs......CRP (r=0.43), and IL-6 (r=0.42), all pPCOS patients and controls (n=44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant...

  6. Oxidative damage markers are significantly associated with the carotid artery intima-media thickness after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between oxidative damage markers and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in multiple logistic regression models.Fifty-one case male participants (CIMT ≥ 0.9 mm were enrolled during their visits to Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study of Wonju centers between May 1 and August 31, 2011, along with 51 control participants (CIMT < 0.9 mm selected using frequency matching by age group. The levels of oxidative damage markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquuanosine (8-OHdG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (Isoprostane, were measured. Conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative relationships between the oxidative damage markers and the risk of high CIMT.The markers of oxidative lipid (Isoprostane and MDA and DNA (8-OHdG damage were associated with CIMT after controlling for the conventional risk factors, including age, low density lipoprotein, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and metabolic syndrome (ORs [95% CI] for Isoprostane: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for MDA: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for 8-OHdG: 3rd tertile, 5.58 [1.79-17.33]. When all the oxidative damage markers were incorporated in the same logistic regression model, only Isoprostane was significantly related to CIMT (OR [95% CI]: 4.22 [1.31-13.53] in 2nd tertile and 14.21 [3.34-60.56] in 3rd tertile.In this nested case-control study, the oxidative damage markers of lipid and DNA were associated with CIMT even after controlling for the conventional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Proposal of a new preliminary scoring tool for early identification of significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries in patients at risk after road traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimanantsoa, Mahery; Zingg, Tobias; Thiery, Alicia; Brigand, Cécile; Delhorme, Jean-Baptiste; Romain, Benoît

    2017-12-14

    Blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries (BBMI) are regularly missed by abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. The aim of this study was to develop a risk assessment tool for BBMI to help clinicians in decision-making for blunt trauma after road traffic crashes (RTCs). Single-center retrospective study of trauma patients from January 2010 to April 2015. All patients admitted to our hospital after blunt trauma following RTCs and CT scan at admission were assessed. Of the 394 patients included, 78 (19.8%) required surgical exploration and 34 (43.6%) of these had a significant BBMI. A univariate and multivariate analysis were performed comparing patients with BBMI (n = 34) and patients without BBMI (n = 360). A score with a range from 0 to 13 was created. Scores from 8 to 9 were associated with 5-25% BBMI risk. The power of this new score ≥ 8 to predict a surgically significant BBMI had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 48% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.4%. This score could be a valuable tool for the management of blunt trauma patients after RTA without a clear indication for laparotomy but at risk for BBMI. The outcome of this study suggests selective diagnostic laparoscopy for a score ≥ 8 in obtunded patients and ≥ 10 in all other. To assess the value and accuracy of this new score, a prospective validation of these retrospective findings is due.

  8. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...

  9. Cellular image classification

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xiang; Lin, Feng

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for cellular image feature extraction, pattern recognition and classification. The authors use the antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in patient serum as the subjects and the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) technique as the imaging protocol to illustrate the applications of the described methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide evaluations for the proposed methods on two publicly available human epithelial (HEp-2) cell datasets: ICPR2012 dataset from the ICPR'12 HEp-2 cell classification contest and ICIP2013 training dataset from the ICIP'13 Competition on cells classification by fluorescent image analysis. First, the reading of imaging results is significantly influenced by one’s qualification and reading systems, causing high intra- and inter-laboratory variance. The authors present a low-order LP21 fiber mode for optical single cell manipulation and imaging staining patterns of HEp-2 cells. A focused four-lobed mode distribution is stable and effective in optical...

  10. Diversity of apolipoprotein E genetic polymorphism significance on cardiovascular risk is determined by the presence of metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Marrocos, Mauro Sergio; Quinto, Beata Marie Redublo; Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Rodrigues, Cassio Jose de Oliveira; Carmona, Silmara de Melo; Kuniyoshi, Mariana; Batista, Marcelo Costa

    2014-11-20

    Hypertension has a significant relevance as a cardiovascular risk factor. A consistent increase on world's Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) incidence has been associated with an epidemic cardiovascular risk in different populations. Dislipidemia plays a major role determining the epidemic CV burden attributed to MetS. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is involved on cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism regulation. Once ApoE polymorphism may influence lipid metabolism, it is possible that it brings on individual susceptibility consequences for the development of MetS and cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to measure the discriminatory power of ApoE polymorphism in determining cardiovascular risk stratification based on the presence MetS in a cohort of hypertensive patients. It was enrolled 383 patients, divided in two groups, classified by MetS presence (IDF criteria): Group 1: 266 patients with MetS (MetS +) and Group 2: 117 patients without Mets (MetS -). Patient's data were collected by clinical evaluation, physical exam, file reviews and laboratory testing. Polymorphic ApoE analysis was performed by PCR amplification. Groups were compared on clinical and laboratory characteristics as well as allele and genotype distribution towards ApoE polymorphism. Mets CVD prevalence was analysed according to E4 allele prevalence. The results evidenced 184 men (48%), 63,7% whites, 45,1% diabetics and 11,7% of patients were smokers. Mean age was 64,0 ± 12,0 years. When genotypic distribution was analyzed, E3/3 genotype and E3 allele frequencies were more prevalent. Among patients with MetS, we observed an independent association between CVD prevalence and E4 allele frequency (OR 2.42 (1.17- 5.0, p < 0,05)). On the opposite direction, in those without MetS, there was lesser CVD burden in E4 allele carriers (OR 0,14 (0,02-0,75)). These associations remained significant even after confounding factor corrections. The results presented demonstrate that the association

  11. Classification of gastritis in first-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer in a high cancer-risk area in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saieva, Calogero; Rubio, Carlos A; Nesi, Gabriella; Zini, Enzo; Filomena, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Screening gastroscopic examinations were performed in a cohort of individuals at high risk for developing gastric carcinoma (GC). Five gastric biopsies were obtained following the Houston schema. Five histological parameters of gastritis were investigated: acute gastritis, chronic gastritis, and its sequelae; mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and pseudopyloric metaplasia. Out of 134 patients, 50% (n=67) had Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The sum of scores for the first four parameters was significantly higher in HP-positive cases than in HP-negative ones (pgastritis explain the high GC risk in this borough of Florence, considering that the incidence rate of GC is higher in Central than in Northern Italy. Similarities in the frequency of chronic gastritis and sequelae in Northern and Central Italy substantiate the conviction that the difference in GC risk in these regions might be the result of local environmental or lifestyle factors, rather than HP infection. This knowledge is crucial, considering that environmentally related diseases are theoretically preventable.

  12. New guidelines for dam safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Elements are outlined of recommended new guidelines for safety classification of dams. Arguments are provided for the view that dam classification systems should require more than one system as follows: (a) classification for selection of design criteria, operation procedures and emergency measures plans, based on potential consequences of a dam failure - the hazard classification of water retaining structures; (b) classification for establishment of surveillance activities and for safety evaluation of dams, based on the probability and consequences of failure - the risk classification of water retaining structures; and (c) classification for establishment of water management plans, for safety evaluation of the entire project, for preparation of emergency measures plans, for definition of the frequency and extent of maintenance operations, and for evaluation of changes and modifications required - the hazard classification of the project. The hazard classification of the dam considers, as consequence, mainly the loss of lives or persons in jeopardy and the property damages to third parties. Difficulties in determining the risk classification of the dam lie in the fact that no tool exists to evaluate the probability of the dam's failure. To overcome this, the probability of failure can be substituted for by a set of dam characteristics that express the failure potential of the dam and its foundation. The hazard classification of the entire project is based on the probable consequences of dam failure influencing: loss of life, persons in jeopardy, property and environmental damage. The classification scheme is illustrated for dam threatening events such as earthquakes and floods. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  13. To estimation of health risks of workers during classification of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and planning of state control (by the example of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When estimating of health risks of workers for planning tasks of audits of compliance with health legislation on facilities of Moscow, it is found that most often non-compliances with requirements for working conditions are registered in industrial enterprises, among other, on wood-shaving material production facilities; air and water transport facilities, and in a number of communication facilities. The most serious consequences of breach of statutory requirements for working conditions are typical for activity in the sphere of motor transport and industrial production. It is defined by the structure of the types of deterioration of health among which there are traumas, diseases of a cardiovascular and nervous system. Analysis of more than 35.5 thousand facilities of sanitary and epidemiological supervision showed that the highest levels of health risks for workers are formed on industrial facilities (the risks are classified as “average”, “significant” and “high”, in construction («significant» or «moderate», on a number of manufacturing activities and in energy engineering. For the mentioned facilities the risks to workers can define the main class of an object based on the risk of infliction of harm, in general, the audits must be based on profound analysis of working conditions and include a complete complex of laboratory researches. When checking of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, carrying out such kinds of activity as chain retailing, provision of services health care, education, etc., the highest risks are formed for consumers of goods and services. On these facilities the control in the sphere of occupational hygiene can occupy a smaller share in a total volume of a scheduled activity. Relevant direction of further perfection of the risk-based surveillance is formation of an exhaustive list of the statutory requirements for working conditions with differentiation of these requirements on levels of severity

  14. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores

    2003-08-01

    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  15. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  16. Targeted Resequencing and Functional Testing Identifies Low-Frequency Missense Variants in the Gene Encoding GARP as Significant Contributors to Atopic Dermatitis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Judith; Rodríguez, Elke; ElSharawy, Abdou; Oesau, Eva-Maria; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Mayr, Gabriele; Weber, Susanne; Harder, Jürgen; Reischl, Eva; Schwarz, Agatha; Novak, Natalija; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Gene-mapping studies have consistently identified a susceptibility locus for atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory diseases on chromosome band 11q13.5, with the strongest association observed for a common variant located in an intergenic region between the two annotated genes C11orf30 and LRRC32. Using a targeted resequencing approach we identified low-frequency and rare missense mutations within the LRRC32 gene encoding the protein GARP, a receptor on activated regulatory T cells that binds latent transforming growth factor-β. Subsequent association testing in more than 2,000 atopic dermatitis patients and 2,000 control subjects showed a significant excess of these LRRC32 variants in individuals with atopic dermatitis. Structural protein modeling and bioinformatic analysis predicted a disruption of protein transport upon these variants, and overexpression assays in CD4 + CD25 - T cells showed a significant reduction in surface expression of the mutated protein. Consistently, flow cytometric (FACS) analyses of different T-cell subtypes obtained from atopic dermatitis patients showed a significantly reduced surface expression of GARP and a reduced conversion of CD4 + CD25 - T cells into regulatory T cells, along with lower expression of latency-associated protein upon stimulation in carriers of the LRRC32 A407T variant. These results link inherited disturbances of transforming growth factor-β signaling with atopic dermatitis risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Race and Sex Differences in the Incidence and Prognostic Significance of Silent Myocardial Infarction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Rautaharju, Pentti M; Prineas, Ronald J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Loehr, Laura; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kitzman, Dalane; Couper, David; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2016-05-31

    Race and sex differences in silent myocardial infarction (SMI) are not well established. The analysis included 9498 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (visit 1, 1987-1989). Incident SMI was defined as ECG evidence of MI without clinically documented MI (CMI) after the baseline until ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). Coronary heart disease and all-cause deaths were ascertained starting from ARIC visit 4 until 2010. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 317 participants (3.3%) developed SMI and 386 (4.1%) developed CMI. The incidence rates of both SMI and CMI were higher in men (5.08 and 7.96 per 1000-person years, respectively) than in women (2.93 and 2.25 per 1000-person years, respectively; Prace were detected. SMI represents >45% of incident MIs and is associated with poor prognosis. Race and sex differences in the incidence and prognostic significance of SMI exist that may warrant considering SMI in personalized assessments of coronary heart disease risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Imatinib as the first and only treatment in Europe for adult patients at significant risk of relapse following gastrointestinal stromal tumor removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffaud, F; Salas, S; Huyn, T; Deville, JL

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the KIT gene are the molecular hallmark of most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). GIST has become a model for targeted treatment of solid tumors, imatinib becoming the standard first-line treatment of these tumors in the advanced/metastatic phase. Because of the efficacy of imatinib treatment in the advanced setting, its role following resection of a primary non-metastatic GIST was investigated. The recently published phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter ACOSOG Z9001 study showed that adjuvant therapy is safe, and significantly improves recurrence-free survival compared to placebo when given after resection. To what extent imatinib will improve overall survival has yet to be answered. What is clear is that high-risk GIST patients definitely need adjuvant therapy, and that 1 year of imatinib is not enough for the patients who do need it. The questions of optimal duration of imatinib treatment in the adjuvant setting, adequate selection of risk patients and effect of imatinib on overall survival are currently being studied. PMID:21694845

  19. Results of high-energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy in patients categorized according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists operative risk classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ancona, F. C.; van der Bij, A. K.; Francisca, E. A.; Kho, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; Kiemeney, L. A.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and response to transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Two hundred forty-seven patients with symptomatic BPH

  20. Landscape Risk Factors for Lyme Disease in the Eastern Broadleaf Forest Province of the Hudson River Valley and the Effect of Explanatory Data Classification Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assessed how landcover classification affects associations between landscape characteristics and Lyme disease rate. Landscape variables were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), including native classes (e.g., deciduous forest, developed low intensity)...

