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Sample records for risk behaviors examined

  1. Examining Subtypes of Behavioral/Emotional Risk Using Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Bridget V.; Gallagher, Emily K.; Hochbein, Craig D.; Loukas, Austin; Dai, Chenchen

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral and emotional problems among children and adolescents can lead to numerous negative outcomes without intervention. From a prevention standpoint, screening for behavioral and emotional risk is an important step toward identifying such problems before the point of diagnosis or referral. The present study conducted a k-means cluster…

  2. Sexting, Risk Behavior, and Mental Health in Adolescents: An Examination of 2015 Pennsylvania Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Anne S.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Patterson, Freda; Dai, Ting; Brown, Deanna

    2018-01-01

    Background: Sexting, the sharing of sexually suggestive photos, may be a gateway behavior to early sexual activity and increase the likelihood of social ostracism. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 6021) data from 2015 among Pennsylvania 9th-12th grade students were used to examine associations between consensual and nonconsensual sexting…

  3. Examining Residence Status as a Risk Factor for Health Risk Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M.; Benz, Madeline B.; Miller, Mary Beth; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to evaluate college student residence as a unique risk factor for a range of negative health behaviors. Participants: We examined data from 63,555 students (66% females) from 157 campuses who completed the National College Health Assessment Survey in Spring 2011. Methods: Participants answered questions about…

  4. Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…

  5. Examining relationships between multiple health risk behaviors, well-being, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Kerry E; Castle, Patricia H; Prochaska, James O; Prochaska, Janice M

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, the concept of health promotion has emphasized the reduction of health risk behaviors to reduce disease and impairment. Well-being research expands this focus to include positive constructs such as thriving, productivity, life-evaluation, and emotional and physical health. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationships between health risk behaviors and specific measures of individual well-being. Participants (N = 790) from 49 states completed a one-time online assessment that included the Life-Evaluation Index, Emotional and Physical Health Ladders, the Health Risk Intervention Assessment, and the Work Productivity and Activity Improvement Questionnaire for General Health. Life Evaluation and physical and emotional health were all inversely related to the number of health risk behaviors, with higher well-being scores associated with lower number of risk behaviors. Across the three Life Evaluation categories (Suffering, Struggling, and Thriving) the number of health risk behaviors decreased, productivity loss decreased, and emotional and physical health increased. The results add to previous research on how reducing multiple health risk behaviors can be combined with well-being, i.e., an emphasis on increasing life-evaluation, emotional and physical health, better functioning, and productivity.

  6. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328

  7. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Capoccia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken husbandry to assess how they relate to risk of disease acquisition, hypothesizing that certain practices associated with a lower knowledge base may heighten the risk. This study used a survey distributed via social media to examine the self-reported knowledge base of individuals involved in chicken husbandry as they relate to beliefs and behaviors associated with the care of these animals. These results identify key factors that may heighten the risk of disease transmission and demonstrate that an increased knowledge base could act to lessen this risk.

  9. High peer popularity longitudinally predicts adolescent health risk behavior, or does it?: an examination of linear and quadratic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia C; Helms, Sarah W; Brechwald, Whitney A; Rancourt, Diana

    2011-10-01

    In contrast to prior work, recent theory suggests that high, not low, levels of adolescent peer popularity may be associated with health risk behavior. This study examined (a) whether popularity may be uniquely associated with cigarette use, marijuana use, and sexual risk behavior, beyond the predictive effects of aggression; (b) whether the longitudinal association between popularity and health risk behavior may be curvilinear; and (c) gender moderation. A total of 336 adolescents, initially in 10-11th grades, reported cigarette use, marijuana use, and number of sexual intercourse partners at two time points 18 months apart. Sociometric peer nominations were used to examine popularity and aggression. Longitudinal quadratic effects and gender moderation suggest that both high and low levels of popularity predict some, but not all, health risk behaviors. New theoretical models can be useful for understanding the complex manner in which health risk behaviors may be reinforced within the peer context.

  10. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  11. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. On the Association between Sexual Attraction and Adolescent Risk Behavior Involvement: Examining Mediation and Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk…

  13. Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Capoccia; Michael Masters; Scott Risser

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken hus...

