WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk categories defined

  1. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  2. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  3. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one...... hand, ideal properties of A ⋊σ G and, on the other hand, maximal commutativity of A in A ⋊σ G. In particular, we show that if G is a groupoid and for each e ∈ ob(G) the group of all morphisms e → e is countable and the topological space s(e) is Tychonoff and Baire. Then the following assertions...... are equivalent: (i) s is topologically free; (ii) A has the ideal intersection property, i.e. if I is a nonzero ideal of A ⋊σ G, then I ∩ A ≠ {0}; (iii) the ring A is a maximal abelian complex subalgebra of A ⋊σ G. Thereby, we generalize a result by Svensson, Silvestrov and de Jeu from the additive group...

  4. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  5. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  6. Task-relevant perceptual features can define categories in visual memory too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Karla B; Williams, Carrick C

    2017-11-01

    Although Konkle, Brady, Alvarez, and Oliva (2010, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139(3), 558) claim that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is organized on underlying conceptual, not perceptual, information, visual memory results from visual search tasks are not well explained by this theory. We hypothesized that when viewing an object, any task-relevant visual information is critical to the organizational structure of VLTM. In two experiments, we examined the organization of VLTM by measuring the amount of retroactive interference created by objects possessing different combinations of task-relevant features. Based on task instructions, only the conceptual category was task relevant or both the conceptual category and a perceptual object feature were task relevant. Findings indicated that when made task relevant, perceptual object feature information, along with conceptual category information, could affect memory organization for objects in VLTM. However, when perceptual object feature information was task irrelevant, it did not contribute to memory organization; instead, memory defaulted to being organized around conceptual category information. These findings support the theory that a task-defined organizational structure is created in VLTM based on the relevance of particular object features and information.

  7. Defining and treating the spectrum of intermediate risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamat, A.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Brausi, M.; Soloway, M.; Lamm, D.; Persad, R.; Buckley, R.; Bohle, A.; Colombel, M.; Palou, J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Low, intermediate and high risk categories have been defined to help guide the treatment of patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (Ta, T1, CIS). However, while low and high risk disease has been well classified, the intermediate risk category has traditionally comprised a

  8. Characteristics and Categories of Risk in the Small Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article risk typology in a small enterprise has been presented. In the aspect of a small enterprise’s characteristic features that have been synthetically described, the author has tried to define the crux and position of individual risk types in the operation of small market entities. In economy practice, identification and risk management conduct of risk categorization facilitates.

  9. Simple skew category algebras associated with minimal partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystedt, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we continue our study of category dynamical systems, that is functors s from a category G to Topop, and their corresponding skew category algebras. Suppose that the spaces s(e), for e∈ob(G), are compact Hausdorff. We show that if (i) the skew category algebra is simple, then (ii) G...

  10. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  11. Defining new categories of pregnancy intention in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Alan; Peacock, Nadine; McRae, Kenya; Seymour, Rachel; Gilliam, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Half of all U.S. pregnancies are categorized as unintended at conception, but concerns persist that existing measures of pregnancy intention do not adequately reflect the complexities of reproductive desires and preferences. We explored new strategies for categorizing viewpoints toward future pregnancy focusing on young, low-income, African-American women, and assessed the stability of these viewpoints over time. For pregnancies that occurred during the study, we examined the utility of the newly derived categories for predicting retrospective measures of intendedness. Data were collected using Q-methodology, a technique for eliciting subjective viewpoints and identifying shared patterns among individuals. African-American women ages 15 to 25 and at risk for pregnancy were recruited at clinics serving low-income populations. The women sorted statements reflecting attitudes and preferences regarding future pregnancy into a distribution on a continuum from "least true for me" to "most true for me." We used by-person factor analysis to derive latent viewpoints. We identified six factors each reflecting a unique viewpoint about future pregnancy. These were a pregnancy seeking factor, one reflecting both ambivalence and low reproductive control, and four reflecting pregnancy avoidance, with distinctions around social support, reproductive control, and desired pregnancy timing. Distribution of factors differed by age group, as well as by retrospective categorization of pregnancy intention for those women who became pregnant during the study. Our categories provide a nuanced reflection of women's points of view about future pregnancies, and, with further validation, may prove useful for predicting or preventing contraceptive nonuse, undesired conceptions, and associated adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  13. Defining the Intrinsic Cardiac Risks of Operations to Improve Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason B; Liu, Yaoming; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Sweitzer, Bobbie J

    2018-02-01

    Current preoperative cardiac risk stratification practices group operations into broad categories, which might inadequately consider the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations. We sought to define the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations and to demonstrate how grouping operations might lead to imprecise estimates of perioperative cardiac risk. Elective operations (based on Common Procedural Terminology codes) performed from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were studied. A composite measure of perioperative adverse cardiac events was defined as either cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation or acute myocardial infarction. Operations' intrinsic cardiac risks were derived from mixed-effects models while controlling for patient mix. Resultant risks were sorted into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, and the most commonly performed operations within each category were identified. Intrinsic operative risks were also examined using a representative grouping of operations to portray within-group variation. Sixty-six low, 30 intermediate, and 106 high intrinsic cardiac risk operations were identified. Excisional breast biopsy had the lowest intrinsic cardiac risk (overall rate, 0.01%; odds ratio, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.25) relative to the average, whereas aorto-bifemoral bypass grafting had the highest (overall rate, 4.1%; odds ratio, 6.61; 95% CI, 5.54 to 7.90). There was wide variation in the intrinsic cardiac risks of operations within the representative grouping (median odds ratio, 1.40; interquartile range, 0.88 to 2.17). A continuum of intrinsic cardiac risk exists among operations. Grouping operations into broad categories inadequately accounts for the intrinsic cardiac risk of individual operations.

  14. 12 CFR 567.6 - Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital credit risk-weight... CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.6 Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories. (a) Risk...)(2) of this section), plus risk-weighted recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, and certain...

  15. Drug utilization and teratogenicity risk categories during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basgül, Alin; Akici, Ahmet; Uzuner, Arzu; Kalaça, Sibel; Kavak, Zehra N; Tural, Alper; Oktay, Sule

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of studies have investigated in detail the use of drugs during pregnancy. Researchers in the present study investigated the details of drug utilization in pregnant women during the month before pregnancy, at the time that they became aware of the pregnancy, and during the first trimester. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 359 pregnant women who were admitted to the fetal medicine unit at a university hospital for diagnosis and follow-up. A questionnaire was used to document sociodemographic characteristics and details of drug use. Drugs were categorized according to the US Food and Drug Administration fetal risk classification. Mean maternal age was 29.9+/-5.1 y, and mean gestational age was 19.6+/-9.5 wk. Many of the pregnant women studied (46.6%) were university graduates, and most (61.9%) had a relatively high annual income. Mean gestational age when participants first learned of their pregnancy was 39.8+/-16.4 d. One hundred seventeen participants (32.6%) used drugs during the month before conception, 54 (15%) at the time when they learned of their pregnancy, 180 (50.1%) at the time of the interview, and 289 (80.5%) during the first trimester. The percentages of drugs in categories D and X used by these subjects were 14%, 13.5%, 2.9%, and 5.9%, respectively. Most of the drugs were hormones. The total rate of drug utilization was not high before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. A considerable number of women were using drugs from the D and X categories; however, these numbers decreased significantly when women learned of their pregnancies. Intake of folic acid, vitamins, and iron was very low during the preconception period and was not high enough during the first trimester; this suggests that particular attention should be paid to the use of beneficial "safe" drugs during the preconception and early pregnancy periods.

  16. Defining Probability in Sex Offender Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    There is ongoing debate and confusion over using actuarial scales to predict individuals' risk of sexual recidivism. Much of the debate comes from not distinguishing Frequentist from Bayesian definitions of probability. Much of the confusion comes from applying Frequentist probability to individuals' risk. By definition, only Bayesian probability can be applied to the single case. The Bayesian concept of probability resolves most of the confusion and much of the debate in sex offender risk assessment. Although Bayesian probability is well accepted in risk assessment generally, it has not been widely used to assess the risk of sex offenders. I review the two concepts of probability and show how the Bayesian view alone provides a coherent scheme to conceptualize individuals' risk of sexual recidivism.

  17. The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption during the adult life-course: a 28-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Craig S; Bell, Steven; Britton, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Studies that report the relationship between alcohol consumption and disease risk have predominantly operationalized drinking according to a single baseline measure. The resulting assumption of longitudinal stability may be simplistic and complicate interpretation of risk estimates. This study aims to describe changes to the volume of consumption during the adult life-course according to baseline categories of drinking. A prospective observational study. United Kingdom. A cohort of British civil servants totalling 6838 men and 3372 women aged 34-55 years at baseline, followed for a mean 19.1 (standard deviation = 9.5) years. The volume of weekly alcohol consumption was estimated from data concerning the frequency and number of drinks consumed. Baseline categories were defined: non-current drinkers, infrequent drinkers, 0.1-50.0 g/week, 50.1-100.0 g/week, 100.1-150.0 g/week, 150.1-250.0 g/week and >250.0 g/week. For women, the highest category was defined as > 100.0 g/week. Baseline frequency was derived as 'daily or almost daily' and 'not daily or almost daily'. Trajectories were estimated within baseline categories using growth curve models. Trajectories differed between men and women, but were relatively stable within light-to-moderate categories of baseline consumption. Drinking was least stable within the highest categories of baseline consumption (men: > 250.0 g/week; women: > 100.0 g/week), declining by 47.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 40.7, 53.2] and 16.8 g/week (95% CI = 12.6, 21.0), respectively, per 10-year increase in age. These declines were not a consequence of sudden transitions to complete abstention. Rates of decline appear greatest in older age, with trajectories converging toward moderate volumes. Among UK civil servants, consumption within baseline drinking categories is generally stable during the life-course, except among heavier baseline drinkers, for whom intakes decline with increasing age. This shift does not appear

  18. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  19. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    OpenAIRE

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its conse...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5211 - Risk categories-balance sheet assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk categories-balance sheet assets. 615.5211...—balance sheet assets. Section 615.5210(c) specifies certain balance sheet assets that are not assigned to the risk categories set forth below. All other balance sheet assets are assigned to the percentage...

  1. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment risk categories and pricing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment risk categories and pricing methods... OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment risk categories and pricing methods. (a... and a weighted average of CAMELS component ratings will be multiplied by a corresponding pricing...

  2. Arctic shipping and risks: Emergency categories and response capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, Nataly A.; Andreassen, Natalia; Borch, Odd Jarl

    2018-01-01

    The sea ice in the Arctic has shrunk significantly in the last decades. The transport pattern has as a result partly changed with more traffic in remote areas. This change may influence the risk pattern. The critical factors are harsh weather, ice conditions, remoteness and vulnerability of natur...... are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic maritime accidents. Hence, this study offers a qualitative analysis and an expert-based risk assessment. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the Arctic region are discussed........ In this paper, we look into the risk of accidents in Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of emergency response. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location. As accidents...

  3. Risk-ranking IST components into two categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The ASME has utilized several schemes for identifying the appropriate scope of components for inservice testing (IST). The initial scope was ASME Code Class 1/2/3, with all components treated equally. Later the ASME Operations and Maintenance (O ampersand M) Committee decided to use safe shutdown and accident mitigation as the scoping criteria, but continued to treat all components equal inside that scope. Recently the ASME O ampersand M Committee decided to recognize service condition of the component, hence the comprehensive pump test. Although probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are incredibly complex plant models and computer hardware and software intensive, they are a tool that can be utilized by many plant engineering organizations to analyze plant system and component applications. In 1992 the ASME O ampersand M Committee got interested in using the PRA as a tool to categorize its pumps and valves. In 1994 the ASME O ampersand M Committee commissioned the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) to develop a process that adapted the PRA technology to IST. In late 1995 that process was presented to the ASME O ampersand M Committee. The process had three distinct portions: (1) risk-rank the IST components; (2) develop a more effective testing strategy for More Safety Significant Components; and (3) develop a more economic testing strategy for Less Safety Significant Components

  4. Risk-ranking IST components into two categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    The ASME has utilized several schemes for identifying the appropriate scope of components for inservice testing (IST). The initial scope was ASME Code Class 1/2/3, with all components treated equally. Later the ASME Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Committee decided to use safe shutdown and accident mitigation as the scoping criteria, but continued to treat all components equal inside that scope. Recently the ASME O&M Committee decided to recognize service condition of the component, hence the comprehensive pump test. Although probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are incredibly complex plant models and computer hardware and software intensive, they are a tool that can be utilized by many plant engineering organizations to analyze plant system and component applications. In 1992 the ASME O&M Committee got interested in using the PRA as a tool to categorize its pumps and valves. In 1994 the ASME O&M Committee commissioned the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) to develop a process that adapted the PRA technology to IST. In late 1995 that process was presented to the ASME O&M Committee. The process had three distinct portions: (1) risk-rank the IST components; (2) develop a more effective testing strategy for More Safety Significant Components; and (3) develop a more economic testing strategy for Less Safety Significant Components.

  5. Defining moments in risk communication research: 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, scholars suggested that risk communication was embarking on a new phase that would give increased attention to the social contexts that surround and encroach on public responses to risk information. A decade later, many researchers have answered the call, with several defining studies examining the social and psychological influences on risk communication. This article reviews risk communication research appearing in the published literature since 1996. Among studies, social trust, the social amplification of risk framework, and the affect heuristic figured prominently. Also common were studies examining the influence of risk in the mass media. Among these were content analyses of media coverage of risk, as well as investigations of possible effects resulting from coverage. The use of mental models was a dominant method for developing risk message content. Other studies examined the use of risk comparisons, narratives, and visuals in the production of risk messages. Research also examined how providing information about a risk's severity, social norms, and efficacy influenced communication behaviors and intentions to follow risk reduction measures. Methods for conducting public outreach in health risk communication rounded out the literature.

  6. Relative risk of probabilistic category learning deficits in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, Thomas W.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Egan, Michael F.; Apud, Jose A.; Meeter, Martijn; Myers, Catherine E.; Gluck, Mark A; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Background While patients with schizophrenia display an overall probabilistic category learning performance deficit, the extent to which this deficit occurs in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia is unknown. There are also discrepant findings regarding probabilistic category learning acquisition rate and performance in patients with schizophrenia. Methods A probabilistic category learning test was administered to 108 patients with schizophrenia, 82 unaffected siblings, and 121 healthy participants. Results Patients with schizophrenia displayed significant differences from their unaffected siblings and healthy participants with respect to probabilistic category learning acquisition rates. Although siblings on the whole failed to differ from healthy participants on strategy and quantitative indices of overall performance and learning acquisition, application of a revised learning criterion enabling classification into good and poor learners based on individual learning curves revealed significant differences between percentages of sibling and healthy poor learners: healthy (13.2%), siblings (34.1%), patients (48.1%), yielding a moderate relative risk. Conclusions These results clarify previous discrepant findings pertaining to probabilistic category learning acquisition rate in schizophrenia and provide the first evidence for the relative risk of probabilistic category learning abnormalities in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia, supporting genetic underpinnings of probabilistic category learning deficits in schizophrenia. These findings also raise questions regarding the contribution of antipsychotic medication to the probabilistic category learning deficit in schizophrenia. The distinction between good and poor learning may be used to inform genetic studies designed to detect schizophrenia risk alleles. PMID:20172502

  7. Risk-Category Transition Patterns for Students in Grades 2 to 4. Research Brief 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine

    2013-01-01

    Early identification of students who are at-risk for reading difficulties (RD) is critical for successful and effective RTI implementation. A large group of students were followed for three years (grades 2 to 4) to investigate transition patterns of risk-categories across three years. Results indicated that although students identified at…

  8. High-risk PCI: how to define it today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Marzo, Vincenzo; D'Amario, Domenico; Galli, Mattia; Vergallo, Rocco; Porto, Italo

    2018-04-11

    Before the percutaneous spread, the mortality rate of patients with coronary heart disease not suitable for cardiac surgery was markedly high. This limit has been progressively exceeded with the advent of minimally invasive approaches, which, although was initially intended exclusively for low risk patients, was then employed in complex patients often too compromised to undergo cardiac surgery. Given to the rising of high-risk population, due to an increase of patients with multiple chronic conditions linked to the best care offered, we are witnessing an expansion of the high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) population. Despite defining what high-risk is remains still unclear, all proposed definitions of high-risk PCI combine features related to three clinical areas: 1) patient risk factors and comorbidities (incorporating those which preclude surgical or percutaneous revascularization such as diabetes, COPD, CKD, lung disease, frailty, advanced age); 2) location of the disease and complexity of coronary anatomy (including multi-vessel disease, left main disease, CTO, bifurcations); 3) hemodynamic clinical status (ventricular dysfunction, concomitant valvular disease or unstable characteristics). Since cardiologists have ascertained the encouraging results in terms of efficacy and rewards compared to the low-risks patients, the important role of treating high-risk patients is becoming more and more relevant to the point that current guidelines have now changed the appropriateness of percutaneous interventions indications. Considering the complexity in managing higher-risk patients with coronary artery disease, the next step to ensure the best care for this type of patients is to create a team-based model of cooperation in order to properly establish the right treatment for the right patient.

  9. American College of Rheumatology provisional criteria for defining clinical inactive disease in select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carol A; Giannini, Edward H; Huang, Bin; Itert, Lukasz; Ruperto, Nicolino

    2011-07-01

    To prospectively validate the preliminary criteria for clinical inactive disease (CID) in patients with select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We used the process for development of classification and response criteria recommended by the American College of Rheumatology Quality of Care Committee. Patient-visit profiles were extracted from the phase III randomized controlled trial of infliximab in polyarticular-course JIA (i.e., patients considered to resemble those with select categories of JIA) and sent to an international group of expert physician raters. Using the physician ratings as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the preliminary criteria. Modifications to the criteria were made, and these were sent to a larger group of pediatric rheumatologists to determine quantitative, face, and content validity. Variables weighted heaviest by physicians when making their judgment were the number of joints with active arthritis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), physician's global assessment, and duration of morning stiffness. Three modifications were made: the definition of uveitis, the definition of abnormal ESR, and the addition of morning stiffness. These changes did not alter the accuracy of the preliminary set. The modified criteria, termed the "criteria for CID in select categories of JIA," have excellent feasibility and face, content, criterion, and discriminant validity to detect CID in select categories of JIA. The small changes made to the preliminary criteria set did not alter the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.954) or accuracy (91%), but have increased face and content validity. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  10. In the Name of Brevity: The Problem with Binary HIV Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel; Sevelius, Jae; Ribeiro, Kira

    2016-01-01

    According to the ‘Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations’ there are five groups of people at elevated risk of HIV, including ‘transgender women or transgender men who have receptive anal sex with men.’ Although cost effectiveness strategies and best practice lessons recommend targeting specific populations for HIV prevention, existing risk categories lack specificity, and may in fact cause further confusion. Existing categories of risk often perpetuate notions of gender and sexuality that can erroneously exclude, alienate, and stigmatize those who are at the highest risk and thus should be prioritized. We review the troubled history of the MSM category and the problematic conflation of trans feminine individuals and MSM in much of the existing HIV literature, and how this practice has stymied progress in slowing the HIV epidemic in the most at-risk groups, including those who do not fit neatly into binary notions of gender and sex. We draw from examples in the field, specifically among trans feminine people in Beirut and San Francisco, to illustrate the lived experiences of individuals whose identities may not fit into Euro-Atlantic constructs of HIV prevention categories. PMID:26824592

  11. Redefining risk categories for pneumococcal disease in adults: critical analysis of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curcio

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The ORs for CAP and IPD of patients with two or more comorbidities, with or without smoking, were found to be similar to the ORs for CAP and IPD described in the literature for patients currently classified as high risk. The potential impact of multiple, stacking comorbidities is underestimated and there is a need for the risk categories for pneumococcal disease to be redefined.

  12. Improving risk assessment by defining consistent and reliable system scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mazzorana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the entire procedure of risk assessment for hydrologic hazards, the selection of consistent and reliable scenarios, constructed in a strictly systematic way, is fundamental for the quality and reproducibility of the results. However, subjective assumptions on relevant impact variables such as sediment transport intensity on the system loading side and weak point response mechanisms repeatedly cause biases in the results, and consequently affect transparency and required quality standards. Furthermore, the system response of mitigation measures to extreme event loadings represents another key variable in hazard assessment, as well as the integral risk management including intervention planning. Formative Scenario Analysis, as a supplement to conventional risk assessment methods, is a technique to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a specific case and the potential system behaviour. By two case studies, carried out (1 to analyse sediment transport dynamics in a torrent section equipped with control measures, and (2 to identify hazards induced by woody debris transport at hydraulic weak points, the applicability of the Formative Scenario Analysis technique is presented. It is argued that during scenario planning in general and with respect to integral risk management in particular, Formative Scenario Analysis allows for the development of reliable and reproducible scenarios in order to design more specifically an application framework for the sustainable assessment of natural hazards impact. The overall aim is to optimise the hazard mapping and zoning procedure by methodologically integrating quantitative and qualitative knowledge.

  13. Defining the Thrombotic Risk in Patients with Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Vianello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycythemia vera (PV and essential thrombocythemia (ET are two Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN associated with an acquired mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase gene. There is a rare incidence of progression to myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia in both disorders, which may or may not precede transformation to acute myeloid leukemia, but thrombosis is the main cause of morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with MPN is complex. Traditionally, abnormalities of platelet number and function have been claimed as the main players, but increased dynamic interactions between platelets, leukocytes, and the endothelium do probably represent a fundamental interplay in generating a thrombophilic state. In addition, endothelial dysfunction, a well-known risk factor for vascular disease, may play a role in the thrombotic risk of patients with PV and ET. The identification of plasma markers translating the hemostatic imbalance in patients with PV and ET would be extremely helpful in order to define the subgroup of patients with a significant clinical risk of thrombosis.

  14. NEED TO DEFINE SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRISES AS ECONOMIC CATEGORY IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN UNION INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DOGA-MÎRZAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently with particular attention of small and medium enterprises, whose existence in the economic structure of a country is absolutely indispensable. We know that they always represent a special role in economic and social life of society, being out in the revival of many economies. With the emergence and assertion of small and medium business in economies that are in the process of developing a new phenomenon and a central component of any program of economic reform, accepting a global perspective on the phenomenon, represents an essential condition to achieve a relevant research. A central point of departure in research problems of small and medium enterprises presents how they are defined, comparing definitions, the role of this type of business and health policies in different countries and that type of business impact analysis macroeconomic structure. The fundamental purpose of this research is focused on the development of contributions to the foundation of small and middle business in the context of integration into the European Union.

  15. Field-expedient screening and injury risk algorithm categories as predictors of noncontact lower extremity injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, M E; Plisky, P J; Butler, R J; Fink, M L; Kiesel, K B; Underwood, F B

    2013-08-01

    In athletics, efficient screening tools are sought to curb the rising number of noncontact injuries and associated health care costs. The authors hypothesized that an injury prediction algorithm that incorporates movement screening performance, demographic information, and injury history can accurately categorize risk of noncontact lower extremity (LE) injury. One hundred eighty-three collegiate athletes were screened during the preseason. The test scores and demographic information were entered into an injury prediction algorithm that weighted the evidence-based risk factors. Athletes were then prospectively followed for noncontact LE injury. Subsequent analysis collapsed the groupings into two risk categories: Low (normal and slight) and High (moderate and substantial). Using these groups and noncontact LE injuries, relative risk (RR), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Forty-two subjects sustained a noncontact LE injury over the course of the study. Athletes identified as High Risk (n = 63) were at a greater risk of noncontact LE injury (27/63) during the season [RR: 3.4 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 6.0]. These results suggest that an injury prediction algorithm composed of performance on efficient, low-cost, field-ready tests can help identify individuals at elevated risk of noncontact LE injury. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. On how to define, understand and describe risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing perspectives and definitions of risk, at least in the engineering community, are based on probabilities. In this paper we argue that such perspectives and definitions are too narrow. The probability component of the risk concept should be replaced by uncertainty. By jumping directly into probabilities, important uncertainty aspects could easily be overlooked or truncated. In the paper we point at several extended risk definitions, and a formal structure for the various perspectives and definitions is developed. Fundamental concepts such as second-order probabilities and uncertainties are discussed. Examples are provided showing the importance of the choice of risk perspective in a risk assessment and decision-making context. The examples cover offshore operations, security and market price risks.

  17. Risks, benefits, and issues in creating a behind-the-counter category of medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, L Douglas; Huston, Sally A; Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Sogol, Elliott M; Schafermeyer, Kenneth W; Sansgiry, Sujit S

    2011-01-01

    To examine the issues surrounding the development and implementation of a behind-the-counter (BTC) category of medications. Testimony from organizations submitting comments to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) panel hearings in November 2007, the 2009 final report of the U. S. General Accounting Office regarding a BTC drug category, literature review of research that has been conducted, experiences from other countries, and publically available information from agencies in charge of regulating medications similar to BTC. Based on evidence attained from the current work, the following six recommendations regarding a BTC category of medications are provided. (1) Demonstration needs to occur that the risks and/or costs of BTC are outweighed by benefits, positive measurable outcomes, and financial savings to society. (2) Sufficient resources, including personnel, equipment, and facilities, need to be available for the appropriate provision of BTC services and to ensure ongoing monitoring and controls. (3) An appropriate compensation structure needs to be developed. (4) Encounters and outcomes should be documented in an electronic record, the information should be shared with other health care providers involved in patients' care, and interprofessional collaboration and communication should occur. (5) Criteria for designating candidates for transition, ongoing review for safety, and reverse transition must be developed. (6) Applicable lessons learned from other countries should be incorporated into BTC strategies. In addition to implementation recommendations, we also summarize additional evidence that needs to be gathered to optimize the BTC model. Based on the accumulated evidence, comments to FDA's request, and information from other countries, implementation of a BTC model probably is feasible in the United States. However, the optimal model remains uncertain and various aspects of a program need to be prioritized and rigorously tested.

  18. 12 CFR 702.104 - Risk portfolios defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 702.2(d)); (d) Low-risk assets. Cash on hand (e.g., coin and currency, including vault, ATM and teller... recourse. Outstanding balance of loans sold or swapped with recourse, excluding loans sold to the secondary...

  19. Fundamentals of defining and evaluating technical risks and hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, G.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution is concerned with discussions of undefined judicial concepts in the area of Safety engineering from the point of view of science and technology. Concepts like risk assessments, including accident probibility predictions are discussed and condensed in the demand: ''Risk must be acceptably low.'' Acceptability of risk is and remains a question of judgement. This judgement must be based on the specific plant involved, and in the final analysis; should be made on the basis of value judgements of all concerned. Measures and criteria for the acceptability of risk have been developed over the years. They will be determined by safety-related of security maximum acceptable values as stated in the appropriate regulations, as well as through licensing, permits, etc. Experience shows that a continuous expansion, based on safety-related research that would include extensive accident analysis, is needed. Should the status of science and technology change, it could become necessary that the measures or criteria for risk assessment would have to change also. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Operational Risk Defined Through a Complex Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-26

    analysis . But the report noted that “CJTF-HOA’s presence in Africa offers benefits such as its ability to respond to contingencies, provide forces for...18 Analysis ...Development JOPP Joint Operations Planning Process NGO Non-Governmental Organization PRC Profitable Risk Control SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses

  1. Work program analysis - defining the capability/risk plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrinivich, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Bruce Power has developed and implemented an analysis methodology (Work Program Analysis) to assess and address corporate business risk associated with work group capability. Work Program Analysis is proving to be an excellent tool for identifying and supporting key business decisions facing the line and senior management at Bruce Power. The following describes the methodology, its application and the results achieved. (author)

  2. Correlation between classification in risk categories and clinical aspects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriella Novelli; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-12-08

    to correlate classification in risk categories with the clinical profiles, outcomes and origins of patients. analytical cross-sectional study conducted with 697 medical forms of adult patients. The variables included: age, sex, origin, signs and symptoms, exams, personal antecedents, classification in risk categories, medical specialties, and outcome. The Chi-square and likelihood ratio tests were used to associate classifications in risk categories with origin, signs and symptoms, exams, personal antecedents, medical specialty, and outcome. most patients were women with an average age of 44.5 years. Pain and dyspnea were the symptoms most frequently reported while hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common comorbidities. Classifications in the green and yellow categories were the most frequent and hospital discharge the most common outcome. Patients classified in the red category presented the highest percentage of ambulance origin due to surgical reasons. Those classified in the orange and red categories also presented the highest percentage of hospitalization and death. correlation between clinical aspects and outcomes indicate there is a relationship between the complexity of components in the categories with greater severity, evidenced by the highest percentage of hospitalization and death. correlacionar as categorias de classificação de risco com perfil clínico, desfechos e procedência. estudo transversal analítico realizado com 697 fichas de atendimento de pacientes adultos. Variáveis estudadas: idade, sexo, procedência, sinais e sintomas, exames, antecedentes pessoais, categorias da classificação de risco, especialidade médica de atendimento e desfecho. Para associar as categorias de classificação de risco com procedência, sinais e sintomas, exames, antecedentes pessoais, especialidade médica e desfecho, utilizaram-se o teste qui-quadrado e a razão de verossimilhança. pacientes do sexo feminino foram a maioria e com média de

  3. Surgeon Experience is Strongly Associated with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy for all Preoperative Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric A; Bianco, Fernando J; Serio, Angel M; Eastham, James A; Kattan, Michael W; Pontes, J. Edson; Vickers, Andrew J; Scardino, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. In this study we sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by patient risk as defined by preoperative tumor characteristics. Methods The study included 7,683 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total prior number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable survival-time regression models were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, separately for each preoperative risk group. Results We saw no evidence that patient risk affects the learning curve: there was a statistically significant association between biochemical recurrence and surgeon experience in all analyses. The absolute risk difference for a patient receiving treatment from a surgeon with 10 compared to 250 prior radical prostatectomies was 6.6% (95% C.I. 3.4%, 10.3%), 12.0% (6.9%, 18.2%) and 9.7% (1.2%, 18.2%) for patients at low, medium and high preoperative risk patients. Recurrence-free probability for patients with low risk disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons Conclusions Cancer control after radical prostatectomy improves with increasing surgeon experience irrespective of patient risk. Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with low risk disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggests that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. The results have significant implications for clinical care. PMID:18423716

  4. Using the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version in sexual violence risk assessments: Updated risk categories and recidivism estimates from a multisite sample of treated sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E; Mundt, James C; Thornton, David; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Kingston, Drew A; Sowden, Justina N; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Wong, Stephen C P

    2018-04-30

    The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913). Logistic regression was used to model 5- and 10-year sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism estimates across 6 different regression models employing specific risk and change score information from the VRS-SO and/or Static-99R. A rationale is presented for clinical applications of select models and the necessity of controlling for baseline risk when utilizing change information across repeated assessments. Information concerning relative risk (percentiles) and absolute risk (recidivism estimates) is integrated with common risk assessment language guidelines to generate new risk categories for the VRS-SO. Guidelines for model selection and forensic clinical application of the risk estimates are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Caffeine-Related Deaths: Manner of Deaths and Categories at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Simone; Piacentino, Daria; Fineschi, Vittorio; Frati, Paola; Cipolloni, Luigi; Aromatario, Mariarosaria

    2018-05-14

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive compound worldwide. It is mostly found in coffee, tea, energizing drinks and in some drugs. However, it has become really easy to obtain pure caffeine (powder or tablets) on the Internet markets. Mechanisms of action are dose-dependent. Serious toxicities such as seizure and cardiac arrhythmias, seen with caffeine plasma concentrations of 15 mg/L or higher, have caused poisoning or, rarely, death; otherwise concentrations of 3⁻6 mg/kg are considered safe. Caffeine concentrations of 80⁻100 mg/L are considered lethal. The aim of this systematic review, performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for the identification and selection of studies, is to review fatal cases in which caffeine has been recognized as the only cause of death in order to identify potential categories at risk. A total of 92 cases have been identified. These events happened more frequently in infants, psychiatric patients, and athletes. Although caffeine intoxication is relatively uncommon, raising awareness about its lethal consequences could be useful for both clinicians and pathologists to identify possible unrecognized cases and prevent related severe health conditions and deaths.

  6. Assessment of lung cancer risks for some categories of underground workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, M.

    1975-01-01

    In radioactive mines as well as in hardrock mines, tunnels under construction, and other underground workings, increased atmospheric levels of radioactive-gas daughter products are associated with a potential hazard of inhalation overexposure to workers. Absorbed dose from the alpha-activity component of deposition occurring in the process of breathing manifests a maximum in the area of secondary to quarternary bronchi. In this critical tissue, radiation exposure, along with other deleterious factors, produces conditions favourable to initiation of lung cancer, with a frequency of the latter proportional to cumulative dose. An assessment was made of absolute radiation risk to workers inhaling a radon-daughter contaminated atmosphere, on the basis of an estimated cumulative dose and a dose-response relation arrived at from epidemiological studies by other authors. For a range with a lower limit representing the product of maximum permissible concentration and half of the underground experience assigned to first category labor, and an upper limit determined by the product of maximum ''hidden'' alpha-decay energy measured and a full underground experience (180 months), cumulative exposures were found to vary from 90 to 8100 WLM. Rough estimates of corresponding lung cancer incidence ranged from 2 to 150 cases per year per 10,000 workers, versus 2-5 cases per year per 10,000 members of the general male population of the country. Results, obtained from a reconnaissance statistical study on a sample of 230 underground workers, with suitable working experiences and personal cumulative exposures, indicated a predicted frequency of lung cancer development of 0.43 cases per year, leading to an estimate of 19 cases per year per 10,000 workers. Such a magnitude of risk clearly shows an urgent need for introducing effective measures to improve radiological conditions in the occupational environment for a large proportion of the underground workers. (author)

  7. A new way of looking at the risk in defined benefit pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, D

    2000-01-01

    The portability feature of a defined contribution (DC) pension greatly reduces the risk to the accumulation of pension wealth. Conversely, defined benefit (DB) pensions have a variety of default risks that decrease the expected value of DB pension wealth. This paper examines those risks. Accrual of DB pension wealth is characterized in terms of purchases of risky bonds. Changing jobs triggers default on these bonds. Simulations are presented to show the potential loss in pension wealth from default. In addition, a methodology used to price corporate bonds is applied to generate estimates of the implied risk premiums of DB pension bonds over comparable riskless bonds.