  1. Classification of debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter Jakob; E. Mortensen, Lis; Jensen, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and debris flow phenomena in particular constitute a threat to human activities in the Faroe Islands. As a contribution to ongoing landslide risk management research, this paper proposes a classification scheme for debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands. The scheme, produced through...... a multidisciplinary study involving geomorphological fieldwork and qualitative collection of indigenous landslide knowledge, presents physical characteristics to classify debris flow phenomena into groups named with Faroese terms. The following landslide definitions are proposed. Brekku-skriðulop (English translation...... with international landslide classification systems, significantly increases the knowledge of debris flow phenomena and promotes a consistent terminology of these within the Faroe Islands....

  2. Speech-Language and Nutritional Sciences in hospital environment: analysis of terminology of food consistencies classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; Rodrigues, Lívia Azevedo; Furlan, Renata Maria Moreira Moraes; Vicente, Laélia Cristina Caseiro; Motta, Andréa Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    To verify if there is an agreement between speech-language pathologists and nutritionists about the classification of food textures used in hospitals and their opinions about the possible consequences of differences in this classification. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study with 30 speech-language pathologists and 30 nutritionists who worked in 14 hospitals of public and/or private network in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The professionals answered a questionnaire, prepared by the researchers, and classified five different foods, with and without theoretical direction. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact and Z -tests to compare ratios with a 5% significance level. Both speech-language therapists (100%) and nutritionists (90%) perceive divergence in the classification and, 86.2% and 100% of them, respectively, believe that this difference may affect the patients' recovery. Aspiration risk was the most mentioned problem. For the general classification of food textures, most of the professionals (88.5%) suggested four to six terms. As to the terminology used in the classification of food presented without theoretical direction, the professionals cited 49 terms and agreed only in the solid and liquid classifications. With theoretical direction, the professionals also agreed in the classification of thick and thin paste. Both the professionals recognized divergences in the classification of food textures and the consequent risk of damage to patient's recovery. The use of theoretical direction increased the agreement between these professionals.

  3. Clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds on MRI : A comprehensive meta-analysis of risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, mortality, and dementia in cohort studies (vI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Charidimou (Andreas); S. Shams (Sara); J.R. Romero (Jose Rafael); J. Ding (Jie); R. Veltkamp (Roland); S. Horstmann (Solveig); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.J. Himali (Jayandra); M.E. Gurol (Edip); A. Viswanathan (Anand); T. Imaizumi (Toshio); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); S. Seshadri (Sudha); S.M. Greenberg (Steven); O.R. Benavente (Oscar); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A. Shoamanesh (Ashkan)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Cerebral microbleeds can confer a high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, death and dementia, but estimated risks remain imprecise and often conflicting. We investigated the association between cerebral microbleeds presence and these outcomes in a

  4. [Clinical Study of 2014 ISUP New Grade Group Classification for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated by Androgen Deprivation Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masahiro; Kawase, Makoto; Kato, Daiki; Ishida, Takashi; Kato, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has proposed a new grade group (GG) classification for Gleason scores (GS). The usefulness of the new GG classification was investigated with 518 prostate cancer patients who underwent androgen deprivation therapy. According to the new GG classification, Stages B‒D and the new GG classification relapse-free rate for each stage were calculated using the Kaplan‒Meier method. The new GG classification revealed a significant difference for the relapse-free rate only between some groups. Analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that the risk of relapse was higher in GGs 4 and 5 than in GG 1. The usefulness about the relapse-free rate in androgen deprivation therapy of the 2014 ISUP new grade group classification a waits future examination.

  5. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  6. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...... that call for inquiries into the theoretical foundation of bibliographic classification theory....

  7. Predicting Vapour Pressures of Organic Compounds from Their Chemical Structure for Classification According to the VOCDirective and Risk Assessment in General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frands Nielsen

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic compounds in the European Union will in the future be regulated in accordance with the Council Directive 1999/13/EC of 11 March 1999 [1]. In this directive, any organic compound is considered to be a volatile organic compound (VOC if it has a vapour pressure of 10 Pa or more at 20oC, or has a corresponding volatility under the particular condition of use. Introduction of such a limit will sometimes create problems, because vapour pressures cannot be determined with an infinite accuracy. Published data on vapour pressures for a true VOC will sometimes be found to be below 10 Pa and vice versa. When the same limit was introduced in the USA, a considerable amount of time and money were spent in vain on comparing incommensurable data [2]. In this paper, a model is presented for prediction of the vapour pressures of VOCs at 20oC from their chemical (UNIFAC structure. The model is implemented in a computer program, named P_PREDICT, which has larger prediction power close to 10 Pa at 20oC than the other models tested. The main advantage of the model, however, is that no experimental data, which will introduce uncertainty in the predictions, is needed. Classification using P_PREDICT, which only predicts one value for a given UNIFAC structure, is proposed. Organic compounds, which can be described by the UNIFAC groups in the present version of P_PREDICT, therefore, can be classified unambiguously as either VOCs or non-VOCs. Most people, including the present authors, feel uneasy about prioritising precision above accuracy. Modelling vapour pressures, however, could save a lot of money and the errors introduced are not large enough to have any substantial adverse effects for neither human beings nor the environment. A method for calculating vapour pressures at other temperatures than 20oC is tested with a dubious result. This method is used for EU risk assessment of new and existing chemicals.

  8. Risk Factors and Predictors of Significant Chondral Surface Change From Primary to Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A MOON and MARS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Robert A; Borchers, James R; Pedroza, Angela D; Huston, Laura J; Haas, Amanda K; Spindler, Kurt P; Wright, Rick W; Kaeding, Christopher C; Allen, Christina R; Anderson, Allen F; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Dunn, Warren R; Lantz, Brett A; Mann, Barton; Stuart, Michael J; Albright, John P; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T; Annunziata, Christopher C; Arciero, Robert A; Bach, Bernard R; Baker, Champ L; Bartolozzi, Arthur R; Baumgarten, Keith M; Bechler, Jeffery R; Berg, Jeffrey H; Bernas, Geoffrey A; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Brophy, Robert H; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Butler, J Brad; Campbell, John D; Carey, James L; Carpenter, James E; Cole, Brian J; Cooper, Jonathan M; Cox, Charles L; Creighton, R Alexander; Dahm, Diane L; David, Tal S; Flanigan, David C; Frederick, Robert W; Ganley, Theodore J; Garofoli, Elizabeth A; Gatt, Charles J; Gecha, Steven R; Giffin, James Robert; Hame, Sharon L; Hannafin, Jo A; Harner, Christopher D; Harris, Norman Lindsay; Hechtman, Keith S; Hershman, Elliott B; Hoellrich, Rudolf G; Hosea, Timothy M; Johnson, David C; Johnson, Timothy S; Jones, Morgan H; Kamath, Ganesh V; Klootwyk, Thomas E; Levy, Bruce A; Ma, C Benjamin; Maiers, G Peter; Marx, Robert G; Matava, Matthew J; Mathien, Gregory M; McAllister, David R; McCarty, Eric C; McCormack, Robert G; Miller, Bruce S; Nissen, Carl W; O'Neill, Daniel F; Owens, Brett D; Parker, Richard D; Purnell, Mark L; Ramappa, Arun J; Rauh, Michael A; Rettig, Arthur C; Sekiya, Jon K; Shea, Kevin G; Sherman, Orrin H; Slauterbeck, James R; Smith, Matthew V; Spang, Jeffrey T; Svoboda, Steven J; Taft, Timothy N; Tenuta, Joachim J; Tingstad, Edwin M; Vidal, Armando F; Viskontas, Darius G; White, Richard A; Williams, James S; Wolcott, Michelle L; Wolf, Brian R; York, James J

    2018-03-01

    had 4.8-times greater odds of progression of articular cartilage injury than those with an intact medial meniscus ( P = .02). Odds of significant chondral surface change increased by 5% in the lateral compartment and 6% in the medial compartment for each increased year of age ( P ≤ .02). For the patellofemoral compartment, the use of allograft in primary reconstruction was associated with a 15-fold increased odds of progression of articular cartilage damage relative to a patellar tendon autograft ( P < .001). Each 1-unit increase in BMI at the time of revision surgery was associated with a 10% increase in the odds of progression of articular cartilage damage ( P = .046) in the patellofemoral compartment. Excision of the medial and lateral meniscus at primary ACL reconstruction increases the odds of articular cartilage damage in the corresponding compartment at the time of revision ACL reconstruction. Increased age is a risk factor for deterioration of articular cartilage in both tibiofemoral compartments, while increased BMI and the use of allograft for primary ACL reconstruction are associated with an increased risk of progression in the patellofemoral compartment.

  9. Differential Classification of Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mohr

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of biological markers, dementia classification remains complex both in terms of characterization as well as early detection of the presence or absence of dementing symptoms, particularly in diseases with possible secondary dementia. An empirical, statistical approach using neuropsychological measures was therefore developed to distinguish demented from non-demented patients and to identify differential patterns of cognitive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease. Age-scaled neurobehavioral test results (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised and Wechsler Memory Scale from Alzheimer's (AD and Huntington's (HD patients, matched for intellectual disability, as well as normal controls were used to derive a classification formula. Stepwise discriminant analysis accurately (99% correct distinguished controls from demented patients, and separated the two patient groups (79% correct. Variables discriminating between HD and AD patient groups consisted of complex psychomotor tasks, visuospatial function, attention and memory. The reliability of the classification formula was demonstrated with a new, independent sample of AD and HD patients which yielded virtually identical results (classification accuracy for dementia: 96%; AD versus HD: 78%. To validate the formula, the discriminant function was applied to Parkinson's (PD patients, 38% of whom were classified as demented. The validity of the classification was demonstrated by significant PD subgroup differences on measures of dementia not included in the discriminant function. Moreover, a majority of demented PD patients (65% were classified as having an HD-like pattern of cognitive deficits, in line with previous reports of the subcortical nature of PD dementia. This approach may thus be useful in classifying presence or absence of dementia and in discriminating between dementia subtypes in cases of secondary or coincidental dementia.

  10. Fuzzy One-Class Classification Model Using Contamination Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev V. Utkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy classification model is studied in the paper. It is based on the contaminated (robust model which produces fuzzy expected risk measures characterizing classification errors. Optimal classification parameters of the models are derived by minimizing the fuzzy expected risk. It is shown that an algorithm for computing the classification parameters is reduced to a set of standard support vector machine tasks with weighted data points. Experimental results with synthetic data illustrate the proposed fuzzy model.

  11. Music classification with MPEG-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crysandt, Holger; Wellhausen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Driven by increasing amount of music available electronically the need and possibility of automatic classification systems for music becomes more and more important. Currently most search engines for music are based on textual descriptions like artist or/and title. This paper presents a system for automatic music description, classification and visualization for a set of songs. The system is designed to extract significant features of a piece of music in order to find songs of similar genre or a similar sound characteristics. The description is done with the help of MPEG-7 only. The classification and visualization is done with the self organizing map algorithm.

  12. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  13. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  14. Four-group classification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on ventricular concentricity and dilatation identifies a low-risk subset of eccentric hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; high LV mass [LVM]) is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on LV relative wall thickness. We evaluated the prediction of subsequent adverse events in a new 4-group LVH classification based on LV dilatation (high LV end...

  15. Stochastic curtailment of questionnaires for three-level classification: Shortening the CES-D for assessing low, moderate, and high risk of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.; Finkelman, M.D.; Kelderman, H.