  14. On the association between sexual attraction and adolescent risk behavior involvement: Examining mediation and moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busseri, Michael A; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk involvement relative to the other two groups. Mediation analysis was used to determine whether these group disparities were explained by a set of normative predictive factors spanning multiple life domains. Differences among a combined exclusively/mostly heterosexual attraction group and both the bisexual and same-sex attraction groups were attenuated (66% and 50%, respectively) after incorporating the hypothesized intervening predictive factors, providing evidence of partial mediation. Primary mediators included intrapersonal (attitudes toward risk-taking; academic orientation), interpersonal (peer victimization; parental relationships; unstructured activities), and environmental (substance availability) factors. Mediation results were consistent across participant age and sex. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.

  15. Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior: Examining the Role of Distinct PTSD Symptoms in the Partner Violence-sexual Risk Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762

  16. Psychological intimate partner violence and sexual risk behavior: examining the role of distinct posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in the partner violence-sexual risk link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools: an ecological examination of adolescent risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2012-09-01

    This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys' but not girls' sexual experiences. Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools.

  18. A Pilot Study Examining Depressive Symptoms, Internet Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Asian Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, AF; Nehl, EJ; Lin, L; Tran, A; Yu, F; Wong, FY

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we present a preliminary examination of the association of depression level, internet use, meeting sexual partners online, and unprotected sexual activity among Asian men who have sex with men (MSM). Because depression level has been previously linked to increased levels of sexual risk behavior, and heightened levels of Internet use has been linked to greater depressive symptoms, the present pilot research jointly examines these factors. We found that those with higher levels of depression, measured using the CES-D, spent more time online, met significantly more sexual partners online, and reported a significantly higher number of unprotected sexual acts. Based on this initial evidence, we conclude that incorporating CES-D to screen for depression can serve as an important tool for addressing underlying dynamics of sexual risk behaviors. PMID:24074630

  19. Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.

  20. Examining Risk-Taking Behavior and Sensation Seeking Requirement in Extreme Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agilonu, Ali; Bastug, Gulsum; Mutlu, Tonguc Osman; Pala, Adem

    2017-01-01

    Extreme sports are sport branches which include actions, adventures, risks and difficulties more rather than other sports. Special materials are used in sport branches such as surfing, kite surfing, sailing, snowboarding, paragliding, diving, mountaineering, motor sports and adrenaline release is more rather than in other sport branches. On the…

  1. A New Look at Risk-Taking: Using a Translational Approach to Examine Risk-Taking Behavior on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task

    OpenAIRE

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Lejuez, Carl W.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Models of risk-taking typically assume that the variability of outcomes is important in the likelihood of making a risky choice. In an animal model of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), within-session variability, or the coefficient of variability (CV), was found to be a novel predictor of behavior (Jentsch et al., 2010). Human studies have not investigated how BART performance differs when using the CV versus a traditional BART measure (e.g. number of pumps). This study sought to determi...

  2. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.

  3. Reducing developmental risk for emotional/behavioral problems: a randomized controlled trial examining the Tools for Getting Along curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunic, Ann P; Smith, Stephen W; Garvan, Cynthia W; Barber, Brian R; Becker, Mallory K; Peters, Christine D; Taylor, Gregory G; Van Loan, Christopher L; Li, Wei; Naranjo, Arlene H

    2012-04-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies - such as social problem solving - provided in school settings can help ameliorate the developmental risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. In this study, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of Tools for Getting Along (TFGA), a social problem-solving universally delivered curriculum designed to reduce the developmental risk for serious emotional or behavioral problems among upper elementary grade students. We analyzed pre-intervention and post-intervention teacher-report and student self-report data from 14 schools, 87 classrooms, and a total of 1296 students using multilevel modeling. Results (effect sizes calculated using Hedges' g) indicated that students who were taught TFGA had a more positive approach to problem solving (g=.11) and a more rational problem-solving style (g=.16). Treated students with relatively poor baseline scores benefited from TFGA on (a) problem-solving knowledge (g=1.54); (b) teacher-rated executive functioning (g=.35 for Behavior Regulation and .32 for Metacognition), and proactive aggression (g=.20); and (c) self-reported trait anger (g=.17) and anger expression (g=.21). Thus, TFGA may reduce risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties by improving students' cognitive and emotional self-regulation and increasing their pro-social choices. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.