  8. Risk reduction category (RRC-A) accident studies in the safety analysis report of the EPR trademark reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehlmann, M.; Bleher, G.; Ismaier, A.; Knoll, A.; Levi, P.; Garcia, E. Vera; Schels, A.; Seitz, H.; Lima Campos, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk Reduction Category (RRC-A) is considered in the safety demonstration of nuclear reactors in addition to design basis operating conditions (Plant Condition Category, PCC), in order to analyze with a risk reduction approach any operating conditions with multiple failures. As extending the operating conditions of the plant 'beyond design basis', the Risk Reduction Category (RRC-A) is also denoted as Design Extension Condition (DEC-A). In the German licensing framework, the RRCA (or DEC-A) transients correspond to safety assessment level '4b' of the 'Sicherheitsanforderungen an Kernkraftwerke' (Safety Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants), Az. RS I 5 - 13303/01 of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. These RRC-A (or DEC-A) operating conditions require specific design provisions (implemented by manual or automatic action), known as RRC-A measures, intended to render consequences of accumulated failures admissible. In contrast, RRC-B constitute severe accidents that lead to core melt. Identification of RRC-A operating conditions and corresponding RRC-A measures is based on the use of results of probabilistic safety assessments. After the Fukushima accident the RRC-A accidents like Station Black Out (SBO) or Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) are of particular interest in the safety assessment of nuclear new builds. In several chapters of the Safety Analysis Report it is demonstrated that the AREVA EPRTM design is resistant at RRC-A accident conditions. (orig.)

  9. Imaging defined risk factors in neuroblastoma -guidelines for optimising imaging interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchev, G.; Balev, B.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial tumor in children, arising from the primitive sympathetic cells and the adrenal medulla. Two separate mutually complementing staging systems exist - INSS and INRGSS - one is based on post-operative findings, the other - on pre-treatment imaging. INRGSS consists of a list of 20 separate imaging defined risk factors (IDRF), the presence of which could alter the treatment plan. Radiologists need to be aware of certain intricacies in interpreting the individual IDRFs in order to optimise clinical decision-making. Key words: neuroblastoma. imaging defined risk factors (IDRF). interpretation guidelines [bg

  10. Zoning the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan as to the risk of rabies among various categories of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Sultanov, Akhmetzhan A; Beisembayev, Kanatzhan K; Korennoy, Fedor I; Кushubaev, Dosym B; Каdyrov, Ablaikhan S

    2016-05-31

    This paper presents the zoning of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan with respect to the risk of rabies outbreaks in domestic and wild animals considering environmental and climatic conditions. The national database of rabies outbreaks in Kazakhstan in the period 2003-2014 has been accessed in order to find which zones are consistently most exposed to the risk of rabies in animals. The database contains information on the cases in demes of farm livestock, domestic animals and wild animals. To identify the areas with the highest risk of outbreaks, we applied the maximum entropy modelling method. Designated outbreaks were used as input presence data, while the bioclim set of ecological and climatic variables, together with some geographic factors, were used as explanatory variables. The model demonstrated a high predictive ability. The area under the curve for farm livestock was 0.782, for domestic animals -0.859 and for wild animals - 0.809. Based on the model, the map of integral risk was designed by following four categories: negligible risk (disease-free or favourable zone), low risk (surveillance zone), medium risk (vaccination zone), and high risk (unfavourable zone). The map was produced to allow developing a set of preventive measures and is expected to contribute to a better distribution of supervisory efforts from the veterinary service of the country.

  11. National trends in statin use by coronary heart disease risk category.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Only limited research tracks United States trends in the use of statins recorded during outpatient visits, particularly use by patients at moderate to high cardiovascular risk.Data collected between 1992 and 2002 in two federally administered surveys provided national estimates of statin use among ambulatory patients, stratified by coronary heart disease risk based on risk factor counting and clinical diagnoses. Statin use grew from 47% of all lipid-lowering medications in 1992 to 87% in 2002, with atorvastatin being the leading medication in 2002. Statin use by patients with hyperlipidemia, as recorded by the number of patient visits, increased significantly from 9% of patient visits in 1992 to 49% in 2000 but then declined to 36% in 2002. Absolute increases in the rate of statin use were greatest for high-risk patients, from 4% of patient visits in 1992 to 19% in 2002. Use among moderate-risk patients increased from 2% of patient visits in 1992 to 14% in 1999 but showed no continued growth subsequently. In 2002, 1 y after the release of the Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations, treatment gaps in statin use were detected for more than 50% of outpatient visits by moderate- and high-risk patients with reported hyperlipidemia. Lower statin use was independently associated with younger patient age, female gender, African American race (versus non-Hispanic white, and non-cardiologist care.Despite notable improvements in the past decade, clinical practice fails to institute recommended statin therapy during many ambulatory visits of patients at moderate-to-high cardiovascular risk. Innovative approaches are needed to promote appropriate, more aggressive statin use for eligible patients.

  12. Narrowly versus Broadly Defined Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Pre-and Perinatal Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Janne C.; Rommelse, Nanda; Vink, Lianne; Schrieken, Margo; Oosterling, Iris J.; Gaag, Rutger J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differential contribution of pre-and perinatal risks in narrowly versus broadly defined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and across core symptom domains, IQ and co-morbid problems. Children with a DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder (AD) (n = 121) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)…

  13. Toxicological risk at workplace and toxicity as Life Cycle Assessment impact category: Substitution of solvents as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Thomas; Georg, Philipp Alexander; Kirstein, Guenter

    2017-01-01

    Substitution of hazardous substances against less hazardous ones is a central requirement of the European Chemical Regulation REACH (European Regulation 1907/2006/EC). Hazardous substances emitted from products may not only affect the worker; drift off and distribution in the environment may finally result in exposure of the general population. This potential threat to health is covered by the impact category "toxicity" in Life Cycle Assessments. In this paper, we present a case of a substitution of volatile organic compounds in a reactive varnish, and compare the "old" formulation with the "new" formulation against health risk to the worker, and concerning the Life Cycle Assessment impact category "toxicity". The "old" formulation contained Naphtha (petroleum), hydrodesulfurized, heavy and Solvent naphtha (petroleum), light, aromatic. In the new formulation, both naphthas were replaced by n-Butylacetate, 1-Ethoxy-2-propyl acetate and Ethyl-3-ethoxy propionate. In the European Union, the naphthas are classified as mutagens and carcinogens category 1, officially. However, if benzene is below 0.1 %, registrants in the EU proposed to omit this classification, and todays naptha products on the market obviously have benzene contents below 0.1 %. On a first glance, the improvement for workplace safety introduced by the substitution, therefore, is comparatively small, as it is for toxicity in Life Cycle Assessment. However, when background knowledge concerning chemical production processes of naphtha is included, benzene below a content of 0.1 % needs to be taken into consideration, and the benefit of substitution is more obvious.

  14. Quantitative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in selected categories of deli meats: impact of lactate and diacetate on listeriosis cases and deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Foodborne disease associated with consumption of ready-to-eat foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes represents a considerable pubic health concern. In a risk assessment published in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service estimated that about 90% of human listeriosis cases in the United States are caused by consumption of contaminated deli meats. In this risk assessment, all deli meats were grouped into one of 23 categories of ready-to-eat foods, and only the postretail growth of L. monocytogenes was considered. To provide an improved risk assessment for L. monocytogenes in deli meats, we developed a revised risk assessment that (i) models risk for three subcategories of deli meats (i.e., ham, turkey, and roast beef) and (ii) models L. monocytogenes contamination and growth from production to consumption while considering subcategory-specific growth kinetics parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate). This model also was used to assess how reformulation of the chosen deli meat subcategories with L. monocytogenes growth inhibitors (i.e., lactate and diacetate) would impact the number of human listeriosis cases. Use of product-specific growth parameters demonstrated how certain deli meat categories differ in the relative risk of causing listeriosis; products that support more rapid growth and have reduced lag phases (e.g., turkey) represent a higher risk. Although reformulation of deli meats with growth inhibitors was estimated to reduce by about 2.5- to 7.8-fold the number of human listeriosis cases linked to a given deli meat subcategory and thus would reduce the overall risk of human listeriosis, even with reformulation deli meats would still cause a considerable number of human listeriosis cases. A combination of strategies is thus needed to provide continued reduction of these cases. Risk assessment models such as that described here will be critical for evaluation of different control

  15. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  16. But is helping you worth the risk? Defining Prosocial Risk Taking in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.; Guassi Moreira, João F.; Telzer, Eva H.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the same neural circuitry that typically underlies risky behaviors also contributes to prosocial behaviors. Despite the striking overlap between two seemingly distinct behavioral patterns, little is known about how risk taking and prosociality interact and inform adolescent decision making. We review literature on adolescent brain development as it pertains to risk taking and prosociality and propose a new area of study, Prosocial Risk Taking, which suggests that adolescents can make risky decisions with the intention of helping other individuals. Given key socialization processes and ongoing neurodevelopmental changes during this time, adolescence may represent a sensitive period for the emergence of Prosocial Risk Taking, especially within a wide variety of social contexts when youth’s increased sensitivity to social evaluation and belonging impacts their behaviors. Prosocial Risk Taking in adolescence is an area of study that has been overlooked in the literature, but could help explain how ontogenetic changes in the adolescent brain may create not only vulnerabilities, but also opportunities for healthy prosocial development. PMID:28063823

  17. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  18. Using MFM methodology to generate and define major accident scenarios for quantitative risk assessment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Lind, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to calculate likelihood of each MAS. Combining the likelihood of each scenario with a qualitative risk matrix, each major accident scenario is thereby ranked for consideration for detailed consequence analysis. The methodology is successfully highlighted using part of BMA-process for production of hydrogen......Generating and defining Major Accident Scenarios (MAS) are commonly agreed as the key step for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) methodology to formulating MAS. Traditionally this is usually done based...

  19. [Using sequential indicator simulation method to define risk areas of soil heavy metals in farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Song, Ying Qiang; Hu, Yue Ming; Chen, Fei Xiang; Zhang, Rui

    2018-05-01

    The heavy metals in soil have serious impacts on safety, ecological environment and human health due to their toxicity and accumulation. It is necessary to efficiently identify the risk area of heavy metals in farmland soil, which is of important significance for environment protection, pollution warning and farmland risk control. We collected 204 samples and analyzed the contents of seven kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg) in Zengcheng District of Guangzhou, China. In order to overcame the problems of the data, including the limitation of abnormal values and skewness distribution and the smooth effect with the traditional kriging methods, we used sequential indicator simulation method (SISIM) to define the spatial distribution of heavy metals, and combined Hakanson index method to identify potential ecological risk area of heavy metals in farmland. The results showed that: (1) Based on the similar accuracy of spatial prediction of soil heavy metals, the SISIM had a better expression of detail rebuild than ordinary kriging in small scale area. Compared to indicator kriging, the SISIM had less error rate (4.9%-17.1%) in uncertainty evaluation of heavy-metal risk identification. The SISIM had less smooth effect and was more applicable to simulate the spatial uncertainty assessment of soil heavy metals and risk identification. (2) There was no pollution in Zengcheng's farmland. Moderate potential ecological risk was found in the southern part of study area due to enterprise production, human activities, and river sediments. This study combined the sequential indicator simulation with Hakanson risk index method, and effectively overcame the outlier information loss and smooth effect of traditional kriging method. It provided a new way to identify the soil heavy metal risk area of farmland in uneven sampling.

  20. Defining a Contemporary Ischemic Heart Disease Genetic Risk Profile Using Historical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Jonathan D; van Driest, Sara L; Wells, Quinn S; Shaffer, Christian M; Edwards, Todd L; Bastarache, Lisa; McCarty, Catherine A; Thompson, Will; Chute, Christopher G; Jarvik, Gail P; Crosslin, David R; Larson, Eric B; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Peissig, Peggy L; Brilliant, Murray H; Linneman, James G; Denny, Josh C; Roden, Dan M

    2016-12-01

    Continued reductions in morbidity and mortality attributable to ischemic heart disease (IHD) require an understanding of the changing epidemiology of this disease. We hypothesized that we could use genetic correlations, which quantify the shared genetic architectures of phenotype pairs and extant risk factors from a historical prospective study to define the risk profile of a contemporary IHD phenotype. We used 37 phenotypes measured in the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities; n=7716, European ancestry subjects) and clinical diagnoses from an electronic health record (EHR) data set (n=19 093). All subjects had genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. We measured pairwise genetic correlations (rG) between the ARIC and EHR phenotypes using linear mixed models. The genetic correlation estimates between the ARIC risk factors and the EHR IHD were modestly linearly correlated with hazards ratio estimates for incident IHD in ARIC (Pearson correlation [r]=0.62), indicating that the 2 IHD phenotypes had differing risk profiles. For comparison, this correlation was 0.80 when comparing EHR and ARIC type 2 diabetes mellitus phenotypes. The EHR IHD phenotype was most strongly correlated with ARIC metabolic phenotypes, including total:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (rG=-0.44, P=0.005), high-density lipoprotein (rG=-0.48, P=0.005), systolic blood pressure (rG=0.44, P=0.02), and triglycerides (rG=0.38, P=0.02). EHR phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerotic, and hypertensive diseases were also genetically correlated with these ARIC risk factors. The EHR IHD risk profile differed from ARIC and indicates that treatment and prevention efforts in this population should target hypertensive and metabolic disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Automated tubule nuclei quantification and correlation with oncotype DX risk categories in ER+ breast cancer whole slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Bucheli, David; Janowczyk, Andrew; Romero, Eduardo; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-03-01

    Early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BCa) treatment is based on the presumed aggressiveness and likelihood of cancer recurrence. The primary conundrum in treatment and management of early stage ER+ BCa is identifying which of these cancers are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy and which patients will respond to hormonal therapy alone. This decision could spare some patients the inherent toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests have allowed for distinguishing the more aggressive ER+ BCa requiring adjuvant chemotherapy from the less aggressive cancers benefiting from hormonal therapy alone. However these gene expression tests tend to be expensive, tissue destructive and require physical shipping of tissue blocks for the test to be done. Interestingly breast cancer grade in these tumors has been shown to be highly correlated with the ODX risk score. Unfortunately studies have shown that Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade determined by pathologists can be highly variable. One of the constituent categories in BR grading is the quantification of tubules. The goal of this study was to develop a deep learning neural network classifier to automatically identify tubule nuclei from whole slide images (WSI) of ER+ BCa, the hypothesis being that the ratio of tubule nuclei to overall number of nuclei would correlate with the corresponding ODX risk categories. The performance of the tubule nuclei deep learning strategy was evaluated with a set of 61 high power fields. Under a 5-fold cross-validation, the average precision and recall measures were 0:72 and 0:56 respectively. In addition, the correlation with the ODX risk score was assessed in a set of 7513 high power fields extracted from 174 WSI, each from a different patient (At most 50 high power fields per patient study were used). The ratio between the number of tubule and non-tubule nuclei was computed for each WSI. The results suggests that for BCa

  2. A calibration hierarchy for risk models was defined: from utopia to empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Calster, Ben; Nieboer, Daan; Vergouwe, Yvonne; De Cock, Bavo; Pencina, Michael J; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2016-06-01

    Calibrated risk models are vital for valid decision support. We define four levels of calibration and describe implications for model development and external validation of predictions. We present results based on simulated data sets. A common definition of calibration is "having an event rate of R% among patients with a predicted risk of R%," which we refer to as "moderate calibration." Weaker forms of calibration only require the average predicted risk (mean calibration) or the average prediction effects (weak calibration) to be correct. "Strong calibration" requires that the event rate equals the predicted risk for every covariate pattern. This implies that the model is fully correct for the validation setting. We argue that this is unrealistic: the model type may be incorrect, the linear predictor is only asymptotically unbiased, and all nonlinear and interaction effects should be correctly modeled. In addition, we prove that moderate calibration guarantees nonharmful decision making. Finally, results indicate that a flexible assessment of calibration in small validation data sets is problematic. Strong calibration is desirable for individualized decision support but unrealistic and counter productive by stimulating the development of overly complex models. Model development and external validation should focus on moderate calibration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Defining molecular initiating events in the adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy E H; Goodman, Jonathan M; Gutsell, Steve; Russell, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    Consumer and environmental safety decisions are based on exposure and hazard data, interpreted using risk assessment approaches. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) conceptual framework has been presented as a logical sequence of events or processes within biological systems which can be used to understand adverse effects and refine current risk assessment practices in ecotoxicology. This framework can also be applied to human toxicology and is explored on the basis of investigating the molecular initiating events (MIEs) of compounds. The precise definition of the MIE has yet to reach general acceptance. In this work we present a unified MIE definition: an MIE is the initial interaction between a molecule and a biomolecule or biosystem that can be causally linked to an outcome via a pathway. Case studies are presented, and issues with current definitions are addressed. With the development of a unified MIE definition, the field can look toward defining, classifying, and characterizing more MIEs and using knowledge of the chemistry of these processes to aid AOP research and toxicity risk assessment. We also present the role of MIE research in the development of in vitro and in silico toxicology and suggest how, by using a combination of biological and chemical approaches, MIEs can be identified and characterized despite a lack of detailed reports, even for some of the most studied molecules in toxicology.

  4. Image-defined Risk Factors Correlate with Surgical Radicality and Local Recurrence in Patients with Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, A; Erichsen, M; Stehr, M; Hubertus, J; Bergmann, F; Kammer, B; von Schweinitz, D

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid pediatric tumor and the most common cancer to be detected in children younger than 12 months of age. To date, 2 different staging systems describe the extent of the disease: the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) and the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System (INRGSS). The INRGSS-system is characterized by the presence or absence of so called image-defined risk factors (IDRFs), which are described as surgical risk factors. We hypothesized that IDRFs correlate with surgical complications, surgical radicality, local recurrence and overall survival (OS). Between 2003 and 2010, 102 patients had neuroblastoma surgery performed in our department. We analyzed medical records for IDRF-status and above named data. 16 patients were IDRF-negative, whereas 86 patients showed one or more IDRF. Intra- or postoperative complications have been reported in 21 patients (21%). 19 of them showed one or more IDRF and 2 patients were IDRF-negative (p=n.s.). Patients who suffered from intra- or postoperative complications demonstrated a decreased OS (p=0.011). Statistical analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the extent of macroscopical removal and IDRF-status (p=0.001). Furthermore, the number of IDRFs were associated with a decreased likelihood of radical tumor resection (p<0.001). 19 patients had local recurrence; all of them were IDRF-positive (p=0.037). Pediatric surgeons should consider IDRFs as a useful tool for risk assessment and therefore planning for neuroblastoma surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  6. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I: a knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Thomsen, Marianne; Assmuth, Timo; Grieger, Khara D; Baun, Anders

    2010-08-15

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again challenges risk assessors in terms of giving the 'right' relative priority to the multitude of contributing risk factors. A critical issue is therefore to develop procedures that can identify and evaluate worst case risk conditions which may be input to risk level predictions. Therefore, this paper suggests a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification and risk quantification. The model can help optimize risk assessment planning by initial screening level analyses and guiding quantitative assessment in relation to knowledge needs for better decision support concerning environmental and human health protection or risk reduction. The WCD model facilitates the evaluation of fundamental uncertainty using knowledge mapping principles and techniques in a way that can improve a complete uncertainty analysis. Ultimately, the WCD is applicable for describing risk contributing factors in relation to many different types of risk management problems since it transparently and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk

  7. World Health Organization-defined eosinophilic disorders: 2017 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Jason

    2017-11-01

    The eosinophilias encompass a broad range of nonhematologic (secondary or reactive) and hematologic (primary, clonal) disorders with potential for end-organ damage. Hypereosinophilia has generally been defined as a peripheral blood eosinophil count greater than 1500/mm 3 and may be associated with tissue damage. After exclusion of secondary causes of eosinophilia, diagnostic evaluation of primary eosinophilias relies on a combination of morphologic review of the blood and marrow, standard cytogenetics, fluorescent in situ-hybridization, flow immunocytometry, and T-cell clonality assessment to detect histopathologic or clonal evidence for an acute or chronic myeloid or lymphoproliferative disorder. Disease prognosis relies on identifying the subtype of eosinophilia. After evaluation of secondary causes of eosinophilia, the 2016 World Health Organization endorses a semi-molecular classification scheme of disease subtypes which includes the major category "myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 or with PCM1-JAK2," and the "MPN subtype, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified" (CEL, NOS). Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia is an aberrant T-cell clone-driven reactive eosinophila, and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a diagnosis of exclusion. The goal of therapy is to mitigate eosinophil-mediated organ damage. For patients with milder forms of eosinophilia (e.g., watch and wait approach with close-follow-up may be undertaken. Identification of rearranged PDGFRA or PDGFRB is critical because of the exquisite responsiveness of these diseases to imatinib. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for patients with lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia and HES. Hydroxyurea and interferon-alpha have demonstrated efficacy as initial treatment and steroid-refractory cases of HES. In addition to hydroxyurea, second line cytotoxic chemotherapy agents and hematopoietic cell transplant have been used

  8. Risk of Breast Cancer with CXCR4-using HIV Defined by V3-Loop Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, James J.; Swenson, Luke C.; Napolitano, Laura A.; Haddad, Mojgan; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Levine, Alexandra; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Seaberg, Eric C.; Aouizerat, Bradley; Rabkin, Charles S.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hessol, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the risk of female breast cancer associated with HIV-CXCR4 (X4) tropism as determined by various genotypic measures. Methods A breast cancer case-control study, with pairwise comparisons of tropism determination methods, was conducted. From the Women's Interagency HIV Study repository, one stored plasma specimen was selected from 25 HIV-infected cases near the breast cancer diagnosis date and 75 HIV-infected control women matched for age and calendar date. HIVgp120-V3 sequences were derived by Sanger population sequencing (PS) and 454-pyro deep sequencing (DS). Sequencing-based HIV-X4 tropism was defined using the geno2pheno algorithm, with both high-stringency DS [False-Positive-Rate (FPR 3.5) and 2% X4 cutoff], and lower stringency DS (FPR 5.75, 15% X4 cut-off). Concordance of tropism results by PS, DS, and previously performed phenotyping was assessed with kappa (κ) statistics. Case-control comparisons used exact P-values and conditional logistic regression. Results In 74 women (19 cases, 55 controls) with complete results, prevalence of HIV-X4 by PS was 5% in cases vs 29% in controls (P=0.06, odds ratio 0.14, confidence interval 0.003-1.03). Smaller case-control prevalence differences were found with high-stringency DS (21% vs 36%, P=0.32), lower-stringency DS (16% vs 35%, P=0.18), and phenotyping (11% vs 31%, P=0.10). HIV-X4-tropism concordance was best between PS and lower-stringency DS (93%, κ=0.83). Other pairwise concordances were 82%-92% (κ=0.56-0.81). Concordance was similar among cases and controls. Conclusions HIV-X4 defined by population sequencing (PS) had good agreement with lower stringency deep sequencing and was significantly associated with lower odds of breast cancer. PMID:25321183

  9. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  10. Can Image-Defined Risk Factors Predict Surgical Complications in Localized Neuroblastoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Akihiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Uehara, Shuichiro; Oue, Takaharu; Usui, Noriaki; Inoue, Masami; Fukuzawa, Masahiro; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2016-02-01

    Image-defined risk factors (IDRFs) have been propounded for predicting the surgical risks associated with localized neuroblastoma (NB) since 2009. In 2011, a new guideline (NG) for assessing IDRFs was published. According to the NG, the situation in which "the tumor is only in contact with renal vessels," should be considered to be "IDRF-present." Previously, this situation was diagnosed as "IDRF absent." In this study, we evaluated the IDRFs in localized NB patients to clarify the predictive capability of IDRFs for surgical complications, as well as the usefulness of the NG. Materials and A total of 107 localized patients with NB were included in this study. The enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance images from the time of their diagnoses were evaluated by a single radiologist. We also analyzed the association of clinical factors, including the IDRFs (before and after applying the NG), with surgical complications. Of the 107 patients, 33 and 74 patients were diagnosed as IDRF-present (OP group), and IDRF-absent (ON group) before the NG, respectively. According to the NG, there were 76 and 31 patients who were classified as IDRF-present (NP group) and IDRF absent (NN group), respectively. Thus, 43 (40%) patients in the ON group were reassigned to the NP group after the NG. Surgical complications were observed in 17 of 82 patients who underwent surgical resection. Of the patients who underwent secondary operations, surgical complication rates were 55% in the OP group and 44% in the NP group. According to a univariate analysis, non-INSS 1, IDRFs before and after the NG and secondary operations were significantly associated with surgical complications. In a multivariate analysis, non-INSS 1 status and IDRFs after the NG were significantly associated with surgical complications. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Defining a risk-informed framework for whole-of-government lessons learned: A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Shaye K; Kelsey, Shelley; Legere, J A Jim

    Lessons learned play an important role in emergency management (EM) and organizational agility. Virtually all aspects of EM can derive benefit from a lessons learned program. From major security events to exercises, exploiting and applying lessons learned and "best practices" is critical to organizational resilience and adaptiveness. A robust lessons learned process and methodology provides an evidence base with which to inform decisions, guide plans, strengthen mitigation strategies, and assist in developing tools for operations. The Canadian Safety and Security Program recently supported a project to define a comprehensive framework that would allow public safety and security partners to regularly share event response best practices, and prioritize recommendations originating from after action reviews. This framework consists of several inter-locking elements: a comprehensive literature review/environmental scan of international programs; a survey to collect data from end users and management; the development of a taxonomy for organizing and structuring information; a risk-informed methodology for selecting, prioritizing, and following through on recommendations; and standardized templates and tools for tracking recommendations and ensuring implementation. This article discusses the efforts of the project team, which provided "best practice" advice and analytical support to ensure that a systematic approach to lessons learned was taken by the federal community to improve prevention, preparedness, and response activities. It posits an approach by which one might design a systematic process for information sharing and event response coordination-an approach that will assist federal departments to institutionalize a cross-government lessons learned program.

  12. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death in Individuals With Prediabetes Defined by Different Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte; Witte, Daniel R; Brunner, Eric J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in subgroups of prediabetes defined by fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), or HbA1c. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Whitehall II cohort, 5,427 participants aged 50-79 years, without...... diabetes, were followed for a median of 11.5 years. A total of 628 (11.6%) had prediabetes by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Expert Committee (IEC) criteria (FPG 6.1-6.9 mmol/L and/or HbA1c6.0-6.4%), and 1,996 (36.8%) by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol....../L and/or HbA1c5.7-6.4%). In a subset of 4,730 individuals with additional measures of 2hPG, 663 (14.0%) had prediabetes by 2hPG. Incidence rates of a major event (nonfatal/fatal CVD or all-cause mortality) were compared for different definitions of prediabetes, with adjustment for relevant confounders...

  13. A Nested Case-Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Murphy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1 metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, (2 metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, (3 metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2, and (4 metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men] were used (instead of BMI to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was

  14. First contact, simplified technology, or risk anticipation? Defining primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, J; González-Block, M A; Alvarez-Manilla, J M

    1990-11-01

    Elements important to defining primary health care (PHC) are discussed, with examples from Latin American countries. Topics are identified as follows: the origins and dilemmas of PHC, conflicting PHC values and practices, organizational changes and PHC, health care reforms and examples from Latin America, and the implications for medical education. The new paradigm for medical education and practice is in the classic Kuhn tradition. A paradigm for health care is an ideological model about the form, content, and organization of health care. There are rules that prescribe in a normative way how resources should be combined to produce health services. The current dominant paradigm is that of curative medicine, and the PHC paradigm assumes that a diversified health care team uses modern technology and resources to actively anticipate health damage and promote well being. The key word is anticipatory. As a consequence secondary care also needs to be redefined as actually treating the illness or damage itself. Organizations must be changed to establish this model. Contrasting primary, anticipatory health care with technical, curative medicine has been discussed over at least the past 150 years. An important development was the new model for developing countries which was a result of a Makerere, Kenya symposium on the Medicine of Poverty. The Western model of physicians acting independently and in a highly specialized fashion to address each patient's complaints was considered inappropriate. The concern must be for training and supervising auxiliaries, designing cost-effective systems, and a practice mode limited to what can actually be provided to the population. How to adapt this to existing medical systems was left undetermined. In 1978 with the WHO drive for health for all, there emerged different conceptions and models of PHC. Conceptually, PHC is realized when services are directed to identifying and modifying risk factors at the collective level, where the health

  15. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  16. Impact of gender on the risk of AIDS-defining illnesses and mortality in Danish HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gender differences in the risk of AIDS-defining illness (ADI) and mortality have been reported in the HIV-1-infected (HIV-positive) population, with conflicting findings. We aimed to assess the impact of gender on the risk of ADI and death in HIV-positive patients infected...... sexually. Methods: This was a population-based, nationwide cohort study of incident Danish HIV-positive individuals infected by sexual contact. Outcomes were progression to AIDS and death. We used Cox proportional hazards models and Poisson regression analyses to calculate the risk of progression to AIDS...... diagnosis MSM had a lower prevalence of AIDS compared to MSW. Women and MSW presented more often with tuberculosis and less often with AIDS-defining cancers compared to MSM. In the adjusted analyses we observed no differences in progression to AIDS. In the adjusted analyses of risk of death, there were...

  17. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  18. One-Hour Postload Hyperglycemia Confers Higher Risk of Hepatic Steatosis to HbA1c-Defined Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Pedace, Elisabetta; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)-defined prediabetes (HbA1c value of 5.7-6.4%) and 1-hour plasma glucose ≥155 mg/dL during an oral glucose tolerance test have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. To evaluate the degree to which HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL individually and jointly associate with hepatic steatosis and related biomarkers. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1108 White individuals. Ambulatory care. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics including hepatic steatosis assessed by ultrasonography. Compared with the normal group (HbA1c prediabetic and diabetic individuals exhibit higher values of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; fasting and 2-hour postload insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance; liver insulin resistance index; liver enzymes; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and IGF-1. Prediabetic and diabetic subjects have increased risk of hepatic steatosis (1.5- and 2.46-fold, respectively). Stratifying participants according to HbA1c and 1-hour postload glucose, we found that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL have significantly higher risk of hepatic steatosis as compared with individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes but 1-hour postload glucose prediabetes and 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL exhibit higher values of liver enzymes; fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour postload glucose; insulin; triglycerides; uric acid; and inflammatory biomarkers; and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and IGF-1. These data suggest that a value of 1-hour postload glucose ≥155 mg/dL may be helpful to identify a subset of individuals within HbA1c-defined glycemic categories at higher risk of hepatic steatosis.