    2016-01-01

    In clinical assessment, efficient screeners are needed to ensure low respondent burden. In this article, Stochastic Curtailment (SC), a method for efficient computerized testing for classification into two classes for observable outcomes, was extended to three classes. In a post hoc simulation study

  16. China's community-based strategy of universal preconception care in rural areas at a population level using a novel risk classification system for stratifying couples´ preconception health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2016-12-28

    Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman's health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s "National Preconception Health Care Project" (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples' preconception health status. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected by NPHCP during April 2010 to December 2012 in 220 selected counties in China. All couples enrolled in the project accepted free preconception health examination, risk evaluation, health education and medical advice. Risk factors were categorized into five preconception risk classes based on their amenability to prevention and treatment: A-avoidable risk factors, B- benefiting from targeted medical intervention, C-controllable but requiring close monitoring and treatment during pregnancy, D-diagnosable prenatally but not modifiable preconceptionally, X-pregnancy not advisable. Information on each couple´s socio-demographic and health status was recorded and further analyzed. Among the 2,142,849 couples who were enrolled to this study, the majority (92.36%) were from rural areas with low education levels (89.2% women and 88.3% men had education below university level). A total of 1463266 (68.29%) couples had one or more preconception risk factors mainly of category A, B and C, among which 46.25% were women and 51.92% were men. Category A risk factors were more common among men compared with women (38.13% versus 11.24%; P = 0.000). This project provided new insights into preconception health of Chinese couples of reproductive age. More than half of the male partners planning to father a child, were exposed to risk factors during the preconception period, suggesting that an integrated approach to PCC including both women and men is justified. Stratification based on the new risk classification model demonstrated that a majority of the

  17. Diagnosis of periodontal diseases using different classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The codes created for risk factors, periodontal data, and radiographically bone loss were formed as a matrix structure and regarded as inputs for the classification unit. A total of six periodontal conditions was the outputs of the classification unit. The accuracy of the suggested methods was compared according to their ...

  18. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  19. Report: EPA’s Information Systems and Data Are at Risk Due to Insufficient Training of Personnel With Significant Information Security Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #14-P-0142, March 21, 2014. The EPA places its information systems and data at risk due to an organizational structure that has not specified required duties and responsibilities to ensure personnel are trained on key information security roles.

  20. Significance of pretreatment cardiovascular morbidity as a risk factor during treatment with parenteral oestrogen or combined androgen deprivation of 915 patients with metastasized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Robert; Damber, Jan Erik; Hagerman, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prognostic risk factors for cardiovascular events during treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients with high-dose parenteral polyoestradiol phosphate (PEP, Estradurin®) or combined androgen deprivation (CAD) with special emphasis on pretreatment cardiovascular...

  1. Risk of Japanese carriers of hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7, the first autosomal-dominantly inherited risk factor for hematological neoplasms, to develop monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Sandra; Iida, Shinsuke; Wikowicz, Aleksandra; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Inagaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; Ziepert, Marita; Ueda, Ryuzo; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7 (pP-7) is a frequent target of paraproteins in German patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/multiple myeloma (MM). The frequency of MGUS/MM is lower in Japan than in Europe. As pP-7, the first molecularly defined autosomal-dominant risk factor for any hematological neoplasm, is inherited in a dominant fashion, we determined the incidence of the pP-7 carrier state in a Japanese population, and compared the frequency of pP-7-specific paraproteins and the pP-7 carrier state in Japanese and German patients with MGUS/MM. Peripheral blood from 111 Japanese patients with MGUS/MM and 278 healthy blood donors was analyzed for the pP-7 carrier state by isoelectric focusing and for pP-7-specific antibodies by ELISA. The Japanese group was compared with 252 German MGUS/MM patients and 200 healthy controls. Five of 111 (4.5%) Japanese and 35/252 (13.9%) German IgA/IgG MGUS/MM patients had a pP-7-specific paraprotein (P=0.009). The prevalence of healthy pP-7 carriers in the Japanese study group was 1/278 (0.36%), whereas it was 4/200 in the German group (P=0.166). The relative risk for pP-7 carriers developing MGUS/MM had an odds ratio of 13.1 in the Japanese and 7.9 in the German group. In conclusion, the fraction of pP-7 carriers with a pP-7-specific paraprotein is lower among Japanese than in German patients with MGUS/MM, but pP-7 carriers in both ethnic groups have a high risk of developing MGUS/MM. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Partial imputation to improve predictive modelling in insurance risk classification using a hybrid positive selection algorithm and correlation-based feature selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duma, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available of missing data, with a decline in performance as the amount of missing data increases. Wagner et al.18 presented a study aimed at constructing a multimodal, ensemble of classifiers for emotion recog- nition with missing values in one or multiple... classification accuracies of 55%, which includes certain generic fusion schemes and emotion adapted strategies like arousal, valence and cross-axis. There are four kinds of missing data mechanisms found in the literature, namely missing at random (MAR), miss...

  3. The daily risk of bacteremia during hospitalization and associated 30-day mortality evaluated in relation to the traditional classification of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the overall and daily incidence of bacteremia among hospitalized patients and evaluated the traditional classification of bacteremia (community-onset vs nosocomial based on a 48-hour time window) by means of the daily incidence and associated 30-day mortality. METHODS:...... of bacteremia during the first 2 days followed by lower incidences that were constant beyond day 12. Thirty-day mortality was 18%-21% for patients with bacteremia on the first 2 days and 25%-35% thereafter. Our findings support the traditional classification of bacteremia.......BACKGROUND: We investigated the overall and daily incidence of bacteremia among hospitalized patients and evaluated the traditional classification of bacteremia (community-onset vs nosocomial based on a 48-hour time window) by means of the daily incidence and associated 30-day mortality. METHODS...... as the daily incidence of bacteremia per 10,000 bed-days and associated 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We included 724,339 admissions and 10,281 bacteremias for an overall incidence of 14.2 per 1,000 admissions and 23.6 per 10,000 bed-days. The daily incidence was highest on the first 2 days of admission followed...

  4. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  5. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Various types of stone anchors have been observed during inshore and offshore explorations along the east and west coasts of India. The earliest stone anchors of India have been recorded from the Harappan sites (3rd millennium BC), but their shape...

  6. Classification and Risk-factor Analysis of Postoperative Cardio-pulmonary 
Complications after Lobectomy in Patients with Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian LAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective There are incresing lung cancer patients detected and diagnosed at the intermediate stage when the pre-malignant or early lesions are amenable to resection and cure, owing to the progress of medical technology, the renewal of detection methods, the popularity of medical screening and the improvement of social health consciousness. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors of the occurrence of postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients, based on routine laboratory tests, basic characteristics, and intraoperative variables in hospital. Methods The 421 patients after lobectomy in patients with stage I NSCLC at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2012 to December 2013 were included into the study and stratified into complication group and non-complication group, according to whether to occur postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications after lobectomy in 30 days. Results Of them, 64 (15.2% patients were finally identified and selected into the complication group, compared with 357 (84.8% in non-complication group: pneumonia (8.8%, 37/421 was the primary complication, and other main complications included atelectasis (5.9%, 25/421, pleural effusion (≥middle (5.0%, 21/421, persistent air leak (3.6%, 15/421; The operation time (P=0.007, amount of blood loss (P=0.034, preoperative chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (P=0.027, white blood cell (WBC count (P<0.001, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR (P<0.001 were significantly different between the two groups. According to the binary logistics regression analysis, preoperative COPD (OR=0.031, 95%CI: 0.012-0.078, P<0.001 and WBC count (OR=1.451, 95%CI: 1.212-1.736, P<0.001 were independent risk factors for postoperative cardio-pulmonary complications. Conclusion Among an array of clinical variables in hospital, operation time, preoperative white blood cell count, preoperative COPD

  7. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  9. The Importance of Classification to Business Model Research

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To bring to the fore the scientific significance of classification and its role in business model theory building. To propose a method by which existing classifications of business models can be analyzed and new ones developed. Design/Methodology/Approach: A review of the scholarly literature relevant to classifications of business models is presented along with a brief overview of classification theory applicable to business model research. Existing business model classification...

  10. Night Owl Women are Similar to Men in Their Relationship Orientation, Risk-taking Propensities, and Cortisol Levels: Implications for the Adaptive Significance and Evolution of Eveningness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in morningness/eveningness are relatively stable over time and, in part, genetically based. The night-owl pattern is more prevalent in men than in women, particularly after puberty and before women reach menopause. It has been suggested that eveningness evolved relatively recently in human evolutionary history and that this trait may be advantageous to individuals pursuing short-term mating strategies. Consistent with this hypothesis, eveningness is associated with extraversion, novelty-seeking, and in males, with a higher number of sexual partners. In this study, I investigated whether eveningness is associated with short-term relationship orientation, higher risk-taking, and higher testosterone or cortisol. Both female and male night-owls were more likely to be single than in long-term relationships than early morning individuals. Eveningness was associated with higher risk-taking in women but not in men; this association was not testosterone-dependent but mediated by cortisol. Female night-owls had average cortisol profiles and risk-taking tendencies more similar to those of males than to those of early-morning females. Taken together, these findings provide some support to the hypothesis that eveningness is associated with psychological and behavioral traits that are instrumental in short-term mating strategies, with the evidence being stronger for women than for men.

  11. Ototoxicity (cochleotoxicity) classifications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundwell, Gemma; Gomersall, Phil; Baguley, David M

    2016-01-01

    Drug-mediated ototoxicity, specifically cochleotoxicity, is a concern for patients receiving medications for the treatment of serious illness. A number of classification schemes exist, most of which are based on pure-tone audiometry, in order to assist non-audiological/non-otological specialists in the identification and monitoring of iatrogenic hearing loss. This review identifies the primary classification systems used in cochleototoxicity monitoring. By bringing together classifications published in discipline-specific literature, the paper aims to increase awareness of their relative strengths and limitations in the assessment and monitoring of ototoxic hearing loss and to indicate how future classification systems may improve upon the status-quo. Literature review. PubMed identified 4878 articles containing the search term ototox*. A systematic search identified 13 key classification systems. Cochleotoxicity classification systems can be divided into those which focus on hearing change from a baseline audiogram and those that focus on the functional impact of the hearing loss. Common weaknesses of these grading scales included a lack of sensitivity to small adverse changes in hearing thresholds, a lack of high-frequency audiometry (>8 kHz), and lack of indication of which changes are likely to be clinically significant for communication and quality of life.

  12. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  13. Diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity are not significant risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in an HBV- and HCV-endemic area of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A prominent factor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Diabetes mellitus (DM, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and obesity have also been implicated in HCC development, but these associations are not observed in all HBV- and HCV-endemic areas. We attempted to clarify the role of these factors in HCC development in an HBV- and HCV-endemic area in southern Taiwan. A community-based health examination was conducted in 2004 in Tainan County. After individuals with incomplete data and those with known HCC were excluded, there were 56,231 participants who were over 40 years of age. A further 262 HCC cases were identified from the National Cancer Registration Database records from 2005 to 2007. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seropositivity, anti-HCV seropositivity, platelet count, serum biochemical data, blood pressure, sociodemographic information, and anthropometric measurements were analyzed. Survival analyses were used to identify the associations between these factors and HCC. For the 262 HCC cases, male gender and age greater than 65 years were risk factors. Furthermore, a high alanine aminotransferase level, chronic HBV and/or HCV infection, and liver cirrhosis were also risk factors for HCC. However, DM, MetS and obesity were not associated with HCC development in the non-HBV-/non-HCV-infected, HBV, HCV, or dual B/C groups. In this HBV- and HCV- endemic area, DM, MetS and obesity were not risk factors for developing HCC.

  14. Patients With and Without Diabetes Without Significant Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease Have the Same Risk of Myocardial Infarction in a Real-World Population Receiving Appropriate Prophylactic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kevin K W; Madsen, Morten; Egholm, Gro

    2017-01-01

    without CAD were more often treated with statins (75.3% vs. 46.0 and aspirin (65.7% vs. 52.7 than patients without diabetes and CAD. CONCLUSIONS In a real-world population, patients with diabetes with high rates of statin and aspirin treatment had the same risk of cardiovascular events as patientswithout...... events in patients with and without diabetes with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) after coronary angiography (CAG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based cohort of patients registered in the Western Denmark Heart Registry who underwent CAG between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2012...

  15. Addendum to the article: Misuse of null hypothesis significance testing: Would estimation of positive and negative predictive values improve certainty of chemical risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Newman, Michael C; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We argued recently that the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) are valuable metrics to include during null hypothesis significance testing: They inform the researcher about the probability of statistically significant and non-significant test outcomes actually being true. Although commonly misunderstood, a reported p value estimates only the probability of obtaining the results or more extreme results if the null hypothesis of no effect was true. Calculations of the more informative PPV and NPV require a priori estimate of the probability (R). The present document discusses challenges of estimating R.