  5. False consensus and adolescent peer contagion: examining discrepancies between perceptions and actual reported levels of friends' deviant and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wang, Shirley S

    2005-06-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of their friends' behavior strongly predict adolescents' own behavior, however, these perceptions often are erroneous. This study examined correlates of discrepancies between adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of behavior. A total of 120 11th-grade adolescents provided data regarding their engagement in deviant and health risk behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the behavior of their best friend, as identified through sociometric assessment. Data from friends' own report were used to calculate discrepancy measures of adolescents' overestimations and estimation errors (absolute value of discrepancies) of friends' behavior. Adolescents also completed a measure of friendship quality, and a sociometric assessment yielding measures of peer acceptance/rejection and aggression. Findings revealed that adolescents' peer rejection and aggression were associated with greater overestimations of friends' behavior. This effect was partially mediated by adolescents' own behavior, consistent with a false consensus effect. Low levels of positive friendship quality were significantly associated with estimation errors, but not overestimations specifically.

  6. Modeling a Theory-Based Approach to Examine the Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment on HIV Risk Reduction Behaviors Among Drug Users in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Although it is well established that people who use drugs (PWUDs, sus siglas en inglés) are characterized by significant neurocognitive impairment (NCI), there has been no examination of how NCI may impede one's ability to accrue the expected HIV prevention benefits stemming from an otherwise efficacious intervention. This paper incorporated a theoretical Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of health behavior change (IMB) to examine the potential influence of NCI on HIV prevention outcomes as significantly moderating the mediation defined in the original model. The analysis included 304 HIV-negative opioid-dependent individuals enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed interaction effects between NCI and HIV risk reduction information such that the predicted influence of HIV risk reduction behavioral skills on HIV prevention behaviors was significantly weakened as a function of NCI severity. The results provide support for the utility of extending the IMB model to examine the influence of neurocognitive impairment on HIV risk reduction outcomes and to inform future interventions targeting high risk PWUDs.

  7. A new look at risk-taking: using a translational approach to examine risk-taking behavior on the balloon analogue risk task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Kelly S; Leeman, Robert F; Corbin, William R; Toll, Benjamin A; Fucito, Lisa M; Lejuez, Carl W; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2014-10-01

    Models of risk-taking typically assume that the variability of outcomes is important in the likelihood of making a risky choice. In an animal model of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), within-session variability, or the coefficient of variability (CV), was found to be a novel predictor of behavior (Jentsch et al., 2010). Human studies have not investigated how BART performance differs when using the CV versus a traditional BART measure (e.g., number of pumps). This study sought to determine whether the CV provides a unique and valuable alternative index of risk-taking on the BART, and to determine the relationship of the CV to self-reported alcohol consumption. Young adult heavy drinkers (n = 58, 72% male, mean age 21.53) completed an assessment of drinking patterns and a modified version of the BART. Multiple regression results indicated that CV is a unique predictor of total explosions and total money earned on the BART. Higher levels of variability were associated with fewer explosions but less money earned, whereas more pumps was associated with more explosions but more money. Higher CV was also associated with lower lifetime and past 3 months peak drinking quantity, higher levels of self-efficacy to control drinking, and lower levels of drinking acceptability (i.e., injunctive norms). Total pumps was associated with higher lifetime peak drinking, lower self-efficacy to control drinking, and higher levels drinking acceptability. Overall, the CV can provide an alternative method of assessing BART performance and the association of risk-taking with drinking patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. EXAMINING THE DETERMINANTS OF INTIMATE HYGIENE FOR YOUNG WOMEN WITH AN EMPHASIS ON BEHAVIOR RELATED TO RISK OF VULVOVAGINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kelčíková

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk determinants of intimate hygiene (IH for young women (15–22 years regarding the protection and promotion of their sexual health. Design: The study was designed as a descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was used – Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.747. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of female students (n = 360 aged 15–22 years. The response rate was 76% (n = 275. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and the Chi-square (χ2 test (p < 0.05. Results: We identified the determinants of IH in terms of risky behavior, namely: complete hair removal in the intimate area (favored by 94.75%, non-performance of hygiene before and after sexual intercourse (SI (not performed prior to SI by 38.58%, and after SI by 34.36%, not changing a wet swimming costume for dry (not performed by 58.06%, and the wearing of unsuitable undergarments. We identified a statistically significant influence of education and age on certain determinants of IH: the use of special preparations to wash intimate areas while bathing, the wearing of thongs, the changing of wet swimsuits for dry, the frequency of changing tampons during menstruation, and the performance of IH before and after SI (p < 0.05. Younger respondents (15–18 years, and those with lower education demonstrated worse IH habits with respect to the study determinants, which may be associated with lower awareness. Conclusion: We identified possible risk determinants of IH that are associated with sexual health. Our study points toward the need to improve knowledge and habits regarding appropriate and safe IH, with special focus on the risk of vulvovaginal infections. Keywords: young women (15–22 years, Intimate hygiene, Intimate hygiene determinants, Risky behavior, prevention of vulvovaginal infections.