  19. The Problems of the Defining the Risk: The Case of Mountaineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Seigneur

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A central assumption in sociology is that the view on the risk is essentially a construction rather than a strictly objective perspective. However, this approach has a tendency to forget objective knowledge and tangible facts. Our research on risks in high mountains compares the available information on risks (scientific literature, safety information, media coverage and political discourse with our empiric observations. Our work shows that there are differences caused by lack of fundamental reflection on the definition of the risk as a social construction. We propose to reconsider the definition of the risk with concepts closely connected to risk such as: uncertainty, emotion, phobia and danger, and to point out problems of confusion in several works of authors (e.g. those dealing with sensational activity, such as bungee jumping, as if it was dangerous. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601148

  20. The capability concept – On how to define and describe capability in relation to risk, vulnerability and resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbom, Hanna; Tehler, Henrik; Eriksson, Kerstin; Aven, Terje

    2015-01-01

    Capabilities-based planning and capability assessment are high on the agendas of several countries and organisations as part of their risk management and emergency preparedness. Despite this, few definitions of capability exist, and they are not easily related to concepts such as risk, vulnerability and resilience. The aim of the present study was thus to broaden the scientific basis of the risk field to also include the concept of capability. The proposed definition is based on a recently developed risk framework, and we define capability as the uncertainty about and the severity of the consequences of an activity given the occurrence of the initiating event and the performed task. We provide examples of how the response capability for a fictive scenario can be described using this definition, and illustrate how our definition can be used to analyse capability assessments prepared according to the Swedish crisis management system. We have analysed the content of 25 capability assessments produced in 2011 by stakeholders on local, regional and national level. It was concluded that none addressed uncertainty to any appreciable extent, and only a third described capability in terms of consequences and task, making it difficult to relate these capability assessments to risk assessments. - Highlights: • Few definitions of capability relate to definitions of risk, vulnerability and resilience. • We relate capability to risk, vulnerability and resilience. • We define capability using the components uncertainty, consequences, event and task

  1. A deep learning based strategy for identifying and associating mitotic activity with gene expression derived risk categories in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Bucheli, David; Janowczyk, Andrew; Gilmore, Hannah; Romero, Eduardo; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-06-01

    The treatment and management of early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is hindered by the difficulty in identifying patients who require adjuvant chemotherapy in contrast to those that will respond to hormonal therapy. To distinguish between the more and less aggressive breast tumors, which is a fundamental criterion for the selection of an appropriate treatment plan, Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests are typically employed. While informative, these gene expression tests are expensive, tissue destructive, and require specialized facilities. Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade, the common scheme employed in breast cancer grading, has been shown to be correlated with the Oncotype DX risk score. Unfortunately, studies have also shown that the BR grade determined experiences notable inter-observer variability. One of the constituent categories in BR grading is the mitotic index. The goal of this study was to develop a deep learning (DL) classifier to identify mitotic figures from whole slides images of ER+ breast cancer, the hypothesis being that the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier would correlate with the corresponding Oncotype DX risk categories. The mitosis detector yielded an average F-score of 0.556 in the AMIDA mitosis dataset using a 6-fold validation setup. For a cohort of 174 whole slide images with early stage ER+ breast cancer for which the corresponding Oncotype DX score was available, the distributions of the number of mitoses identified by the DL classifier was found to be significantly different between the high vs low Oncotype DX risk groups (P machine classifier trained to separate low/high Oncotype DX risk categories using the mitotic count determined by the DL classifier yielded a 83.19% classification accuracy. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Use of probabilistic risk assessments to define areas of possible exemption from regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.A.; Carlson, D.; Kolaczkowski, A.; LaChance, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Risk-Based Licensing Program (RBLP) was sponsored by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing and demonstrating an approach for identifying potential areas for exemption from current regulatory requirements in the licensing of nuclear power plants. Such an approach could assist in the improvement of the regulatory process for both current and future nuclear plant designs. Use of the methodology could result in streamlining the regulatory process by eliminating unnecessarily detailed reviews of portions of a plant design not important to risk. The RBLP methodology utilizes probabilistic risk assessments, (PRAs), which are required of all future applicants for nuclear power plant licenses. PRA results are used as a screening tool to determine the risk significance of various plant features which are correlated to the risk importance of regulations to identify potential areas for regulatory exemption. Additional consideration is then given to non-risk factors in the final determination of exemption candidates. The RBLP methodology was demonstrated using an existing PRA. The results of the demonstration are highlighted. 10 refs

  3. Risk factors for venous thromboembolic events in pediatric surgical patients: Defining indications for prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Sarah B; Lautz, Timothy B; Schaefer, Beverly A; Yu, Guan; Naseem, Hibbut-Ur-Rauf; Rothstein, David H

    2017-12-27

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pediatric surgical patients is a rare event. The risk factors for VTE in pediatric general surgery patients undergoing abdominopelvic procedures are unknown. The American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) database (2012-2015) was queried for patients with VTE after abdominopelvic general surgery procedures. Patient and operative variables were assessed to identify risk factors associated with VTE and develop a pediatric risk score. From 2012-2015, 68 of 34,813 (0.20%) patients who underwent abdominopelvic general surgery procedures were diagnosed with VTE. On multivariate analysis, there was no increased risk of VTE based on concomitant malignancy, chemotherapy, inflammatory bowel disease, or laparoscopic surgical approach, while a higher rate of VTE was identified among female patients. The odds of experiencing VTE were increased on stepwise regression for patients older than 15 years and those with preexisting renal failure or a diagnosis of septic shock, patients with American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) classification ≥ 2, and for anesthesia time longer than 2 h. The combination of age > 15 years, ASA classification ≥ 2, anesthesia time > 2 h, renal failure, and septic shock was included in a model for predicting risk of VTE (AUC = 0.907, sensitivity 84.4%, specificity 88.2%). VTE is rare in pediatric patients, but prediction modeling may help identify those patients at heightened risk. Additional studies are needed to validate the factors identified in this study in a risk assessment model as well as to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis methods. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Evaluation of Two Approaches to Defining Extinction Risk under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grant G; Maguire, Lynn A; Regan, Tracey J

    2018-05-01

    The predominant definition of extinction risk in conservation biology involves evaluating the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of extinction time at a particular point (the "time horizon"). Using the principles of decision theory, this article develops an alternative definition of extinction risk as the expected loss (EL) to society resulting from eventual extinction of a species. Distinct roles are identified for time preference and risk aversion. Ranges of tentative values for the parameters of the two approaches are proposed, and the performances of the two approaches are compared and contrasted for a small set of real-world species with published extinction time distributions and a large set of hypothetical extinction time distributions. Potential issues with each approach are evaluated, and the EL approach is recommended as the better of the two. The CDF approach suffers from the fact that extinctions that occur at any time before the specified time horizon are weighted equally, while extinctions that occur beyond the specified time horizon receive no weight at all. It also suffers from the fact that the time horizon does not correspond to any natural phenomenon, and so is impossible to specify nonarbitrarily; yet the results can depend critically on the specified value. In contrast, the EL approach has the advantage of weighting extinction time continuously, with no artificial time horizon, and the parameters of the approach (the rates of time preference and risk aversion) do correspond to natural phenomena, and so can be specified nonarbitrarily. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Why risk acceptance criteria need to be defined by the authorities and not the industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, Eirik Bjorheim; Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    In various industries it is common to use risk acceptance criteria to support decision-making. The criteria are seen as absolute in the sense that measures need to be implemented if the criteria are not met. In Norway the petroleum regulations state that the operator has a duty to formulate risk acceptance criteria relating to major accidents and to the environment. This practice is in line with the internal control principle, which states that the operator has the full responsibility for identifying the hazards and seeing that they are controlled. In this paper we discuss the rationale for this practice. The expected utility theory, which is the backbone for all economic thinking, is used as a basis for the discussion. We show that if risk acceptance criteria are to be introduced as a risk management tool, they should be formulated by the authorities, as is the common scheme seen in many countries and industries, for example in the UK. Risk acceptance criteria formulated by the industry would not in general serve the interest of the society as a whole.

  6. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation

  7. Dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen and progesterone receptor-defined postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete S; Hogervorst, Janneke G F; Schouten, Leo J

    2010-01-01

    and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer stratified by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. This study was embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, which was initiated in 1986 enrolling 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. After 13.3 years of follow-up, 2225 incident...... breast cancer cases were ascertained, with hormone receptor status information for 43%. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied to determine hazard ratios in quintiles of dietary acrylamide intake stratifying on estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and smoking status....... No association was observed for overall breast cancer or receptor-negative breast cancer risk, irrespective of smoking status. A statistically non-significantly increased risk of ER positive, PR positive and joint receptor-positive breast cancer was found in never-smoking women. The multivariable-adjusted hazard...

  8. Cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors in lumbar radicular pain or clinically defined sciatica: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Jaro; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Solovieva, Svetlana; Varonen, Helena; Kalso, Eija; Ukkola, Olavi; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar radicular pain is a fairly common health problem, yet its risk factors are far from clear. There are no published systematic reviews on associations between cardiovascular or lifestyle risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica. The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess associations between these risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica. We conducted a systematic search of the Medline database for all original articles on lumbar radicular pain or sciatica published until August 2006. Twenty-two papers from 19 studies were included in the review. Overweight or obesity was associated with sciatica in most of the case-control and cohort studies. Some studies showed an increased risk of lumbar radicular pain in smokers with a long smoking history or in those with high levels of physical activity. A few case-control studies showed an association between serum C-reactive protein and sciatica. No consistent associations were found for serum lipids levels or high blood pressure. In summary, the associations of overweight, long smoking history, high physical activity and a high serum C-reactive protein level with lumbar radicular pain or sciatica were substantiated by the present review. However, more prospective studies are needed in order to further clarify these associations and the mechanisms of action. PMID:17525856

  9. Oil well fires of Operation Desert Storm--defining troop exposures and determining health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jack M

    2011-07-01

    During Operation Desert Storm, in February 1991, Iraqi troops began burning Kuwaiti oil wells. Almost immediately there was concern about possible adverse health effects in U.S. personnel exposed to crude oil combustion products. Combustions products were predicted from the known composition of Kuwaiti crude oil. Monitoring sites were established in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; about 5,000 environmental samples were studied. Data collected were used to develop health risk assessments for the geographic areas sampled. This initial approach to assessing risk had to be greatly expanded when Congress passed Public Law 102-190, requiring development of means to calculate environmental exposures for individual U.S. service members. To estimate daily exposure levels for the entire area over 10 months for all U.S. troops, air dispersion modeling was used in conjunction with satellite imagery and geographic information system technology. This methodology made it possible to separate the risk caused by oil fire smoke from the total risk from all sources for each service member. The U.S. military responses to health concerns related to the oil well fires and to Public Law 102-190 were reviewed. Consideration was given to changes in technology, practices, and policies over the last two decades that might impact a similar contemporary response.

  10. Lifetime moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and ER/PR/HER-defined post-menopausal breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Joy; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; SenGupta, Sandip K; Lohrisch, Caroline A; Spinelli, John J; Aronson, Kristan J

    2017-08-01

    To assess the relationship of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in leisure-time, household, and occupational domains across the total lifetime and in four age periods with breast cancer risk, as defined by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status and ER/PR/human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) status, among post-menopausal women. Data were from 692 women with incident breast cancer and 644 controls in the Canadian Breast Cancer Study, a case-control study of women aged 40-80 years in British Columbia and Ontario. Mean metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week for questionnaire-assessed leisure-time, household, and occupational MVPA were calculated for the total lifetime and four age periods (12-17, 18-34, 45-49, and ≥50 years). Odds ratios (ORs) for the relationships between domain-specific MVPA at each lifetime period and risks of ER/PR-defined and ER/PR/HER2-defined breast cancers were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Trend tests for dose-response relationships were calculated for the ORs across increasing tertiles of mean MET-hours/week of MVPA. Total lifetime leisure-time MVPA was associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- breast cancer in a dose-response fashion (p trend  = 0.014). In contrast, total lifetime household MVPA was associated with reduced risk of ER+ and/or PR+ breast cancer (p trend  trends were observed when stratified by age period. Lifetime leisure-time MVPA appeared to be associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR-/HER2- breast cancers and lifetime household MVPA was associated with reduced risk of ER+ and/or PR+ breast cancer, regardless of HER2 status.

  11. Association between albuminuria, atherosclerotic plaques, elevated pulse wave velocity, age, risk category and prognosis in apparently healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Sara V; Blicher, Marie K; Blyme, Adam

    2014-01-01

    atherosclerotic plaques or albuminuria defined as urine albumin/creatinine ratio at least 90th percentile of 0.73/1.06 mg/mmol men/women. In 2006, the composite endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke and hospitalization for ischemic heart disease was recorded (n.......4, 20.6% or 7.9, 8.2, 16.6, 19.5% or 6.6, 7.6, 9.8, 20.0%) increased, all P high SCORE or intermediate or high FRS (all P ..., with moderate SCORE or with high-intermediate or high FRS (all P high FRS (P 

  12. Cardiometabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome: a comparison of different approaches to defining the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussons, Andrea J; Watts, Gerald F; Burke, Valerie; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A

    2008-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and features in common with the metabolic syndrome (MetS)--factors shown to predict cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of the MetS in PCOS by three definitions-World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP-III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF)--and compared that with the background population. Cross-sectional study of 168 women with PCOS and 883 age-matched controls from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Prevalence of the MetS in PCOS subjects was 33% by WHO, 37% by NCEP-ATP-III and 40% by IDF criteria, compared with 10% by NCEP-ATP-III and 13% by IDF in controls (P 30 kg/m(2)), and higher but not significantly so in overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m(2)) women (P = 0.052). Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was associated with a lower risk of the MetS--Odds ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.97, P = 0.011). An approximate 4-fold increase in the prevalence of the MetS in women with PCOS compared with the general population, consistent with the proposed major role of insulin and obesity in the syndrome, implies greater risk of cardiometabolic disease in women with PCOS. However, this estimate is likely to vary according to PCOS definition, ethnicity and different aetiological pathways to PCOS.

  13. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (Uses) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus I that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  14. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Pregrain, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus 1 that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  15. Defining a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level that predicts increased risk of penile implant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habous, Mohamad; Tal, Raanan; Tealab, Alaa; Soliman, Tarek; Nassar, Mohammed; Mekawi, Zenhom; Mahmoud, Saad; Abdelwahab, Osama; Elkhouly, Mohamed; Kamr, Hatem; Remeah, Abdallah; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ralph, David; Mulhall, John

    2018-02-01

    To re-evaluate the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor for penile implant infection by exploring the association between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and penile implant infection rates and to define a threshold value that predicts implant infection. We conducted a multicentre prospective study including all patients undergoing penile implant surgery between 2009 and 2015. Preoperative, perioperative and postoperative management were identical for the entire cohort. Univariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implant infection. The HbA1c levels were analysed as continuous variables and sequential analysis was conducted using 0.5% increments to define a threshold level predicting implant infection. Multivariable analysis was performed with the following factors entered in the model: DM, HbA1C level, patient age, implant type, number of vascular risk factors (VRFs), presence of Peyronie's disease (PD), body mass index (BMI), and surgeon volume. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to define the optimal HbA1C threshold for infection prediction. In all, 902 implant procedures were performed over the study period. The mean patient age was 56.6 years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.0%, with 81% of men having a HbA1c level of >6%. In all, 685 (76%) implants were malleable and 217 (24%) were inflatable devices; 302 (33.5%) patients also had a diagnosis of PD. The overall infection rate was 8.9% (80/902). Patients who had implant infection had significantly higher mean HbA1c levels, 9.5% vs 7.8% (P HbA1c level, we found infection rates were: 1.3% with HbA1c level of 9.5% (P HbA1c level, whilst a high-volume surgeon had a protective effect and was associated with a reduced infection risk. Using ROC analysis, we determined that a HbA1c threshold level of 8.5% predicted infection with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 65%. Uncontrolled DM is associated with increased risk of infection after penile implant surgery

  16. Vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer in the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaus, Marleen J; Peeters, Petra H M; Bakker, Marije F; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Polidoro, Silvia; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Winkvist, Anna; Wennberg, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Aune, Dagfinn; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; van Gils, Carla H

    2016-01-01

    The recent literature indicates that a high vegetable intake and not a high fruit intake could be associated with decreased steroid hormone receptor-negative breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the association between vegetable and fruit intake and steroid hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk. A total of 335,054 female participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were included in this study (mean ± SD age: 50.8 ± 9.8 y). Vegetable and fruit intake was measured by country-specific questionnaires filled out at recruitment between 1992 and 2000 with the use of standardized procedures. Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age at recruitment and study center and were adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. After a median follow-up of 11.5 y (IQR: 10.1-12.3 y), 10,197 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed [3479 estrogen and progesterone receptor positive (ER+PR+); 1021 ER and PR negative (ER-PR-)]. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of vegetable intake was associated with a lower risk of overall breast cancer (HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94). Although the inverse association was most apparent for ER-PR- breast cancer (ER-PR-: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.96; P-trend = 0.03; ER+PR+: HRquintile 5-quintile 1: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.05; P-trend = 0.14), the test for heterogeneity by hormone receptor status was not significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.09). Fruit intake was not significantly associated with total and hormone receptor-defined breast cancer risk. This study supports evidence that a high vegetable intake is associated with lower (mainly hormone receptor-negative) breast cancer risk. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. It's Our Fault: better defining earthquake risk in Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dissen, R.; Brackley, H. L.; Francois-Holden, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Wellington region, home of New Zealand's capital city, is cut by a number of major right-lateral strike slip faults, and is underlain by the currently locked west-dipping subduction interface between the down going Pacific Plate, and the over-riding Australian Plate. In its short historic period (ca. 160 years), the region has been impacted by large earthquakes on the strike-slip faults, but has yet to bear the brunt of a subduction interface rupture directly beneath the capital city. It's Our Fault is a comprehensive study of Wellington's earthquake risk. Its objective is to position the capital city of New Zealand to become more resilient through an encompassing study of the likelihood of large earthquakes, and the effects and impacts of these earthquakes on humans and the built environment. It's Our Fault is jointly funded by New Zealand's Earthquake Commission, Accident Compensation Corporation, Wellington City Council, Wellington Region Emergency Management Group, Greater Wellington Regional Council, and Natural Hazards Research Platform. The programme has been running for six years, and key results to date include better definition and constraints on: 1) location, size, timing, and likelihood of large earthquakes on the active faults closest to Wellington; 2) earthquake size and ground shaking characterization of a representative suite of subduction interface rupture scenarios under Wellington; 3) stress interactions between these faults; 4) geological, geotechnical, and geophysical parameterisation of the near-surface sediments and basin geometry in Wellington City and the Hutt Valley; and 5) characterisation of earthquake ground shaking behaviour in these two urban areas in terms of subsoil classes specified in the NZ Structural Design Standard. The above investigations are already supporting measures aimed at risk reduction, and collectively they will facilitate identification of additional actions that will have the greatest benefit towards further

  18. Survival in common cancers defined by risk and survival of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on survival between familial and sporadic cancers have been inconclusive and only recent data on a limited number of cancers are available on the concordance of survival between family members. In this review, we address these questions by evaluating the published and unpublished data from the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database and a total of 13 cancer sites were assessed. Using sporadic cancer as reference, HRs were close to 1.0 for most of the familial cancers in both the offspring and parental generations, which suggested that survival in patients with familial and sporadic cancers was equal, with an exception for ovarian cancer with a worse prognosis. Compared to offspring whose parents had a poor survival, those with a good parental survival had a decreased risk of death for most cancers and HR was significantly decreased for cancers in the breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney. For colorectal and nervous system cancers, favorable survival between the generations showed a borderline significance. These data are consistent in showing that both good and poor survival in certain cancers aggregate in families. Genetic factors are likely to contribute to the results. These observations call for intensified efforts to consider heritability in survival as one mechanism regulating prognosis in cancer patients.

  19. The challenge of defining risk-based metrics to improve food safety: inputs from the BASELINE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, Gerardo; De Cesare, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    In 2002, the Regulation (EC) 178 of the European Parliament and of the Council states that, in order to achieve the general objective of a high level of protection of human health and life, food law shall be based on risk analysis. However, the Commission Regulation No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs requires that food business operators ensure that foodstuffs comply with the relevant microbiological criteria. Such criteria define the acceptability of a product, a batch of foodstuffs or a process, based on the absence, presence or number of micro-organisms, and/or on the quantity of their toxins/metabolites, per unit(s) of mass, volume, area or batch. The same Regulation describes a food safety criterion as a mean to define the acceptability of a product or a batch of foodstuff applicable to products placed on the market; moreover, it states a process hygiene criterion as a mean indicating the acceptable functioning of the production process. Both food safety criteria and process hygiene criteria are not based on risk analysis. On the contrary, the metrics formulated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2004, named Food Safety Objective (FSO) and Performance Objective (PO), are risk-based and fit the indications of Regulation 178/2002. The main aims of this review are to illustrate the key differences between microbiological criteria and the risk-based metrics defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and to explore the opportunity and also the possibility to implement future European Regulations including PO and FSO as supporting parameters to microbiological criteria. This review clarifies also the implications of defining an appropriate level of human protection, how to establish FSO and PO and how to implement them in practice linked to each other through quantitative risk assessment models. The contents of this review should clarify the context for application of the results collected during the EU funded project named BASELINE (www

  20. Exploring and Expanding the Category of ‘Young Workers’ According to Situated Ways of Doing Risk and Safety—a Case Study in the Retail Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Lykke Nielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Young adult workers aged 18–24 years have the highest risk of accidents at work. Following the work of Bourdieu and Tannock, we demonstrate that young adult workers are a highly differentiated group. Accordingly, safety prevention among young adult workers needs to be nuanced in ways that take into consideration the different positions and conditions under which young adult workers are employed. Based on single and group interviews with 26 young adult workers from six various sized supermarkets, we categorize young adult retail workers into the following five distinct groups: ‘Skilled workers,’ ‘Apprentices,’ ‘Sabbatical year workers,’ ‘Student workers,’ and ‘School dropouts.’ We argue that exposure to accidental risk is not equally distributed among them and offer an insight into the narratives of young adult workers on the subject of risk situations at work. The categorizations are explored and expanded according to the situated ways of ‘doing’ risk and safety in the working practices of the adult workers. We suggest that the understanding of ‘young’ as an age-related biological category might explain why approaches to prevent accidents among young employees first and foremost include individual factors like advice, information, and supervision and to a lesser degree the structural and cultural environment wherein they are embedded. We conclude that age cannot stand alone as the only factor in safety prevention directed at workers aged 18–24 years; if we do so, there is a risk of overemphasizing age-related individual characteristics such as awareness and cognitive limitations before structural, relational, and hierarchical dimensions at the workplace.

  1. Investigation of factors determining risk-taking strategies in Pension fund investment of Defined Benefit schemes in the UK corporate pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Chunan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates various incentives determining risk taking strategies of the corporate pension fund investment from the perspective of sponsors. In the United Kingdom, occupational pension plans especially defined benefit (DB) pension schemes play important roles in the financial market. Comparing with the conventional framework managing pension risk as a contained part of the whole firm risk, recent studies start to focus on pension risk especially investment risk as an individual to...

  2. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  3. Multiplex biomarker approach for determining risk of prostate-specific antigen-defined recurrence of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Daniel R; Sanda, Martin G; Otte, Arie P; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Rubin, Mark A

    2003-05-07

    Molecular signatures in cancer tissue may be useful for diagnosis and are associated with survival. We used results from high-density tissue microarrays (TMAs) to define combinations of candidate biomarkers associated with the rate of prostate cancer progression after radical prostatectomy that could identify patients at high risk for recurrence. Fourteen candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer for which antibodies are available included hepsin, pim-1 kinase, E-cadherin (ECAD; cell adhesion molecule), alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, and EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2, a transcriptional repressor). TMAs containing more than 2000 tumor samples from 259 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer were studied with these antibodies. Immunohistochemistry results were evaluated in conjunction with clinical parameters associated with prostate cancer progression, including tumor stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Recurrence was defined as a postsurgery PSA level of more than 0.2 ng/mL. All statistical tests were two-sided. Moderate or strong expression of EZH2 coupled with at most moderate expression of ECAD (i.e., a positive EZH2:ECAD status) was the biomarker combination that was most strongly associated with the recurrence of prostate cancer. EZH2:ECAD status was statistically significantly associated with prostate cancer recurrence in a training set of 103 patients (relative risk [RR] = 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 5.81; P =.021), in a validation set of 80 patients (RR = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.27 to 10.91; P =.009), and in the combined set of 183 patients (RR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.56 to 5.61; P<.001). EZH2:ECAD status was statistically significantly associated with disease recurrence even after adjusting for clinical parameters, such as tumor stage, Gleason score, and PSA level (hazard ratio = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.50 to 6.77; P =.003). EZH2:ECAD status was statistically significantly associated

  4. PARTITION: A program for defining the source term/consequence analysis interface in the NUREG--1150 probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.

    1990-05-01

    The individual plant analyses in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reassessment of the risk from commercial nuclear power plants (NUREG-1150) consist of four parts: systems analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. Careful definition of the interfaces between these parts is necessary for both information flow and computational efficiency. This document has been designed for users of the PARTITION computer program developed by the authors at Sandia National Laboratories for defining the interface between the source term analysis (performed with the XXSOR programs) and the consequence analysis (performed with the MACCS program). This report provides a tutorial that details how the interactive partitioning is performed, along with detailed information on the partitioning process. The PARTITION program was written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 to make the code as machine-independent (i.e., portable) as possible. 9 refs., 4 figs

  5. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I. A knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Thomsen, M.; Assmuth, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environ...... and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk components in cumulative risk management.......This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human...... and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again...

  6. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  7. The risk of AIDS-defining events is decreasing over time in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altmann Mathias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With ageing of the HIV-infected population, long-term exposure to treatment, varying adherence, emerging resistance and complications to therapies, effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART needs to be monitored continuously at the population level. The German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort is a multi-centre, open, long-term observational cohort including patients with a known or reliably estimated date of HIV-infection i.e. last negative and first positive HIV antibody test within a maximum three-year interval or laboratory evidence of seroconversion. Our study aims to investigate survival improvements and changes in AIDS risk over calendar periods in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort. Methods Retrospective (for the pre-1997 period and prospective (since 1997 data from the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort were used. Time from seroconversion to first AIDS-defining event over calendar periods was analysed by using Cox models adjusting for age at seroconversion, sex, transmission groups and short HIV test interval. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine expected survival (remaining AIDS-free by calendar period. Results 2162 seroconverters with 8976 person-years of observation were included in our analysis (up to 31.12.2010. A total of 196 first AIDSdefining events were reported. Two periods i.e. 19972000 and 2007-2010 were statistically associated with a reduction in the risk of AIDS, accounting for an overall reduction of 80%. Compared to1997-2000, hazard ratios were 2.6 (95%CI, 1.6-4.8; p=0.000 in pre-1997 and 0.5 (95%CI, 0.3-0.8; p=0.007 in 20072010. Independent risk factor for AIDS progression was age at seroconversion (HR, 1.3 per 10year-increase; p=0.001. Conclusion HAART effectiveness has improved in the German HIV-1-Seroconverter Cohort. The risk to develop AIDS decreased significantly in 19972000 and in 20072010. However, elderly may require particular monitoring in view of their faster

  8. Genome-wide association study of clinically defined gout identifies multiple risk loci and its association with clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Chiba, Toshinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Yuzo; Danjoh, Inaho; Shimizu, Seiko; Abe, Junko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Terashige, Sho; Ogata, Hiraku; Tatsukawa, Seishiro; Yin, Guang; Okada, Rieko; Morita, Emi; Naito, Mariko; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ito, Toshimitsu; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Kato, Yukio; Nakamura, Yukio; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Ituro; Kubo, Michiaki; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Gout, caused by hyperuricaemia, is a multifactorial disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of gout have been reported, they included self-reported gout cases in which clinical information was insufficient. Therefore, the relationship between genetic variation and clinical subtypes of gout remains unclear. Here, we first performed a GWAS of clinically defined gout cases only. A GWAS was conducted with 945 patients with clinically defined gout and 1213 controls in a Japanese male population, followed by replication study of 1048 clinically defined cases and 1334 controls. Five gout susceptibility loci were identified at the genome-wide significance level (pgenes (ABCG2 and SLC2A9) and additional genes: rs1260326 (p=1.9×10(-12); OR=1.36) of GCKR (a gene for glucose and lipid metabolism), rs2188380 (p=1.6×10(-23); OR=1.75) of MYL2-CUX2 (genes associated with cholesterol and diabetes mellitus) and rs4073582 (p=6.4×10(-9); OR=1.66) of CNIH-2 (a gene for regulation of glutamate signalling). The latter two are identified as novel gout loci. Furthermore, among the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we demonstrated that the SNPs of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were differentially associated with types of gout and clinical parameters underlying specific subtypes (renal underexcretion type and renal overload type). The effect of the risk allele of each SNP on clinical parameters showed significant linear relationships with the ratio of the case-control ORs for two distinct types of gout (r=0.96 [p=4.8×10(-4)] for urate clearance and r=0.96 [p=5.0×10(-4)] for urinary urate excretion). Our findings provide clues to better understand the pathogenesis of gout and will be useful for development of companion diagnostics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Defining the Process of a Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Program: Lessons Learnt From Cardiac Assessment of Elite Soccer Players in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers, Christopher; Seth, Ajai Narain; Patel, Kiran Chhaganbhai; Rakhit, Dhrubo Jyoti; Gillett, Mark James

    2017-12-14

    Retrospectively analyze the cardiac assessment process for elite soccer players, and provide team physicians with a systematic guide to managing longitudinal cardiac risk. Descriptive Epidemiology Study. Cardiac assessments incorporating clinical examination, 12-lead ECG, echocardiography, and health questionnaire. Soccer players at 5 professional clubs in England, the United Kingdom. Data was retrospectively collected, inspected, and analyzed to determine their clinical management and subsequent follow-up. Over 2 years, 265 soccer players, aged 13 to 37 years with 66% of white European ethnicity, were included in the cohort. Eleven percent had "not-normal" assessments, of these assessments, 83% were considered gray screens, falling into three broad categories: structural cardiac features (including valvular abnormalities), functional cardiac features, and electrocardiogram changes. After cardiology consultation, all assessments were grouped into low, enhanced and high-risk categories for ongoing longitudinal risk management. Overall clear-cut pathology was identified in 2%. Cardiovascular assessment is a vital tool in identifying athletes at risk of sudden cardiac death to mitigate their risk through surveillance, intervention, or participation restriction. The decision whether a player is fit to play or not requires a robust risk assessment followed by input from a multidisciplinary team that includes both the team physician and cardiologist. This educational article proposes a clinical management pathway to aid clinicians with this process. Sudden cardiac death is the important medical cause of death during exercise. The team physician should assume responsibility for the management of the longitudinal risk of their players' cardiac assessments in conjunction with sports cardiologist.

  10. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  11. Comparison of the performance of the CMS Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC) risk adjuster with the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengxiang; Kim, Michelle M; Doshi, Jalpa A

    2010-08-20

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has implemented the CMS-Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC) model to risk adjust Medicare capitation payments. This study intends to assess the performance of the CMS-HCC risk adjustment method and to compare it to the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality in Medicare beneficiaries. The study used the 2005-2006 Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW) 5% Medicare files. The primary study sample included all community-dwelling fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with a hospital admission between January 1st, 2006 and June 30th, 2006. Additionally, four disease-specific samples consisting of subgroups of patients with principal diagnoses of congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, diabetes mellitus (DM), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were also selected. Four analytic files were generated for each sample by extracting inpatient and/or outpatient claims for each patient. Logistic regressions were used to compare the methods. Model performance was assessed using the c-statistic, the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and their 95% confidence intervals estimated using bootstrapping. The CMS-HCC had statistically significant higher c-statistic and lower AIC and BIC values than the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality across all samples in analytic files that included claims from the index hospitalization. Exclusion of claims for the index hospitalization generally led to drops in model performance across all methods with the highest drops for the CMS-HCC method. However, the CMS-HCC still performed as well or better than the other two methods. The CMS-HCC method demonstrated better performance relative to the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality. The CMS-HCC model is preferred over the Charlson and Elixhauser methods

  12. Is there any association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Ceylan, Cavit; Kilinc, Fatih; Gazel, Eymen; Resorlu, Berkan; Odabas, Oner

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between National Institute of Health category IV prostatitis and prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with low-risk localized prostate cancer. The data of 440 patients who had undergone prostate biopsies due to high PSA levels and suspicious digital rectal examination findings were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of accompanying NIH IV prostatitis. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Gleason score>6, PSA level>20ng/mL, >2 positive cores, >50% cancerous tissue per biopsy, urinary tract infection, urological interventions at least 1 week previously (cystoscopy, urethral catheterization, or similar procedure), history of prostate biopsy, and history of androgen or 5-alpha reductase use. All patient's age, total PSA and free PSA levels, ratio of free to total PSA, PSA density and prostate volume were recorded. In total, 101 patients were included in the study. Histopathological examination revealed only PCa in 78 (77.2%) patients and PCa+NIH IV prostatitis in 23 (22.7%) patients. The median total PSA level was 7.4 (3.5-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group and 6.5 (0.6-20.0) ng/mL in the PCa group (p=0.67). The PSA level was≤10ng/mL in 60 (76.9%) patients in the PCa group and in 16 (69.6%) patients in the PCa+NIH IV prostatitis group (p=0.32). Our study showed no statistically significant difference in PSA levels between patients with and without NIH IV prostatitis accompanying PCa.

  13. Drinking Levels Defined

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...

  14. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  15. Can we define a tolerable level of risk in food allergy? Report from a EuroPrevall/UK Food Standards Agency workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Allen, K. J.

    2012-01-01

    and that it is essential to address the current lack of agreed action levels for cross‐contamination with allergens if food allergen management practice is to be improved. The discussions also indicated that it was difficult to define and quantify a tolerable level of risk, although both the clinical and the industry......There is an emerging consensus that, as with other risks in society, zero risk for food‐allergic people is not a realistic or attainable option. Food allergy challenge data and new risk assessment methods offer the opportunity to develop quantitative limits for unintended allergenic ingredients...... which can be used in risk‐based approaches. However, a prerequisite to their application is defining a tolerable level of risk. This requires a value judgement and is ultimately a ‘societal’ decision that has to involve all relevant stakeholders. The aim of the workshop was to bring together key...

  16. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  17. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  18. Potentially inappropriate medications defined by STOPP criteria and the risk of adverse drug events in older hospitalized patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hamilton, Hilary

    2011-06-13

    Previous studies have not demonstrated a consistent association between potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) in older patients as defined by Beers criteria and avoidable adverse drug events (ADEs). This study aimed to assess whether PIMs defined by new STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions) criteria are significantly associated with ADEs in older people with acute illness.

  19. Dependency between removal characteristics and defined measurement categories of pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, C.; Rohrbacher, M.; Rascher, R.; Sinzinger, S.

    2015-09-01

    Optical surfaces are usually machined by grinding and polishing. To achieve short polishing times it is necessary to grind with best possible form accuracy and with low sub surface damages. This is possible by using very fine grained grinding tools for the finishing process. These however often show time dependent properties regarding cutting ability in conjunction with tool wear. Fine grinding tools in the optics are often pellet-tools. For a successful grinding process the tools must show a constant self-sharpening performance. A constant, at least predictable wear and cutting behavior is crucial for a deterministic machining. This work describes a method to determine the characteristics of pellet grinding tools by tests conducted with a single pellet. We investigate the determination of the effective material removal rate and the derivation of the G-ratio. Especially the change from the newly dressed via the quasi-stationary to the worn status of the tool is described. By recording the achieved roughness with the single pellet it is possible to derive the roughness expect from a series pellet tool made of pellets with the same specification. From the results of these tests the usability of a pellet grinding tool for a specific grinding task can be determined without testing a comparably expensive serial tool. The results are verified by a production test with a serial tool under series conditions. The collected data can be stored and used in an appropriate data base for tool characteristics and be combined with useful applications.