  16. In Patients with a Soft Pancreas, a Thick Parenchyma, a Small Duct, and Fatty Infiltration Are Significant Risks for Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Gotohda, Naoto; Konishi, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to characterize soft and hard pancreatic textures radiologically and histologically, and to identify specific risks in a soft pancreas associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) formation after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Consecutive 145 patients who underwent PD at a single institution between January 2010 and May 2013 were studied. Pancreatic consistency was intraoperatively judged as soft or hard. Pancreatic configuration was assessed using preoperative CT. Histologic components of the pancreatic stump were evaluated using a morphometric analysis. Clinicopathologic parameters were then analyzed for the risk of clinically relevant POPF. Compared with patients with a hard pancreas (n = 66), those with a soft pancreas (n = 79) had a smaller main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter and a larger parenchymal thickness on CT, had a smaller fibrosis ratio and a larger lobular ratio histologically, and developed clinically relevant POPF more frequently (P pancreas, an MPD diameter pancreas, a thick parenchyma, a small MPD, and fatty infiltration were strongly associated with clinically relevant POPF after PD.

  17. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Asteroid taxonomic classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on three taxonomic classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color and albedo data. Asteroid taxonomic classifications according to two of these schemes are reproduced

  19. Sistema de classificação fuzzy para o risco de infestação por plantas daninhas considerando a sua variabilidade espacial Fuzzy classification system for risk of weed infestation considering spatial variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Bressan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do problema de classificação do risco de infestação por plantas daninhas usando técnicas geoestatísticas, análise de imagens e modelos de classificação fuzzy. Os principais atributos utilizados para descrever a infestação incluem a densidade de sementes, bem como a sua extensão, a cobertura foliar e a agressividade das plantas daninhas em cada região. A densidade de sementes reflete a produção de sementes por unidade de área, e a sua extensão, a influência das sementes vizinhas; a cobertura foliar indica a extensão dos agrupamentos das plantas daninhas emergentes; e a agressividade descreve a porcentagem de ocupação de espécies com alta capacidade de produção de sementes. Os dados da densidade de sementes, da cobertura foliar e da agressividade para as diferentes regiões são obtidos a partir de simulação com modelos matemáticos de populações. Neste artigo propõe-se um sistema de classificação fuzzy utilizando os atributos descritos para inferir os riscos de infestação de regiões da cultura por plantas daninhas. Resultados de simulação são apresentados para ilustrar o uso desse sistema na aplicação localizada de herbicida.This paper deals with the problem of classifying the risk of infestation by weeds in a field using geoestatistics techniques, image analysis and fuzzy classification models. The main attributes used to describe the infestation include seed density, seed density patch, weed cover and aggressivity to produce seeds in each region. Seed density reflects seed production per area unit; seed density patch reflects the influence of the neighbouring seeds in a clustering; weed cover indicates the extension of the emergent weed plant clusterings; and, finally, aggressivity describes the percentage of occupation of species with high weed seed production capacity. Data for seed density, weed cover and aggressivity for the different regions are obtained from mathematical models. In

  20. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  1. Risks: diagnosing and eliminating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy A. Tikhomirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptual theoretical and legal provisions and scientific recommendations on the identification analysis and elimination of risk. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the system was researched of risks diagnostics in the legal sphere and mechanism of influencing the quotrisk situationsquot and their consequences damage to the environment and harm to society. The concept of risk in the legal sphere was formulated the author39s classification of risks in the legal sphere is presented. The rules of analysis evaluation and prevention of risks and the model risk management framework are elaborated. Scientific novelty the mechanism for the identification analysis and elimination of risk has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation the author has proposed the classification and types of risks the reasons and the conditions promoting the risk occurrence. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activity as well as in the educational process of higher educational establishments. nbsp

  2. The Significance of the Cardiac Peptide NT-proBNP in the Assessment of Risk for Myocardial Revascularization in Patients with Decreased Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate a procedure for predicting the severity of postperfusion acute heart failure (AHF from the baseline level of NT-proBNP during myocardial revascularization in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF of less than 35%. Subjects and materials. Fifty-six patients with a LVEF of less than 35% were examined. A total of 3.5±0.1 (range 2—4 coronary arteries were shunted under cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB (71.0±5.5 min. The concentration of NT-proBNP was measured before surgery (Cardiac Reader®, Roche. Mortality rates, sympathomimetic agents’ dosages required after EC, and the frequency of use of intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP were analyzed. Results. A good clinical course was observed in 47 cases (Group 1. AHF was recorded in 9 patients (Group 2. Comparative analysis demonstrated that the preoperative concentration of NT-proBNP (871±111 pg/ml in Group 1 and 1946±236 pg/ml in Group 2 was of the highest prognostic value as compared with the traditional indicators (p=0.0015. Patients with a NT-proBNP concentration of less than 600 pg/ml did not virtually need inotropic therapy after EC. In a group with a biomarker level of 600—1200 mg/ml, the infusion of dopamine and dobutamine achieved the traditional cardiotonic dosages and every three patients needed epinephrine. With NT-proBNP of 1200-2000 pg/ml, mortality from AHF was 15.4%; a need for epinephrine and IABC was 46.4 and 7.7%, respectively. The peptide concentration of more than 2000 pg/ml indicated the extremely high risk of severe AHF. In the postperfusion period, each patient was given epinephrine and an IABC system was installed in half of them. In this group mortality achieved 50%. Conclusion. It is expedient to determine a preoperative NT-proBNP concentration in a LVEF of less than 35% to predict AHF to be occurred after myocardial revascularization. The concentration of less than 1200 pg/ml may be considered to be a safe level of the

  3. Application Study of Fire Severity Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Jee, Moon Hak; Kim, Yun Jung

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Fire Incidents Severity Classification Method for Korean NPPs that may be derived directly from the data fields and feasibility study for domestic uses. FEDB was characterized in more detail and assessed based on the significance of fire incidents in the updated database and five fire severity categories were defined. The logical approach to determine the fire severity starts from the most severe characteristics, namely challenging fires, and continues to define the less challenging and undetermined categories in progress. If the FEDB is utilized for Korean NPPs, the ways of Fire Severity Classification suggested in 2.4 above can be utilized for the quantitative fire risk analysis in future. The Fire Events Database (FEDB) is the primary source of fire data which are used for fire frequency in Fire PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The purpose of its development is to calculate the quantitative fire frequency at the comprehensive and consolidated source derived from the fire incident information available for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Recently, the Fire Events Database (FEDB) was updated by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in U. S. The FEDB is intended to update the fire event history up to 2009. A significant enhancement to it is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields. It has been expanded and improved data fields, coding consistency, incident detail, data review fields, and reference data source traceability. It has been designed to better support several Fire PRA uses as well

  4. Clinical and angiographic predictors of haemodynamically significant angiographic lesions: development and validation of a risk score to predict positive fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Nishtha; Baber, Usman; Kezbor, Safwan; Sayseng, Sonny; Aquino, Melissa; Mehran, Roxana; Sweeny, Joseph; Barman, Nitin; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K

    2017-04-07

    Coronary revascularisation based upon physiological evaluation of lesions improves clinical outcomes. Angiographic or visual stenosis assessment alone is insufficient in predicting haemodynamic stenosis severity by fractional flow reserve (FFR) and therefore cannot be used to guide revascularisation, particularly in the lesion subset system formulated. Of 1,023 consecutive lesions (883 patients), 314 (31%) were haemodynamically significant. Characteristics associated with FFR ≤0.8 include male gender, higher SYNTAX score, lesions ≥20 mm, stenosis >50%, bifurcation, calcification, absence of tortuosity and smaller reference diameter. A user-friendly integer score was developed with the five variables demonstrating the strongest association. On prospective validation (in 279 distinct lesions), the increasing value of the score correlated well with increasing haemodynamic significance (C-statistic 0.85). We identified several clinical and angiographic characteristics and formulated a scoring system to guide the approach to intermediate lesions. This may translate into cost savings. Larger studies with prospective validation are required to confirm our results.

  5. Classification with support hyperplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA new classification method is proposed, called Support Hy- perplanes (SHs). To solve the binary classification task, SHs consider the set of all hyperplanes that do not make classification mistakes, referred to as semi-consistent hyperplanes. A test object is classified using

  6. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  7. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  8. A NEW CLASSIFICATION OF OSTEOMYELITIS FOR DEVELOPING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-07-01

    Jul 1, 2003 ... Background : The term osteomyelitis (OSM) was first coined by Nelaton in 1844. Waldvogel et al, Cierny-Mader, May et al classifications of OSM from developed countries and Meier et al's from Nigeria have been described. Objective:This new classification was developed to highlight significant pathology ...

  9. Churn classification model for local telecommunication company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... model based on the Rough Set Theory to classify customer churn. The results of the study show that the proposed Rough Set classification model outperforms the existing models and contributes to significant accuracy improvement. Keywords: customer churn; classification model; telecommunication industry; data mining;

  10. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jürgens, Björn, E-mail: bjurgens@agenciaidea.es [Agency of Innovation and Development of Andalusia, CITPIA PATLIB Centre (Spain); Herrero-Solana, Victor, E-mail: victorhs@ugr.es [University of Granada, SCImago-UGR (SEJ036) (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  11. Monitoring nanotechnology using patent classifications: an overview and comparison of nanotechnology classification schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jürgens, Björn; Herrero-Solana, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Patents are an essential information source used to monitor, track, and analyze nanotechnology. When it comes to search nanotechnology-related patents, a keyword search is often incomplete and struggles to cover such an interdisciplinary discipline. Patent classification schemes can reveal far better results since they are assigned by experts who classify the patent documents according to their technology. In this paper, we present the most important classifications to search nanotechnology patents and analyze how nanotechnology is covered in the main patent classification systems used in search systems nowadays: the International Patent Classification (IPC), the United States Patent Classification (USPC), and the Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC). We conclude that nanotechnology has a significantly better patent coverage in the CPC since considerable more nanotechnology documents were retrieved than by using other classifications, and thus, recommend its use for all professionals involved in nanotechnology patent searches.

  12. A Neural Network Based Diagnostic System for Classification of Industrial Carrying Jobs With Respect of Low and High Musculoskeletal Injury Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Sharma; Ranjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Even with many years of research efforts, Safety professionals and ergonomists have not yetbeen established the occupational exposure limits of different risk factors for development ofMusculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the main problems in setting such guidelines is toaccurately assess the association between exposures and possible occupational disorders ordiseases and predict the outcome of any variable. The task of an industrial ergonomist iscomplicated because the potential risk fac...

  13. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  14. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Precancer in the United Kingdom issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers....... In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...... use. Although most oral pathologists possibly recognize and accept the criteria for grading epithelial dysplasia, firstly based on architectural features and then of cytology, there is great variability in their interpretation of the presence, degree and significance of the individual criteria...

  15. Risk assessment and zone classification of solid fuel plants in accordance with AFS 2003:3. ATEX; Riskbedoemning och zonklassning av fastbraensleanlaeggningar i enlighet med AFS 2003:3. ATEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, Annika; Oeberg, AnnCharlott; Lindhe, Magnus [Inspecta AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    Inspecta AB has composed a handbook in risk assessment and zone classification of solid fuel plants in accordance with the demands in AFS 2003:3 (regulations issued by Swedish Work Environment Authority). Several more or less severe accidents with dust explosions as the underlying cause occurs each year in Sweden. Many of these accidents occurs totally unexpected and perhaps even without understandings. 'It is only dust' AFS 2003:3 was made imperative 2006-07-01 and several plant owners are still uncertain of what procedures to make in order to fulfil the demands. The target group for the handbook is primarily plant owners but also people active in thermo-technical research and development. The prospect is to be an easy understandable handbook and for operators in the energy branch, on their own, independently of background knowledge, to be able to apply the method on a cost efficient way, and in that way fulfil the demands according to the so called explosion protection document. The number of unforeseen accidents with regard to explosive dust atmosphere will be decreased as a natural result of the implementation of the explosion protection documents. The handbook has a theory part with five complementary appendices. More than the other appendices, appendix B consist of a practical example which will take the reader step by step through how a risk assessment and zone classification of a solid fuel plant is made. Appendix B can be used separately, but the theory part should be read in order to understand the background for the dusts characteristics and other important factors.