  9. The effect of genetic test-based risk information on behavioral outcomes: A critical examination of failed trials and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jehannine

    2015-12-01

    Encouraging individuals at risk for common complex disease like heart disease, cancer, and diabetes to adopt lifestyle changes (e.g., smoking cessation, exercise, proper nutrition, increased screening) could be powerful public health tools to decrease the enormous personal and economic burden of these conditions. Theoretically, genetic risk information appears to be a compelling tool that could be used to provoke at-risk individuals to adopt these lifestyle changes. Unfortunately, however, numerous studies now have shown that providing individuals with genetic test-based risk information has little to no impact on their behavior. In this article (a commentary not a systematic review), the failed trials in which genetic information has been used as a tool to induce behavior change will be critically examined in order to identify new and potentially more effective ways forward. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Beyond recreational physical activity: examining occupational and household activity, transportation activity, and sedentary behavior in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stephanie M; Irwin, Melinda L; Matthews, Charles E; Mayne, Susan T; Gail, Mitchell H; Moore, Steven C; Albanes, Demetrius; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2010-11-01

    We prospectively examined nonrecreational physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to breast cancer risk among 97 039 postmenopausal women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. We identified 2866 invasive and 570 in situ breast cancer cases recorded between 1996 and 2003 and used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Routine activity during the day at work or at home that included heavy lifting or carrying versus mostly sitting was associated with reduced risk of invasive breast cancer (RR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.91; P(trend) = .024). Routine activity during the day at work or home may be related to reduced invasive breast cancer risk. Domains outside of recreation time may be attractive targets for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior among postmenopausal women.

  11. Examining levels of risk behaviors among black men who have sex with Men (MSM and the association with HIV acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risha Irvin

    Full Text Available Seroadaptation is defined as the practice of modifying sexual behavior based on one's own HIV serostatus, the perceived HIV serostatus of sexual partners, and differences in risk of HIV transmission by sexual acts. Because this definition implies intent, we use the term "seroprotection" to describe HIV negative participants reporting condomless anal sex (CAS either exclusively with seronegative partners, or only as the insertive partner with HIV positive or unknown serostatus partners. Little is known about seroprotection in Black men who have sex with men (MSM. We evaluated the independent association of seroprotection and HIV acquisition among the 1144 HIV-negative Black MSM enrolled in HPTN 061 using Cox models; we stratified by city of enrollment, and controlled for number of partners, age, and drug use. Behaviors reported at 0, 6, and 12 months were assigned to three mutually exclusive categories: (1 No CAS; (2 Seroprotection; and (3 CAS without seroprotection. In 2,861 six-month intervals; 28 HIV seroconversions occurred. No CAS was reported at 33.3% of visits, seroprotection at 46.6% of visits, and CAS without seroprotection at 20.1% of visits. The seroconversion rate per 100 person-years for no CAS was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.27, 2.51, compared with 2.39 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.71 and 13.33 (95% CI: 7.62, 21.66 for seroprotection and CAS without seroprotection, respectively. Compared to CAS without seroprotection, intervals without CAS were associated with an 87% reduction (aHR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.46 in HIV acquisition and intervals with seroprotection with a 78% reduction (aHR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.09-0.57. No CAS is the safest behavior to prevent HIV acquisition. Seroprotective behaviors significantly reduced risk, but HIV incidence was still >2/100 person-years, suggesting that additional strategies, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, are warranted for this population.

  12. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior: Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, Matteo; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview. At baseline and every 3 months for 18 months, adolescents completed measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, depressive symptoms, and stress. Multilevel models examined within-person mean, deviations from within-person mean, depression, and stress and their interactions with abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition to within-person mean depression, higher-than-usual depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99) and higher-than-usual stress (OR = 1.53) predicted greater risk of suicidal ideation at each follow-up assessment. Periods of higher-than-usual stress (1 SD increase) and periods of higher-than-usual depression (1 SD increase) were associated with an 82% and 57% increase in the odds of suicidal behavior, respectively, but only among those with abuse histories. Depression, stress, and abuse are well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior; however, it has been unclear for whom, and when, these factors have their greatest impact. These results show that depression and stress are potent risk factors among those with a history of abuse and that within-person elevations in these risk factors signal increased short-term risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. An association of health behaviors with depression and metabolic risks: Data from 2007 to 2014 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ozodiegwu, Ifeoma D; Yu, Yang; Hess, Rick; Bie, Ronghai