  20. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  1. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  2. Enumerating bone marrow blasts from nonerythroid cellularity improves outcome prediction in myelodysplastic syndromes and permits a better definition of the intermediate risk category of the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Xavier; Arenillas, Leonor; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Arnan, Montserrat; Ramos, Fernando; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Blanco, María Laura; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2017-07-01

    The Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) has been recognized as the score with the best outcome prediction capability in MDS, but this brought new concerns about the accurate prognostication of patients classified into the intermediate risk category. The correct enumeration of blasts is essential in prognostication of MDS. Recent data evidenced that considering blasts from nonerythroid cellularity (NECs) improves outcome prediction in the context of IPSS and WHO classification. We assessed the percentage of blasts from total nucleated cells (TNCs) and NECs in 3924 MDS patients from the GESMD, 498 of whom were MDS with erythroid predominance (MDS-E). We assessed if calculating IPSS-R by enumerating blasts from NECs improves prognostication of MDS. Twenty-four percent of patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk categories and showed shorter overall survival (OS) and time to AML evolution than those who remained into the intermediate one. Likewise, a better distribution of patients was observed, since lower-risk patients showed longer survivals than previously whereas higher-risk ones maintained the outcome expected in this poor prognostic group (median OS < 20 months). Furthermore, our approach was particularly useful for detecting patients at risk of dying with AML. Regarding MDS-E, 51% patients classified into the intermediate category were reclassified into higher-risk ones and showed shorter OS and time to AML. In this subgroup of MDS, IPSS-R was capable of splitting our series in five groups with significant differences in OS only when blasts were assessed from NECs. In conclusion, our easy-applicable approach improves prognostic assessment of MDS patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genome-wide association study of clinically defined gout identifies multiple risk loci and its association with clinical subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Chiba, Toshinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Yuzo; Danjoh, Inaho; Shimizu, Seiko; Abe, Junko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Terashige, Sho

    2015-01-01

    Objective Gout, caused by hyperuricaemia, is a multifactorial disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of gout have been reported, they included self-reported gout cases in which clinical information was insufficient. Therefore, the relationship between genetic variation and clinical subtypes of gout remains unclear. Here, we first performed a GWAS of clinically defined gout cases only. Methods A GWAS was conducted with 945 patients with clinically defined gout and 1213 contr...

  4. Defining risk groups to yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the absence of denominator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Cohen, Joel E; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C

    2014-02-01

    Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ∼1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available.

  5. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  6. The value of counting WHO-defined cardiovascular risk factors for death and disability in a national sample of adults with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Lisa Anne; Mackinnon, Andrew; Foley, Debra L; Morgan, Vera A; Waterreus, Anna; Watts, Gerald F; Castle, David J; Liu, Dennis; Galletly, Cherrie A

    2017-04-01

    This study explored the prevalence and associations of eight WHO-defined CVD risk factors for death and disability in people with psychosis. The study included 1156 people aged 18-64years, diagnosed with psychosis. The 2009 World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Health Risks Report was used as a framework to determine the prevalence and number of eight key risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men and women with psychosis. Differences in the number and type of risk factors by age and gender were investigated. Multi-predictor analysis was performed to identify associations between demographic factors, psychiatric diagnosis and accumulative CVD risk factors. Women had fewer CVD risk factors than men. The number of risk factors significantly decreased in association with single marital status, current employment and significantly increased with earning a higher income. People aged 35-49years and 50-64years had an average of 4 risk factors (SD 1.38 and 1.30); people aged 18-34years had an average of 3 risk factors (SD 1.30). Mean risk factors were higher in the middle age and older age groups (35-49years and 50-64years) compared with the younger age group (18-34years) (prisks. These were more common in men and rose with age, implying the necessity of close clinical monitoring. The most common risk factors should be targeted by lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma

  8. Plasma IL-8 and IL-6 levels can be used to define a group with low risk of septicaemia among cancer patients with fever and neutropenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, ESJM; Vellenga, E; Swaanenburg, JCJM; Fidler, [No Value; Visser-van Brummen, PJ; Kamps, WA

    1999-01-01

    The standard therapy for patients with fever and chemotherapy-related neutropenia is hospitalization and infusion of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Early discharge of a defined group of patients at low risk for septicaemia would be of great advantage for these patients. Ih this study plasma

  9. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  10. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  11. Defining AML and MDS second cancer risk dynamics after diagnoses of first cancers treated or not with radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radivoyevitch, T.; Sachs, R. K.; Gale, R. P.; Molenaar, R. J.; Brenner, D. J.; Hill, B. T.; Kalaycio, M. E.; Carraway, H. E.; Mukherjee, S.; Sekeres, M. A.; Maciejewski, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and/or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are known to increase after cancer treatments. Their rise-and-fall dynamics and their associations with radiation have, however, not been fully characterized. To improve risk definition we developed SEERaBomb R software for

  12. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  13. Diabetes mellitus defined by hemoglobin A1c value: Risk characterization for incidence among Japanese subjects in the JPHC Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2011-10-07

    Aims/Introduction:  Although several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, most of them have been identified in studies on Western populations, and they should be evaluated in a Japanese population. In 2010, new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were released and its use in epidemiological studies has many advantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes defined based on HbA1c values in a Japanese population.   A total of 9223 subjects (3076 men and 6147 women) were followed up for 5 years. Diabetes was defined based on self-report or HbA1c value. Risk factors for diabetes were evaluated as odds ratios adjusted for potential confounding factors by logistic regression.   During the 5-year follow-up period, we documented 518 incident cases of diabetes (232 men and 286 women). Of the 518 incident cases, 310 cases were diagnosed by HbA1c alone. Among the men, age, smoking (both past smoking and current smoking) and family history of diabetes significantly increased the risk of diabetes. Among the women, body mass index, family history of diabetes and hypertension significantly increased the risk of diabetes. These results did not change markedly after adjustment for the baseline HbA1c values, and the baseline HbA1c value itself was a significant risk factor for diabetes mellitus.   Known risk factors for diabetes established in Western populations also increased the risk of diabetes in a Japanese population defined on the basis of HbA1c values. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00119.x, 2011).

  14. Incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining cancers in a cohort of HIV-positive adults: Importance of the definition of incident cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-García, Inés; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Iribarren, José Antonio; López-Cortés, Luis Fernando; Lacruz-Rodrigo, José; Masiá, Mar; Gómez-Sirvent, Juan Luis; Hernández-Quero, José; Vidal, Francesc; Alejos-Ferreras, Belén; Moreno, Santiago; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for the development of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs); and to investigate the effect of making different assumptions on the definition of incident cases. A multicentre cohort study was designed. Poisson regression was used to assess incidence and risk factors. To account for misclassification, incident cases were defined using lag-times of 0, 14 and 30 days after enrolment. A total of 6393 HIV-positive subjects were included in the study. The incidences of ADCs changed as the lag periods were varied from 0 to 30 days. Different risk factors emerged as the definition of incident cases was changed. For a lag time of 0, the risk of Kaposi sarcoma [KS] and non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL] increased at CD4 counts sex with men had a higher risk of KS. KS and NHL were not associated with viral load, gender, or hepatitis B or C. The results were similar for a lag-time of 14 and 30 days; however, hepatitis C was significantly associated with NHL. This analysis shows the importance of the definition of incident cases in cohort studies. Alternative definitions gave different incidence estimates, and may have implications for the analysis of risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining the biosecurity risk posed by transported soil: Effects of storage time and environmental exposure on survival of soil biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. McNeill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil frequently occurs as a contaminant on numerous sea, land and air transport pathways. It can carry unwanted invasive species, is widely recognized as a biosecurity risk, and is usually strictly regulated by biosecurity authorities. However, little is known about relative risk levels between pathways, thus authorities have limited capability to identify and target the riskiest soil pathways for management. We conducted a an experiment to test the hypotheses that biosecurity risks from soil organisms will increase both with declining transport duration and with increasing protection from environmental extremes. Soil was collected from two sites, a native forest remnant and an orchard, and stored on, in and under sea containers, or in cupboards, and assayed after 0, 3, 6 and 12 months for bacteria, fungi, nematodes and seeds. Results showed that viability of Pseudomonas spp., bacteria, nematodes and plants declined over 12 months, irrespective of soil source. Also, mortality of most biota was higher when exposed to sunlight, moisture and desiccation than when protected. However, bacterial and fungal numbers were higher in exposed environments, possibly due to ongoing colonization of exposed soil by airborne propagules. The results were consistent with our observations of organisms in soil intercepted from airports and sea ports, and indicated there is potential to rank risks from transported soils based partly on transport duration and environmental exposure. This would help authorities to optimally allocate management resources according to pathway-specific risks.

  16. Can we define a tolerable level of risk in food allergy? Report from a EuroPrevall/UK Food Standards Agency workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C B; Hattersley, S; Allen, K J; Beyer, K; Chan, C-H; Godefroy, S B; Hodgson, R; Mills, E N C; Muñoz-Furlong, A; Schnadt, S; Ward, R; Wickman, M; Crevel, R

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that, as with other risks in society, zero risk for food-allergic people is not a realistic or attainable option. Food allergy challenge data and new risk assessment methods offer the opportunity to develop quantitative limits for unintended allergenic ingredients which can be used in risk-based approaches. However, a prerequisite to their application is defining a tolerable level of risk. This requires a value judgement and is ultimately a 'societal' decision that has to involve all relevant stakeholders. The aim of the workshop was to bring together key representatives from the stakeholders (regulators, food industry, clinical researchers and patients), and for the first time ever discuss the definition of a tolerable level of risk with regard to allergic reactions to food. The discussions revealed a consensus that zero risk was not a realistic option and that it is essential to address the current lack of agreed action levels for cross-contamination with allergens if food allergen management practice is to be improved. The discussions also indicated that it was difficult to define and quantify a tolerable level of risk, although both the clinical and the industry groups tried to do so. A consensus emerged that doing nothing was not a viable option, and there was a strong desire to take action to improve the current situation. Two concrete actions were suggested: (1) Action levels should be derived from the data currently available. Different scenarios should be examined and further developed in an iterative process. On the basis of this work, a tolerable level of risk should be proposed. (2) 'One-dose' clinical trial with a low challenge dose should be performed in multiple centres to provide additional information about the general applicability of dose-distribution models and help validate the threshold levels derived. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  18. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  19. Defining the implant treatment volume for patients with low risk prostate cancer: does the anterior base need to be treated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Davis, Ann; Vargas, Sara O.; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Jiroutek, Michael; Richie, Jerome P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: An increased incidence of acute urinary retention has been reported after interstitial prostate radiation therapy when the anterior base of the prostate gland receives 100% of the prescription dose. The frequency of prostate cancer in this location as a function of the pre-treatment prostate specific antigen (PSA), biopsy Gleason score, and 1992 American Joint Commission on Cancer Staging (AJCC) was determined. Methods and Materials: One hundred four men treated at the Brigham and Women's Hospital with radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1995-1996 comprised the study population. Prostatectomy specimens were whole mounted and the location of each tumor foci enumerated. Results: Of 269 foci of prostate cancer found in 39 low-risk prostate cancer patients (PSA 1c,2a ), a single focus (0.37%) was noted in the anterior base. Conversely, 20/355 (5.6%) and 18/251 (7.2%) tumor foci were noted in the anterior base in 43 patients with intermediate risk and 24 patients with high-risk disease, respectively. Conclusions: A new definition of the treatment volume excluding the anterior base for low-risk prostate cancer patients may be justified

  20. Defining the Risk and Associated Morbidity and Mortality of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Among Infants with Chronic Lung Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paes, Bosco; Fauroux, Brigitte; Figueras-Aloy, Josep; Bont, Louis; Checchia, Paul A; Simões, Eric A F; Manzoni, Paolo; Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV evidence-a geographical archive of the literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This third publication covers the risk and burden of RSV

  1. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  2. "Dermatitis" defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne M; Nedorost, Susan T

    2010-01-01

    The term "dermatitis" can be defined narrowly or broadly, clinically or histologically. A common and costly condition, dermatitis is underresourced compared to other chronic skin conditions. The lack of a collectively understood definition of dermatitis and its subcategories could be the primary barrier. To investigate how dermatologists define the term "dermatitis" and determine if a consensus on the definition of this term and other related terms exists. A seven-question survey of dermatologists nationwide was conducted. Of respondents (n  =  122), half consider dermatitis to be any inflammation of the skin. Nearly half (47.5%) use the term interchangeably with "eczema." Virtually all (> 96%) endorse the subcategory "atopic" under the terms "dermatitis" and "eczema," but the subcategories "contact," "drug hypersensitivity," and "occupational" are more highly endorsed under the term "dermatitis" than under the term "eczema." Over half (55.7%) personally consider "dermatitis" to have a broad meaning, and even more (62.3%) believe that dermatologists as a whole define the term broadly. There is a lack of consensus among experts in defining dermatitis, eczema, and their related subcategories.

  3. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  4. Body mass index at age 18 years and recent body mass index in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes in white women and African-American women: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiyan; Ursin, Giske; Xu, Xinxin; Lee, Eunjung; Togawa, Kayo; Malone, Kathleen E; Marchbanks, Polly A; McDonald, Jill A; Simon, Michael S; Folger, Suzanne G; Lu, Yani; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Deapen, Dennis M; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie

    2018-01-22

    Although it has been well-documented that obesity is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, it is unclear whether these associations differ among breast cancer subtypes defined by the tumor protein expression status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years and recent BMI in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes, in 6320 women (3934 case-patient participants, 2386 control participants) aged 35-64 years, who participated in one of three population-based case-control studies. We estimated multivariable-adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods for case-control comparisons in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. BMI at age 18 years was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly among premenopausal women (≥ 25 vs. women, African-American women). Recent BMI was not associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer after adjustment for BMI at age 18 years; nevertheless, the analysis for the joint effects of BMI at age 18 years and recent BMI showed that premenopausal women in the highest categories of the two BMI measures (≥ 25 kg/m 2 at age 18 years and ≥ 30 kg/m 2 for recent BMI) had 46% lower risk of breast cancer than premenopausal women in the lowest categories of the two BMI measures (breast cancer. Our findings indicate that high BMI near the end of adolescence decreases risk of all ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes of premenopausal breast cancer and also suggest that this benefit could be maximized among premenopausal women who consistently have high BMI during their premenopausal years.

  5. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  6. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  7. Defining the Risk of Zika and Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Human Population Centers of the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Manore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae. albopictus and then to other humans in USA cities with variable human densities and seasonality. Mosquito-borne disease occurs when specific combinations of conditions maximize virus-to-mosquito and mosquito-to-human contact rates. We develop a mathematical model that captures the epidemiology and is informed by current data on vector ecology from urban sites. The model demonstrates that under specific but realistic conditions, fifty-percent of introductions by infectious travelers to a high human, high mosquito density city could initiate local transmission and 10% of the introductions could result in 100 or more people infected. Despite the propensity for Ae. albopictus to bite non-human vertebrates, we also demonstrate that local virus transmission and human outbreaks may occur when vectors feed from humans even just 40% of the time. Inclusion of human behavioral changes and mitigations were not incorporated into the models and would likely reduce predicted infections. This work demonstrates how a conditional series of non-average events can result in local arbovirus transmission and outbreaks of human disease, even in temperate cities.

  8. Os alcances e limites da medicalização do risco para a psicose: a emergência de uma nova categoria? Scope and limits of medicalization of the risk for psychosis: emergence of a new category?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Malta Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo consistiu em discutir a medicalização do risco para a psicose; especificamente, a construção de uma nova categoria diagnóstica que vem sendo realizada pela força-tarefa de elaboração do DSM-5, nomeada "síndrome de risco para a psicose" e, mais recentemente, "síndrome dos sintomas psicóticos atenuados". A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica. Foi realizado um breve relato da genealogia do risco na psiquiatria. Na parte inicial do artigo, procurou-se discutir a medicalização de uma forma mais geral, focando sobre os aspectos do controle social e das tecnologias do self, sob uma ótica foucaultiana. Posteriormente, foi dada ênfase ao processo da medicalização do risco para a psicose; em especial, à construção de uma categoria relacionada a esse risco. Dentre os alcances desse processo, destacou-se a possibilidade de se intervir precocemente na psicose e com isso retardar seu início. Ainda não está claro se a intervenção precoce pode reduzir a gravidade do quadro quando instalado ou mesmo impedir seu aparecimento. Quanto aos limites, mostrou-se o risco de se produzir uma hipermedicalização com a construção da categoria, levando ao uso indiscriminado de medicamentos neurolépticos e aos riscos relacionados a esse uso, bem como à estigmatização dos indivíduos incluídos na categoria. Foi mostrado também o problema do elevado número de indivíduos "falsos positivos", ou seja, indivíduos que serão categorizados e mais tarde não desenvolverão qualquer transtorno psicótico. Procurou-se com o trabalho estabelecer uma crítica consistente à construção da categoria nosológica em questão.This paper aimed to discuss the medicalization of the risk for psychosis, and more specifically, the building of a new diagnostic category which has been carried out by the DSM-5 elaboration Task Force, named psychosis risk syndrome and, more recently, attenuated psychotic symptoms syndrome. The

  9. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  10. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  11. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  12. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  13. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  14. Toxicity testing in the 21 century: defining new risk assessment approaches based on perturbation of intracellular toxicity pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The approaches to quantitatively assessing the health risks of chemical exposure have not changed appreciably in the past 50 to 80 years, the focus remaining on high-dose studies that measure adverse outcomes in homogeneous animal populations. This expensive, low-throughput approach relies on conservative extrapolations to relate animal studies to much lower-dose human exposures and is of questionable relevance to predicting risks to humans at their typical low exposures. It makes little use of a mechanistic understanding of the mode of action by which chemicals perturb biological processes in human cells and tissues. An alternative vision, proposed by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21(st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, called for moving away from traditional high-dose animal studies to an approach based on perturbation of cellular responses using well-designed in vitro assays. Central to this vision are (a "toxicity pathways" (the innate cellular pathways that may be perturbed by chemicals and (b the determination of chemical concentration ranges where those perturbations are likely to be excessive, thereby leading to adverse health effects if present for a prolonged duration in an intact organism. In this paper we briefly review the original NRC report and responses to that report over the past 3 years, and discuss how the change in testing might be achieved in the U.S. and in the European Union (EU. EU initiatives in developing alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic ingredients have run very much in parallel with the NRC report. Moving from current practice to the NRC vision would require using prototype toxicity pathways to develop case studies showing the new vision in action. In this vein, we also discuss how the proposed strategy for toxicity testing might be applied to the toxicity pathways associated with DNA damage and repair.

  15. Defining the mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Janet L

    2009-01-01

    This chapter defines the agents that provide for the movement of genetic material which fuels the adaptive potential of life on our planet. The chapter has been structured to be broadly comprehensive, arbitrarily categorizing the mobilome into four classes: (1) transposons, (2) plasmids, (3) bacteriophage, and (4) self-splicing molecular parasites.Our increasing understanding of the mobilome is as dynamic as the mobilome itself. With continuing discovery, it is clear that nature has not confined these genomic agents of change to neat categories, but rather the classification categories overlap and intertwine. Massive sequencing efforts and their published analyses are continuing to refine our understanding of the extent of the mobilome. This chapter provides a framework to describe our current understanding of the mobilome and a foundation on which appreciation of its impact on genome evolution can be understood.

  16. Defining chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose, discuss, and illustrate a computationally feasible definition of chaos which can be applied very generally to situations that are commonly encountered, including attractors, repellers, and non-periodically forced systems. This definition is based on an entropy-like quantity, which we call "expansion entropy," and we define chaos as occurring when this quantity is positive. We relate and compare expansion entropy to the well-known concept of topological entropy to which it is equivalent under appropriate conditions. We also present example illustrations, discuss computational implementations, and point out issues arising from attempts at giving definitions of chaos that are not entropy-based.

  17. Mental health disorders and the risk of AIDS-defining illness and death in HIV-infected veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurutdinova, Diana; Chrusciel, Timothy; Zeringue, Angelique; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Al-Aly, Ziyad; McDonald, Jay R; Overton, Edgar T

    2012-01-14

    Mental health comorbidities are common in HIV-infected veterans and can impact clinical outcomes for HIV. We examined the impact of mental health diagnoses on progression to AIDS-defining illness (ADI) and death in a large cohort of HIV-infected veterans who accessed care between 2001 and 2006. Retrospective cohort study using the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) HIV Clinical Case Registry. We identified HIV-infected veterans initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) within the VHA between 2000 and 2006. The prevalences of the following mental health diagnoses were examined: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and substance use disorder. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to examine the relationship between mental health conditions and two outcomes, all-cause mortality and ADI. Models were computed before and after adjusting for confounding factors including age, race, baseline CD4 cell count, comorbidities and cART adherence. Among 9003 veterans receiving cART, 31% had no mental health diagnosis. Age, race, baseline comorbidity score, CD4, and cART adherence were associated with shorter time to ADI or death. All-cause mortality was more likely among veterans with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and substance use, and ADI was more likely to occur among veterans with substance use disorder. Our results demonstrate the high prevalence of mental health diagnoses among HIV-infected veterans. In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, presence of psychiatric diagnoses impacted survival and development of ADI. More aggressive measures addressing substance abuse and severe mental illness in HIV-infected veterans are necessary.

  18. Defining Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Elizabeth; Donnerstein, Edward; Kowalski, Robin; Lin, Carolyn A; Parti, Katalin

    2017-11-01

    Is cyberbullying essentially the same as bullying, or is it a qualitatively different activity? The lack of a consensual, nuanced definition has limited the field's ability to examine these issues. Evidence suggests that being a perpetrator of one is related to being a perpetrator of the other; furthermore, strong relationships can also be noted between being a victim of either type of attack. It also seems that both types of social cruelty have a psychological impact, although the effects of being cyberbullied may be worse than those of being bullied in a traditional sense (evidence here is by no means definitive). A complicating factor is that the 3 characteristics that define bullying (intent, repetition, and power imbalance) do not always translate well into digital behaviors. Qualities specific to digital environments often render cyberbullying and bullying different in circumstances, motivations, and outcomes. To make significant progress in addressing cyberbullying, certain key research questions need to be addressed. These are as follows: How can we define, distinguish between, and understand the nature of cyberbullying and other forms of digital conflict and cruelty, including online harassment and sexual harassment? Once we have a functional taxonomy of the different types of digital cruelty, what are the short- and long-term effects of exposure to or participation in these social behaviors? What are the idiosyncratic characteristics of digital communication that users can be taught? Finally, how can we apply this information to develop and evaluate effective prevention programs? Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Improving early outcomes following hybrid procedure for patients with single ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction: defining risk factors†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Christian; Davies, Ryan R; Woodford, Edward; Radtke, Wolfgang A

    2015-06-01

    The hybrid procedure has become an accepted management strategy for patients with single ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction (SVSOO), particularly those considered at high risk for mortality following Stage I Norwood. We sought to refine patient selection by identifying clinical variables associated with early mortality. Single-centre review of all patients with SVSOO undergoing a hybrid procedure between January 2003 and December 2012. Demographic, clinical and outcome data were collected from the electronic medical record. The primary outcome was operative mortality (mortality within 30 days of the operation or prior to hospital discharge). Thirty-four patients underwent hybrid palliation at a median age of 5 days (IQR 3-8.5) and a median weight of 2.5 kg (IQR 2.2-2.9). Aortic atresia was present in 13 of 34 patients. Emergency banding for resuscitation was performed in 8 cases. Subsequent procedures included Stage I Norwood in 14, combined Stage I and II Norwood in 8, biventricular repair in 3 and cardiac transplantation in 2. Median cardiac intensive care unit length of stay was 54 days (IQR 27-92). Seven patients had no subsequent procedure. There were 11 operative deaths. Non-modifiable patient-related factors had a significant association with operative mortality, including weight under 2.0 kg (OR 18; 95% CI 1.8-188.3, P = 0.0008) and aortic atresia (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.2-30.1, P = 0.026). Most significant was the interaction between aortic atresia and weight under 2.0 kg on early mortality (OR 13.1; 95% CI 1.9-92 P = 0.0039). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of aortic atresia (OR 13.4; 95% CI 1.2-151) and a birthweight of 2.0 kg or less (OR 51; 95% CI 2.4-999) were also significant predictors of operative mortality. Non-modifiable patient-related factors have a profound effect on early survival following a hybrid procedure for SVSOO. Outcomes for patients under 2.0 kg with aortic atresia remain very poor. Risk stratification

  20. The development of hypothalamic obesity in craniopharyngioma patients: A risk factor analysis in a well-defined cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Laura; Meijneke, Ruud W H; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Reneman, Liesbeth; de Win, Maartje M; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Bisschop, Peter H; Finken, Martijn J J; Vandertop, W Peter; van Furth, Wouter R; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2018-05-01

    Hypothalamic obesity (HO) is a major concern in patients treated for craniopharyngioma (CP). The influence of degree of resection on development of HO, event-free survival (EFS), and neuroendocrine sequelae is an issue of debate. A retrospective cohort consisting of all CP patients treated between 2002 and 2012 in two university hospitals was identified. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations between preoperative BMI, age at diagnosis, tumor volume, performed surgical resection, and presence of HO at follow-up. Thirty-five patients (21 children and 14 adults) were included. Median follow-up time was 35.6 months (4.1-114.7). Four patients were obese at diagnosis. HO was present in 19 (54.3%) patients at last follow-up of whom eight were morbidly obese. Thirteen (37.1%) patients underwent partial resection (PR) and 22 (62.9%) gross total resection (GTR). GTR was related to HO (OR 9.19, 95% CI 1.43-59.01), but for morbid HO, obesity at diagnosis was the only risk factor (OR 12.92, 95% CI 1.05-158.73). EFS in patients after GTR was 86%, compared to 42% after PR (log-rank 9.2, P = 0.003). Adjuvant radiotherapy after PR improved EFS (log-rank 8.2, P = 0.004). Panhypopituitarism, present in 15 patients, was mainly seen after GTR. HO is less frequent after PR than after GTR, but PR cannot always prevent the development of morbid obesity in patients with obesity at diagnosis. PR reduces the occurrence of panhypopituitarism. When developing a treatment algorithm, all these factors should be considered. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  2. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  3. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  4. Association of prediabetes, defined by fasting glucose, HbA1c only, or combined criteria, with the risk of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Kyu; Lee, Jung Bok; Kim, Seon Ha; Jo, Min-Woo; Kim, Eun Hee; Hwang, Jenie Yoonoo; Bae, Sung Jin; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Park, Joong-Yeol; Park, Gyung-Min; Kim, Young-Hak; Choe, Jaewon

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and prediabetes defined by either fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, or their combination in a Korean population. In all, 76 434 South Koreans who voluntarily underwent a general health examination in the Health Screening & Promotion Center (Asan Medical Center) were analyzed after excluding patients with a previous history of CVD. Cardiovascular events and death due to CVD during a median follow-up period of 3.1 years (interquartile range 1.9-4.3 years) were identified from the Nationwide Health Insurance Claims Database and death certificates using ICD-10 codes. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for overall CVD events were significantly greater for subjects with prediabetes defined by FPG only (HR 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.31), HbA1c only (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.16-1.42), and combined criteria (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.09-1.32) compared with the normoglycemic group. After adjusting for multiple conventional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, family history of CVD, and BMI), the HRs for overall CVD were significantly increased only for participants with prediabetes defined by HbA1c. Age- and sex-adjusted HRs for major ischemic heart disease events were significantly increased for subjects with prediabetes defined either by HbA1c or combined criteria. Similarly, age- and sex-adjusted HRs for percutaneous coronary intervention were significantly higher for subjects with prediabetes defined by HbA1c only. For diabetes, the multivariate-adjusted HRs for all outcomes were significantly increased by all three criteria. Adding an HbA1c criterion when defining prediabetes in Koreans can help identify individuals with an increased risk of CVD. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Multimodality Molecular Imaging (FDG-PET/CT, US Elastography, and DWI-MRI) as Complimentary Adjunct for Enhancing Diagnostic Confidence in Reported Intermediate Risk Category Thyroid Nodules on Bethesda Thyroid Cytopathology Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sandip; Mahajan, Abhishek; Arya, Supreeta

    2016-01-01

    The potential complimentary role of various molecular imaging modalities [fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT), ultrasound (US)-elastography, and diffusion weighted imaging-magnetic resonance imaging (DWI-MRI)] in characterizing thyroid nodules, which have been designated as “intermediate risk category” on the Bethesda thyroid cytopathology reporting system (BTCRS), is illustrated in this communication. The clinical cases described (category III thyroid nodules on BTCRS) show the imaging features and the final diagnostic impressions rendered by the interpreting physicians with the modalities that have been independently compared in a tabular format at the end; of particular note is the high negative predictive value of these (specifically FDG-PET/CT), which could aid in enhancing the diagnostic confidence in the reported “intermediate risk category” thyroid nodules, a “gray zone” from the patient management viewpoint

  6. Regular and low-dose aspirin, other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and prospective risk of HER2-defined breast cancer: the California Teachers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A; Canchola, Alison J; Moy, Lisa M; Neuhausen, Susan L; Chung, Nadia T; Lacey, James V; Bernstein, Leslie

    2017-05-01

    Regular users of aspirin may have reduced risk of breast cancer. Few studies have addressed whether risk reduction pertains to specific breast cancer subtypes defined jointly by hormone receptor (estrogen and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression. This study assessed the prospective risk of breast cancer (overall and by subtype) according to use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) in a cohort of female public school professionals in California. In 1995 - 1996, participants in the California Teachers Study completed a baseline questionnaire on family history of cancer and other conditions, use of NSAIDs, menstrual and reproductive history, self-reported weight and height, living environment, diet, alcohol use, and physical activity. In 2005-2006, 57,164 participants provided some updated information, including use of NSAIDs and 1457 of these participants developed invasive breast cancer before January 2013. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard rate ratios (HRR) for the association between NSAID use and risk of invasive breast cancer as well as hormone receptor- and HER2-defined subtypes. Developing breast cancer was associated inversely with taking three or more tablets of low-dose aspirin per week (23% of participants). Among women reporting this exposure, the HRR was 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.98) compared to those not taking NSAIDs and this was particularly evident in women with the hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative subtype (HRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.96). Use of three or more tablets of "other" NSAIDs was marginally associated with lower risk of breast cancer (HRR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.62-1.00). Other associations with NSAIDs were generally null. Our observation of reduced risk of breast cancer, among participants who took three or more tablets of low-dose aspirin weekly, is consistent with other reports looking at

  7. Perinatal Risks in "Late Motherhood" Defined Based On Parity and Preterm Birth Rate - an Analysis of the German Perinatal Survey (20th Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, V; Voigt, M; Schild, R L; Hesse, V; Carstensen, M; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: "Late motherhood" is associated with greater perinatal risks but the term lacks precise definition. We present an approach to determine what "late motherhood" associated with "high risk" is, based on parity and preterm birth rate. Materials and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey of 1998-2000 we analysed preterm birth rates in women with zero, one, or two previous live births. We compared groups of "late" mothers (with high preterm birth rates) with "control" groups of younger women (with relatively low preterm birth rates). Data of 208 342 women were analysed. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, the "control" group included women aged 22-26 (27-31; 29-33) years. Women in the "late motherhood" group were aged > 33 (> 35; > 38) years. Results: The "late motherhood" groups defined in this way were also at higher risk of adverse perinatal events other than preterm birth. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, normal cephalic presentation occurred in 89 % (92.7 %; 93.3 %) in the "control" group, but only in 84.5 % (90 %; 90.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. The mode of delivery was spontaneous or at most requiring manual help in 71.3 % (83.4 %; 85.8 %) in the "control" group, but only in 51.4 % (72.2 %; 76.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. Five-minute APGAR scores were likewise worse for neonates of "late" mothers and the proportion with a birth weight ≤ 2499 g was greater. Conclusion: "Late motherhood" that is associated with greater perinatal risks can be defined based on parity and preterm birth rate.