  16. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  17. Collateral in Loan Classification and Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    In W Song

    2002-01-01

    Adequate loan classification practices are an essential part of a sound and effective credit risk-management process in a bank. Failure to identify deterioration in credit quality in a timely manner can aggravate and prolong the problem. Two key issues arise with regard to the use of collateral in the context of loan classification and provisioning. In particular, the questions arise whether collateral should be taken into account in classifying a collateralized loan, and whether it should be...

  18. Empirical study on mutual fund objective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-jun; Yang, Xiao-lan

    2004-05-01

    Mutual funds are usually classified on the basis of their objectives. If the activities of mutual funds are consistent with their stated objectives, investors may look at the latter as signals of their risks and incomes. This work analyzes mutual fund objective classification in China by statistical methods of distance analysis and discriminant analysis; and examines whether the stated investment objectives of mutual funds adequately represent their attributes to investors. That is, if mutual funds adhere to their stated objectives, attributes must be heterogeneous between investment objective groups and homogeneous within them. Our conclusion is to some degree, the group of optimized exponential funds is heterogeneous to other groups. As a whole, there exist no significant differences between different objective groups; and 50% of mutual funds are not consistent with their objective groups.

  19. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  20. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  1. Independent from muscle power and balance performance, a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min is a significant and independent risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures in elderly men and women diagnosed with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukas, L; Schacht, E; Runge, M

    2010-07-01

    We assessed in a cross-sectional study in elderly men and women with osteoporosis, the association between the creatinine clearance (CrCl) and the performance in different balance and muscle power and function tests and found that a decreasing creatinine clearance was significantly associated with lower balance and muscle power. To determine if a creatinine clearance of balance and an increased risk for falls and fractures. We assessed in a cross-sectional-study in 1781 German osteoporotic patients, the association between the CrCl, the physical performance, and the number of falls and fractures. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, and osteoporosis treatment (fracture analysis only), a decreasing CrCl was associated with lower physical performance in the timed-up-and-go test (corr -0.2337, P risk for falls (47.7% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.0008) and fall-related fractures (33.1% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.0003) compared with a CrCl of >or=65 ml/min. In this study, we found a significant gender-independent correlation between decreasing CrCl and lower performance in balance and muscle power tests. Reduced muscle power and balance may therefore be involved in the low creatinine clearance associated increased risk for falls and fall-related fractures. Furthermore, we found that a CrCl balance tests, is a significant risk factor for falls and fractures.

  2. 99mTc MDP SPECT-CT-Based Modified Mirels Classification for Evaluation of Risk of Fracture in Skeletal Metastasis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Niazi, Imran Khalid; Butt, Sumera; Qamar, Faisal

    2018-06-01

    Mirels' scoring system quantifies the risk of sustaining a pathologic fracture in osseous metastases of weight bearing long bones. Conventional Mirels' scoring is based on radiographs. Our pilot study proposes Tc MDP bone SPECT-CT based modified Mirels' scoring system and its comparison with conventional Mirels' scoring. Cortical lysis was noted in 8(24%) by SPECT-CT versus 2 (6.3%) on X-rays. Additional SPECT-CT parameters were; circumferential involvement [1/4 (31%), 1/2 (3%), 3/4 (37.5%), 4/4 (28%)] and extra-osseous soft tissue [3%]. Our pilot study suggests the potential role of SPECT-CT in predicting risk of fracture in osseous metastases.

  3. Classification of Flotation Frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzymala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme of flotation frothers classification is presented. The scheme first indicates the physical system in which a frother is present and four of them i.e., pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas system and aqueous solution/gas/solid system are distinguished. As a result, there are numerous classifications of flotation frothers. The classifications can be organized into a scheme described in detail in this paper. The frother can be present in one of four physical systems, that is pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas and aqueous solution/gas/solid system. It results from the paper that a meaningful classification of frothers relies on choosing the physical system and next feature, trend, parameter or parameters according to which the classification is performed. The proposed classification can play a useful role in characterizing and evaluation of flotation frothers.

  4. Combining multiple classifiers for age classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare several different classifier combination methods on a single task, namely speaker age classification. This task is well suited to combination strategies, since significantly different feature classes are employed. Support vector...

  5. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  6. Use of genetic toxicity data in GHS mutagenicity classification and labeling of substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas S; Hollnagel, Heli M

    2017-06-01

    One of the key outcomes of testing the potential genotoxicity or mutagenicity of a substance is the conclusion on whether the substance should be classified as a germ cell mutagen and the significance of this for other endpoints such as carcinogenicity. The basis for this conclusion are the criteria presented in classification and labelling systems such as the Globally Harmonized System for classification and labeling (GHS). This article reviews the classification criteria for germ cell mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and how they are applied to substances with evidence of mutagenicity. The implications and suitability of such a classification for hazard communication, risk assessment, and risk management are discussed. It is proposed that genotoxicity assessments should not focus on specifically identifying germ cell mutagens, particularly given the challenges associated with communicating this information in a meaningful way. Rather the focus should be on deriving data to characterize the mode of action and for use in the risk assessment of mutagens, which could then feed into a more robust, risk based management of mutagenic substances versus the current more hazard based approaches. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:354-360, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Application of Classification and Regression Trees for the Triage of Women for Referral to Colposcopy and the Estimation of Risk for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Study Based on 1625 Cases with Incomplete Data from Molecular Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Pouliakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Nowadays numerous ancillary techniques detecting HPV DNA and mRNA compete with cytology; however no perfect test exists; in this study we evaluated classification and regression trees (CARTs for the production of triage rules and estimate the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in cases with ASCUS+ in cytology. Study Design. We used 1625 cases. In contrast to other approaches we used missing data to increase the data volume, obtain more accurate results, and simulate real conditions in the everyday practice of gynecologic clinics and laboratories. The proposed CART was based on the cytological result, HPV DNA typing, HPV mRNA detection based on NASBA and flow cytometry, p16 immunocytochemical expression, and finally age and parous status. Results. Algorithms useful for the triage of women were produced; gynecologists could apply these in conjunction with available examination results and conclude to an estimation of the risk for a woman to harbor CIN expressed as a probability. Conclusions. The most important test was the cytological examination; however the CART handled cases with inadequate cytological outcome and increased the diagnostic accuracy by exploiting the results of ancillary techniques even if there were inadequate missing data. The CART performance was better than any other single test involved in this study.

  8. The Application of Classification and Regression Trees for the Triage of Women for Referral to Colposcopy and the Estimation of Risk for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Study Based on 1625 Cases with Incomplete Data from Molecular Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliakis, Abraham; Karakitsou, Efrossyni; Chrelias, Charalampos; Pappas, Asimakis; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Valasoulis, George; Kyrgiou, Maria; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Karakitsos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays numerous ancillary techniques detecting HPV DNA and mRNA compete with cytology; however no perfect test exists; in this study we evaluated classification and regression trees (CARTs) for the production of triage rules and estimate the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in cases with ASCUS+ in cytology. We used 1625 cases. In contrast to other approaches we used missing data to increase the data volume, obtain more accurate results, and simulate real conditions in the everyday practice of gynecologic clinics and laboratories. The proposed CART was based on the cytological result, HPV DNA typing, HPV mRNA detection based on NASBA and flow cytometry, p16 immunocytochemical expression, and finally age and parous status. Algorithms useful for the triage of women were produced; gynecologists could apply these in conjunction with available examination results and conclude to an estimation of the risk for a woman to harbor CIN expressed as a probability. The most important test was the cytological examination; however the CART handled cases with inadequate cytological outcome and increased the diagnostic accuracy by exploiting the results of ancillary techniques even if there were inadequate missing data. The CART performance was better than any other single test involved in this study.

  9. Ontologies vs. Classification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    What is an ontology compared to a classification system? Is a taxonomy a kind of classification system or a kind of ontology? These are questions that we meet when working with people from industry and public authorities, who need methods and tools for concept clarification, for developing meta...... data sets or for obtaining advanced search facilities. In this paper we will present an attempt at answering these questions. We will give a presentation of various types of ontologies and briefly introduce terminological ontologies. Furthermore we will argue that classification systems, e.g. product...... classification systems and meta data taxonomies, should be based on ontologies....

  10. Exploring the effects of driving experience on hazard awareness and risk perception via real-time hazard identification, hazard classification, and rating tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Oron-Gilad, Tal

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of driving experience on hazard awareness and risk perception skills. These topics have previously been investigated separately, yet a novel approach is suggested where hazard awareness and risk perception are examined concurrently. Young, newly qualified drivers, experienced drivers, and a group of commercial drivers, namely, taxi drivers performed three consecutive tasks: (1) observed 10 short movies of real-world driving situations and were asked to press a button each time they identified a hazardous situation; (2) observed one of three possible sub-sets of 8 movies (out of the 10 they have seen earlier) for the second time, and were asked to categorize them into an arbitrary number of clusters according to the similarity in their hazardous situation; and (3) observed the same sub-set for a third time and following each movie were asked to rate its level of hazardousness. The first task is considered a real-time identification task while the other two are performed using hindsight. During it participants' eye movements were recorded. Results showed that taxi drivers were more sensitive to hidden hazards than the other driver groups and that young-novices were the least sensitive. Young-novice drivers also relied heavily on materialized hazards in their categorization structure. In addition, it emerged that risk perception was derived from two major components: the likelihood of a crash and the severity of its outcome. Yet, the outcome was rarely considered under time pressure (i.e., in real-time hazard identification tasks). Using hindsight, when drivers were provided with the opportunity to rate the movies' hazardousness more freely (rating task) they considered both components. Otherwise, in the categorization task, they usually chose the severity of the crash outcome as their dominant criterion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Customer classification in banking system of Iran based on the credit risk model using multi-criteria decision-making models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Khalili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors of survival of financial institutes and banks in the current competitive markets is to create balance and equality among resources and consumptions as well as to keep the health of money circulation in these institutes. According to the experiences obtained from recent financial crises in the world. The lack of appropriate management of the demands of banks and financial institutions can be considered as one of the main factors of occurrence of this crisis. The objective of the present study is to identify and classify customers according to credit risk and decisions of predictive models. The present research is a survey research employing field study in terms of the data collection method. The method of collecting theoretical framework was library research and the data were collected by two ways of data of a questionnaire and real customers’ financial data. To analyze the data of the questionnaire, analytical hierarchy process and to analyze real customers’ financial data, the TOPSIS method were employed. The population of the study included files of real customers in one of the branches of RefahKargaran Bank in city of Tabriz, Iran. From among 800 files, 140 files were completed and using Morgan’s table, 103 files were investigated. The final model was presented and with 95% of probability, if the next customer’s data is entered the model, it will capable of identifying accurately the degree of customer risk.