    2017-08-01

    Both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) confer an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggests healthy behaviors are crucial to maintain, improve and manage chronical disease and mental health; and unhealthy diet and sedentary behavior were found two major risk factors of MetS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, diet and recreational physical activity) are associated with depression and metabolic syndrome simultaneously. This study included 1300 participants aged 20 years and over who had answered mental health-depression screener questions (PHQ-9) and finished examinations and laboratory tests related to five risk factors of MetS during the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014. A set of series of weighted logistic regression models were used to investigate the aforementioned relationship. The prevalence of depression among U.S. adults is 15.08%. The two most often reported depression symptoms were "Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much" and "Feeling tired or having little energy", with rates of14.68% and 13.09%, respectively. Participants who engaged in only light physical activity were more likely to have been identified as experiencing depression and MetS than those who engaged in vigorous physical activity with odd ratios 3.18 (95% CI: 1.59, 6.37) and 3.50 (95%CI: 2.17, 5.63), respectively. Individuals in the study having poor diets were more likely to suffer from depression than those eating good diets (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.22). Physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with depression and MetS. Diet is significantly associated with depression rather than MetS in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavior Management: Examining the Functions of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate student behavior is essential for the success of a physical education lesson. Despite using effective proactive management strategies, teachers may need to also use reactive techniques to reduce problem behaviors by applying suitable consequences. For these consequences to be effective, they must be aligned with the function, or cause,…

  15. Do students use contextual protective behaviors to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk? Examination of a dual-process decision-making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Sell, Nichole M

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students' decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine (a) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use and (b) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Students (n = 508) completed Web-based baseline (mid-Spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Behavioral control and reward sensitivity in adolescents’ risk taking behavior : A longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  17. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  18. False Consensus and Adolescent Peer Contagion: Examining Discrepancies between Perceptions and Actual Reported Levels of Friends' Deviant and Health Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wang, Shirley S.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of their friends' behavior strongly predict adolescents' own behavior, however, these perceptions often are erroneous. This study examined correlates of discrepancies between adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of behavior. A total of 120 11th-grade adolescents provided data regarding their engagement in deviant…

  19. Controlling Behaviors and Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Spain: An Examination of Individual, Partner, and Relationship Risk Factors for Physical and Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua, Eva; Copp, Jennifer; Ricarte, Jorge J; Vázquez, David

    2017-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to a broad range of negative consequences. Thus, early detection and prevention of behaviors associated with IPV is necessary to combat this global public health problem. Controlling behaviors (CBs) within the intimate context, including acts to constrain free mobility or access to friends and relatives, have been characterized as a moderate form of violence and may be an indicator of more severe IPV. Previous research in this field, however, has been primarily conducted in the United States. Accordingly, we lack knowledge of similar findings in other countries to draw more general conclusions about observed associations between these variables, and to identify underlying mechanisms. The current study analyzes the role of control within the Spanish context by examining its correlates, as well as the role and impact of CBs on psychological and physical violence. To achieve these objectives, we use data from the Spanish sample of the Violence Against Women Survey carried out by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights ( N = 1,520 adult women). The results indicated that young women, women with a previous history of physical/sexual abuse during childhood, and women who have resided in Spain for fewer years are at greater risk of experiencing control within the context of an ongoing relationship. Partner risk factors included frequent episodes of drunkenness and general violence (i.e., violence outside of the home). In addition, control was more frequently reported among couples where the man was older than the woman. As hypothesized, women who reported CB by their partners were more likely to experience psychological and physical violence. These findings emphasize the importance of preventing CBs to avert the most severe forms of violence, and provides relevant information about the groups that could most benefit from these efforts.