  8. The use of automated Ki67 analysis to predict Oncotype DX risk-of-recurrence categories in early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Satbir Singh; Li, Haocheng; Chan, Angela M Y; Tudor, Roxana; Bigras, Gilbert; Morris, Don; Enwere, Emeka K; Yang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Ki67 is a commonly used marker of cancer cell proliferation, and has significant prognostic value in breast cancer. In spite of its clinical importance, assessment of Ki67 remains a challenge, as current manual scoring methods have high inter- and intra-user variability. A major reason for this variability is selection bias, in that different observers will score different regions of the same tumor. Here, we developed an automated Ki67 scoring method that eliminates selection bias, by using whole-slide analysis to identify and score the tumor regions with the highest proliferative rates. The Ki67 indices calculated using this method were highly concordant with manual scoring by a pathologist (Pearson's r = 0.909) and between users (Pearson's r = 0.984). We assessed the clinical validity of this method by scoring Ki67 from 328 whole-slide sections of resected early-stage, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. All patients had Oncotype DX testing performed (Genomic Health) and available Recurrence Scores. High Ki67 indices correlated significantly with several clinico-pathological correlates, including higher tumor grade (1 versus 3, P<0.001), higher mitotic score (1 versus 3, P<0.001), and lower Allred scores for estrogen and progesterone receptors (P = 0.002, 0.008). High Ki67 indices were also significantly correlated with higher Oncotype DX risk-of-recurrence group (low versus high, P<0.001). Ki67 index was the major contributor to a machine learning model which, when trained solely on clinico-pathological data and Ki67 scores, identified Oncotype DX high- and low-risk patients with 97% accuracy, 98% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Automated scoring of Ki67 can thus successfully address issues of consistency, reproducibility and accuracy, in a manner that integrates readily into the workflow of a pathology laboratory. Furthermore, automated Ki67 scores contribute significantly to models that predict risk of

  9. The use of automated Ki67 analysis to predict Oncotype DX risk-of-recurrence categories in early-stage breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh Thakur

    Full Text Available Ki67 is a commonly used marker of cancer cell proliferation, and has significant prognostic value in breast cancer. In spite of its clinical importance, assessment of Ki67 remains a challenge, as current manual scoring methods have high inter- and intra-user variability. A major reason for this variability is selection bias, in that different observers will score different regions of the same tumor. Here, we developed an automated Ki67 scoring method that eliminates selection bias, by using whole-slide analysis to identify and score the tumor regions with the highest proliferative rates. The Ki67 indices calculated using this method were highly concordant with manual scoring by a pathologist (Pearson's r = 0.909 and between users (Pearson's r = 0.984. We assessed the clinical validity of this method by scoring Ki67 from 328 whole-slide sections of resected early-stage, hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer. All patients had Oncotype DX testing performed (Genomic Health and available Recurrence Scores. High Ki67 indices correlated significantly with several clinico-pathological correlates, including higher tumor grade (1 versus 3, P<0.001, higher mitotic score (1 versus 3, P<0.001, and lower Allred scores for estrogen and progesterone receptors (P = 0.002, 0.008. High Ki67 indices were also significantly correlated with higher Oncotype DX risk-of-recurrence group (low versus high, P<0.001. Ki67 index was the major contributor to a machine learning model which, when trained solely on clinico-pathological data and Ki67 scores, identified Oncotype DX high- and low-risk patients with 97% accuracy, 98% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Automated scoring of Ki67 can thus successfully address issues of consistency, reproducibility and accuracy, in a manner that integrates readily into the workflow of a pathology laboratory. Furthermore, automated Ki67 scores contribute significantly to models that

  10. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  11. Use of geoprocessing to define malaria risk areas and evaluation of the vectorial importance of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzi, Viviane Coutinho; Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Pinto, Israel de Souza; Feitoza, Leandro Roberto; Feitoza, Hideko Nagatani; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, introduced malaria occurs from the flat to the sloping hot areas, predominantly outside the Amazon Region, where endemic malaria has occurred in the past. This is a consequence of human migrations to other Brazilian states, including the state of Espírito Santo (ES). The objective of this study was to use geoprocessing to define the areas at risk of introduced malaria transmission and evaluate the vectorial importance of species of anophelines in ES. Anophelines were sampled from 1997-2005 in 297 rural localities identified or not identified as foci of malaria during the last 20 years. The geoclimatic variables temperature, relief and marine influence were obtained from a database of the ES Natural Units. The 14,663 anophelines captured belonged to 22 species. A significant association was found between the occurrence of malaria foci and the presence of hot, low-lying areas or gently undulating to undulating relief. The occurrence of the disease was associated with the presence of Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles aquasalis. Geoprocessing was determined to be a useful tool for defining areas at risk for malaria and vectors in ES.

  12. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  13. Congenital hypothyroidism - Polish recommendations for therapy, treatment monitoring, and screening tests in special categories of neonates with increased risk of hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Anna Małgorzata; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona; Walczak, Mieczysław; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Jackowska, Teresa; Lewiński, Andrzej; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Proper treatment of congenital hypothyroidism warrants normal intellectual and physical development. This paper introduces the principles of treatment of congenital hypothyroidism, the recommended levothyroxine dosage, and the aims of therapy with its justification. The principles of treatment, specialist care of the patient, and methods used to evaluate therapeutic effects are described. Based on these data, recommendations concerning treatment and its monitoring in patients with congenital hypothyroidism are formulated. The paper also highlights the importance of educating the patients and/or their caretakers as one of the basic components of an effective therapy. The interpretation of screening tests in preterm neonates is provided as well. In the current screening program in preterm children TSH was determined between days three and five of life and then after three weeks. During this time TSH values are frequently low because of the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Due to the increased risk of primary and secondary hypothyroidism in preterm and low birth weight babies the determination of TSH and fT4 between days three and five of life is recommended, irrespective of the screening test. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 536-547).

  14. Perinatal Risks in “Late Motherhood” Defined Based On Parity and Preterm Birth Rate – an Analysis of the German Perinatal Survey (20th Communication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, V.; Voigt, M.; Schild, R. L.; Hesse, V.; Carstensen, M.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Straube, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: “Late motherhood” is associated with greater perinatal risks but the term lacks precise definition. We present an approach to determine what “late motherhood” associated with “high risk” is, based on parity and preterm birth rate. Materials and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey of 1998–2000 we analysed preterm birth rates in women with zero, one, or two previous live births. We compared groups of “late” mothers (with high preterm birth rates) with “control” groups of younger women (with relatively low preterm birth rates). Data of 208 342 women were analysed. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, the “control” group included women aged 22–26 (27–31; 29–33) years. Women in the “late motherhood” group were aged > 33 (> 35; > 38) years. Results: The “late motherhood” groups defined in this way were also at higher risk of adverse perinatal events other than preterm birth. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, normal cephalic presentation occurred in 89 % (92.7 %; 93.3 %) in the “control” group, but only in 84.5 % (90 %; 90.4 %) in the “late motherhood” group. The mode of delivery was spontaneous or at most requiring manual help in 71.3 % (83.4 %; 85.8 %) in the “control” group, but only in 51.4 % (72.2 %; 76.4 %) in the “late motherhood” group. Five-minute APGAR scores were likewise worse for neonates of “late” mothers and the proportion with a birth weight ≤ 2499 g was greater. Conclusion: “Late motherhood” that is associated with greater perinatal risks can be defined based on parity and preterm birth rate. PMID:25253904

  15. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  16. Increased risk of histologically defined cancer subtypes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals: clues for possible immunosuppression-related or infectious etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S; Engels, Eric A

    2012-10-01

    Malignancies that occur in excess among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may be caused by immunosuppression or infections. Because histologically defined cancer subtypes have not been systematically evaluated, their risk was assessed among people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Analyses included 569,268 people with AIDS from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study, a linkage of 15 US population-based HIV/AIDS and cancer registries during 1980 to 2007. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer risk in people with AIDS to the general population overall, and stratified by age, calendar period (a proxy of changing HIV therapies), and time since onset of AIDS (a proxy of immunosuppression). Sixteen individual cancer histologies or histology groupings manifested significantly elevated SIRs. Risks were most elevated for adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (SIR = 11.3), neoplasms of histiocytes and accessory lymphoid cells (SIR = 10.7), giant cell carcinoma (SIR = 7.51), and leukemia not otherwise specified (SIR = 6.69). SIRs ranged from 1.4 to 4.6 for spindle cell carcinoma, bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma, adnexal and skin appendage neoplasms, sarcoma not otherwise specified, spindle cell sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, mesothelioma, germ cell tumors, plasma cell tumors, immunoproliferative diseases, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and myeloid leukemias. For several of these cancer subtypes, significant declines in SIRs were observed across calendar periods (consistent with decreasing risk with improved HIV therapies) or increase in SIRs with time since onset of AIDS (ie, prolonged immunosuppression). The elevated risk of certain cancer subtypes in people with AIDS may point to an etiologic role of immunosuppression or infection. Future studies are needed to further investigate these associations and evaluate candidate infectious agents. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  17. Defining “Binge” Drinking as Five Drinks per Occasion or Drinking to a 0.08% BAC: Which is More Sensitive to Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Jude, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Heavy episodic or “binge” drinking is commonly defined as drinking 4–5 drinks per occasion (5/4 definition) or drinking that results in a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08%. The present study compared the validity of each binge definition as an indicator of at-risk, problem drinking. 251 college students were classified as non-binge drinkers or as binge drinkers based on the 5/4 definition or the 0.08% BAC definition. The two definitions of binge drinking were examined in terms of their sensitivity and specificity as indicators of alcohol-related problems as determined by scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Over half the sample (56%) were at-risk drinkers according to the AUDIT. The 0.08% definition detected only one-half of these individuals. Gender differences were also evident. Female binge drinkers actually achieved significantly higher estimated BACs per episode than their male binge drinking counterparts. The findings suggest that drinking to a sub-threshold BAC (i.e., risk independent of the BAC achieved during drinking episodes. The findings also highlight the importance of considering frequency of consumption in determining risky drinking versus relying solely on quantity measures. PMID:21838847

  18. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  19. Haplotype Analysis Discriminates Genetic Risk for DR3-Associated Endocrine Autoimmunity and Helps Define Extreme Risk for Addison’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Peter R.; Baschal, Erin E.; Fain, Pam R.; Triolo, Taylor M.; Nanduri, Priyaanka; Siebert, Janet C.; Armstrong, Taylor K.; Babu, Sunanda R.; Rewers, Marian J.; Gottlieb, Peter A.; Barker, Jennifer M.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Multiple autoimmune disorders (e.g. Addison’s disease, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease) are associated with HLA-DR3, but it is likely that alleles of additional genes in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DRB1 contribute to disease. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize major histocompatability complex (MHC) haplotypes conferring extreme risk for autoimmune Addison’s disease (AD). Design, Setting, and Participants: Eighty-six 21-hydroxylase autoantibody-positive, nonautoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1, Caucasian individuals collected from 1992 to 2009 with clinical AD from 68 families (12 multiplex and 56 simplex) were genotyped for HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, MICA, HLA-B, and HLA-A as well as high density MHC single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis for 34. Main Outcome Measures: AD and genotype were measured. Result: Ninety-seven percent of the multiplex individuals had both HLA-DR3 and HLA-B8 vs. 60% of simplex AD patients (P = 9.72 × 10−4) and 13% of general population controls (P = 3.00 × 10−19). The genotype DR3/DR4 with B8 was present in 85% of AD multiplex patients, 24% of simplex patients, and 1.5% of control individuals (P = 4.92 × 10−191). The DR3-B8 haplotype of AD patients had HLA-A1 less often (47%) than controls (81%, P = 7.00 × 10−5) and type 1 diabetes patients (73%, P = 1.93 × 10−3). Analysis of 1228 SNPs across the MHC for individuals with AD revealed a shorter conserved haplotype (3.8) with the loss of the extended conserved 3.8.1 haplotype approximately halfway between HLA-B and HLA-A. Conclusion: Extreme risk for AD, especially in multiplex families, is associated with haplotypic DR3 variants, in particular a portion (3.8) but not all of the conserved 3.8.1 haplotype. PMID:20631027

  20. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a): (1)(i) Specifically authorized under... enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...

  1. Category mistakes: A barrier to effective environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ken J; Jago, Mark

    2017-09-01

    How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example. To overcome such difficulties, we develop and define four entity categories - elements, processes, properties, and values - and two derived categories - states and systems. We argue that adoption of these categories and definitions will significantly improve environmental communication and analysis, and thus strengthen planning and decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment reduction for children and young adults with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia defined by minimal residual disease (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Ajay; Goulden, Nick; Wade, Rachel; Mitchell, Chris; Hancock, Jeremy; Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Richards, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive and specific predictor of relapse risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during remission. We assessed whether treatment intensity could be adjusted for children and young adults according to MRD risk stratification. Between Oct 1, 2003 and June 30, 2011, consecutive children and young adults (aged 1-25 years) with ALL from the UK and Ireland were recruited. Eligible patients were categorised into clinical standard, intermediate, and high risk groups on the basis of a combination of National Cancer Institute (NCI) criteria, cytogenetics, and early response to induction therapy, which was assessed by bone marrow blast counts taken at days 8 (NCI high-risk patients) and 15 (NCI standard-risk patients) after induction began. Clinical standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients were assessed for MRD. Those classified as MRD low risk (undetectable MRD at the end of induction [day 29] or detectable MRD at day 29 that became undetectable by week 11) were randomly assigned to receive one or two delayed intensification courses. Patients had received induction, consolidation, and interim maintenance therapy before they began delayed intensification. Delayed intensification consisted of pegylated asparaginase on day 4; vincristine, dexamethasone (alternate weeks), and doxorubicin for 3 weeks; and 4 weeks of cyclophosphamide and cytarabine. Computer randomisation was done with stratification by MRD result and balancing for sex, age, and white blood cell count at diagnosis by method of minimisation. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was event-free survival (EFS), which was defined as time to relapse, secondary tumour, or death. Our aim was to rule out a 7% reduction in EFS in the group given one delayed intensification course relative to that given two delayed intensification courses. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is

  3. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  4. How to use current practice, risk analysis and standards to define hospital-wide policies on the safe use of infusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Annemoon M; Oliveira-Martens, Suzanne M; Snijder, Roland A; Nieman, Anders K; Egberts, Toine C

    2015-08-01

    Infusion therapy is widely used in hospitals. It is well known that medication errors constitute one of the highest risks to patient safety, leading to numerous adverse events concerning incorrect application of infusion technology. Both clinical practice and in vitro studies show that infusion of multiple medications via one access point induces unwanted phenomena such as backflow and an incorrect system response to interventions. Within the Metrology for Drug Delivery project, we addressed the role of infusion devices in drug delivery. We surveyed current practices for application in hospitals to provide input to standards and quality norms for the materials used in infusion technology. Furthermore, we organized meetings with clinicians and other relevant stakeholders to set up a risk analysis-based infusion policy, accompanied by easy to access operating procedures on infusion technology. It was found difficult to establish clear-cut infusion safety guidelines based on quantitative data because of the many different application areas and stakeholders. However, both the expert team and the survey indicated the value of multidisciplinary qualitative discussion for defining best practices. We advise to incorporate specific requirements on infusion devices in protocols and standards, adjusted to specific applications, to ensure safe use of infusion technology.

  5. Comparison of Risk Factor Profiles for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Subtypes Defined by Pattern of Visual Field Loss: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae H; Loomis, Stephanie J; Rosner, Bernard A; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2015-04-01

    We explored whether risk factor associations differed by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subtypes defined by visual field (VF) loss pattern (i.e., paracentral or peripheral). We included 77,157 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 42,773 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS 1986-2010), and incident medical record confirmed cases of paracentral (n = 440) and peripheral (n = 865) POAG subtypes. We evaluated African heritage, glaucoma family history, body mass index (BMI), mean arterial blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, physical activity, smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol intake. We used competing risk Cox regression analyses modeling age as the metameter and stratified by age, cohort, and event type. We sequentially identified factors with the least significant differences in associations with POAG subtypes ("stepwise down" approach with P for heterogeneity [P-het] 0.10) adverse associations with both POAG subtypes were observed with glaucoma family history, diabetes, African heritage, greater caffeine intake, and higher mean arterial pressure. These data indicate that POAG with early paracentral VF loss has distinct as well as common determinants compared with POAG with peripheral VF loss.

  6. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  7. Screening for HbA1c-defined prediabetes and diabetes in an at-risk greek population: performance comparison of random capillary glucose, the ADA diabetes risk test and skin fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Lathouris, Panagiotis; Lontou, Stavroula; Tzemos, Kostas; Maynard, John

    2013-04-01

    We examined the accuracy of random capillary glucose (RCG) and two noninvasive screening methods, the ADA diabetes risk test (DRT) and skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) as measured by Scout DS for detecting HbA1c-defined dysglycemia or type 2 diabetes in an at-risk cohort. Subjects were recruited at two clinical sites for a single non-fasting visit. Each subject had measurements of height, weight and waist circumference. A diabetes score was calculated from skin fluorescence measured on the left forearm. A finger prick was done to measure RCG and HbA1c (A1C). Health questionnaires were completed for the DRT. Increasing dysglycemia was defined as A1C ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) or ≥ 6.0% (42 mmol/mol). Type 2 diabetes was defined as A1C ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol). 398 of 409 subjects had complete data for analysis with means for age, body mass index, and waist of 52 years, 27 kg/m(2) and 90 cm. 51% were male. Prevalence of A1C ≥ 5.7%, ≥ 6.0% and ≥ 6.5% were 54%, 34% and 12%, respectively. Areas under the curve (AUC) for detection of increasing levels dysglycemia or diabetes for RCG were 63%, 66% and 72%, for the ADA DRT the AUCs were 75%, 76% and 81% and for SFS the AUCs were 82%, 84% and 90%, respectively. For each level of dysglycemia or diabetes, the SFS AUC was significantly higher than RCG or the ADA DRT. The noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy measurement outperformed both RCG and the ADA DRT for detection of A1C-defined dysglycemia or diabetes in an at-risk cohort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... three categories: Namely, Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential, depending on its degree of significance... provided by statute. The three classification categories are defined as follows: (a) Top Secret. Top Secret... with the utmost restraint. (b) Secret. Secret refers to that national security information or material...

  9. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  10. Risk of progression to diabetes from prediabetes defined by HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose criteria in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Hee; Bae, Sung-Jin; Choe, Jaewon; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-08-01

    To examine the abilities of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) criteria predicting 5-year progression rate to diabetes in Korean adults with prediabetes. Participants included 17,971 Koreans (aged 20-79years) who underwent routine medical check-ups at a mean interval of 5.2years (3.1-6.7years). Prediabetes was defined as FPG 5.6-6.9mmol/l or HbA1c 5.7-6.4% (39-46mmol/mol). Incident diabetes was defined as FPG⩾7.0mmol/l, HbA1c⩾6.5% (48mmol/mol), or initiation of antidiabetic medications. At baseline, the prevalence of prediabetes was 30.6% (n=5495) by FPG and 20.4% (n=3664) by HbA1c criteria. The 5-year progression rate to diabetes was significantly higher in prediabetes identified by HbA1c than by FPG tests (14.7% vs. 10.4%, Pprediabetes by only one test, those by HbA1c alone had a higher risk of progression to diabetes than those diagnosed by FPG alone (6.0% vs. 3.9%, Pprediabetes identified by HbA1c (OR 9.91, 8.24-11.9) than by FPG (OR 7.29, 5.97-8.89) (P=0.026). Although fewer individuals with prediabetes were identified by HbA1c than by FPG criteria, the ability to predict progression to diabetes was stronger for HbA1c than for FPG in Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EnViSoRS: Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery. A User-Defined Safety Volume Tracking to Minimize the Risk of Intraoperative Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Penza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In abdominal surgery, intraoperative bleeding is one of the major complications that affect the outcome of minimally invasive surgical procedures. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins, and one of the possible risk factors falls on the surgeon’s skills. This paper presents the development and application of an Enhanced Vision System for Robotic Surgery (EnViSoRS, based on a user-defined Safety Volume (SV tracking to minimize the risk of intraoperative bleeding. It aims at enhancing the surgeon’s capabilities by providing Augmented Reality (AR assistance toward the protection of vessels from injury during the execution of surgical procedures with a robot. The core of the framework consists in (i a hybrid tracking algorithm (LT-SAT tracker that robustly follows a user-defined Safety Area (SA in long term; (ii a dense soft tissue 3D reconstruction algorithm, necessary for the computation of the SV; (iii AR features for visualization of the SV to be protected and of a graphical gage indicating the current distance between the instruments and the reconstructed surface. EnViSoRS was integrated with a commercial robotic surgical system (the dVRK system for testing and validation. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the accuracy, robustness, performance, and usability of EnViSoRS during the execution of a simulated surgical task on a liver phantom. Results show an overall accuracy in accordance with surgical requirements (<5 mm, and high robustness in the computation of the SV in terms of precision and recall of its identification. The optimization strategy implemented to speed up the computational time is also described and evaluated, providing AR features update rate up to 4 fps, without impacting the real-time visualization of the stereo endoscopic video. Finally, qualitative results regarding the system usability indicate that the proposed system integrates well with the commercial surgical robot and

  12. Prior knowledge of category size impacts visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; McGee, Brianna; Echiverri, Chelsea; Zinszer, Benjamin D

    2018-03-30

    Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search. We presented participants with 16 familiar company logos: 8 from a smaller category (social media companies) and 8 from a larger category (entertainment/recreation manufacturing companies). The ERP results from Experiment 1 revealed that, in a two-item search array, search was more efficient for the smaller category of logos compared to the larger category. In a four-item search array (Experiment 2), where two of the four items were placeholders, search was largely similar between the category types, but there was more attentional capture by nontarget members from the same category as the target for smaller rather than larger categories. These results support a growing literature on how prior knowledge of categories affects attentional selection and capture during visual search. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to assessing cognitive abilities across the lifespan, given that prior knowledge typically increases with age. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  14. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  15. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  16. Fasting plasma glucose and variation in cardiometabolic risk factors in people with high-risk HbA1c-defined prediabetes: A cross-sectional multiethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanichakorn, Weerachai; Godsland, Ian F; Thomson, Hazel; Misra, Shivani; Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Pramyothin, Pornpoj; Washirasaksiri, Chaiwat; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ramachandran, Ambady; Alberti, K George M M; Johnston, Desmond G; Oliver, Nick S

    2017-12-01

    Variation in cardiometabolic risk in prediabetes and any impacts of ethnicity on such variation have been little studied. In an ethnically diverse dataset, selected according to a high-risk HbA1c-based definition of prediabetes, we have investigated relationships between glycaemia and cardiometabolic risk factors and the influence of ethnicity on these relationships. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a diabetes prevention study in the UK and a chronic care clinic in Thailand, selected for people without diabetes (fasting plasma glucose fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood pressure (BP), lipids and insulin resistance-related risk factors (IRFs). Independently of individual characteristics including ethnicity, only systolic BP was weakly associated with FPG (beta coefficient 1.76 (95%CI 0.10-3.42), p 0.03) and only LDL-c with IFG (FPG 5.6 to fasting glucose (FPG ≥ 6.1 to <7.0 mmol/L) were considered. Relative to White, South Asian ethnicity was independently associated with lower systolic and diastolic BP, Black with lower triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and having 2 or more IRFs, and Thai with lower cholesterol/HDL-c ratio and all three non-white ethnicities with lower total and LDL cholesterol. In high-risk HbA1c-defined prediabetes additional measurement of FPG will add little to evaluation of cardiometabolic risk. Additionally, UK Whites tend to have the most adverse cardiometabolic profile of any ethnic group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  18. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  19. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  20. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  1. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of particular linguistic units by representatives of a linguacultural community as the most preferable verbal actions is not necessary to be a case of verbal operations with some culturally specific knowledge. The analysis of a psychosocial mechanism used for generation and verbalization of such a knowledge allows to define the nature of precedence as a characteristic of meaning that is being effected in a speech act. The development of precedent meaning indispensably assumes not only generation of the definition component, but also entry into a structure of a culturological component meaning. The culturological component reflects a relationship between a subject-concept component of the meaning and the other elements of a speech situation – the relationship, which is notional for a person. Importance of the relationship consists in fact that definition of its content represents to a person their social identity. Until a person understands the content of relationship, which is represented by the culturological component, the use of corresponding linguistic units to nominate new objects of reality is a supraliminal appeal to the precedent knowledge, a speech act. But for new acts of usage the main thing is definitely quality of relationship as a characteristic of the cultural group stability, and the linguistic unit usage derives a new function. When the culturological component of the meaning is not included into generalization, since it is irrelevant one, and the core of meaning is composed of new and more relevant for the usage features, you can no more realize the inner form of the precedent meaning. The outer form is still relevant, since it is kept in mind by the representatives of linguaculture as the one which is preferable for usage. In this case the linguistic unit is just a tool not related to verbal representation of socially significant attitude, and its usage is a speech operation, a way to perform different speech acts

  2. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  3. Can we define a tolerable level of risk in food allergy? Report from a EuroPrevall/UK Food Standards Agency workshop.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, C.B.; Hattersley, S.; Allen, K.J.; Beyer, K.; Chan, C.H.; Godefroy, S.B.; Hodgson, R.; Mills, E.N.; Munoz-Furlong, A.; Schnadt, S.; Ward, R.; Wickman, M.; Crevel, R. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an emerging consensus that, as with other risks in society, zero risk for food-allergic people is not a realistic or attainable option. Food allergy challenge data and new risk assessment methods offer the opportunity to develop quantitative limits for unintended allergenic

  4. Defining the role of risk assessment in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation process at the DOE-OR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.; McGinn, C.W.; Purucker, S.T.; White, R.K.

    1994-08-01

    The risk assessment strategy that will be implemented on the Oak Ridge Reservation has been standardized to ensure consistency and technical defensibility in all risk assessment activities and is presented within this document. The strategy emphasizes using existing environmental data in screening risk analyses to aid in identifying chemicals of potential concern, operable units that could pursue a no further investigation determination, and operable units that may warrant early response actions. The screening risk analyses include a comparison of measured chemical concentrations to preliminary remediation goals, performing a most likely exposure and integration point assessment, and performing a screening ecological risk assessment. This document focuses heavily on the screening risk analyses and relies on existing U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment guidance to provide specific details on conducting baseline risk assessments. However, the document does contain a section on the baseline risk assessment process that details the exposure pathways to be evaluated on the Oak Ridge Reservation. This document will be used in conjunction with existing Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Environmental Restoration risk assessment standards, policies, procedures, and technical memoranda. The material contained herein will be periodically updated as the strategy is tried and tested and as the risk assessment methodology is revised. The primary purpose for this document is to present the proposed strategy to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV and receive concurrence or additional comments on the material presented herein

  5. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  6. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  7. Categories of fruit and vegetables: Attributes and definitions in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.

  8. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  9. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  10. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  11. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  12. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  13. Testing the Efficiency of Markov Chain Monte Carlo with People Using Facial Affect Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Sanborn, Adam N.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring how people represent natural categories is a key step toward developing a better understanding of how people learn, form memories, and make decisions. Much research on categorization has focused on artificial categories that are created in the laboratory, since studying natural categories defined on high-dimensional stimuli such as…

  14. [High risk groups in health behavior defined by clustering of smoking, alcohol, and exercise habits: National Heath and Nutrition Examination Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kiwon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Chang Yup

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m(2)). Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Defining high-risk patients who may benefit before concurrent chemotherapy combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Jing; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Liu, Xu; Sun, Ying; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Lin, Ai-Hua; Ma, Jun

    2015-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to create a prognostic model for distant metastasis in patients with locally advanced NPC who accept concurrent chemotherapy combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (CCRT) to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). A total of 881 patients with newly-diagnosed, non-disseminated, biopsy-proven locoregionally advanced NPC were retrospectively reviewed; 411 (46.7%) accepted CCRT and 470 (53.3%) accepted NACT followed by CCRT. Multivariate analysis demonstrated N2-3 disease, plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA > 4000 copies/mL, serum albumin ≤ 46 g/L and platelet count >300 k/cc were independent prognostic factors for distant metastasis in the CCRT group. Using these four factors, a prognostic model was developed, as follows: 1) low-risk group: 0-1 risk factors; and 2) high-risk group: 2-4 risk factors. In the high-risk group, patients who accepted NACT + CCRT had significantly higher distant metastasis-free survival and progression-free survival rates than the CCRT group (P = 0.001; P = 0.011). This simple prognostic model for distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced NPC may facilitate with the selection of high-risk patients who may benefit from NACT prior to CCRT.

  16. Defining Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy from a Continuous Measure of Optic Nerve Damage - The Optimal Cut-off Point for Risk-factor Analysis in Population-based Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diseases characterized by a continuous trait can be defined by setting a cut-off point for the disease measure in question, accepting some misclassification. The 97.5th percentile is commonly used as a cut-off point. However, it is unclear whether this percentile is the optimal cut-off

  17. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  18. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Saki; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a validated 138-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer incidence were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 624,423 person-years of follow-up period, 681 breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for major confounders for breast cancer risk, inverse trends were observed but statistically non-significant. Extremely high intake of fiber was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but this should be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power. In stratified analyses by menopausal and hormone receptor status, null associations were observed except for ER-PR- status. Our findings suggest that extreme high fiber intake may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but the level of dietary fiber intake among Japanese population might not be sufficient to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  19. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  1. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  2. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  3. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  4. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  5. Structural insertion/deletion variation in IRF5 is associated with a risk haplotype and defines the precise IRF5 isoforms expressed in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozyrev, Sergey V; Lewén, Susanna; Reddy, Prasad M V Linga

    2007-01-01

    -alpha. The SNP most strongly associated with SLE was SNP no. rs2070197 (P=5.2x10(-11)), which is a proxy of the risk haplotype, but does not appear to be functional. CONCLUSION: None of the functional variants investigated in this study is strongly associated with SLE, with the exception of the exon 1B donor......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether specific isoforms of IRF5 are transcribed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who have risk genotypes in the exon 1B donor splice site at single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) no. rs2004640. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained...... interaction domain. The insertion segregates in the risk haplotype with the high expression allele of a poly(A) site SNP no. rs10954213 and the exon 1B donor splice allele of the 5'-UTR SNP no. rs2004640. The poly(A) polymorphism correlated with levels of IRF5 in cells stimulated with interferon...

  6. A treelet transform analysis to relate nutrient patterns to the risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assi, Nada; Moskal, Aurelie; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    in epidemiological studies. We examined the association between various indices of glycaemia measured during everyday activities and metabolic CVD risk factors in the A1C-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. Methods: Participants (268 with type 1 diabetes, 159 with type 2 diabetes) completed 16 weeks of intensive...... continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). From these data, common indices of postprandial glycaemia, overall hyperglycaemia, glucose variability and HbA1c were derived. The associations between glycaemic indices and known CVD risk factors (lipids, high-sensitivity C......Aims: Increased glucose excursions and postprandial hyperglycaemia have been suggested as unique risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Much of the evidence is based on a single 2 h glucose value after oral glucose tolerance testing...

  7. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  8. Defining characteristics and risk indicators for diagnosing nursing home-acquired pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents, using the electronically-modified Delphi Method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollaar, V.; Maarel-Wierink, C. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Sanden, W. van der; Swart, B.J. de; Baat, C. de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nursing home residents, it is not possible to distinguish pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia clinically. International literature reveals no consensus on which and how many characteristics and risk indicators must be present to diagnose (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia and aspiration

  9. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  10. Goguen categories a categorical approach to l-fuzzy relations

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Michael; Mundici, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Goguen categories extend the relational calculus and its categorical formalization to the fuzzy world. Starting from the fundamental concepts of sets, binary relations and lattices this book introduces several categorical formulations of an abstract theory of relations such as allegories, Dedekind categories and related structures. It is shown that neither theory is sufficiently rich to describe basic operations on fuzzy relations. The book then introduces Goguen categories and provides a comprehensive study of these structures including their representation theory, and the definability of norm-based operations. The power of the theory is demonstrated by a comprehensive example. A certain Goguen category is used to specify and to develop a fuzzy controller. Based on its abstract description as well as certain desirable properties and their formal proofs, a verified controller is derived without compromising the - sometimes - intuitive choice of norm-based operations by fuzzy engineers.

  11. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  12. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  13. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  14. Defining the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Oxidation and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts During and After Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space travel will consist primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) or exploration-class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. These missions will expose astronauts to increased risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage from a variety of sources, including radiation, psychological stress, reduced physical activity, diminished nutritional status, and hyperoxic exposure during extravehicular activity. Evidence exists that increased oxidative damage and inflammation can accelerate the development of atherosclerosis.

  15. Defining the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts During and After Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Laurie, S. S; Ribeiro, L. C.; Stenger, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Current human space travel consists primarily of long-duration missions onboard the International Space Station (ISS), but in the future may include exploration-class missions to nearby asteroids, Mars, or its moons. These missions will expose astronauts to increased risk of oxidative and inflammatory damage from a variety of sources, including radiation, psychological stress, reduced physical activity, diminished nutritional status, and hyperoxic exposure during extravehicular activity. Evidence exists that increased oxidative stress and inflammation can accelerate the development of atherosclerosis.

  16. A priori-defined diet quality indices, biomarkers and risk for type 2 diabetes in five ethnic groups: the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Simone; Boushey, Carol J; Franke, Adrian A; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Monroe, Kristine R; Haiman, Christopher A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2017-08-01

    Dietary indices have been related to risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominantly in white populations. The present study evaluated this association in the ethnically diverse Multiethnic Cohort and examined four diet quality indices in relation to T2D risk, homoeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and biomarkers of dyslipidaemia, inflammation and adipokines. The T2D analysis included 166 550 white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American and Latino participants (9200 incident T2D cases). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a quantitative FFQ and T2D status was based on three self-reports and confirmed by administrative data. Biomarkers were assessed about 10 years later in a biomarker subcohort (n 10 060). Sex- and ethnicity-specific hazard ratios were calculated for the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Multivariable-adjusted means of biomarkers were compared across dietary index tertiles in the biomarker subcohort. The AHEI-2010, aMED (in men only) and DASH scores were related to a 10-20 % lower T2D risk, with the strongest associations in whites and the direction of the relationships mostly consistent across ethnic groups. Higher scores on the four indices were related to lower HOMA-IR, TAG and C-reactive protein concentrations, not related to leptin, and the DASH score was directly associated with adiponectin. The AHEI-2010 and DASH were directly related to HDL-cholesterol in women. Potential underlying biological mechanisms linking diet quality and T2D risk are an improved lipid profile and reduced systemic inflammation and, with regards to DASH alone, an improved adiponectin profile.

  17. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  18. A methodology for the transfer of probabilities between accident severity categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlow, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology has been developed which allows the accident probabilities associated with one accident-severity category scheme to be transferred to another severity category scheme. The methodology requires that the schemes use a common set of parameters to define the categories. The transfer of accident probabilities is based on the relationships between probability of occurrence and each of the parameters used to define the categories. Because of the lack of historical data describing accident environments in engineering terms, these relationships may be difficult to obtain directly for some parameters. Numerical models or experienced judgement are often needed to obtain the relationships. These relationships, even if they are not exact, allow the accident probability associated with any severity category to be distributed within that category in a manner consistent with accident experience, which in turn will allow the accident probability to be appropriately transferred to a different category scheme

  19. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  1. Marginal Models for Categorial Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, W.P.; Rudas, T.