  12. Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology. The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term 'UGTB' has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

  13. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  14. Classification of research reactors and discussion of thinking of safety regulation based on the classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenxiu; Zhu Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Research reactors have different characteristics in the fields of reactor type, use, power level, design principle, operation model and safety performance, etc, and also have significant discrepancy in the aspect of nuclear safety regulation. This paper introduces classification of research reactors and discusses thinking of safety regulation based on the classification of research reactors. (authors)

  15. Couinaud's classification v.s. Cho's classification. Their feasibility in the right hepatic lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioyama, Yasukazu; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Sato, Motohito; Yoshimi, Fuyo; Kishi, Kazushi; Sato, Morio; Kimura, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the new classification system proposed by Cho is feasible to clinical usage comparing with the classical Couinaud's one. One hundred consecutive cases of abdominal CT were studied using a 64 or an 8 slice multislice CT and created three dimensional portal vein images for analysis by the Workstation. We applied both Cho's classification and the classical Couinaud's one for each cases according to their definitions. Three diagnostic radiologists assessed their feasibility as category one (unable to classify) to five (clear to classify with total suit with the original classification criteria). And in each cases, we tried to judge whether Cho's or the classical Couinaud' classification could more easily transmit anatomical information. Analyzers could classified portal veins clearly (category 5) in 77 to 80% of cases and clearly (category 5) or almost clearly (category 4) in 86-93% along with both classifications. In the feasibility of classification, there was no statistically significant difference between two classifications. In 15 cases we felt that using Couinaud's classification is more convenient for us to transmit anatomical information to physicians than using Cho's one, because in these cases we noticed two large portal veins ramify from right main portal vein cranialy and caudaly and then we could not classify P5 as a branch of antero-ventral segment (AVS). Conversely in 17 cases we felt Cho's classification is more convenient because we could not divide right posterior branch as P6 and P7 and in these cases the right posterior portal vein ramified to several small branches. The anterior fissure vein was clearly noticed in only 60 cases. Comparing the classical Couinaud's classification and Cho's one in feasility of classification, there was no statistically significant difference. We propose we routinely report hepatic anatomy with the classical Couinauds classification and in the preoperative cases we

  16. Definition and classification of epilepsy. Classification of epileptic seizures 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, especially in childhood and adolescence. The incidence varies from 15 to 113 cases per 100 000 population with the maximum among children under 1 year old. The prevalence of epilepsy is high, ranging from 5 to 8 cases (in some regions – 10 cases per 1000 children under 15 years old. Classification of the disease has great importance for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The article presents a novel strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, developed in 2016. It contains a number of brand new concepts, including a very important one, saying that some seizures, previously considered as generalized or focal only, can be, in fact, both focal and generalized. They include tonic, atonic, myoclonic seizures and epileptic spasms. The term “secondarily generalized seizure” is replace by the term “bilateral tonic-clonic seizure” (as soon as it is not a separate type of epileptic seizures, and the term reflects the spread of discharge from any area of cerebral cortex and evolution of any types of focal seizures. International League Against Epilepsy recommends to abandon the term “pseudo-epileptic seizures” and replace it by the term “psychogenic non-epileptic seizures”. If a doctor is not sure that seizures have epileptic nature, the term “paroxysmal event” should be used without specifying the disease. The conception of childhood epileptic encephalopathies, developed within this novel classification project, is one of the most significant achievements, since in this case not only the seizures, but even epileptiform activity can induce severe disorders of higher mental functions. In addition to detailed description of the new strategy for classification of epileptic seizures, the article contains a comprehensive review of the existing principles of epilepsy and epileptic seizures classification.

  17. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  18. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  19. Colombia: Territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Morales, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the approaches of territorial classification, thematic axes, handling principles and territorial occupation, politician and administrative units and administration regions among other topics. Understanding as Territorial Classification the space distribution on the territory of the country, of the geographical configurations, the human communities, the political-administrative units and the uses of the soil, urban and rural, existent and proposed

  20. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  1. Recursive automatic classification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A

    1982-03-01

    A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.

  2. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  3. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  4. DOE LLW classification rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems

  5. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  6. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  7. Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Score Combined with the New Italian Classification for Thyroid Cytology Improves the Clinical Management of Indeterminate Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ulisse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Italian cytological classification (2014 of thyroid nodules replaced the TIR3 category of the old classification (2007 with two subclasses, TIR3A and TIR3B, with the aim of reducing the rate of surgery for benign diseases. Moreover, thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS score appears to ameliorate the stratification of the malignancy risk. We evaluated whether the new Italian classification has improved diagnostic accuracy and whether its association with TI-RADS score could improve malignancy prediction. We retrospectively analyzed 70 nodules from 70 patients classified as TIR3 according to the old Italian classification who underwent surgery for histological diagnosis. Of these, 51 were available for cytological revision according to the new Italian cytological classification. Risk of malignancy was determined for TIR3A and TIR3B, TI-RADS score, and their combination. A different rate of malignancy (p=0.0286 between TIR3A (13.04% and TIR3B (44.44% was observed. Also TI-RADS score is significantly (p=0.003 associated with malignancy. By combining cytology and TI-RADS score, patients could be divided into three groups with low (8.3%, intermediate (21.4%, and high (80% risk of malignancy. In conclusion, the new Italian cytological classification has an improved diagnostic accuracy. Interestingly, the combination of cytology and TI-RADS score offers a better stratification of the malignancy risk.

  8. Global Stress Classification System for Materials Used in Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamova, Karolina; Schill, Christian; Herrmann, Jan; Datta, Pawan; Chih Wang, Chien

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the geographical location, the individual or combined impact of environmental stress factors and corresponding performance losses for solar applications varies significantly. Therefore, as a strategy to reduce investment risks and operating and maintenance costs, it is necessary to adapt the materials and components of solar energy systems specifically to regional environmental conditions. The project «GloBe Solar» supports this strategy by focusing on the development of a global stress classification system for materials in solar energy applications. The aim of this classification system is to assist in the identification of the individual stress conditions for every location on the earth's surface. The stress classification system could serve as a decision support tool for the industry (manufacturers, investors, lenders and project developers) and help to improve knowledge and services that can provide higher confidence to solar power systems.

  9. First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips significantly improves the primary failure and rebleeding rates in high-risk gastrointestinal bleeding: A single-center experience with 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Glatz, Torben; Walker, Christine; Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate rebleeding, primary failure (PF) and mortality of patients in whom over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were used as first-line and second-line endoscopic treatment (FLET, SLET) of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB, LGIB). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database identified all patients with UGIB and LGIB in a tertiary endoscopic referral center of the University of Freiburg, Germany, from 04-2012 to 05-2016 ( n = 93) who underwent FLET and SLET with OTSCs. The complete Rockall risk scores were calculated from patients with UGIB. The scores were categorized as < or ≥ 7 and were compared with the original Rockall data. Differences between FLET and SLET were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the factors that influenced rebleeding after OTSC placement. Primary hemostasis and clinical success of bleeding lesions (without rebleeding) was achieved in 88/100 (88%) and 78/100 (78%), respectively. PF was significantly lower when OTSCs were applied as FLET compared to SLET (4.9% vs 23%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, patients who had OTSC placement as SLET had a significantly higher rebleeding risk compared to those who had FLET (OR 5.3; P = 0.008). Patients with Rockall risk scores ≥ 7 had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to those with scores < 7 (35% vs 10%, P = 0.034). No significant differences were observed in patients with scores < or ≥ 7 in rebleeding and rebleeding-associated mortality. Our data show for the first time that FLET with OTSC might be the best predictor to successfully prevent rebleeding of gastrointestinal bleeding compared to SLET. The type of treatment determines the success of primary hemostasis or primary failure.

  10. Validation of the D'amico risk groups classification, valuation of high-risk patients with or without hormonal therapy and complications of patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, after treatment with external radiotherapy, Hospital Calderon Guardia, 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Arias, Ever Roy

    2008-01-01

    D'amico risk groups have been classified to estimate the probability of biochemical recurrence after treatment for localized prostate cancer. The evolution of patients that have received external radiotherapy were analyzed according to the risk group. The medical records of 50 patients between 2003 and 2004 have been assessed and has observed the evolution of Prostatic Specific Antigen after treatment ends, at Hospital Calderon Guardia. Adverse reactions resulting from radiotherapy treatment and the organs most affected by the same have been documented nith the possibility to compare the results of similar studies in the literature. The best performance is given by receiving concomitant hormonal therapy that high risk patients of D'amico without receiving. (author) [es

  11. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Supervised Classification Performance of Multispectral Images

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal, K.; Bhaskaran, R.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays government and private agencies use remote sensing imagery for a wide range of applications from military applications to farm development. The images may be a panchromatic, multispectral, hyperspectral or even ultraspectral of terra bytes. Remote sensing image classification is one amongst the most significant application worlds for remote sensing. A few number of image classification algorithms have proved good precision in classifying remote sensing data. But, of late, due to the ...

  13. Classification of instability after reverse shoulder arthroplasty guides surgical management and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Adham; Otto, Randall J; Simon, Peter; Christmas, Kaitlyn N; Tanner, Gregory; LaMartina, Joey; Levy, Jonathan C; Cuff, Derek J; Mighell, Mark A; Frankle, Mark A

    2018-04-01

    Revision of unstable reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a new treatment-guiding classification for instability after RSA, to describe the clinical outcomes of patients stabilized operatively, and to identify those with higher risk of recurrence. All patients undergoing revision for instability after RSA were identified at our institution. Demographic, clinical, radiographic, and intraoperative data were collected. A classification was developed using all identified causes of instability after RSA and allocating them to 1 of 3 defined treatment-guiding categories. Eight surgeons reviewed all data and applied the classification scheme to each case. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability was used to evaluate the classification scheme. Preoperative clinical outcomes were compared with final follow-up in stabilized shoulders. Forty-three revision cases in 34 patients met the inclusion for study. Five patients remained unstable after revision. Persistent instability most commonly occurred in persistent deltoid dysfunction and postoperative acromial fractures but also in 1 case of soft tissue impingement. Twenty-one patients remained stable at minimum 2 years of follow-up and had significant improvement of clinical outcome scores and range of motion. Reliability of the classification scheme showed substantial and almost perfect interobserver and intraobserver agreement among all the participants (κ = 0.699 and κ = 0.851, respectively). Instability after RSA can be successfully treated with revision surgery using the reliable treatment-guiding classification scheme presented herein. However, more understanding is needed for patients with greater risk of recurrent instability after revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A classification tree for the prediction of benign versus malignant disease in patients with small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Ricardo A; Mason, Ross J; Kirkland, Susan; Lawen, Joseph G; Abdolell, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    To develop a classification tree for the preoperative prediction of benign versus malignant disease in patients with small renal masses. This is a retrospective study including 395 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for a renal mass classification tree to predict the risk of having a benign renal mass preoperatively was developed using recursive partitioning analysis for repeated measures outcomes. Age, sex, volume on preoperative imaging, tumor location (central/peripheral), degree of endophytic component (1%-100%), and tumor axis position were used as potential predictors to develop the model. Forty-five patients (11.4%) were found to have a benign mass postoperatively. A classification tree has been developed which can predict the risk of benign disease with an accuracy of 88.9% (95% CI: 85.3 to 91.8). The significant prognostic factors in the classification tree are tumor volume, degree of endophytic component and symptoms at diagnosis. As an example of its utilization, a renal mass with a volume of classification tree to predict the risk of benign disease in small renal masses has been developed to aid the clinician when deciding on treatment strategies for small renal masses.

  15. Risk-adaptive optimization: Selective boosting of high-risk tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yusung; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A tumor subvolume-based, risk-adaptive optimization strategy is presented. Methods and Materials: Risk-adaptive optimization employs a biologic objective function instead of an objective function based on physical dose constraints. Using this biologic objective function, tumor control probability (TCP) is maximized for different tumor risk regions while at the same time minimizing normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for organs at risk. The feasibility of risk-adaptive optimization was investigated for a variety of tumor subvolume geometries, risk-levels, and slopes of the TCP curve. Furthermore, the impact of a correlation parameter, δ, between TCP and NTCP on risk-adaptive optimization was investigated. Results: Employing risk-adaptive optimization, it is possible in a prostate cancer model to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing predicted normal tissue complications in organs at risk. For all tumor subvolume geometries investigated, we found that the EUD to high-risk tumor subvolumes could be increased significantly without increasing normal tissue complications above those expected from a treatment plan aiming for uniform dose coverage of the planning target volume. We furthermore found that the tumor subvolume with the highest risk classification had the largest influence on the design of the risk-adaptive dose distribution. The parameter δ had little effect on risk-adaptive optimization. However, the clinical parameters D 5 and γ 5 that represent the risk classification of tumor subvolumes had the largest impact on risk-adaptive optimization. Conclusions: On the whole, risk-adaptive optimization yields heterogeneous dose distributions that match the risk level distribution of different subvolumes within the tumor volume

  16. ACCUWIND - Methods for classification of cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Busche, P.

    2006-05-15

    Errors associated with the measurement of wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well-calibrated anemometers show significant and not acceptable difference. The European CLASSCUP project posed the objectives to quantify the errors associated with the use of cup anemometers, and to develop a classification system for quantification of systematic errors of cup anemometers. This classification system has now been implemented in the IEC 61400-12-1 standard on power performance measurements in annex I and J. The classification of cup anemometers requires general external climatic operational ranges to be applied for the analysis of systematic errors. A Class A category classification is connected to reasonably flat sites, and another Class B category is connected to complex terrain, General classification indices are the result of assessment of systematic deviations. The present report focuses on methods that can be applied for assessment of such systematic deviations. A new alternative method for torque coefficient measurements at inclined flow have been developed, which have then been applied and compared to the existing methods developed in the CLASSCUP project and earlier. A number of approaches including the use of two cup anemometer models, two methods of torque coefficient measurement, two angular response measurements, and inclusion and exclusion of influence of friction have been implemented in the classification process in order to assess the robustness of methods. The results of the analysis are presented as classification indices, which are compared and discussed. (au)

  17. Update on diabetes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Celeste C; Philipson, Louis H

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the difficulties in creating a definitive classification of diabetes mellitus in the absence of a complete understanding of the pathogenesis of the major forms. This brief review shows the evolving nature of the classification of diabetes mellitus. No classification scheme is ideal, and all have some overlap and inconsistencies. The only diabetes in which it is possible to accurately diagnose by DNA sequencing, monogenic diabetes, remains undiagnosed in more than 90% of the individuals who have diabetes caused by one of the known gene mutations. The point of classification, or taxonomy, of disease, should be to give insight into both pathogenesis and treatment. It remains a source of frustration that all schemes of diabetes mellitus continue to fall short of this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning Apache Mahout classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist who has some experience with the Hadoop ecosystem and machine learning methods and want to try out classification on large datasets using Mahout, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of Java is essential.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  20. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  1. Towards secondary fingerprint classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Msiza, IS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available an accuracy figure of 76.8%. This small difference between the two figures is indicative of the validity of the proposed secondary classification module. Keywords?fingerprint core; fingerprint delta; primary classifi- cation; secondary classification I..., namely, the fingerprint core and the fingerprint delta. Forensically, a fingerprint core is defined as the innermost turning point where the fingerprint ridges form a loop, while the fingerprint delta is defined as the point where these ridges form a...