  20. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  1. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  2. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior : Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, M.; Hastings, Paul D.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    Objective: This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. Method: This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between

  3. A Prospective Examination of Perceived Burdensomeness and Thwarted Belongingness As Risk Factors for Suicide Ideation In Adult Outpatients Receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Tobias; Glaesmer, Heide; von Brachel, Ruth; Siegmann, Paula; Forkmann, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior posits that 2 proximal, causal, and interactive risk factors must be present for someone to desire suicide: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the predictive power of these 2 risk factors in a prospective study. A total of 231 adult outpatients (age: mean = 38.1, standard deviation = 12.3) undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy took part in a pretreatment and a midtreatment assessment after the 10th therapy session. Perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and the interaction between these 2 risk factors did not add incremental variance to the prediction of midtreatment suicide ideation after controlling for age, gender, depression, hopelessness, impulsivity, lifetime suicide attempts, and pretreatment suicide ideation. The best predictor of midtreatment suicide ideation was pretreatment suicide ideation. Results offer only limited support to the assumptions of the interpersonal theory of suicide. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An Examination of Family, Healthcare Professionals, and Peer Advice on Physical Activity Behaviors among Adolescents at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O; Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E

    2017-07-01

    Studies have shown that many college students do not meet the recommended daily physical activity (PA) levels, and about 22% of these students are overweight. Given that engaging in PA is a protective behavior against many chronic conditions, it is imperative to understand what sources of information/advice to engage in PA is most influential. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different sources of advice regarding exercise and PA on actual PA engagement among obese/overweight adolescents. Using data from 319 overweight/obese college students, multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine which source of advice (from parents, peers, or healthcare provider) to engage in PA was associated with PA behavior among these adolescents. Influence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) family history on PA behavior was also examined. Moderate and vigorous PA behavior was more likely among obese/overweight adolescents who received advice to exercise or engage in PA from their peers (B = 200.85, β = 0.193, p = 0.001; B = 121.19, β = 0.145, p = 0.014). Overweight/obese adolescents with a T2D family history were more likely to walk compared with those without a T2D family history (χ 2  = 12.97, p = 0.000). Findings suggest that although healthcare professionals advise obese/overweight adolescents, those who received advice regarding PA behavior from their peers were more likely to heed the advice and exercise/engage in PA. In essence, intervention efforts should focus on employing peer ambassadors to counsel other adolescents on the importance of PA.

  5. [High risk groups in health behavior defined by clustering of smoking, alcohol, and exercise habits: National Heath and Nutrition Examination Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kiwon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Chang Yup

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m(2)). Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.

  6. Extending the Minority Stress Model to Incorporate HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences: a Longitudinal Examination of Mental Health and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pachankis, John E; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors-maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations.

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study Examining Health Behaviors and Health Care Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Mange mennesker rammes af depression efter en blodprop i hjertet (AMI), og denne kombination er forbundet med en dårligere prognose. Dette studie er det første, der viser, at depression udgør en selv-stændig risikofaktor for tidlig død hos patienter med blodprop i hjertet. Undersøgelsen tyder dog...... bruges til at skærpe opmærksomheden over for denne patientgruppe hos de praktiserende læger, hvor op mod 90 % af alle patienter med depression bliver diagnosticeret og behandlet. Background: Depressive symptoms is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI......), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear and it remains unknown whether subgroups of patients are at a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the risk of new cardiovascular events and/or death in patients with depressive symptoms following first-time MI taking into account other secondary...

  8. Examining the realities of risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sufficient experience now exists, especially in the nuclear industry, to consider the progress that has been made toward meaningful tools or aids for the control and, hence, management of risk. The considerable activity in the field of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) suggests a high level of interest and application. It is the purpose of this paper to examine our own experience in this regard and to offer some observations and opinions about current practices in risk management and the requirements for success

  9. X-ray examinations pose little risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray examinations account for about 15 per cent of Finns' radiation exposure and for roughly one out of a hundred deaths from cancer. The risk is small when compared to other risks in life and to the health benefits obtained from the examinations. About 4.1 million x-ray examinations were conducted in Finland in 1995, i.e. an average of 0.8 examinations per inhabitant. The mean effective dose was about 0.67 mSv per examination and about 0.54 mSv per inhabitant. Natural background radiation causes an annual radiation dose of approximately 3 mSv per person. Examinations of bones and soft tissues accounted for the highest number of x-ray images, roughly 2.1 million, of which half were examinations of the extremities. Some 1.3 million x-ray images were taken of the pulmonary organs, most of them being examinations of the lungs. Computed tomography and examinations of the gastrointestinal tract accounted for about 130,000 images each. To assess the radiation risk involved in x-ray examinations, we need knowledge or an estimate of the radiation doses of organs sensitive to radiation. Efficient calculation methods are available for this purpose. (orig.)