    2002-01-01

    Statistical models defined by imposing restrictions on marginal distributions of contingency tables have received considerable attention recently. This paper introduces a general definition of marginal log-linear parameters and describes conditions for a marginal log-linear parameter to be a smooth

  2. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Large Prospective Study of Ovarian Cancer Screening in High-risk Women: CA125 Cut-point Defined by Menopausal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skates, Steven J.; Mai, Phuong; Horick, Nora K.; Piedmonte, Marion; Drescher, Charles W.; Isaacs, Claudine; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Buys, Saundra S.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Horowitz, Ira R.; Berchuck, Andrew; Daly, Mary B.; Domchek, Susan; Cohn, David E.; Van Le, Linda; Schorge, John O.; Newland, William; Davidson, Susan A.; Barnes, Mack; Brewster, Wendy; Azodi, Masoud; Nerenstone, Stacy; Kauff, Noah D.; Fabian, Carol J.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Nayfield, Susan G.; Kasten, Carol H.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Greene, Mark H.; Lu, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous screening trials for early detection of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women have used the standard CA125 cut-point of 35 U/mL, the 98th percentile in this population yielding a 2% false positive rate, while the same cut-point in trials of premenopausal women results in substantially higher false positive rates. We investigated demographic and clinical factors predicting CA125 distributions, including 98th percentiles, in a large population of high-risk women participating in two ovarian cancer screening studies with common eligibility criteria and screening protocols. Methods Baseline CA125 values and clinical and demographic data from 3,692 women participating in screening studies conducted by the NCI-sponsored Cancer Genetics Network and Gynecologic Oncology Group were combined for this pre-planned analysis. Due to the large effect of menopausal status on CA125 levels, statistical analyses were conducted separately in pre- and postmenopausal subjects to determine the impact of other baseline factors on predicted CA125 cut-points based on the 98th percentile. Results The primary clinical factor affecting CA125 cut-points was menopausal status, with premenopausal women having a significantly higher cut-point of 50 U/mL while in postmenopausal subjects the standard cut-point of 35 U/mL was recapitulated. In premenopausal women, current oral contraceptive (OC) users had a cut-point of 40 U/mL. Conclusions To achieve a 2% false positive rate in ovarian cancer screening trials and in high-risk women choosing to be screened, the cut-point for initial CA125 testing should be personalized primarily for menopausal status (~ 50 for premenopausal women, 40 for premenopausal on OC, 35 for postmenopausal women). PMID:21893500

  4. In quest of a systematic framework for unifying and defining nanoscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomalia, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic framework for unifying and defining nanoscience based on historic first principles and step logic that led to a 'central paradigm' (i.e., unifying framework) for traditional elemental/small-molecule chemistry. As such, a Nanomaterials classification roadmap is proposed, which divides all nanomatter into Category I: discrete, well-defined and Category II: statistical, undefined nanoparticles. We consider only Category I, well-defined nanoparticles which are >90% monodisperse as a function of Critical Nanoscale Design Parameters (CNDPs) defined according to: (a) size, (b) shape, (c) surface chemistry, (d) flexibility, and (e) elemental composition. Classified as either hard (H) (i.e., inorganic-based) or soft (S) (i.e., organic-based) categories, these nanoparticles were found to manifest pervasive atom mimicry features that included: (1) a dominance of zero-dimensional (0D) core-shell nanoarchitectures, (2) the ability to self-assemble or chemically bond as discrete, quantized nanounits, and (3) exhibited well-defined nanoscale valencies and stoichiometries reminiscent of atom-based elements. These discrete nanoparticle categories are referred to as hard or soft particle nanoelements. Many examples describing chemical bonding/assembly of these nanoelements have been reported in the literature. We refer to these hard:hard (H-n:H-n), soft:soft (S-n:S-n), or hard:soft (H-n:S-n) nanoelement combinations as nanocompounds. Due to their quantized features, many nanoelement and nanocompound categories are reported to exhibit well-defined nanoperiodic property patterns. These periodic property patterns are dependent on their quantized nanofeatures (CNDPs) and dramatically influence intrinsic physicochemical properties (i.e., melting points, reactivity/self-assembly, sterics, and nanoencapsulation), as well as important functional/performance properties (i.e., magnetic, photonic, electronic, and toxicologic properties). We propose this

  5. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    After defining risk and introducing the concept of individual and societal risk, the author considers each of these, restricting considerations to risk of death. Some probabilities of death arising from various causes are quoted, and attention drawn to the care necessary in making comparisons between sets of data and to the distinction between voluntary and involuntary categories and between early and delayed deaths. The presentation of information on societal risk is discussed and examples given. The history of quantified risk assessment is outlined, particularly related to the nuclear industry, the process of assessing risk discussed: identification of hazard causes, the development of accident chains and the use of event trees, the evaluation of probability through the collection of data and their use with fault trees, and the assessment of consequences of hazards in terms of fatalities. Reference is made to the human element and common-made failures, and to studies supporting the development of reliability assessment techniques. Acceptance criteria are discussed for individual and societal risk in the nuclear field, and it is shown that proposed criteria lead to risks conservative by comparison with risks from day-to-day accidents and other potentially hazardous industries. (U.K.)

  6. Free and Cued Memory in relation to Biomarker-Defined Abnormalities in Clinically Normal Older Adults and Those at Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Mormino, Elizabeth; Hedden, Trey; Dekhytar, Maria; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Furthering our understanding of the relationship between amyloidosis (Aβ), neurodegeneration (ND), and cognition is imperative for early identification and early intervention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the subtle cognitive decline differentially associated with each biomarker-defined stage of preclinical AD has yet to be fully characterized. Recent work indicates that different components of memory performance (free and cued recall) may be differentially specific to memory decline in prodromal AD. We sought to examine the relationship between free and cued recall paradigms, in addition to global composites of memory, executive functioning, and processing speed in relation to stages of preclinical AD. Methods A total of 260 clinically normal (CN) older adults (CDR=0) from the Harvard Aging Brain study were grouped according to preclinical AD stages including Stage 0 (Aβ−/ND−), Stage 1 (Aβ+/ND−), Stage 2 (Aβ+/ND+), and suspected non-Alzheimer’s associated pathology (SNAP; Aβ−/ND+). General linear models controlling for age, sex, and education were used to assess for stage-based performance differences on cognitive composites of executive functioning, processing speed, and memory in addition to free and cued delayed recall on the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and Memory Capacity Test (MCT). Results Global memory performance differed between preclinical stages with Stage 2 performing worse compared with Stage 0. When examining free and cued paradigms by memory test, only the MCT (and not the SRT) revealed group differences. More specifically, Stage 1 was associated with decrements in free recall compared with Stage 0 while Stage 2 was associated with decrements in both free and cued recall. There was a trend for the SNAP group to perform worse on free recall compared with Stage 0. Finally, there was no association between preclinical stage and global composites of executive functioning or processing speed. Conclusions Clinically

  7. Free and cued memory in relation to biomarker-defined abnormalities in clinically normal older adults and those at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Hedden, Trey; Dekhytar, Maria; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2015-07-01

    Furthering our understanding of the relationship between amyloidosis (Aβ), neurodegeneration (ND), and cognition is imperative for early identification and early intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the subtle cognitive decline differentially associated with each biomarker-defined stage of preclinical AD has yet to be fully characterized. Recent work indicates that different components of memory performance (free and cued recall) may be differentially specific to memory decline in prodromal AD. We sought to examine the relationship between free and cued recall paradigms, in addition to global composites of memory, executive functioning, and processing speed in relation to stages of preclinical AD. A total of 260 clinically normal (CN) older adults (CDR=0) from the Harvard Aging Brain study were grouped according to preclinical AD stages including Stage 0 (Aβ-/ND-), Stage 1 (Aβ+/ND-), Stage 2 (Aβ+/ND+), and suspected non-Alzheimer's associated pathology (SNAP; Aβ-/ND+). General linear models controlling for age, sex, and education were used to assess for stage-based performance differences on cognitive composites of executive functioning, processing speed, and memory in addition to free and cued delayed recall on the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and Memory Capacity Test (MCT). Global memory performance differed between preclinical stages with Stage 2 performing worse compared with Stage 0. When examining free and cued paradigms by memory test, only the MCT (and not the SRT) revealed group differences. More specifically, Stage 1 was associated with decrements in free recall compared with Stage 0 while Stage 2 was associated with decrements in both free and cued recall. There was a trend for the SNAP group to perform worse on free recall compared with Stage 0. Finally, there was no association between preclinical stage and global composites of executive functioning or processing speed. Clinically normal older adults with underlying evidence of

  8. Is there a role for coronary artery calcium scoring for management of asymptomatic patients at risk for coronary artery disease?: Clinical risk scores are not sufficient to define primary prevention treatment strategies among asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, Michael J; Silverman, Michael G; Budoff, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    Although risk factors have proven to be useful therapeutic targets, they are poor predictors of risk. Traditional risk scores are moderately successful in predicting future CHD events and can be a starting place for general risk categorization. However, there is substantial heterogeneity between traditional risk and actual atherosclerosis burden, with event rates predominantly driven by burden of atherosclerosis. Serum biomarkers have yet to show any clinically significant incremental value to the FRS and even when combined cannot match the predictive value of atherosclerosis imaging. As clinicians, are we willing to base therapy decisions on risk models that lack optimum-achievable accuracy and limit personalization? The decision to treat a patient in primary prevention must be a careful one because the benefit of therapy in an asymptomatic patient must clearly outweigh the potential risk. CAC, in particular, provides a personalized assessment of risk and may identify patients who will be expected to derive the most, and the least, net absolute benefit from treatment. Emerging evidence hints that CAC may also promote long-term adherence to aspirin, exercise, diet, and statin therapy. When potentially lifelong treatment decisions are on the line, clinicians must arm their patients with the most accurate risk prediction tools, and subclinical atherosclerosis testing with CAC is, at the present time, superior to any combination of risk factors and serum biomarkers.

  9. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  10. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  11. Proliferation Risk Characterization Model Prototype Model - User and Programmer Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukelow, J.S.; Whitford, D.

    1998-12-01

    A model for the estimation of the risk of diversion of weapons-capable materials was developed. It represents both the threat of diversion and site vulnerability as a product of a small number of variables (two to eight), each of which can take on a small number (two to four) of qualitatively defined (but quantitatively implemented) values. The values of the overall threat and vulnerability variables are then converted to threat and vulnerability categories. The threat and vulnerability categories are used to define the likelihood of diversion, also defined categorically. The evaluator supplies an estimate of the consequences of a diversion, defined categorically, but with the categories based on the IAEA Attractiveness levels. Likelihood and Consequences categories are used to define the Risk, also defined categorically. The threat, vulnerability, and consequences input provided by the evaluator contains a representation of his/her uncertainty in each variable assignment which is propagated all the way through to the calculation of the Risk categories. [Appendix G available on diskette only.

  12. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  13. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  14. Phase II Trial of Radiosurgery to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy–Defined High-Risk Tumor Volumes in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, Douglas B.; Wessels, Barry; Bangert, Barbara; Fu, Pingfu; Nelson, A. Dennis; Cohen, Mark; Sagar, Stephen; Lewin, Jonathan; Sloan, Andrew; Zheng Yiran; Williams, Jordonna; Colussi, Valdir; Vinkler, Robert; Maciunas, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) boost to areas of high risk determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) functional imaging in addition to standard radiotherapy for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients in this prospective Phase II trial underwent surgical resection or biopsy for a GBM followed by SRS directed toward areas of MRS-determined high biological activity within 2 cm of the postoperative enhancing surgical bed. The MRS regions were determined by identifying those voxels within the postoperative T2 magnetic resonance imaging volume that contained an elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate ratio in excess of 2:1. These voxels were marked, digitally fused with the SRS planning magnetic resonance image, targeted with an 8-mm isocenter per voxel, and treated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group SRS dose guidelines. All patients then received conformal radiotherapy to a total dose of 60 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Results: The median survival for the entire cohort was 15.8 months. With 75% of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class 3 patients still alive 18 months after treatment, the median survival for RPA Class 3 has not yet been reached. The median survivals for RPA Class 4, 5, and 6 patients were 18.7, 12.5, and 3.9 months, respectively, compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiotherapy-alone historical control survivals of 11.1, 8.9, and 4.6 months. For the 16 of 35 patients who received concurrent temozolomide in addition to protocol radiotherapeutic treatment, the median survival was 20.8 months, compared with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer historical controls of 14.6 months using radiotherapy and temozolomide. Grade 3/4 toxicities possibly attributable to treatment were 11%. Conclusions: This represents the first prospective trial using selective MRS-targeted functional SRS

  15. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  16. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  17. Linguistic labels, dynamic visual features, and attention in infant category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei Sophia; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2015-06-01

    How do words affect categorization? According to some accounts, even early in development words are category markers and are different from other features. According to other accounts, early in development words are part of the input and are akin to other features. The current study addressed this issue by examining the role of words and dynamic visual features in category learning in 8- to 12-month-old infants. Infants were familiarized with exemplars from one category in a label-defined or motion-defined condition and then tested with prototypes from the studied category and from a novel contrast category. Eye-tracking results indicated that infants exhibited better category learning in the motion-defined condition than in the label-defined condition, and their attention was more distributed among different features when there was a dynamic visual feature compared with the label-defined condition. These results provide little evidence for the idea that linguistic labels are category markers that facilitate category learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  19. Category management dětské výživy

    OpenAIRE

    Wotřelová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with category management of baby food on the Czech market. The goal of the thesis is to determine the theoretical basis of category management and define the category management process. Subsequently, based on the analysis of primary and secondary data, will be characterized the change in current shopping behaviour of mothers. Next goal is to design a general model structure of baby food exposure and through this model to determine whether the current situation on the baby f...

  20. Problems in the Study of the Concepts of Underlying Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel R. Faizova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concepts of underlying categories. The economic good is one of such categories. In this regard, we considered such characteristics of an economic good as utility, value, and cost. The public goods, which are the goods that can benefit society and have two distinctive features, are an important category as well. In this regard, we characterized the characteristics and features of public goods and identified the main problems in this category. At present, the actual problem faced by the state is the production and evaluation of the effectiveness of public goods. The difficulty is that it is impossible to accurately determine the production volume of goods necessary for the society. Assessment of the effectiveness of the state activities requires the development of special tools. The existing legislatively defined methods have a number of shortcomings and do not allow obtaining an objective picture. Financing of most public goods occurs at the expense of the state, so it is very important to ensure and increase the efficiency of their spending at the moment. Public-private partnership is the most promising tool for better satisfying the needs of the population. The main goal of this work is to identify and discuss the main characteristics of the concepts of underlying categories and explain possible problems, issues faced by the state and the society.

  1. Cohomology and deformation theory of monoidal 2-categories I

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2004-01-01

    We define a cohomology for an arbitrary $K$-linear semistrict semigroupal 2-category $(\\mathfrak{C},\\otimes)$ (called in the paper a Gray semigroup) and show that its first order (unitary) deformations, up to the suitable notion of equivalence, are in one-one correspondence with the elements of the second cohomology group. Fundamental to the construction is a double complex, similar to Gerstenhaber-Schack's double complex for bialgebras. We also identify the cohomologies describing separately...

  2. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...

  3. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  4. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weetman, D.F.; Munby, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  5. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  6. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  7. Cultural categories of energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.

    1983-06-01

    Energy use patterns and attitudes are tied to more general cultural patterns, not simply to an economic or engineering rationality. To illustrate this, sharply contrasting use patterns and attitudes toward nuclear energy, coal and alternative forms of energy will be compared for India and the United States. This comparison, focussing on different perceptions of risks associated with developing energy technologies, future energy requirements, environmental concerns, and conservation patterns, will be used to develop a more extensive discussion of the above energy sources in western Europe and South America. The talk will conclude with some conjectures about the implications of cultural differences and political environments for world energy development patterns in the proximate future. Likely cultural and political influences on the direction of energy use (efficiency, rates of adoption of new technology), and energy needs for industrialization and reindustrialization will be described for North America, western Europe, and selected LDC's

  8. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  9. Functional categories in the noun phrase: on jacks-of-all-trades and one-trick-ponies in Danish, Dutch and German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with functionally defined modifier categories of the noun phrase in some Germanic languages, in particular Danish, Dutch and German. It is argued that functional categories, unlike semantic or form-based categories, are the only categories that can be applied within and across...... in German: attitudinal arm (e.g. Der arme Junge! ‘The poor boy!’)....

  10. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields. I

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We study definably compact definably connected groups definable in a sufficiently saturated real closed field $R$. We introduce the notion of group-generic point for $\\bigvee$-definable groups and show the existence of group-generic points for definably compact groups definable in a sufficiently saturated o-minimal expansion of a real closed field. We use this notion along with some properties of generic sets to prove that for every definably compact definably connected group $G$ definable in...

  11. Adherence to oral contraception in women on Category X medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, Amy; Chen, William; Denison, Shannon E

    2010-10-01

    Over 6% of women become pregnant when taking teratogenic medications, and contraceptive counseling appears to occur at suboptimal rates. Adherence to contraception is an important component in preventing unwanted pregnancy and has not been evaluated in this population. We undertook a pharmacy claims-based analysis to evaluate the degree to which women of childbearing age who receive Category X medications adhere to their oral contraception. We evaluated the prescription medication claims for over 6 million women, age 18-44 years, with prescription benefits administered by a pharmacy benefits manager. Women with 2 or more claims for a Category X medication and 2 or more claims for oral contraception were evaluated in further detail. Adherence to oral contraception was measured by analyzing pharmacy claims. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with adherence. There were 146,758 women of childbearing age who received Category X medications, of which 26,136 also took oral contraceptive medication. Women who received Category X medications were prescribed oral contraception (18%) at rates similar to others of childbearing age (17%). Women prescribed both Category X and oral contraception demonstrated adherence similar to the overall population. Age, class of Category X medication, number of medications, prescriber's specialty, and ethnicity correlated with lower adherence rates. Despite added risk associated with unintended pregnancy, many women who receive Category X medications have refill patterns suggesting nonadherence to oral contraception. Compared with all women age 18-44 years, women receiving teratogenic medications do not have better adherence to oral contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory-Based Specification of Verbal Features for Classifying Animals into Super-Ordinate and Sub-Ordinate Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Soshi; Norio Fujimaki; Atsushi Matsumoto; Aya S. Ihara

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that category representations are based on features. Distinguishing features are considered to define categories, because of all-or-none responses for objects in different categories; however, it is unclear how distinguishing features actually classify objects at various category levels. The present study included 75 animals within three classes (mammal, bird, and fish), along with 195 verbal features. Healthy adults participated in memory-based feature-animal m...

  13. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.; Ellingson, D.; Scott, M.; Schade, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy orders and guidance. In particular, the Hanford Site approach to designating a suitable facility open-quotes Usage Category,close quotes is presented. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on the consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components

  14. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  15. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  16. Modal Logics and Definability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research into the mathematical foundations of modal logic has become increasingly popular. One of the main reasons for this is the fact that modal logic seems to adapt well to the requirements of a wide range of different fields of application. This paper is a summary of some of the author’s contributions to the understanding of modal definability theory.

  17. Software Defined Cyberinfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Ian; Blaiszik, Ben; Chard, Kyle; Chard, Ryan

    2017-07-17

    Within and across thousands of science labs, researchers and students struggle to manage data produced in experiments, simulations, and analyses. Largely manual research data lifecycle management processes mean that much time is wasted, research results are often irreproducible, and data sharing and reuse remain rare. In response, we propose a new approach to data lifecycle management in which researchers are empowered to define the actions to be performed at individual storage systems when data are created or modified: actions such as analysis, transformation, copying, and publication. We term this approach software-defined cyberinfrastructure because users can implement powerful data management policies by deploying rules to local storage systems, much as software-defined networking allows users to configure networks by deploying rules to switches.We argue that this approach can enable a new class of responsive distributed storage infrastructure that will accelerate research innovation by allowing any researcher to associate data workflows with data sources, whether local or remote, for such purposes as data ingest, characterization, indexing, and sharing. We report on early experiments with this approach in the context of experimental science, in which a simple if-trigger-then-action (IFTA) notation is used to define rules.

  18. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  19. Software Defined Coded Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Paola, Carla; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Palazzo, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    the quality of each link and even across neighbouring links and using simulations to show that an additional reduction of packet transmission in the order of 40% is possible. Second, to advocate for the use of network coding (NC) jointly with software defined networking (SDN) providing an implementation...

  20. Defining depth of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S L; Stanski, D R

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, drawn largely from the synthesis of material that we first presented in the sixth edition of Miller's Anesthesia, Chap 31 (Stanski and Shafer 2005; used by permission of the publisher), we have defined anesthetic depth as the probability of non-response to stimulation, calibrated against the strength of the stimulus, the difficulty of suppressing the response, and the drug-induced probability of non-responsiveness at defined effect site concentrations. This definition requires measurement of multiple different stimuli and responses at well-defined drug concentrations. There is no one stimulus and response measurement that will capture depth of anesthesia in a clinically or scientifically meaningful manner. The "clinical art" of anesthesia requires calibration of these observations of stimuli and responses (verbal responses, movement, tachycardia) against the dose and concentration of anesthetic drugs used to reduce the probability of response, constantly adjusting the administered dose to achieve the desired anesthetic depth. In our definition of "depth of anesthesia" we define the need for two components to create the anesthetic state: hypnosis created with drugs such as propofol or the inhalational anesthetics and analgesia created with the opioids or nitrous oxide. We demonstrate the scientific evidence that profound degrees of hypnosis in the absence of analgesia will not prevent the hemodynamic responses to profoundly noxious stimuli. Also, profound degrees of analgesia do not guarantee unconsciousness. However, the combination of hypnosis and analgesia suppresses hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli and guarantees unconsciousness.

  1. Defining and classifying syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Roland D.; Wieling, Wouter; Kaufmann, Horacio; van Dijk, Gert

    2004-01-01

    There is no widely adopted definition or classification of syncope and related disorders. This lack of uniformity harms patient care, research, and medical education. In this article, syncope is defined as a form of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Differences

  2. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  3. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  4. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  5. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  6. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  7. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  8. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  9. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  10. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  11. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  12. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  13. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  14. IWGT report on quantitative approaches to genotoxicity risk assessment II. Use of point-of-departure (PoD) metrics in defining acceptable exposure limits and assessing human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James T; Frötschl, Roland; White, Paul A; Crump, Kenny S; Eastmond, David A; Fukushima, Shoji; Guérard, Melanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; Johnson, George E; Kasamatsu, Toshio; Levy, Dan D; Morita, Takeshi; Müller, Lutz; Schoeny, Rita; Schuler, Maik J; Thybaud, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    This is the second of two reports from the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment (the QWG). The first report summarized the discussions and recommendations of the QWG related to the need for quantitative dose-response analysis of genetic toxicology data, the existence and appropriate evaluation of threshold responses, and methods to analyze exposure-response relationships and derive points of departure (PoDs) from which acceptable exposure levels could be determined. This report summarizes the QWG discussions and recommendations regarding appropriate approaches to evaluate exposure-related risks of genotoxic damage, including extrapolation below identified PoDs and across test systems and species. Recommendations include the selection of appropriate genetic endpoints and target tissues, uncertainty factors and extrapolation methods to be considered, the importance and use of information on mode of action, toxicokinetics, metabolism, and exposure biomarkers when using quantitative exposure-response data to determine acceptable exposure levels in human populations or to assess the risk associated with known or anticipated exposures. The empirical relationship between genetic damage (mutation and chromosomal aberration) and cancer in animal models was also examined. It was concluded that there is a general correlation between cancer induction and mutagenic and/or clastogenic damage for agents thought to act via a genotoxic mechanism, but that the correlation is limited due to an inadequate number of cases in which mutation and cancer can be compared at a sufficient number of doses in the same target tissues of the same species and strain exposed under directly comparable routes and experimental protocols. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  16. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  17. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  18. Attribute conjunctions and the part configuration advantage in object category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, J; Hummel, J E

    1996-07-01

    Five experiments demonstrated that in object category learning people are particularly sensitive to conjunctions of part shapes and relative locations. Participants learned categories defined by a part's shape and color (part-color conjunctions) or by a part's shape and its location relative to another part (part-location conjunctions). The statistical properties of the categories were identical across these conditions, as were the salience of color and relative location. Participants were better at classifying objects defined by part-location conjunctions than objects defined by part-color conjunctions. Subsequent experiments revealed that this effect was not due to the specific color manipulation or the role of location per se. These results suggest that the shape bias in object categorization is at least partly due to sensitivity to part-location conjunctions and suggest a new processing constraint on category learning.

  19. Night work and breast cancer risk defined by human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and hormone receptor status: A population-based case-control study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Koudou, Yves; Truong, Thérèse; Arveux, Patrick; Kerbrat, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Guénel, Pascal

    Night work has been associated with risk of breast cancer but this association needs to be confirmed. Because breast cancer is an etiologically heterogeneous disease, we explored the association of night work with breast cancer subtypes defined by tumor status (positive of negative) for estrogen-receptor (ER), progesterone-receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor-receptor 2 (HER2). Using the data from a case-control study in France including 975 cases and 1317 controls, we found that the odds ratios for ER+, PR+ or HER2+ breast cancers subtypes were significantly elevated, while no association with night shift work was observed for ER, PR or HER2-negative tumors. After stratification by menopausal status, the associations of night work with receptor-positive breast tumor subtypes were clearly seen in premenopausal women (odds ratios 2.04, 1.98 and 2.80, respectively) but did not appear in postmenopausal women. This study provides evidence that working at night may increase risk of ER, PR and HER2-positive subtypes of breast cancer particularly among premenopausal women.

  20. Mapping the social class structure: From occupational mobility to social class categories using network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus......, unlike dominant, theoretically defined class schemes, this article derives social class categories from observed patterns in a mobility network covering intra-generational mobility. The network is based on a mobility table of 109 occupational categories tied together by 1,590,834 job shifts on the Danish...... labour market 2001–2007. The number of categories are reduced from 109 to 34 by applying a new clustering algorithm specifically designed for the study of mobility tables (MONECA). These intra-generational social class categories are related to the central discussions of gender, income, education...

  1. Categorias de Riscos Evidenciadas nos Relatórios da Administração de Empresas Brasileiras com ADRsRisk Categories Disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian Companies with ADRsCategorías de Riesgos Constatadas en los Informes de Administración de Empresas Brasileñas con ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZONATTO, Vinícius Costa da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO estudo objetiva identificar as categorias de riscos evidenciadas no Relatório da Administração (RA, relativa ao ano de 2007, das empresas brasileiras com emissão de American Depositary Receipt (ADRs. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como descritiva, realizada por meio de análise documental. A amostra compreende 28 empresas brasileiras com emissão de ADRs na Bolsa de Valores de Nova Iorque (EUA. Consideraram-se sete categorias de riscos corporativos, identificadas a partir da metodologia do Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO, 2004: riscos estratégicos, riscos de mercado, riscos de crédito, riscos de liquidez, riscos operacionais, riscos legais e riscos de imagem. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que, em geral, não há uma padronização quanto aos tipos de riscos evidenciados pelas empresas. Ao todo foram identificados 14 tipos de riscos. A categoria predominante na evidenciação foi risco operacional, com 20,72% das observações. Não foi encontrada evidenciação de riscos de imagem nos RA das empresas pesquisadas. Constatou-se que 19 empresas evidenciam algum tipo de risco a que a empresa está exposta, o que representa 67,86% da amostra. Por outro lado, nove empresas (32,14% não evidenciaram nenhum tipo de risco.ABSTRACTThe study aims to find the categories of risks disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian companies with the issuance of ADR's. The research is characterized as descriptive, accomplished through documentary analysis. The sample includes 28 Brazilian companies with the issuance of American Depositary Receipt (ADR's in the Stock Exchange of New York (USA. We have tried to identify the categories of risk, presented by the companies surveyed in the Administration Reports (AR of 2007. Seven categories of corporate risks were considered, identified through COSO (2004 methodology: strategic risks, market risks, credit risks, liquidity risks, operational risks, legal risks

  2. Molecular subtypes in stage II-III colon cancer defined by genomic instability: early recurrence-risk associated with a high copy-number variation and loss of RUNX3 and CDKN2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berg

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate various molecular subtypes defined by genomic instability that may be related to early death and recurrence in colon cancer.We sought to investigate various molecular subtypes defined by instability at microsatellites (MSI, changes in methylation patterns (CpG island methylator phenotype, CIMP or copy number variation (CNV in 8 genes. Stage II-III colon cancers (n = 64 were investigated by methylation-specific multiplex ligated probe amplification (MS-MLPA. Correlation of CNV, CIMP and MSI, with mutations in KRAS and BRAFV600E were assessed for overlap in molecular subtypes and early recurrence risk by uni- and multivariate regression.The CIMP phenotype occurred in 34% (22/64 and MSI in 27% (16/60 of the tumors, with noted CIMP/MSI overlap. Among the molecular subtypes, a high CNV phenotype had an associated odds ratio (OR for recurrence of 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.3; P = 0.026. Losses of CACNA1G (OR of 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.0; P = 0.001, IGF2 (OR of 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-15.8; P = 0.007, CDKN2A (p16 (OR of 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6; P = 0.024, and RUNX3 (OR of 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-8.7; P = 0.002 were associated with early recurrence, while MSI, CIMP, KRAS or BRAF V600E mutations were not. The CNV was significantly higher in deceased patients (CNV in 6 of 8 compared to survivors (CNV in 3 of 8. Only stage and loss of RUNX3 and CDKN2A were significant in the multivariable risk-model for early recurrence.A high copy number variation phenotype is a strong predictor of early recurrence and death, and may indicate a dose-dependent relationship between genetic instability and outcome. Loss of tumor suppressors RUNX3 and CDKN2A were related to recurrence-risk and warrants further investigation.

  3. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  4. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  5. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  6. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  7. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  8. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  9. Proliferation Risk Characterization Model Prototype Model - User and Programmer Guidelines; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukelow, J.S.; Whitford, D.

    1998-01-01

    A model for the estimation of the risk of diversion of weapons-capable materials was developed. It represents both the threat of diversion and site vulnerability as a product of a small number of variables (two to eight), each of which can take on a small number (two to four) of qualitatively defined (but quantitatively implemented) values. The values of the overall threat and vulnerability variables are then converted to threat and vulnerability categories. The threat and vulnerability categories are used to define the likelihood of diversion, also defined categorically. The evaluator supplies an estimate of the consequences of a diversion, defined categorically, but with the categories based on the IAEA Attractiveness levels. Likelihood and Consequences categories are used to define the Risk, also defined categorically. The threat, vulnerability, and consequences input provided by the evaluator contains a representation of his/her uncertainty in each variable assignment which is propagated all the way through to the calculation of the Risk categories.[Appendix G available on diskette only.

  10. Environmentally acceptable thread compounds: Requirements defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, W.D.; Hendriks, R.V.; Jacobs, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    New environmental regulations on thread compounds are now being enforced in several areas with strong maritime tradition and a sensitive environment. These areas include Indonesia, Alaska and portions of Norway. The industry generally recognizes the environmental concerns but, with wider enforcement of regulations imminent, has not been able to define clearly the requirements for environmental compliance. This paper, written in collaboration with The Netherlands State Supervision of Mines, is based on the National Policy on Thread Compounds of The Netherlands. This national policy is representative of policies being followed by other North Sea governments. Similar policies might well be adopted by other governments worldwide. These policies will affect the operator, drilling contractor, and supplier. This paper provides a specific and detailed definition of thread compound requirements by addressing four relevant categories. The categories of interest are regulatory approval, environmental, health, and performance

  11. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  12. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  13. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  14. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  15. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  16. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  17. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  18. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  19. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  20. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrich, D.D.; Ellingson, D.R.; Scott, M.A.; Schade, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy Orders and guidance. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on teh consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  2. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  3. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  4. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    Network Service Providers (NSP) often choose to overprovision their networks instead of deploying proper Quality of Services (QoS) mechanisms that allow for traffic differentiation and predictable quality. This tendency of overprovisioning is not sustainable for the simple reason that network...... resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  5. Working towards a universal container for category B waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallec, M.

    2002-01-01

    Long-lived, intermediate-level waste, known as category 8 waste, accounts for most long lived waste (> 90%), although it only accounts for a very small fraction of radiotoxicity (< 10%). It comes in a wide variety of forms. The first step to be taken is to classify it into a few families and define a standard management mode for each one. Research teams are therefore seeking to propose a range of universal containers for existing packages and waste still to be conditioned. (author)

  6. Influence of image-defined risk factors on the outcome of patients with localised neuroblastoma. A report from the LNESG1 study of the European International Society of Paediatric Oncology Neuroblastoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclair, Tom; Mosseri, Véronique; Cecchetto, Giovanni; De Bernardi, Bruno; Michon, Jean; Holmes, Keith

    2015-09-01

    The European multicenter study LNESG1 was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgical treatment alone in patients with localised neuroblastoma. In a retrospective, observational study we examined the impact of image-defined risk factors (IDRF) on operative complications and survival (EFS and OS). 534 patients with localised, non-MYCN amplified neuroblastoma were recruited between 1995 and 1999. Group 1 consisted of 291 patients without IDRF (Stage L1 in the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) staging system), all treated with primary surgery. Group 2: 118 patients with IDRF (INRG Stage L2), also treated with primary surgery. Group 3: 125 patients in whom primary surgery was not attempted, 106 receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. In L1 patients (Group 1) 5-year EFS was 92% and OS 98%. In L2 patients (Group 2 and 3) EFS was 79% and OS 89%. The differences in both EFS and OS were significant. EFS and OS in Group 2 (86% and 95%) were significantly better than 73% and 83% in Group 3. In INSS stage 1, 2 and 3, EFS were respectively 94%, 81% and 76%. Except between stage 2 and 3 the differences were significant. OS were respectively 99%, 93% and 83%, all significantly different. The 17% operative complication rate in L2 patients was significantly higher than 5% in L1 patients. In localised neuroblastoma, IDRF at diagnosis are associated with worse survival rates and higher rates of operative complications. The impact of IDRF should become an integrated part of therapy planning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Defining Marriage: Classification, Interpretation, and Definitional Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Macagno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The classification of a state of affairs under a legal category can be considered as a kind of con- densed decision that can be made explicit, analyzed, and assessed us- ing argumentation schemes. In this paper, the controversial conflict of opinions concerning the nature of “marriage” in Obergefell v. Hodges is analyzed pointing out the dialecti- cal strategies used for addressing the interpretive doubts. The dispute about the same-sex couples’ right to marry hides a much deeper disa- greement not only about what mar- riage is, but more importantly about the dialectical rules for defining it.