  2. Expected Classification Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every time we make a classification based on a test score, we should expect some number..of misclassifications. Some examinees whose true ability is within a score range will have..observed scores outside of that range. A procedure for providing a classification table of..true and expected scores is developed for polytomously scored items under item response..theory and applied to state assessment data. A simplified procedure for estimating the..table entries is also presented.

  3. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  4. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  5. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  6. Manual for the classification and prioritization of risks due to major accidents in process and related industries. Inter-Agency programme on the assessment and management of health and environmental risks from energy and other complex industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The IAEA, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) decided in 1986 to join forces in order to promote the use of integrated areas wide approaches to risk management. The Inter-Agency Programme brings together expertise in health, the environment, industry and energy, all vital for effective risk management. The purpose of the Inter-Agency Programme is to develop a broad approach to the identification, prioritization and minimization of industrial hazards in a given geographical area. This is one of a series of publications intended to be issued on behalf of the four participating UN organizations. This is the first revision of the original report, distributed in December 1993. The revision was undertaken in the light of experience with the original edition and was prompted by the wish to add the results of a practical case study and some new developments. 13 figs, 23 tabs

  7. Classifying PML risk with disease modifying therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph R

    2017-02-01

    To catalogue the risk of PML with the currently available disease modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS). All DMTs perturb the immune system in some fashion. Natalizumab, a highly effective DMT, has been associated with a significant risk of PML. Fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate have also been unquestionably associated with a risk of PML in the MS population. Concerns about PML risk with other DMTs have arisen due to their mechanism of action and pharmacological parallel to other agents with known PML risk. A method of contextualizing PML risk for DMTs is warranted. Classification of PML risk was predicated on three criteria:: 1) whether the underlying condition being treated predisposes to PML in the absence of the drug; 2) the latency from initiation of the drug to the development of PML; and 3) the frequency with which PML is observed. Among the DMTs, natalizumab occupies a place of its own with respect to PML risk. Significantly lesser degrees of risk exist for fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate. Whether PML will be observed with other DMTs in use for MS, such as, rituximab, teriflunomide, and alemtuzumab, remains uncertain. A logical classification for stratifying DMT PML risk is important for both the physician and patient in contextualizing risk/benefit ratios. As additional experience accumulates regarding PML and the DMTs, this early effort will undoubtedly require revisiting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of follow-up on DS02 low-dose ranges with a significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer in the Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda; Schneider, Uwe [University of Zuerich, Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Determinations of the lowest colon dose, D{sub min}, below which there is a statistically significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer, when analyses are restricted to the range [0, D{sub min}], are of current interest in research related to radiation protection and risk assessment. In reviewing recent cancer mortality reports on the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors, reported D{sub min} values were found to vary between different reports. The report 12 (follow-up: 1950-1990) found a D{sub min} of 50 mGy, but the most recent report 14 (follow-up: 1950-2003) found a D{sub min} of 200 mGy. There were small dosimetry changes between report 12, which used DS86, and report 14, which used DS02, but these changes are unlikely to account for a difference in D{sub min} of a factor of 4. This short communication examines the reasons for this difference in D{sub min} by presenting further investigations into D{sub min} using different trial values for D{sub min} and various follow-up time spans, all with the same DS02 dosimetry. Magnitudes of the low-dose risks in different dose ranges are also presented. It is shown here that the main influence on D{sub min} comes from the length of follow-up and a D{sub min} of 50 mGy may also be obtained with the most recent LSS mortality data and DS02, if a restricted follow-up is analyzed. A systematic trend was evident of lower D{sub min} values for earlier mortality follow-up periods, consistent with information from earlier LSS reports. Although it may seem surprising that the D{sub min} increases with longer follow-up and better statistics, this systematic trend appears to be a consequence of decreasing mortality risks with longer follow-up, even though the error bars on the risks are getting smaller with increasing follow-up. These systematic trends also persisted after accounting for differences between baseline cancer rates for two groups of survivors who were either proximal or distal to the A

  9. Influence of anthropogenic activities on PAHs in sediments in a significant gulf of low-latitude developing regions, the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea: distribution, sources, inventory and probability risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingyang; Xue, Rui; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-15

    Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 41 surface sediment samples and a sediment core (50 cm) from the Beibu Gulf, a significant low-latitude developing gulf, were analyzed. PAHs concentrations were 3.01-388 ng g(-)(1) (mean 95.5 ng g(-)(1)) in the surface sediments and 10.5-87.1 ng g(-)(1) (average 41.1 ng g(-)(1)) in the sediment core. Source apportionment indicated that PAHs were generated from coke production and vehicular emissions (39.4%), coal and biomass combustion (35.8%), and petrogenic sources (24.8%). PAHs were mainly concentrated in the industrialized and urbanized regions and the harbor, and were transported by atmospheric deposition to the marine matrix. The mass inventory (1.57-2.62t) and probability risk showed sediments here served as an important reservoir but low PAH risk. Different from oil and natural gas in developed regions, coal combustion has always been a significant energy consumption pattern in this developing region for the past 30 years (56 ± 5%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  11. IDENTIFYING ROOF FALL PREDICTORS USING FUZZY CLASSIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoncini, C. A.; Hinders, M. K.

    2010-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring involves placing geophones on the rock surfaces of a mine to record seismic activity. Classification of microseismic mine data can be used to predict seismic events in a mine to mitigate mining hazards, such as roof falls, where properly bolting and bracing the roof is often an insufficient method of preventing weak roofs from destabilizing. In this study, six months of recorded acoustic waveforms from microseismic monitoring in a Pennsylvania limestone mine were analyzed using classification techniques to predict roof falls. Fuzzy classification using features selected for computational ease was applied on the mine data. Both large roof fall events could be predicted using a Roof Fall Index (RFI) metric calculated from the results of the fuzzy classification. RFI was successfully used to resolve the two significant roof fall events and predicted both events by at least 15 hours before visual signs of the roof falls were evident.

  12. Enterprise Potential: Essence, Classification and Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turylo Anatolii M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers existing approaches to classification of the enterprise potential as an economic notion. It offers own vision of classification of enterprise potential, which meets modern tendencies of enterprise development. Classification ensures a possibility of a wider description and assessment of enterprise potential and also allows identification of its most significant characteristics. Classification of the enterprise potential is developed by different criteria: by functions, by resource support, by ability to adapt, by the level of detection, by the spectrum of taking into account possibilities, by the period of coverage of possibilities and by the level of use. Analysis of components of the enterprise potential allows obtaining a complete and trustworthy assessment of the state of an enterprise. Adaptation potential of an enterprise is based on principles systemacy and dynamism, it characterises possibilities of adjustment of an enterprise to external and internal economic conditions.

  13. New classification of proximal humeral fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, W R; Rupp, H G; Siebler, G

    1986-08-01

    Neer's classification of humeral fractures was proved on 657 patients. This classification enables the radiologist to estimate the risk of avascular necrosis of the head of the humerus. The problematic group is that of four part lesions, which has a 19% incidence of humeral head necrosis. Since in this group minimal osteosynthesis produces better functional results than extensive osteosynthesis, a detailed pre-operative radiological description of the fracture type is necessary in order to spare the patient from extensive surgery which could have unsatisfactory results.

  14. Acne image analysis: lesion localization and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.

  15. Quality-Oriented Classification of Aircraft Material Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing material classification is proposed to improve the inventory management. However, different materials have the different quality-related attributes, especially in the aircraft industry. In order to reduce the cost without sacrificing the quality, we propose a quality-oriented material classification system considering the material quality character, Quality cost, and Quality influence. Analytic Hierarchy Process helps to make feature selection and classification decision. We use the improved Kraljic Portfolio Matrix to establish the three-dimensional classification model. The aircraft materials can be divided into eight types, including general type, key type, risk type, and leveraged type. Aiming to improve the classification accuracy of various materials, the algorithm of Support Vector Machine is introduced. Finally, we compare the SVM and BP neural network in the application. The results prove that the SVM algorithm is more efficient and accurate and the quality-oriented material classification is valuable.

  16. Sentiment classification technology based on Markov logic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Li, Zhigang; Yao, Chongchong; Zhang, Weizhe

    2016-07-01

    With diverse online media emerging, there is a growing concern of sentiment classification problem. At present, text sentiment classification mainly utilizes supervised machine learning methods, which feature certain domain dependency. On the basis of Markov logic networks (MLNs), this study proposed a cross-domain multi-task text sentiment classification method rooted in transfer learning. Through many-to-one knowledge transfer, labeled text sentiment classification, knowledge was successfully transferred into other domains, and the precision of the sentiment classification analysis in the text tendency domain was improved. The experimental results revealed the following: (1) the model based on a MLN demonstrated higher precision than the single individual learning plan model. (2) Multi-task transfer learning based on Markov logical networks could acquire more knowledge than self-domain learning. The cross-domain text sentiment classification model could significantly improve the precision and efficiency of text sentiment classification.

  17. The 2017 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the pituitary gland: a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M Beatriz S

    2017-10-01

    The 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of endocrine tumors has been recently released. In this new edition, major changes are recommended in several areas of the classification of tumors of the anterior pituitary gland (adenophypophysis). The scope of the present manuscript is to summarize these recommended changes, emphasizing a few significant topics. These changes include the following: (1) a novel approach for classifying pituitary neuroendocrine tumors according to pituitary adenohypophyseal cell lineages; (2) changes to the histological grading of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors with the elimination of the term "atypical adenoma;" and (3) introduction of new entities like the pituitary blastoma and re-definition of old entities like the null-cell adenoma. This new classification is very practical and mostly based on immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones, pituitary-specific transcription factors, and other immunohistochemical markers commonly used in pathology practice, not requiring routine ultrastructural analysis of the tumors. Evaluation of tumor proliferation potential, by mitotic count and Ki-67 labeling index, and tumor invasion is strongly recommended on individual case basis to identify clinically aggressive adenomas. In addition, the classification offers the treating clinical team information on tumor prognosis by identifying specific variants of adenomas associated with an elevated risk for recurrence. Changes in the classification of non-neuroendocrine tumors are also proposed, in particular those tumors arising in the posterior pituitary including pituicytoma, granular cell tumor of the posterior pituitary, and spindle cell oncocytoma. These changes endorse those previously published in the 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors. Other tumors arising in the sellar region are also reviewed in detail including craniopharyngiomas, mesenchymal and stromal tumors, germ cell tumors, and hematopoietic tumors. It is

  18. Etiological classifications of transient ischemic attacks: subtype classification by TOAST, CCS and ASCO--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amort, Margareth; Fluri, Felix; Weisskopf, Florian; Gensicke, Henrik; Bonati, Leo H; Lyrer, Philippe A; Engelter, Stefan T

    2012-01-01

    0.7-6.6%)]. However, this difference was only significant in the ASCO classification (p = 0.036). Using ASCO, there was neither an increase in risk of subsequent stroke among patients with incomplete diagnostic workup (at least one subtype scored 9) compared with patients with adequate workup (no subtype scored 9), nor among patients with multiple causes compared with patients with a single cause. In TIA patients, all etiological classification systems provided a similar distribution of underlying etiologies. The increase in stroke risk in TIA patients with determined versus undetermined etiology was most evident using the ASCO classification. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Current possibilities of cervical precancerous lesions screening in Slovakia: prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in patients with cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnikova, G; Ondrusova, M; Repiska, V; Drobna, R; Marinova, P; Meciarova, I; Rampalova, J; Ondrias, F

    2014-01-01

    It has been confirmed, that there is a causal relationship between persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and the development of cervical cancer. In population of women older than 30 years HPV infection becomes a significant etiological factor of precancerous lesion of the cervix, but HPV infection may spontaneously regress in the majority of the cases. The analysed study group consisted of 397 samples with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS). All cases underwent HPV DNA testing using the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay. We analysed prevalence of HR-HPV and a viral load expressed as relative light units/cut off ratio (RLU/CO) in different age groups with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS. The prevalence of HR-HPV with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS was detected in 44 %. The prevalence of HR-HPV between patients aged 17-29 and between patients aged 30-40 was 55 % and 48 % respectively and we detected significant reduction of prevalence (28 %) in patients older than 41 years. Based on the results of presented study we assumed that age the 40 and over is crucial for the development of serious precancerous lesions in Slovakia, thus this age group is the most suitable for HPV triage of ASCUS. As a refinement of that type of ASCUS triage we recommend to add to the algorithm quantitative measurement of viral load in the specimens in the form of RLU/CO ratio (Fig. 3, Ref. 27).