  8. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Krupka Zoran; Arežina Darija

    2017-01-01

    Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car), medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing proce...

  9. Can a Gleason 6 or Less Microfocus of Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level <10 ng/mL Be Defined as the Archetype of Low-Risk Prostate Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Taverna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC remains a cause of death worldwide. Here we investigate whether a single microfocus of PC at the biopsy (graded as Gleason 6 or less, ≤5% occupancy and the PSA <10 ng/mL can define the archetype of low-risk prostate disease. 4500 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 134 patients with a single micro-focus of PC were followed up, and the parameters influencing the biochemical relapse (BR were analysed. Out of 134 patients, 94 had clinically significant disease, specifically in 74.26% of the patients with PSA <10 ng/mL. Positive surgical margins and the extracapsular invasion were found in 29.1% and 51.4% patients, respectively. BR was observed in 29.6% of the patients. Cox regression evidenced a correlation between the BR and Gleason grade at the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, capsular invasion, and the presence of positive surgical margins. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the presence of surgical margins at the RRP and BR. Considering a single micro-focus of PC at the biopsy and PSA serum level <10 ng/mL, clinically significant disease was found in 74.26% patients and only positive surgical margins are useful for predicting the BR.

  10. Presheaves of symmetric tensor categories and nets of C*-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by algebraic quantum field theory, we study presheaves of symmetric tensor categories defined over the base of a space, intended as a spacetime. Any section of a presheaf (that is, any "superselection sector", in the applications that we have in mind) defines a holonomy representation whose triviality is measured by Cheeger-Chern-Simons characteristic classes, and a non-abelian unitary cocycle defining a Lie group gerbe. We show that, given an embedding in a presheaf of full subcate...

  11. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Abrams, Donald; Pradier, Christian

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. METHODS: Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively......-fold higher latest CD4 cell count was associated with a halving of the risk of ADM mortality. Other predictors of an increased risk of ADM mortality were homosexual risk group, older age, a previous (non-malignancy) AIDS diagnosis and earlier calendar years. Predictors of an increased risk of nADM mortality...

  12. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  13. Teleology and Defining Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Nathan K; Pruski, Michal

    2018-07-01

    Disorders of sexual differentiation lead to what is often referred to as an intersex state. This state has medical, as well as some legal, recognition. Nevertheless, the question remains whether intersex persons occupy a state in between maleness and femaleness or whether they are truly men or women. To answer this question, another important conundrum needs to be first solved: what defines sex? The answer seems rather simple to most people, yet when morphology does not coincide with haplotypes, and genetics might not correlate with physiology the issue becomes more complex. This paper tackles both issues by establishing where the essence of sex is located and by superimposing that framework onto the issue of the intersex. This is achieved through giving due consideration to the biology of sexual development, as well as through the use of a teleological framework of the meaning of sex. Using a range of examples, the paper establishes that sex cannot be pinpointed to one biological variable but is rather determined by how the totality of one's biology is oriented towards biological reproduction. A brief consideration is also given to the way this situation could be comprehended from a Christian understanding of sex and suffering.

  14. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  16. Categories by Heart: Shortcut Reasoning in a Cardiology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jacobsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of doctors and nurses to invoke the categories of age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle factors when discussing individual patients and patient groups. In what situations are such references explicitly made, and what does this practice accomplish? The material consists of field notes from a cardiology clinic in Sweden, and a theory of descriptive practice guided the analysis. When professionals describe patients, discuss decisions, or explain why a patient is ill, age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle serve as contextualization cues, often including widespread results from epidemiological research about groups of patients at higher or lower risk for cardiac disease. These categories work as shortcut reasoning to nudge interpretations in a certain direction, legitimize decisions, and strengthen arguments. In general, studying the descriptions of patients/clients/students provides an entrance to professional methods of reasoning, including their implicit moral assumptions.

  17. Definable Group Extensions and o-Minimal Group Cohomology via Spectral Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    BARRIGA, ELIANA

    2013-01-01

    We provide the theoretical foundation for the Lyndon-Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence as a tool to study the group cohomology and with this the group extensions in the category of definable groups. We also present various results on definable modules and actions, definable extensions and group cohomology of definable groups. These have applications to the study of non-definably compact groups definable in o-minimal theories (see [1]). Se presenta el fundamento teórico para las sucesiones...

  18. A deep learning method for classifying mammographic breast density categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Aly A; Berg, Wendie A; Peng, Hong; Luo, Yahong; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Wu, Shandong

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is an established risk marker for breast cancer and is visually assessed by radiologists in routine mammogram image reading, using four qualitative Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories. It is particularly difficult for radiologists to consistently distinguish the two most common and most variably assigned BI-RADS categories, i.e., "scattered density" and "heterogeneously dense". The aim of this work was to investigate a deep learning-based breast density classifier to consistently distinguish these two categories, aiming at providing a potential computerized tool to assist radiologists in assigning a BI-RADS category in current clinical workflow. In this study, we constructed a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based model coupled with a large (i.e., 22,000 images) digital mammogram imaging dataset to evaluate the classification performance between the two aforementioned breast density categories. All images were collected from a cohort of 1,427 women who underwent standard digital mammography screening from 2005 to 2016 at our institution. The truths of the density categories were based on standard clinical assessment made by board-certified breast imaging radiologists. Effects of direct training from scratch solely using digital mammogram images and transfer learning of a pretrained model on a large nonmedical imaging dataset were evaluated for the specific task of breast density classification. In order to measure the classification performance, the CNN classifier was also tested on a refined version of the mammogram image dataset by removing some potentially inaccurately labeled images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to measure the accuracy of the classifier. The AUC was 0.9421 when the CNN-model was trained from scratch on our own mammogram images, and the accuracy increased gradually along with an increased size of training samples

  19. Risk reduction of international mining projects by means of investor consortia and diversification of external financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, C.

    1982-01-01

    Investors and creditors of international mining projects bear specific risks which may be reduced by means of forming investor and financing consortia. Risk is defined for each actor separately. Project risk and investor risk respectively credit risk are useful categories in order to analyze risk reduction. In each case formation of consortia has a positive influence on the economic viability of the project, and thus reduces the project risk. Furthermore, formation of consortia leads to better compliance of the host country of the mining project with the project and financing agreements. Thus, investor and credit risk may be reduced. (orig.) [de

  20. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  1. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  2. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  3. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  4. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  5. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  6. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    cancer and severe hereditary effects are 10 x 10 -2 /Sv and 1.3 x10 -2 /Sv, respectively. The basic safety goals can be expressed by the complementary accumulative distribution function (CCDF) of dose versus frequencies of events: Pc(C > Cp) 5 (Cp/Co) -α . The aversion factor a is here expressed by the following arbitrary equation, which gives a polynomial curve of the order of m on a logarithmic plane: α = a+b(log(Cp/Co)) m , where: Pc = CCDF frequency for Cp (/yr), Cp = dose (mSv), Co = Cp for Pc =1, a, b, m = constants. Figure 1 shows a typical tolerable risk profile (risk limit curve), which is drawn so that all the points obtained in the previous discussions are above the curve (Co=1, a=1, b=0.0772, and m = 2). Safety criteria by ANS (Ref. 2) and SHE (Ref. 3) are shown in Fig. 1 for comparison. An aversion of a factor of 2 is resulted between 1 mSv and 1 Sv. No ALARA is included, which must be considered in defining specific safety goals. The frequency of a single class of events must be lower than the CCDF profile, and a curve lower by a factor of 10 is drawn in Fig. 1. The doses referenced in the current Japanese safety guidelines and site criteria are shown in Fig. 1. The referenced doses seem reasonable, considering the conservatism in the analysis of design-basis accidents. Specific safety goals for each sort of facility can be defined based on the basic safety goals, reflecting the characteristics of the facilities and considering ALARA. The indexes of engineering terms, such as CMF and LERF, are preferable for nuclear power plants, although interpretation from dose to the engineering terms is needed. Other indexes may be used (such as frequency of criticality accidents, etc.) for facilities except for power plants. The applicability of safety goals will thus be improved. Figure 2 shows the relative risk factors (1, 1%, and 0.1%) versus the severity of radiation effects. This might indicate the adequacy of the risk factors. The absolute risk limits, which

  7. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  8. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  9. Radiation effects and risks: overview and a new risk perception index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty provides opportunities for differences in perception, and radiation risks at low level of exposures involved in few computed tomography scans fall in this category. While there is good agreement among national and international organisations on risk probability of cancer, risk perception has barely been dealt with by these organisations. Risk perception is commonly defined as the subjective judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of a risk. Severity and latency are important factors in perception. There is a need to connect all these. Leaving risk perception purely as a subjective judgement provides opportunities for people to amplifying risk. The author postulates a risk perception index as severity divided by latency that becomes determining factor for risk perception. It is hoped that this index will bring rationality in risk perception. (authors)

  10. Category-based attentional guidance can operate in parallel for multiple target objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2018-04-30

    The question whether the control of attention during visual search is always feature-based or can also be based on the category of objects remains unresolved. Here, we employed the N2pc component as an on-line marker for target selection processes to compare the efficiency of feature-based and category-based attentional guidance. Two successive displays containing pairs of real-world objects (line drawings of kitchen or clothing items) were separated by a 10 ms SOA. In Experiment 1, target objects were defined by their category. In Experiment 2, one specific visual object served as target (exemplar-based search). On different trials, targets appeared either in one or in both displays, and participants had to report the number of targets (one or two). Target N2pc components were larger and emerged earlier during exemplar-based search than during category-based search, demonstrating the superior efficiency of feature-based attentional guidance. On trials where target objects appeared in both displays, both targets elicited N2pc components that overlapped in time, suggesting that attention was allocated in parallel to these target objects. Critically, this was the case not only in the exemplar-based task, but also when targets were defined by their category. These results demonstrate that attention can be guided by object categories, and that this type of category-based attentional control can operate concurrently for multiple target objects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Short- and Long-Term Quality of Life and Bowel Function in Patients With MRI-Defined, High-Risk, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Treated With an Intensified Neoadjuvant Strategy in the Randomized Phase 2 EXPERT-C Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sclafani, Francesco; Peckitt, Clare; Cunningham, David; Tait, Diana; Giralt, Jordi; Glimelius, Bengt; Keränen, Susana Roselló; Bateman, Andrew; Hickish, Tamas; Tabernero, Josep; Thomas, Janet; Brown, Gina; Oates, Jacqueline; Chau, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modified Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term

  12. Short- and Long-Term Quality of Life and Bowel Function in Patients With MRI-Defined, High-Risk, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Treated With an Intensified Neoadjuvant Strategy in the Randomized Phase 2 EXPERT-C Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sclafani, Francesco; Peckitt, Clare [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Cunningham, David, E-mail: david.cunningham@rmh.nhs.uk [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Tait, Diana [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Giralt, Jordi [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Medical Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Glimelius, Bengt [University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Keränen, Susana Roselló [Biomedical Research Institute INCLIVA, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, University of Valencia (Spain); Bateman, Andrew [Southampton General Hospital, Cancer Sciences Unit, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Hickish, Tamas [Poole Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medical Oncology, Bournemouth University (United Kingdom); Tabernero, Josep [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Department of Medical Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Thomas, Janet; Brown, Gina; Oates, Jacqueline; Chau, Ian [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modified Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term.

  13. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

  14. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-08-22

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls.

  15. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  16. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  17. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Coecke, B.; Panangaden, P.; Selinger, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  18. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  19. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  20. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  1. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  2. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  3. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  4. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  5. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  6. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  7. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  8. Definably compact groups definable in real closed fields.II

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    We continue the analysis of definably compact groups definable in a real closed field $\\mathcal{R}$. In [3], we proved that for every definably compact definably connected semialgebraic group $G$ over $\\mathcal{R}$ there are a connected $R$-algebraic group $H$, a definable injective map $\\phi$ from a generic definable neighborhood of the identity of $G$ into the group $H\\left(R\\right)$ of $R$-points of $H$ such that $\\phi$ acts as a group homomorphism inside its domain. The above result and o...

  9. DEFINING SPATIAL VIOLENCE. BUCHAREST AS A STUDY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia GHYKA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the spatial manifestations of violence, aiming to define the category of spatial violence by focusing on the recent urban history of Bucharest; it establishes links with the longer history of natural and inflicted disasters that defined the city, and it explores the spatial, urban, social and symbolical conflicts that occured during the last 25 years, pointing at their consequences on the social and urban substance of the city.

  10. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  11. The Category of Definiteness Indefiniteness through the Prism of Functional Approach to Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labetova Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The studying of language phenomena with the emphasis on their functional component is topical for modern linguistics. This approach gives a boost to thinking over various (semantic, morphological, syntactic forms through the prism of their functional-semantic load. The analysis of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness from this point of view allows defining the actual theoretical categorial model and the system of its expressive means. Purpose: The aim of the article is to define the essence and the bounds of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in the Ukrainian language and reveal its expressive potential. Results: The category of definiteness/indefiniteness is a universal category that is based on the symbiosis of psychic, cognitive and lingual spheres. Its functional potential is accumulated in cognitive and communicative fields so it is not restricted only to defining spheres of definiteness or indefiniteness. Not only do things or objects appear definite or indefinite in the process of communication or its interpretation but also their characteristics or properties may acquire these senses. The category of definiteness/indefiniteness correlates with other functional-semantic categories, which leads to its complicated and ramified field structure with diffuse and peripheral zones. Discussion: The studying of the widened structure of the functional-semantic field of definiteness/indefiniteness and organizing all possible (regular, typical, occasional, etc. means of its expression is a perspective approach. It is important to study the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in different types of discourse to reveal the logic of its functioning.

  12. Correspondence between Grammatical Categories and Grammatical Functions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fu

    1993-01-01

    A correspondence is shown between grammatical categories and grammatical functions in Chinese. Some syntactic properties distinguish finite verbs from nonfinite verbs, nominals from other categories, and verbs from other categories. (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  13. Development and application of a conceptual approach for defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Forsberg, C.W.; Kocher, D.C.; Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach to defining high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and a preliminary quantitative definition obtained from an example implementation of the conceptual approach. On the basis of the description of HLW in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, we have developed a conceptual model in which HLW has two attributes: HLW is (1) highly radioactive and (2) requires permanent isolation via deep geologic disposal. This conceptual model results in a two-dimensional waste categorization system in which one axis, related to ''requires permanent isolation,'' is associated with long-term risks from waste disposal and the other axis, related to ''highly radioactive,'' is associated with short-term risks from waste management and operations; this system also leads to the specification of categories of wastes that are not HLW. Implementation of the conceptual model for defining HLW was based primarily on health and safety considerations. Wastes requiring permanent isolation via deep geologic disposal were defined by estimating the maximum concentrations of radionuclides that would be acceptable for disposal using the next-best technology, i.e., greater confinement disposal (GCD) via intermediate-depth burial or engineered surface structures. Wastes that are highly radioactive were defined by adopting heat generation rate as the appropriate measure and examining levels of decay heat that necessitate special methods to control risks from operations in a variety of nuclear fuel-cycle situations. We determined that wastes having a power density >200 W/m 3 should be considered highly radioactive. Thus, in the example implementation, the combination of maximum concentrations of long-lived radionuclides that are acceptable for GCD and a power density of 200 W/m 3 provides boundaries for defining wastes that are HLW

  14. Category-length and category-strength effects using images of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Vromen, Joyce M G; Boddy, Adam C; Crawshaw, Eloise; Humphreys, Michael S

    2018-06-21

    Global matching models have provided an important theoretical framework for recognition memory. Key predictions of this class of models are that (1) increasing the number of occurrences in a study list of some items affects the performance on other items (list-strength effect) and that (2) adding new items results in a deterioration of performance on the other items (list-length effect). Experimental confirmation of these predictions has been difficult, and the results have been inconsistent. A review of the existing literature, however, suggests that robust length and strength effects do occur when sufficiently similar hard-to-label items are used. In an effort to investigate this further, we had participants study lists containing one or more members of visual scene categories (bathrooms, beaches, etc.). Experiments 1 and 2 replicated and extended previous findings showing that the study of additional category members decreased accuracy, providing confirmation of the category-length effect. Experiment 3 showed that repeating some category members decreased the accuracy of nonrepeated members, providing evidence for a category-strength effect. Experiment 4 eliminated a potential challenge to these results. Taken together, these findings provide robust support for global matching models of recognition memory. The overall list lengths, the category sizes, and the number of repetitions used demonstrated that scene categories are well-suited to testing the fundamental assumptions of global matching models. These include (A) interference from memories for similar items and contexts, (B) nondestructive interference, and (C) that conjunctive information is made available through a matching operation.

  15. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  16. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  17. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has ...

  18. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  19. The CPC Risk Calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Loft, Mathias Dyrberg

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It can be challenging to predict the risk of biochemical recurrence (BR) during follow-up after radical prostatectomy (RP) in men who have undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA), even years after surgery. OBJECTIVE: To establish and validate a contemporary nomogram that predicts...... on the necessity for further follow-up. The nomogram is the first to be available as a free app. PATIENT SUMMARY: We developed an easily interpretable nomogram to evaluate the risk of prostate-specific antigen elevation (cancer recurrence) following complete removal of the prostate (radical prostatectomy...... included. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Time to BR was defined as the first PSA result ≥0.2 ng/ml. BR risk was computed using multiple cause-specific Cox regression including preoperative PSA, pT category, RP Gleason score (GS), and surgical margin (R) status. Death without BR...

  20. Analysis of the service of volleyball in female juvenile category in terms of level risk assumed and his efficacy Análisis del saque de voleibol en categoría juvenil femenina en función del nivel de riesgo asumido y su eficacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Valladares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The service, one of the more important actions in volleyball has been conditioned by the experienced evolution by this sport over the past decades, what has brought important changes in the execution of the technique of the service just as in the tactical systems used by the teams. According to an observational model, a methodological proposal developed in five phases has ensued for analysis and assessment of the level of risk that they assume them players of volleyball in juvenile category in the service regarding the obtained efficacy. In that one methodology has been identified and established the variables that affect it, stops at a later time quantifying and examining the level of risk in terms of the kind of service and of the trajectory described all by himself. The obtained data (2.237 cases were examined statistically to come to an end that this category does not appraise a command and control itself enough as if to evidence a tactical obvious intentionality that players would assume a voluntary risk level and once the situation was adapted of the match.
    KEY WORDS: volleyball, service, risk level, efficacy.

     

    La evolución experimentada por el voleibol a lo largo de las últimas décadas ha condicionado en gran medida una de las acciones de juego más importantes, el servicio, lo que ha traído consigo notables cambios en la ejecución técnica del saque, así como en los sistemas tácticos empleados por los equipos. Atendiendo a un modelo observacional, se ha seguido una propuesta metodológica desarrollada en cinco fases para el análisis y valoración del nivel de riesgo que asumen las jugadoras de voleibol en categoría juvenil en el servicio con respecto a la eficacia obtenida. En dicha metodología se han identificado y establecido las variables que lo afectan, para posteriormente cuantificar y

  1. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  2. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  3. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators; Radioprotecao em irradiadores de grande porte de categoria III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro, E-mail: neivaldo@cena.usp.b, E-mail: gilfurlan@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Natanael Marcio, E-mail: natanael.itepan@unianhanguera.edu.b [Universidade Anhanguera, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  4. Differential impact of contraceptive methods on seizures varies by antiepileptic drug category: Findings of the Epilepsy Birth Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Andrew G; Mandle, Hannah B; Cahill, Kaitlyn E; Fowler, Kristen M; Hauser, W Allen

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether categories of contraception differ in their impact on seizures in women with epilepsy and whether the impact varies by antiepileptic drug category. Retrospective survey data came from 2712 contraceptive experiences reported by 1144 women with epilepsy. We compared risk ratios for reports of increase and decrease in seizure frequency on hormonal versus nonhormonal contraception, stratified by antiepileptic drug categories. More women with epilepsy reported a change in seizures on hormonal (28.2%) than on nonhormonal contraception (9.7%) (pcontraception (4.2%) was 4.47 (pcontraception (5.5%) was 1.71, pcontraception, the risk ratio for seizure increase was greater than for decrease (1.98, pmethod with a greater risk ratio for seizure decrease than combined pills. Seizure increase was greater for hormonal than nonhormonal contraception for each antiepileptic drug category (pcontraception, relative to the non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug category which had the lowest rate, each of the other categories had significantly greater risks for seizure increase, especially the enzyme-inhibiting (valproate) category (risk ratio=2.53, p=0.0002). The findings provide community-based, epidemiological survey evidence that contraceptive methods may differ in their impact on seizures and that this impact may vary by antiepileptic drug category. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. 15 CFR 917.42 - Categories of support available for the conducting of Sea Grant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... defined activity to be conducted over a definite period of time to achieve a specified goal. The project... category requires a definite commitment on the part of the institution to develop an institutional program... of matching funds, creation of the organization necessary for management of the Sea Grant Program...

  6. Category-based guidance of spatial attention during visual search for feature conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nako, Rebecca; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The question whether alphanumerical category is involved in the control of attentional target selection during visual search remains a contentious issue. We tested whether category-based attentional mechanisms would guide the allocation of attention under conditions where targets were defined by a combination of alphanumerical category and a basic visual feature, and search displays could contain both targets and partially matching distractor objects. The N2pc component was used as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection in tasks where target objects were defined by a conjunction of color and category (Experiment 1) or shape and category (Experiment 2). Some search displays contained the target or a nontarget object that matched either the target color/shape or its category among 3 nonmatching distractors. In other displays, the target and a partially matching nontarget object appeared together. N2pc components were elicited not only by targets and by color- or shape-matching nontargets, but also by category-matching nontarget objects, even on trials where a target was present in the same display. On these trials, the summed N2pc components to the 2 types of partially matching nontargets were initially equal in size to the target N2pc, suggesting that attention was allocated simultaneously and independently to all objects with target-matching features during the early phase of attentional processing. Results demonstrate that alphanumerical category is a genuine guiding feature that can operate in parallel with color or shape information to control the deployment of attention during visual search. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  8. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  9. Radiomic modeling of BI-RADS density categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir

    2017-03-01

    Screening mammography is the most effective and low-cost method to date for early cancer detection. Mammographic breast density has been shown to be highly correlated with breast cancer risk. We are developing a radiomic model for BI-RADS density categorization on digital mammography (FFDM) with a supervised machine learning approach. With IRB approval, we retrospectively collected 478 FFDMs from 478 women. As a gold standard, breast density was assessed by an MQSA radiologist based on BI-RADS categories. The raw FFDMs were used for computerized density assessment. The raw FFDM first underwent log-transform to approximate the x-ray sensitometric response, followed by multiscale processing to enhance the fibroglandular densities and parenchymal patterns. Three ROIs were automatically identified based on the keypoint distribution, where the keypoints were obtained as the extrema in the image Gaussian scale-space. A total of 73 features, including intensity and texture features that describe the density and the parenchymal pattern, were extracted from each breast. Our BI-RADS density estimator was constructed by using a random forest classifier. We used a 10-fold cross validation resampling approach to estimate the errors. With the random forest classifier, computerized density categories for 412 of the 478 cases agree with radiologist's assessment (weighted kappa = 0.93). The machine learning method with radiomic features as predictors demonstrated a high accuracy in classifying FFDMs into BI-RADS density categories. Further work is underway to improve our system performance as well as to perform an independent testing using a large unseen FFDM set.

  10. Domain Independent Vocabulary Generation and Its Use in Category-based Small Footprint Language Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM, K.-H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The work in this paper pertains to domain independent vocabulary generation and its use in category-based small footprint Language Model (LM. Two major constraints of the conventional LMs in the embedded environment are memory capacity limitation and data sparsity for the domain-specific application. This data sparsity adversely affects vocabulary coverage and LM performance. To overcome these constraints, we define a set of domain independent categories using a Part-Of-Speech (POS tagged corpus. Also, we generate a domain independent vocabulary based on this set using the corpus and knowledge base. Then, we propose a mathematical framework for a category-based LM using this set. In this LM, one word can be assigned assign multiple categories. In order to reduce its memory requirements, we propose a tree-based data structure. In addition, we determine the history length of a category n-gram, and the independent assumption applying to a category history generation. The proposed vocabulary generation method illustrates at least 13.68% relative improvement in coverage for a SMS text corpus, where data are sparse due to the difficulties in data collection. The proposed category-based LM requires only 215KB which is 55% and 13% compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM, respectively. It successively improves the performance, achieving 54.9% and 60.6% perplexity reduction compared to the conventional category-based LM and the word-based LM in terms of normalized perplexity.

  11. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  12. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  13. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  14. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  15. Relationships Among Categories of Vocational Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, K.

    1972-01-01

    The dimensions of preference were arranged in two independent groups: the first defined by occupational titles, curriculum subjects, and vocational life goals; and the second by job attributes and general life goals. The implications of this finding for the nature of vocational preference and certain counseling activities are discussed. (Author)

  16. Interior operators in general categories | Vorster | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1922] and others) many authors have defined and studied closure operators in other branches of mathematics (e.g. Birkhoff [1937] in Algebra and Birkhoff [1940] in Lattice Theory) and in more general contexts. In particular, the introduction of ...

  17. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  18. The structure and formation of natural categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  19. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  20. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  1. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature.

  2. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Sysko, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), a residual category in DSM-IV, is the most commonly used eating disorder diagnosis in clinical settings. However, the features of individuals with EDNOS are heterogeneous and difficult to characterize. A diagnostic scheme, termed Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED), is proposed to diminish use of the EDNOS category markedly while preserving the existing eating disorder categories. The BCD-ED scheme consists of three broad categories, in a hierarchical relationship, consisting of: Anorexia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar disorders, Bulimia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, Binge Eating Disorder and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, and a residual category of EDNOS. The advantages and disadvantages of adopting this scheme for DSM-V are considered, and issues relevant to BCD-ED are discussed. Specifically, we review the proportion of individuals with DSM-IV EDNOS that would be re-classified under the BCD-ED system, support for the hierarchy of the three categories, and the potential risk of “overdiagnosis.” PMID:19650083

  3. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  4. Identifying and assessing highly hazardous drugs within quality risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Robert G; Schatz, Anthony R; Kimmel, Tracy A; Ader, Allan; Naumann, Bruce D; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    Historically, pharmaceutical industry regulatory guidelines have assigned certain active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to various categories of concern, such as "cytotoxic", "hormones", and "steroids". These categories have been used to identify APIs requiring segregation or dedication in order to prevent cross-contamination and protect the quality and safety of drug products. Since these terms were never defined by regulatory authorities, and many novel pharmacological mechanisms challenge these categories, there is a recognized need to modify the historical use of these terms. The application of a risk-based approach using a health-based limit, such as an acceptable daily exposure (ADE), is more appropriate for the development of a Quality Risk Management Program (QRMP) than the use of categories of concern. The toxicological and pharmacological characteristics of these categories are discussed to help identify and prioritize compounds requiring special attention. Controlling airborne concentrations and the contamination of product contact surfaces in accordance with values derived from quantitative risk assessments can prevent adverse effects in workers and patients, regardless of specific categorical designations to which these APIs have been assigned. The authors acknowledge the movement away from placing compounds into categories and, while not yet universal, the importance of basing QRMPs on compound-specific ADEs and risk assessments. Based on the results of a risk assessment, segregation and dedication may also be required for some compounds to prevent cross contamination during manufacture of APIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

  6. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  7. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  8. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  9. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  10. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  11. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  12. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  13. Systematic review of the diagnostic category muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, Celso Alves dos; Tirico, Patrícia Passarelli; Stefano, Sergio Carlos; Touyz, Stephen W; Claudino, Angélica Medeiros

    2016-04-01

    (1) To collect, analyze and synthetize the evidence on muscle dysmorphia diagnosis as defined by Pope et al. and (2) To discuss its appropriate nosology and inclusion as a specific category in psychiatric classificatory systems. A systematic search in the MEDLINE, the PsycNET, the LILACS and SciELO databases and in the International Journal of Eating Disorders was conducted looking for articles published between January 1997 and October 2014 and in EMBASE database between January 1997 and August 2013. Only epidemiological and analytical studies were considered for selection. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to the Evidence-Based Mental Health and the National Health and Medical Research Council's guidelines. The support for inclusion of muscle dysmorphia in psychiatric classificatory systems was examined against Blashfield et al.'s criteria. Thirty-four articles were considered eligible out of 5136. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and enrolled small, non-clinical samples. The methodological quality of all selected papers was graded at the lowest hierarchical level due to studies' designs. Forty-one percent of the publications considered the available evidence insufficient to support the inclusion of muscle dysmorphia in any existing category of psychiatric disorders. The current literature does not fulfill Blashfield et al.'s criteria for the inclusion of muscle dysmorphia as a specific entity in psychiatric diagnostic manuals. The current evidence does not ensure the validity, clinical utility, nosological classification and inclusion of muscle dysmorphia as a new disorder in classificatory systems of mental disorders. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. The history of generalized anxiety disorder as a diagnostic category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2017-06-01

    From the 19th century into the 20th century, the terms used to diagnose generalized anxiety included "pantophobia" and "anxiety neurosis." Such terms designated paroxysmal manifestations (panic attacks) as well as interparoxysmal phenomenology (the apprehensive mental state). Also, generalized anxiety was considered one of numerous symptoms of neurasthenia, a vaguely defined illness. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) appeared as a diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-III ) in 1980, when anxiety neurosis was split into GAD and panic disorder. The distinct responses these two disorders had to imipramine therapy was one reason to distinguish between the two. Since the revised DSM-III ( DSM-III-R ), worry about a number of life circumstances has been gradually emphasized as the distinctive symptom of GAD. Thus, a cognitive aspect of anxiety has become the core criterion of GAD. The validity of GAD as an independent category has been questioned from DSM-III up to preparation of DSM-5 . Areas of concern have included the difficulty to establish clear boundaries between GAD and (i) personality dimensions, (ii) other anxiety-spectrum disorders, and (iii) nonbipolar depression. The National Institute of Mental Health has recently proposed the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), a framework destined to facilitate biological research into the etiology of mental symptoms. Within the RDoC framework, generalized anxiety might be studied as a dimension denominated "anxious apprehension" that would typically fit into the research domain called "negative valence systems" and the more specific construct termed "potential threat."

  15. Report made on the behalf of the Commission of economic affairs on the bill project related to the application of the precautionary principle defined in the Charter for the Environment to risks resulting from electromagnetic waves - Nr 654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeille, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    After an introduction commenting the determination of a threshold for low-intensity electromagnetic waves with athermal effects, this document reports the discussion of the Commission which commented the application of the precautionary principle as it is defined in the Charter for the Environment. Then the bill project articles are discussed. They notably concern the introduction of new chapters or articles in the French environment code and urban planning code, the prohibition of some advertising, and measures related to mobile phones. A table compares the existing measures, the bill project text and the text adopted by the commission. Amendments studied by the commission are indicated

  16. Correlation of the verb transitivity with other grammatical categories

    OpenAIRE

    LIUBCHENKO TATIANA VIKTOROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of the verb transitivity with other categories, including voice and aspect is specified in investigation. The article also deals with interpretation of categories “voice” and “diathesis” in linguistics.

  17. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  18. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  20. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in patients with fibrositis syndrome. New characteristics for a difficult definable category of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1987-01-01

    A common complaint among patients with fibrositis syndrome is exhaustion and fatique. It was therefore felt desirable to evaluate the muscle strength of these patients compared with normal subjects. Maximum isometric and isokinetic strength of knee extension was measured in 15 patients and 15...... healthy matched subjects, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex II). Maximum isometric strength at various knee extension angles (90 degrees, 60 degrees and 30 degrees degrees) was significantly (p less than 0.001) lower in the fibrositis group than in controls, a reduction of approximately 58......-66%. Maximum isokinetic strength at various knee extension velocities (30-240 degrees per second) was also significantly (p less than 0.01) lower in the fibrositis group than in controls, the reduction being approximately 41-51%. In conclusion, isometric and isokinetic muscle strength is found to be lower...

  1. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  2. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  3. Resourceful or At Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen-Sørensen, Anna-Katharina

    Introduction: Social categories are used to determine which individuals are at an increased risk of unfavorable outcomes and they are a vital tool for the development of targeted interventions. This presentation takes a critical look at the Resourceful and At Risk categories, that are often emplo...... employed in research and social work, and investigate the possible consequences of the preconceptions born out of these categories....

  4. Identifying demand effects in a large network of product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelper, S.E.C.; Wilms, I.; Croux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category

  5. A note on thick subcategories of stable derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning; Stevenson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    For an exact category having enough projective objects, we establish a bijection between thick subcategories containing the projective objects and thick subcategories of the stable derived category. Using this bijection, we classify thick subcategories of finitely generated modules over strict local complete intersections and produce generators for the category of coherent sheaves on a separated Noetherian scheme with an ample family of line bundles.

  6. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  7. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... separating property associated with special services, circuit equipment included in Categories 4.12 (other... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment-Category 4. 36.126 Section 36...

  8. An Analysis of Category Management of Service Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    comprised of four steps to guide future category management teams in analyzing data and applying Category Management principles through the use of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AN ANALYSIS OF CATEGORY MANAGEMENT OF SERVICE CONTRACTS December 2017...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project

  9. Defining Plagiarism: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism has repeatedly occurred in Indonesia, resulting in focusing on such academic misbehavior as a “central issue” in Indonesian higher education. One of the issues of addressing plagiarism in higher education is that there is a confusion of defining plagiarism. It seems that Indonesian academics had different perception when defining plagiarism. This article aims at exploring the issue of plagiarism by helping define plagiarism to address confusion among Indonesian academics. This article applies literature review by firs finding relevant articles after identifying databases for literature searching. After the collection of required articles for review, the articles were synthesized before presenting the findings. This study has explored the definition of plagiarism in the context of higher education. This research found that plagiarism is defined in the relation of criminal acts. The huge numbers of discursive features used position plagiaristic acts as an illegal deed. This study also found that cultural backgrounds and exposure to plagiarism were influential in defining plagiarism.

  10. 9th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms. Session II: Identifying and defining hazards and potential consequences I: Concepts for problem formulation and non-target risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The scientific organizers of the symposium put much emphasis on the identification and definition of hazard and the potential consequences thereof and three full sessions with a total of 13 presentations encompassing a wide range of related themes were planned for this topic. Unfortunately, one talk had to be cancelled because of illness of the speaker (BM Khadi, India). Some presentations covered conceptual approaches for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of GM plants (problem formulation in the risk assessment framework, familiarity approach, tiered and methodological frameworks, non-target risk assessment) and the use of models in assessing invasiveness and weediness of GM plants. Other presentations highlighted the lessons learned for future ERA from case studies and commercialized GM crops, and from monitoring of unintended releases to the environment. When the moderators of the three sessions came together after the presentations to align their summaries, there was an obvious need to restructure the 12 presentations in a way that allowed for a consistent summarizing discussion. The following new organization of the 12 talks was chosen: (1) Concepts for problem formulation and non-target risk assessment, (2) Modeling as a tool for predicting invasiveness of GM plants, (3) Case-studies of ERA of large-scale release, (4) Lessons learned for ERA from a commercialized GM plant, (5) Monitoring of unintended release of Bt maize in Mexico. The new thematic structure facilitates a more in-depth discussion of the presentations related to a specific topic, and the conclusions to be drawn are thus more consistent. Each moderator agreed to take responsibility for summarizing one or more themes and to prepare the respective report.

  11. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY I QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  12. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY IV QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  13. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY III QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  14. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY II QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering aboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into tour categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that project...

  15. 12 CFR 208.43 - Capital measures and capital category definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H... Lending Supervision Act of 1983 (12 U.S.C. 3907), or section 38 of the FDI Act, or any regulation... categories of asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity, or sensitivity to market risk. ...

  16. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  17. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  18. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  19. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  20. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student achievement index and graduation rates. Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  1. ON DEFINING S-SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Strati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work is intended to be an introduction to the Superposition Theory of David Carfì. In particular I shall depict the meaning of his brand new theory, on the one hand in an informal fashion and on the other hand by giving a formal approach of the algebraic structure of the theory: the S-linear algebra. This kind of structure underpins the notion of S-spaces (or Carfì-spaces by defining both its properties and its nature. Thus I shall define the S-triple as the fundamental principle upon which the S-linear algebra is built up.

  2. 12 CFR 914.1 - Regulatory Report defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Bank. (b) Examples. Regulatory Report includes: (1) Call reports and reports of instrument-level risk... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory Report defined. 914.1 Section 914.1... DATA AVAILABILITY AND REPORTING § 914.1 Regulatory Report defined. (a) Definition. Regulatory Report...

  3. Net Reclassification Indices for Evaluating Risk-Prediction Instruments: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen F.; Wang, Zheyu; Janes, Holly; McClelland, Robyn L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Pepe, Margaret S.

    2014-01-01

    Net reclassification indices have recently become popular statistics for measuring the prediction increment of new biomarkers. We review the various types of net reclassification indices and their correct interpretations. We evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of quantifying the prediction increment with these indices. For pre-defined risk categories, we relate net reclassification indices to existing measures of the prediction increment. We also consider statistical methodology for constructing confidence intervals for net reclassification indices and evaluate the merits of hypothesis testing based on such indices. We recommend that investigators using net reclassification indices should report them separately for events (cases) and nonevents (controls). When there are two risk categories, the components of net reclassification indices are the same as the changes in the true-positive and false-positive rates. We advocate use of true- and false-positive rates and suggest it is more useful for investigators to retain the existing, descriptive terms. When there are three or more risk categories, we recommend against net reclassification indices because they do not adequately account for clinically important differences in shifts among risk categories. The category-free net reclassification index is a new descriptive device designed to avoid pre-defined risk categories. However, it suffers from many of the same problems as other measures such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, the category-free index can mislead investigators by overstating the incremental value of a biomarker, even in independent validation data. When investigators want to test a null hypothesis of no prediction increment, the well-established tests for coefficients in the regression model are superior to the net reclassification index. If investigators want to use net reclassification indices, confidence intervals should be calculated using bootstrap

  4. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  5. An introduction to the language of category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to elementary category theory, with the aim of making what can be a confusing and sometimes overwhelming subject more accessible. In writing about this challenging subject, the author has brought to bear all of the experience he has gained in authoring over 30 books in university-level mathematics. The goal of this book is to present the five major ideas of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, universality, and adjoints in as friendly and relaxed a manner as possible while at the same time not sacrificing rigor. These topics are developed in a straightforward, step-by-step manner and are accompanied by numerous examples and exercises, most of which are drawn from abstract algebra. The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams, duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories, particularly comma categories and hom-set categories. Chap...

  6. Defining and Differentiating the Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousay, Tonia A.

    2017-01-01

    Many resources now punctuate the maker movement landscape. However, some schools and communities still struggle to understand this burgeoning movement. How do we define these spaces and differentiate them from previous labs and shops? Through a multidimensional framework, stakeholders should consider how the structure, access, staffing, and tools…

  7. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  8. Software defined networks a comprehensive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Goransson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks discusses the historical networking environment that gave rise to SDN, as well as the latest advances in SDN technology. The book gives you the state of the art knowledge needed for successful deployment of an SDN, including: How to explain to the non-technical business decision makers in your organization the potential benefits, as well as the risks, in shifting parts of a network to the SDN modelHow to make intelligent decisions about when to integrate SDN technologies in a networkHow to decide if your organization should be developing its own SDN applications or

  9. Dose mapping in category I irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Shinde, S.H.; Mhatre, S.G.V.

    2012-01-01

    Category I irradiators such as Gamma Chambers and Blood Irradiators are compact self shielded, dry source storage gamma irradiators offering irradiation volume of few hundred cubic centimeters. In the present work, dose distribution profiles along the central vertical plane of the irradiation volume of Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000 were measured using Fricke, FBX, and alanine dosimeters. Measured dose distribution profiles in Gamma Chamber 900 differed from the typical generic dose distribution pattern whereas that in Blood Irradiator 2000 was in agreement with the typical pattern. All reagents used were of analytical reagent grade and were used without further purification. Preparation and dose estimations of Fricke and FBX were carried out as recommended. Alanine pellets were directly placed in precleaned polystyrene container having dimensions 6.5 mm o.d., 32 mm height and 3 mm wall thickness. For these dosimeters, dose measurements were made using e-scan Bruker BioSpin alanine dedicated ESR spectrometer. Specially designed perspex jigs were used during irradiation in Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000. These jigs provided the reproducible geometry during irradiation, Absorbance measurements were made using a spectrophotometer calibrated as per the recommended procedure. In Gamma Chamber 900, there is a dose distribution variation of about 34% from top to the center, 18% from center to the bottom, and 15% from center to the periphery. Such a dose distribution profile is largely deviating from the typical profile wherein 15% variation is observed from center to the periphery on all sides. Further investigation showed that there was a nonalignment in the source and sample chamber. However, in Blood Irradiator 2000, there is a dose distribution variation of about 20% from top to the center, 15% from center to the bottom, and 12% from center to the periphery. This pattern is very much similar to the typical profile. Hence it is recommended

  10. Decoding visual object categories from temporal correlations of ECoG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Kei; Matsuo, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Kawai, Kensuke; Saito, Nobuhito; Hasegawa, Isao; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-15

    How visual object categories are represented in the brain is one of the key questions in neuroscience. Studies on low-level visual features have shown that relative timings or phases of neural activity between multiple brain locations encode information. However, whether such temporal patterns of neural activity are used in the representation of visual objects is unknown. Here, we examined whether and how visual object categories could be predicted (or decoded) from temporal patterns of electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals from the temporal cortex in five patients with epilepsy. We used temporal correlations between electrodes as input features, and compared the decoding performance with features defined by spectral power and phase from individual electrodes. While using power or phase alone, the decoding accuracy was significantly better than chance, correlations alone or those combined with power outperformed other features. Decoding performance with correlations was degraded by shuffling the order of trials of the same category in each electrode, indicating that the relative time series between electrodes in each trial is critical. Analysis using a sliding time window revealed that decoding performance with correlations began to rise earlier than that with power. This earlier increase in performance was replicated by a model using phase differences to encode categories. These results suggest that activity patterns arising from interactions between multiple neuronal units carry additional information on visual object categories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Color categories are not universal: new evidence from traditional and western cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi D.; Davidoff, Jules; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2002-06-01

    Evidence presented supports the linguistic relativity of color categories in three different paradigms. Firstly, a series of cross-cultural investigations, which had set out to replicate the seminal work of Rosch Heider with the Dani of New Guinea, failed to find evidence of a set of universal color categories. Instead, we found evidence of linguistic relativity in both populations tested. Neither participants from a Melanesian hunter-gatherer culture, nor those from an African pastoral tribe, whose languages both contain five color terms, showed a cognitive organization of color resembling that of English speakers. Further, Melanesian participants showed evidence of Categorical Perception, but only at their linguistic category boundaries. Secondly, in native English speakers verbal interference was found to selectively remove the defining features of Categorical Perception. Under verbal interference, the greater accuracy normally observed for cross-category judgements compared to within-category judgements disappeared. While both visual and verbal codes may be employed in the recognition memory of colors, participants only make use of verbal coding when demonstrating Categorical Perception. Thirdly, in a brain- damaged patient suffering from a naming disorder, the loss of labels radically impaired his ability to categorize colors. We conclude that language affects both the perception of and memory for colors.

  12. Specific neural traces for intonational discourse categories as revealed by human-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs-Comes, Joan; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Prieto, Pilar; Escera, Carles

    2012-04-01

    The neural representation of segmental and tonal phonological distinctions has been shown by means of the MMN ERP, yet this is not the case for intonational discourse contrasts. In Catalan, a rising-falling intonational sequence can be perceived as a statement or as a counterexpectational question, depending exclusively on the size of the pitch range interval of the rising movement. We tested here, using the MMN, whether such categorical distinctions elicited distinct neurophysiological patterns of activity, supporting their specific neural representation. From a behavioral identification experiment, we set the boundary between the two categories and defined four stimuli across the continuum. Although the physical distance between each pair of stimuli was kept constant, the central pair represented an across-category contrast, whereas the other pairs represented within-category contrasts. These four auditory stimuli were contrasted by pairs in three different oddball blocks. The mean amplitude of the MMN was larger for the across-category contrast, suggesting that intonational contrasts in the target language can be encoded automatically in the auditory cortex. These results are in line with recent findings in other fields of linguistics, showing that, when a boundary between categories is crossed, the MMN response is not just larger but rather includes a separate subcomponent.

  13. Methodologies for defining quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-10

    Quality of life as a concept has been used in many ways in the public policy arena. It can be used in summative evaluations to assess the impacts of policies or programs. Alternatively, it can be applied to formative evaluations to provide input to the formation of new policies. In short, it provides the context for the understanding needed to evaluate the results of choices that have been made in the public policy arena, or the potential of choices yet to be made. In either case, the public policy question revolves around the positive or negative impact the choice will have on quality of life, and the magnitude of that impact. This discussion will develop a conceptual framework that proposes that an assessment of quality of life is based on a comparison of expectations with experience. The framework defines four basic components from which these expectations arise: natural conditions, social conditions, the body, and the mind. Each one of these components is generally described, and associated with a general policy or rhetorical category which gives it its policy vocabulary--environmental quality, economic well-being, human health, and self-fulfillment.

  14. The relationship between labour market categories and alcohol use trajectories in midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Colell, E.; Bell, S.; Britton, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies on the role of labour market position and change in alcohol use during midlife are scarce and their results are inconclusive mainly due to their failure to define comprehensive and distinct labour market groups and the short periods of time studied. In this study we used different activity categories for men and women to examine alcohol use trajectories in midlife covering a period of 17 years. METHODS: Using data from four sweeps of the National Child Development...

  15. The occasional role of low-risk human papillomaviruses 6, 11, 42, 44, and 70 in anogenital carcinoma defined by laser capture microdissection/PCR methodology: results from a global study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimerà, Núria; Lloveras, Belén; Lindeman, Jan; Alemany, Laia; van de Sandt, Miekel; Alejo, Maria; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Bravo, Ignacio G; Molijn, Anco; Jenkins, David; Cubilla, Antonio; Muñoz, Nubia; de Sanjose, Silvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Quint, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Low-risk human papillomaviruses (LR-HPVs) have been associated occasionally with clinically and pathologically unusual anogenital malignancies. The relation between clinicopathologic features and any pathogenetic role of LR-HPV remains unclear. From a global study of 13,328 anogenital carcinomas, we identified 57 cases in which whole-tissue polymerase chain reaction using SPF10-LiPA25 showed single LR-HPV infection. In 43/46 (93.5%) available carcinomas, multiple polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed single detection of HPV6, 11, 42, 44, or 70 DNA. In 75% (n=32) of these, LR-HPV DNA was confirmed in tumor cells by laser capture microdissection. In 2 cases, including 1 adenocarcinoma, viral DNA was only found outside the tumor. All anogenital tumors with confirmed HPV6/11 showed a distinctive range of papillary, warty or warty-basaloid, squamous, or transitional histology with patchy or negative p16 expression. HPV6-associated cervical tumors occurred at a low median age. HPV42/70 was associated with typical squamous cell carcinoma showing diffuse p16 staining like high-risk HPV-related malignancies. HPV44 was found in malignant cells in 1 case. Viral taxonomy and theoretical analysis show that HPV6/11 belong to a different genus from HPV42/70 with E6/E7 gene products that would not bind pRb or p53, whereas HPV42/70 could bind pRb. Our data support the causal involvement of LR-HPVs in the carcinogenesis of <2% of anogenital malignancies of 2 distinct clinicopathologic patterns related to the genetic structure of the HPV types 6/11 and 70/42. HPV42/70 was associated with typical squamous carcinomas. Importantly all carcinomas associated with HPV6/11 globally showed verruco-papillary, well-differentiated, squamous, or transitional histology without p16 expression.

  16. Determination of danger categories of chisel waste, which are made by investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in the Caspian Sea basin by calculation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gadzhiyev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is undertaken the attempt to define danger categories of the chisel solutions formed at investigation and operation of oil-and-gas deposits in Caspian sea basin by making calculations. Definition of a danger category was made in view of their initial structure and at various stages of drilling.

  17. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  18. On chronic fatigue syndrome and nosological categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Lichtbroun, Michael; Martini, Mariano; Perricone, Carlo; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2018-05-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a heterogeneous disease which presents with pronounced disabling fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive impairment that negatively affects patients' functional capability. CFS remains a poorly defined entity and its etiology is still in question. CFS is neither a novel diagnosis nor a new medical condition. From as early as the eighteenth century, a constellation of perplexing symptoms was observed that resembled symptoms of CFS. Commencing with "febricula" and ending with CFS, many names for the disease were proposed including neurocirculatory asthenia, atypical poliomyelitis, Royal Free disease, effort syndrome, Akureyri disease, Tapanui disease, chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, and myalgic encephalitis. To date, it remains unclear whether CFS has an autoimmune component or is a condition that precedes a full-blown autoimmune disease. Research suggests that CFS may overlap with other diseases including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), autoimmune syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), and Sjögren's syndrome. Additionally, it has been postulated that the earliest manifestations of some autoimmune diseases can present with vague non-specific symptoms similar to CFS. Sometimes only when exposed to a secondary stimulus (e.g., antigen) which could accelerate the natural course of the disease would an individual develop the classic autoimmune disease. Due to the similarity of symptoms, it has been postulated that CFS could simply be an early manifestation of an autoimmune disease. This paper will provide a historical background review of this disease and a discussion of CFS as an entity overlapping with multiple other conditions.

  19. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THEORETICAL QUESTIONS OF INVESTMENT RISK RESEARCH, ITS MAIN FEATURES AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadyrbaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines framework methodology of investment risk. The subject of the study are the basic theoretical positions directly related to the economic category of "investment risk". The purpose of this writing is the improvement of the methodology of the study of investment risk in the investment activity. This objective is to define the tasks, which consist in the formulation of the concept of "investment risk", the development of investment risk classification to provide investors with effective protection against such risks. The implementation  of the tasks will create conditions for the growth of investments in Russia. Currently, effective investment strategy for such an increase, is among the priority directions of development of the Russian economy.The article deals with logically interrelated study of basic economic categories, influencing directly on the investment risk. Author provided classification of investments in accordance with the level of risk. Examine the matter of the financial-economic category of the concept of "investment risk" and the classification of investment risks. Specified main features of the investment risk, which allowed to reveal specifics, which consists in the redistribution of capital in various types of assets in order to maximize profits or to obtain significant social effect.

  1. UPDATING UNDER RISK CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA CECILIA ELENA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The foundation for future firm development is investment. Agents have a risk aversion requiring higher returns as the risks associated with the project will be greater. The investment decision determines the market firm's affirmation, increasing the market share, dominating the market. Making an investment at a certain point will determine certain cash flows throughout the life of the project, and a residual value can be obtained when it is taken out of service. The flows and payments for the investment project can be more easily tracked if we are proposing a constant update rate. We will be able to analyze, based on various factors, three techniques for determining the discount rate for investment projects: the opportunity cost, the risk-free rate, and a series of risk premiums, the weighted average cost of capital. People without financial training make value judgments for investment projects based on other market opportunities, comparing the returns that any investment offers to other pay options. An investor has a sum of money he wants to make - if he does not invest in a project, he will invest in another, that will bring him a certain amount of money, choosing the most advantageous project by comparison. All projects are characterized by identical risks, and the agents are considered indifferent to the risks. The answer given by financial theory and practice to the disadvantage of rates in the opportunity cost category is the discount rate calculated as a sum of the risk-free rate and a risk premium, defining the risk as a factor whose action may cause a possible decrease in cash of the available flows. Higher objectivity is presented by the opportunity cost update rates of update because it refers to known variables but cannot be perfectly matched to the performance of the investment process.

  2. Exercise effects on lipids in persons with varying dietary patterns-does diet matter if they exercise? Responses in Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Kim M; Hawk, Victoria H; Henes, Sarah T; Ocampo, Christine I; Orenduff, Melissa C; Slentz, Cris A; Johnson, Johanna L; Houmard, Joseph A; Samsa, Gregory P; Kraus, William E; Bales, Connie W

    2012-07-01

    The standard clinical approach for reducing cardiovascular disease risk due to dyslipidemia is to prescribe changes in diet and physical activity. The purpose of the current study was to determine if, across a range of dietary patterns, there were variable lipoprotein responses to an aerobic exercise training intervention. Subjects were participants in the STRRIDE I, a supervised exercise program in sedentary, overweight subjects randomized to 6 months of inactivity or 1 of 3 aerobic exercise programs. To characterize diet patterns observed during the study, we calculated a modified z-score that included intakes of total fat, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, cholesterol, omega-3 fatty acids, and fiber as compared with the 2006 American Heart Association diet recommendations. Linear models were used to evaluate relationships between diet patterns and exercise effects on lipoproteins/lipids. Independent of diet, exercise had beneficial effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol size, and triglycerides (P diet pattern that closely adhered to American Heart Association recommendations was not related to changes in these or any other serum lipids or lipoproteins in any of the exercise groups. We found that even in sedentary individuals whose habitual diets vary in the extent of adherence to AHA dietary recommendations, a rigorous, supervised exercise intervention can achieve significant beneficial lipid effects. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jerry M.; Mansell, Edward R.

    2005-04-01

    A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice crystal habits (column and plate), rimed cloud ice, snow (ice crystal aggregates), three categories of graupel with different densities and intercepts, frozen drops, small hail, and large hail. The concept of riming history is implemented for conversions among the graupel and frozen drops categories. The multiple precipitation ice categories allow a range of particle densities and fall velocities for simulating a variety of convective storms with minimal parameter tuning. The scheme is applied to two cases—an idealized continental multicell storm that demonstrates the ice precipitation process, and a small Florida maritime storm in which the warm rain process is important.

  4. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes. In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  5. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  6. Defining Multiple Chronic Conditions for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drye, Elizabeth E; Altaf, Faseeha K; Lipska, Kasia J; Spatz, Erica S; Montague, Julia A; Bao, Haikun; Parzynski, Craig S; Ross, Joseph S; Bernheim, Susannah M; Krumholz, Harlan M; Lin, Zhenqiu

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) are a critical but undefined group for quality measurement. We present a generally applicable systematic approach to defining an MCC cohort of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries that we developed for a national quality measure, risk-standardized rates of unplanned admissions for Accountable Care Organizations. To define the MCC cohort we: (1) identified potential chronic conditions; (2) set criteria for cohort conditions based on MCC framework and measure concept; (3) applied the criteria informed by empirical analysis, experts, and the public; (4) described "broader" and "narrower" cohorts; and (5) selected final cohort with stakeholder input. Subjects were patients with chronic conditions. Participants included 21.8 million Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2012 aged 65 years and above with ≥1 of 27 Medicare Chronic Condition Warehouse condition(s). In total, 10 chronic conditions were identified based on our criteria; 8 of these 10 were associated with notably increased admission risk when co-occurring. A broader cohort (2+ of the 8 conditions) included 4.9 million beneficiaries (23% of total cohort) with an admission rate of 70 per 100 person-years. It captured 53% of total admissions. The narrower cohort (3+ conditions) had 2.2 million beneficiaries (10%) with 100 admissions per 100 person-years and captured 32% of admissions. Most stakeholders viewed the broader cohort as best aligned with the measure concept. By systematically narrowing chronic conditions to those most relevant to the outcome and incorporating stakeholder input, we defined an MCC admission measure cohort supported by stakeholders. This approach can be used as a model for other MCC outcome measures.

  7. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  8. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2. The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue–purple secondary category boundary. Keywords: categorical perception, CP of color, categorization, blue–purple category boundary, secondary category boundary

  9. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  10. Nature of Emotion Categories: Comment on Cowen and Keltner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Khan, Zulqarnain; Dy, Jennifer; Brooks, Dana

    2017-12-22

    Cowen and Keltner (2017) published the latest installment in a longstanding debate about whether measures of emotion organize themselves into categories or array themselves more continuously along affective dimensions. We discuss several notable features of the study and suggest future studies should consider asking questions more directly about physical and psychological variation within emotion categories as well as similarities between categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Categories of relations as models of quantum theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Categories of relations over a regular category form a family of models of quantum theory. Using regular logic, many properties of relations over sets lift to these models, including the correspondence between Frobenius structures and internal groupoids. Over compact Hausdorff spaces, this lifting gives continuous symmetric encryption. Over a regular Mal'cev category, this correspondence gives a characterization of categories of completely positive maps, enabling the formulation of quantum features. These models are closer to Hilbert spaces than relations over sets in several respects: Heisenberg uncertainty, impossibility of broadcasting, and behavedness of rank one morphisms.

  12. Abrupt category shifts during real-time person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that real-time person perception relies on continuous competition, in which partially active categories smoothly compete over time. Here, two studies demonstrated the involvement of a different kind of competition. In Study 1, before participants selected the correct sex category for morphed faces, their mouse trajectories often exhibited a continuous attraction toward the incorrect category that increased with sex-category ambiguity, indicating continuous competition. On other trials, however, trajectories initially pursued the incorrect category and then abruptly redirected toward the correct category, suggesting early incorrect category activation that was rapidly reversed later in processing. These abrupt category reversals also increased with ambiguity. In Study 2, participants were presented with faces containing a sex-typical or sex-atypical hair cue, in a context in which the norm was either sex-typical targets (normative context) or sex-atypical targets (counternormative context). Sex-atypical targets induced greater competition in the normative context, but sex-typical targets induced greater competition in the counternormative context. Together, these results demonstrate that categorizing others involves both smooth competition and abrupt category shifts, and that these flexibly adapt to the social context.

  13. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  14. On the (un)suitability of semantic categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here that the emp......Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here...... that the employment of semantic categories has some serious drawbacks, however, suggesting that semantic categories, just like formal categories, cannot be equated across languages in morphosyntactic typology. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all structural variants attested across...... languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants. Furthermore, it appears that in some major typological studies semantic categories have been confused with formal categories. A possible solution is pointed out: typologists first need to make sure that the forms...

  15. MOST SOLD CATEGORIES FOOD SUPPLEMENTS IN BULGARIAN PHARMACIES - RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Petkova1, Kalin Ivanov2, Stanislava Ivanova2*, Stanislav Gueorguiev3, Radiana Staynova3

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which are the most sold categories food supplements in Bulgarian pharmacies. The survey covers 820 pharmacies across the country. We have found that the leading category of food supplements is “Immune and digestive health” (41.5%). The second place is for the “Bone and joint health” (12.9%). The “Urology” category (consisted mainly by plant extracts) is about 7.9%. Food supplements in the “Urology” category are not only recommended by pharmacists but of...

  16. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Folstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  17. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, Jonathan R; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  18. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  19. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  20. (Re)Defining Salesperson Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Rushana; de Jong, Ad; Lee, Nick

    2018-01-01

    The construct of motivation is one of the central themes in selling and sales management research. Yet, to-date no review article exists that surveys the construct (both from an extrinsic and intrinsic motivation context), critically evaluates its current status, examines various key challenges...... apparent from the extant research, and suggests new research opportunities based on a thorough review of past work. The authors explore how motivation is defined, major theories underpinning motivation, how motivation has historically been measured, and key methodologies used over time. In addition......, attention is given to principal drivers and outcomes of salesperson motivation. A summarizing appendix of key articles in salesperson motivation is provided....

  1. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...

  2. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  3. Expressiveness and definability in circumscription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francicleber Martins Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate expressiveness and definability issues with respect to minimal models, particularly in the scope of Circumscription. First, we give a proof of the failure of the Löwenheim-Skolem Theorem for Circumscription. Then we show that, if the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence is Δ-elementary, then it is elementary. That is, whenever the circumscription of a first-order sentence is equivalent to a first-order theory, then it is equivalent to a finitely axiomatizable one. This means that classes of models of circumscribed theories are either elementary or not Δ-elementary. Finally, using the previous result, we prove that, whenever a relation Pi is defined in the class of P; Z-minimal models of a first-order sentence Φ and whenever such class of P; Z-minimal models is Δ-elementary, then there is an explicit definition ψ for Pi such that the class of P; Z-minimal models of Φ is the class of models of Φ ∧ ψ. In order words, the circumscription of P in Φ with Z varied can be replaced by Φ plus this explicit definition ψ for Pi.

  4. Defining Quality in Undergraduate Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. Bowers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research brief explores the literature addressing quality in undergraduate education to identify what previous research has said about quality and to offer future directions for research on quality in undergraduate education. Method: We conducted a scoping review to provide a broad overview of existing research. Using targeted search terms in academic databases, we identified and reviewed relevant academic literature to develop emergent themes and implications for future research. Results: The exploratory review of the literature revealed a range of thoughtful discussions and empirical studies attempting to define quality in undergraduate education. Many publications highlighted the importance of including different stakeholder perspectives and presented some of the varying perceptions of quality among different stakeholders. Conclusions: While a number of researchers have explored and written about how to define quality in undergraduate education, there is not a general consensus regarding a definition of quality in undergraduate education. Past research offers a range of insights, models, and data to inform future research. Implication for Theory and/or Practice: We provide four recommendations for future research to contribute to a high quality undergraduate educational experience. We suggest more comprehensive systematic reviews of the literature as a next step.

  5. THE CATEGORY OF COUNTABILITY IN THE CROATIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Znika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the category of countability as a category established on the lexical meaning of nouns. The lexical meaning of nouns can be dually structured, in a unit and mass forms, relative to the opposition one ≠ many. The category of countability has its content and expression. The content of the category of countability consists of the feature [± countable], and its marker [+ countable] and [- countable]. A noun is countable if its content can be conceived as a unit opposed to mass (table, apple. A noun is uncoutable if its content cannot be perceived as a unit that could be opposed to mass (water, sugar. The expression of the category of countability depends on its content. In the Croatian language the category of countability has its expression in the grammatical category of number and its grammems: singular and plural. These two grammems are formally, and frequently accentually, distinctive from the majority of nouns. The analysis focuses on the meaning of nouns, while their expression is considered as a possible indicator of semantic relationships the category of countability is based on. The paper analyses pluralia tantum and singularia tantum, and their different status countability-wise. It points out the possibility of semantic recategorization of nouns and thus demonstrates a dynamic quality of the category of countability. It also analyses the process of appelativisation (eponomisation of personal names, and the process of appelative deappelativisation. It shows the relationship between the category of countability and the category of definiteness, when definiteness is expressed by an adjectival aspect.

  6. Application of Monte-Carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M.; Valibeyova, G.; Jafarov, Y.D.; Musaeva, Sh.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capacities of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution upon corresponding sizes of exposition doses capacities. This procedure repeats for many times using computer and results of each round of calculations create universal density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities. The analysis using Monte Carlo method can be carried out at the level of radiation polluted soil categories. The analysis by Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainty in reports. Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report. Relative uncertainty of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of a confidential interval are asymmetric. It is important to determine key categories of radiation polluted soil to establish priorities to use reports of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources. Usage of the notion u ncertainty i n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it is necessary, for exact reflection of 90 percent uncertainty in reports. According to radiation safety norms level of radiation background exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous. By calculated Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of

  7. Application of Monte-Carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmudov, H M; Valibeyova, G; Jafarov, Y D; Musaeva, Sh Z [Institute of Radiation Problems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2006-11-15

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capacities of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution upon corresponding sizes of exposition doses capacities. This procedure repeats for many times using computer and results of each round of calculations create universal density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities. The analysis using Monte Carlo method can be carried out at the level of radiation polluted soil categories. The analysis by Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainty in reports. Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report. Relative uncertainty of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of a confidential interval are asymmetric. It is important to determine key categories of radiation polluted soil to establish priorities to use reports of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources. Usage of the notion {sup u}ncertainty{sup i}n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it is necessary, for exact reflection of 90 percent uncertainty in reports. According to radiation safety norms level of radiation background exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous. By calted Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of

  8. Taxation categories for long-term care insurance premiums and mortality among elderly Japanese: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    This cohort study examined the association between taxation categories of long-term care insurance premiums and survival among elderly Japanese. A total of 3000 participants aged 60 years or older were randomly recruited in Y City, Japan in 2002, of whom 2964 provided complete information for analysis. Information on income level, mobility status, medical status, and vital status of each participant was collected annually from 2002 to 2006. Follow-up surveys on survival were conducted until August 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by a Cox model, using taxation categories at baseline. In these analyses, age-adjusted and age- and mobility-adjusted models were used. A significantly higher mortality risk was seen only in the lowest taxation category among men: as compared with men in the second highest taxation category, the HR in the lowest category was 2.53 (95% CI, 1.26-5.08, P = 0.009). This significant association between taxation category and mortality was lost after adjustment for mobility. There was no other difference in mortality among taxation categories in men or women. The present findings only partly supported our hypothesis that taxation category is a good indicator of socioeconomic status in examining health inequalities among elderly Japanese.

  9. Normal and abnormal category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not, as some brain injured patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts while others show the opposite impairment. In an attempt to explain category-sp...

  10. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  11. Can Semi-Supervised Learning Explain Incorrect Beliefs about Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lang, Jonathan; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with 88 college-aged participants explored how unlabeled experiences--learning episodes in which people encounter objects without information about their category membership--influence beliefs about category structure. Participants performed a simple one-dimensional categorization task in a brief supervised learning phase, then…

  12. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  13. 29 CFR 4044.11 - Priority category 1 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... priority category 1 with respect to that participant is the present value of that annuity. ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority category 1 benefits. 4044.11 Section 4044.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF...

  14. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... nature from existing categories to warrant a separate salinity impact category. A conceptual method is ... compounds to the environment from all stages of a product's life- cycle are ... Marine. - Terrestrial. • Photo-oxidant formation. • Acidification .... algae. Reduced light input. Oxygen depletion near bottom.

  15. CATEGORY OF CIRCUMVENTION OF THE LAW IN RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "circumvention of the law" with respect to Treaty law. The author finds that the direct loan category "circumvention of the law" in Treaty law can be estimated ambiguously. The specified category which is fragmentary reflected in the active Civil codex indicates a regulatory gap

  16. The size of patent categories: USPTO 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafond, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization is an important phenomenon in science and society, and classification systems reflect the mesoscale organization of knowledge. The Yule-Simon-Naranan model, which assumes exponential growth of the number of categories and exponential growth of individual categories predicts a power

  17. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  18. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  19. Porcament : category management in de verse varkensvleesketen : AKK eindrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, V.M.; Heijden, van der C.H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft inzichten in de belangrijkste aspecten die een rol spelen bij de introductie van category management in de 'vers-vlees' categorie. Het biedt een overzicht van de leerervaringen en hoe daar in de praktijk mee omgegaan kan worden

  20. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...