  20. Bosniak classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bosniak classification was originally based on computed tomographic (CT) findings. Magnetic resonance (MR) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging may demonstrate findings that are not depicted at CT, and there may not always be a clear correlation between the findings...... at MR and CEUS imaging and those at CT. PURPOSE: To compare diagnostic accuracy of MR, CEUS, and CT when categorizing complex renal cystic masses according to the Bosniak classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From February 2011 to June 2012, 46 complex renal cysts were prospectively evaluated by three...... readers. Each mass was categorized according to the Bosniak classification and CT was chosen as gold standard. Kappa was calculated for diagnostic accuracy and data was compared with pathological results. RESULTS: CT images found 27 BII, six BIIF, seven BIII, and six BIV. Forty-three cysts could...

  1. Bosniak Classification system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Bosniak classification is a diagnostic tool for the differentiation of cystic changes in the kidney. The process of categorizing renal cysts may be challenging, involving a series of decisions that may affect the final diagnosis and clinical outcome such as surgical management....... Purpose: To investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement among experienced uroradiologists when categorizing complex renal cysts according to the Bosniak classification. Material and Methods: The original categories of 100 cystic renal masses were chosen as “Gold Standard” (GS), established...... to the calculated weighted κ all readers performed “very good” for both inter-observer and intra-observer variation. Most variation was seen in cysts catagorized as Bosniak II, IIF, and III. These results show that radiologists who evaluate complex renal cysts routinely may apply the Bosniak classification...

  2. A neural network for noise correlation classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Patrick; Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    We present an artificial neural network (ANN) for the classification of ambient seismic noise correlations into two categories, suitable and unsuitable for noise tomography. By using only a small manually classified data subset for network training, the ANN allows us to classify large data volumes with low human effort and to encode the valuable subjective experience of data analysts that cannot be captured by a deterministic algorithm. Based on a new feature extraction procedure that exploits the wavelet-like nature of seismic time-series, we efficiently reduce the dimensionality of noise correlation data, still keeping relevant features needed for automated classification. Using global- and regional-scale data sets, we show that classification errors of 20 per cent or less can be achieved when the network training is performed with as little as 3.5 per cent and 16 per cent of the data sets, respectively. Furthermore, the ANN trained on the regional data can be applied to the global data, and vice versa, without a significant increase of the classification error. An experiment where four students manually classified the data, revealed that the classification error they would assign to each other is substantially larger than the classification error of the ANN (>35 per cent). This indicates that reproducibility would be hampered more by human subjectivity than by imperfections of the ANN.

  3. Image Classification Workflow Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, M. S.; Roser, M.; Valadez-Vergara, R.; Fernández-Vega, J. A.; Pierce, S. A.; Arora, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent increases in the availability and quality of remote sensing datasets have fueled an increasing number of scientifically significant discoveries based on land use classification and land use change analysis. However, much of the software made to work with remote sensing data products, specifically multispectral images, is commercial and often prohibitively expensive. The free to use solutions that are currently available come bundled up as small parts of much larger programs that are very susceptible to bugs and difficult to install and configure. What is needed is a compact, easy to use set of tools to perform land use analysis on multispectral images. To address this need, we have developed software using the Python programming language with the sole function of land use classification and land use change analysis. We chose Python to develop our software because it is relatively readable, has a large body of relevant third party libraries such as GDAL and Spectral Python, and is free to install and use on Windows, Linux, and Macintosh operating systems. In order to test our classification software, we performed a K-means unsupervised classification, Gaussian Maximum Likelihood supervised classification, and a Mahalanobis Distance based supervised classification. The images used for testing were three Landsat rasters of Austin, Texas with a spatial resolution of 60 meters for the years of 1984 and 1999, and 30 meters for the year 2015. The testing dataset was easily downloaded using the Earth Explorer application produced by the USGS. The software should be able to perform classification based on any set of multispectral rasters with little to no modification. Our software makes the ease of land use classification using commercial software available without an expensive license.

  4. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  5. Casemix classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, R B

    1999-01-01

    The idea of using casemix classification to manage hospital services is not new, but has been limited by available technology. It was not until after the introduction of Medicare in the United States in 1965 that serious attempts were made to measure hospital production in order to contain spiralling costs. This resulted in a system of casemix classification known as diagnosis related groups (DRGs). This paper traces the development of DRGs and their evolution from the initial version to the All Patient Refined DRGs developed in 1991.

  6. Cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Amaral de Paula

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess cardiovascular risk by means of the traditional Framingham score and the version modified through the incorporation of emerging risk factors, such as family history of acute myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: participants were 50 hypertensive patients under outpatient treatment. The clinical data were collected through a semi-structured interview and the laboratory data from patients' histories. RESULTS: it was verified that the traditional Framingham score was predominantly low (74%, with 14% showing medium risk and 12% high risk. After the inclusion of emerging risk factors, the chance of a coronary event was low in 22% of the cases, medium in 56% and high in 22%. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between the traditional Framingham risk score and the modified version demonstrated a significant difference in the cardiovascular risk classification, whose correlation shows discreet agreement between the two scales. Lifestyle elements seem to play a determinant role in the increase in cardiovascular risk levels.

  7. Research and practice on NPP safety DCS application software V and V defect classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongwei; Li Yunjian; Li Xiangjian

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant aims of Verification and Validation (V and V) is to find software errors and risks, especially for a DCS application software designed for nuclear power plant (NPP). Through classifying and analyzing errors, a number of obtained data can be utilized to estimate current status and potential risks of software development and improve the quality of project. A method of error classification is proposed, which is applied to whole V and V life cycle, using a MW pressurized reactor project as an example. The purpose is to analyze errors discovered by V and V activities, and result in improvement of safety critical DCS application software. (authors)

  8. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  9. The paradox of atheoretical classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2016-01-01

    A distinction can be made between “artificial classifications” and “natural classifications,” where artificial classifications may adequately serve some limited purposes, but natural classifications are overall most fruitful by allowing inference and thus many different purposes. There is strong...... support for the view that a natural classification should be based on a theory (and, of course, that the most fruitful theory provides the most fruitful classification). Nevertheless, atheoretical (or “descriptive”) classifications are often produced. Paradoxically, atheoretical classifications may...... be very successful. The best example of a successful “atheoretical” classification is probably the prestigious Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) since its third edition from 1980. Based on such successes one may ask: Should the claim that classifications ideally are natural...

  10. Cyclin H expression is increased in GIST with very-high risk of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Julian; Spatz, Hanno; Schmieder, Michael; Barth, Thomas FE; Blatz, Annette; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Knippschild, Uwe; Kramer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Risk estimation of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) is based on tumour size and mitotic rate according to the National Institutes of Health consensus classification. The indication for adjuvant treatment of patients with high risk GIST after R 0 resection with small molecule inhibitors is still a controversial issue, since these patients represent a highly heterogeneous population. Therefore, additional prognostic indicators are needed. Here, we evaluated the prognostic value of cyclin H expression in GIST. In order to identify prognostic factors of GIST we evaluated a single centre cohort of ninety-five GIST patients. First, GISTs were classified with regard to tumour size, mitotic rate and localisation according to the NIH consensus and to three additional suggested risk classifications. Second, Cyclin H expression was analysed. Of ninety-five patients with GIST (53 female/42 male; median age: 66.78a; range 17-94a) risk classification revealed: 42% high risk, 20% intermediate risk, 23% low risk and 15% very low risk GIST. In patients with high risk GIST, the expression of cyclin H was highly predictive for reduced disease-specific survival (p = 0.038). A combination of cyclin H expression level and high risk classification yielded the strongest prognostic indicator for disease-specific and disease-free survival (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, in patients with tumour recurrence and/or metastases, cyclin H positivity was significantly associated with reduced disease-specific survival (p = 0.016) regardless of risk-classification. Our data suggest that, in addition to high risk classification, cyclin H expression might be an indicator for 'very-high risk' GIST

  11. Changes in classification of genetic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Wimberger, Pauline; Arnold, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    Classification of variants of unknown significance (VUS) in the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 changes with accumulating evidence for clinical relevance. In most cases down-staging towards neutral variants without clinical significance is possible. We searched the database of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC) for changes in classification of genetic variants as an update to our earlier publication on genetic variants in the Centre of Dresden. Changes between 2015 and 2017 were recorded. In the group of variants of unclassified significance (VUS, Class 3, uncertain), only changes of classification towards neutral genetic variants were noted. In BRCA1, 25% of the Class 3 variants (n = 2/8) changed to Class 2 (likely benign) and Class 1 (benign). In BRCA2, in 50% of the Class 3 variants (n = 16/32), a change to Class 2 (n = 10/16) or Class 1 (n = 6/16) was observed. No change in classification was noted in Class 4 (likely pathogenic) and Class 5 (pathogenic) genetic variants in both genes. No up-staging from Class 1, Class 2 or Class 3 to more clinical significance was observed. All variants with a change in classification in our cohort were down-staged towards no clinical significance by a panel of experts of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). Prevention in families with Class 3 variants should be based on pedigree based risks and should not be guided by the presence of a VUS.

  12. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  13. The classification of phocomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytherleigh-Strong, G; Hooper, G

    2003-06-01

    We studied 24 patients with 44 phocomelic upper limbs. Only 11 limbs could be grouped in the classification system of Frantz and O' Rahilly. The non-classifiable limbs were further studied and their characteristics identified. It is confirmed that phocomelia is not an intercalary defect.

  14. Principles for ecological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis H. Grossman; Patrick Bourgeron; Wolf-Dieter N. Busch; David T. Cleland; William Platts; G. Ray; C. Robins; Gary Roloff

    1999-01-01

    The principal purpose of any classification is to relate common properties among different entities to facilitate understanding of evolutionary and adaptive processes. In the context of this volume, it is to facilitate ecosystem stewardship, i.e., to help support ecosystem conservation and management objectives.

  15. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  16. Classification, confusion and misclassification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classification of objects and phenomena in science and nature has fascinated academics since Carl Linnaeus, the Swedish botanist and zoologist, created his binomial description of living things in the 1700s and probably long before in accounts of others in textbooks long since gone. It must have concerned human ...

  17. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four

  18. Shark Teeth Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Creel, Sally; Lee, Velda

    2009-01-01

    On a recent autumn afternoon at Harmony Leland Elementary in Mableton, Georgia, students in a fifth-grade science class investigated the essential process of classification--the act of putting things into groups according to some common characteristics or attributes. While they may have honed these skills earlier in the week by grouping their own…

  19. Text document classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novovičová, Jana

    č. 62 (2005), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR KSK1019101; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : document representation * categorization * classification Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  20. Classification in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen

    Classification is extensively used in the context of medical image analysis for the purpose of diagnosis or prognosis. In order to classify image content correctly, one needs to extract efficient features with discriminative properties and build classifiers based on these features. In addition...... on characterizing human faces and emphysema disease in lung CT images....

  1. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  2. NOUN CLASSIFICATION IN ESAHIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work deals with noun classification in Esahie (Kwa, Niger ... phonological information influences the noun (form) class system of Esahie. ... between noun classes and (grammatical) Gender is interrogated (in the light of ..... the (A) argument6 precedes the verb and the (P) argument7 follows the verb in a simple.

  3. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...

  4. Classification of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...

  5. Event Classification