  10. Can Technology Decrease Sexual Risk Behaviors among Young People? Results of a Pilot Study Examining the Effectiveness of a Mobile Application Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dawnyéa D.; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Robillard, Alyssa; Huhns, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    College students represent an important population for studying and understanding factors that influence sexual risk given the populations' high risk of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Using a quasi-experimental design, the efficacy of a brief and theory-driven mobile application intervention designed to decrease sexual…

  11. Examining challenging behaviors of clients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker, Samantha A; Carmel, Adam; Atkins, David C; Landes, Sara J; Kerbrat, Amanda H; Comtois, Katherine Anne

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined effects of challenging behaviors of clients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) on psychotherapy outcomes. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based treatment designed to treat chronic suicidality, self-directed violence (SDV), and emotion dysregulation, while targeting challenging behaviors. DBT has been shown to be effective with clients with BPD. We evaluated whether therapist reported challenging behaviors, such as high volume phone contacts or violating the therapist's limits, during DBT would be associated with dropping out of DBT, severity and frequency of SDV, emotion regulation deficits, psychological symptom severity and client's and therapist's satisfaction of treatment. The current study examined challenging behaviors reported by therapists in a sample of 63 psychiatrically disabled outpatient DBT clients diagnosed with BPD (73% women, average age 37 years). More frequent phone contacts were associated with a decrease in dropout and psychological symptoms, and an increase in client and therapist satisfaction. More avoidance/disengagement behavior was associated with more than twice the risk of SDV and a decrease in therapist satisfaction. Findings suggest that the phone coaching might serve to maximize client satisfaction and reduce the likelihood of dropout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Behaviors and Risk Factors Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Korean Patients with Diabetes: The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Jeong Lee, PhD, RN

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Since renal functions are affected by lifestyle factors, it is critical for healthcare professionals to provide diabetic patients with health education focused on changing their behavior so that it is conducive to health. It is also necessary to consider that diabetes education should be made more available and provided more effectively to these patients.

  13. Social class & risk preferences and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews recent work regarding the link between one's societal ranking (or social class), and risk preferences and behavior. While the topic of social class and its relationship to risk has been studied only tentatively in psychology, preliminary evidence suggests that experiences with rank, access to resources, and movement between classes have a meaningful impact on people's risk preferences and behaviors. Yet, a clear pattern of results remains elusive. Some studies suggest that lower social class standing is related to risk aversion, while others suggest it is related to risk taking. These mixed results highlight the need for future research that examines when and why lower social class standing is related to more or less risky decisions. By shedding light on this important phenomenon, the hope is to offer intervention opportunities that influence policies and mitigate inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  16. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  17. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  18. Dynamic Relationships Between Parental Monitoring, Peer Risk Involvement and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Bahamian Mid-Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja

    2015-06-01

    Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13-17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths' sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior.

  19. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  20. Extending the Direct Behavior Rating: An Examination of Schoolwide Behavior Ratings and Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; Barron, Sheila; Fernando, Josephine; Balint-Langel, Kinga

    2018-01-01

    Direct behavior ratings have been identified as a practical and feasible alternative to direct observation of behavior for monitoring behavioral progress. Despite the evidence of usability, there have been calls for further examination of direct behavior ratings using different behaviors and scales. To this end, we examined the ratings of…

  1. Risk perception and intended behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushkatel, A.; Nigg, J.; Pijawka, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach taken to assess the social impacts of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada on residents in the closest metropolitan area, Las Vegas. The purpose of this portion of the assessment is to investigate the effects of the repository on the future well-being and behavior of Las Vegas residents under different operational futures of the repository. To investigate these effects, a research design and conceptual framework were developed to collect data from a random sample of Las Vegas metropolitan area residents. The design allows for the collection of both baseline data (to determine current risk perceptions and behaviors) and projected effects of the repository under four different operational futures

  2. A comparison of prevalence estimates for selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the National Health Interview Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Ford, Earl S; Okoro, Catherine A; Zhao, Guixiang; Pierannunzi, Carol

    2012-06-01

    To compare the prevalence estimates of selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions among three national health surveys in the United States. Data from adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=807,524), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=44,262), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2007 and 2008 (n=5871) were analyzed. The prevalence estimates of current smoking, obesity, hypertension, and no health insurance were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.7% to 3.9% (relative differences: 2.3% to 20.2%). The prevalence estimate of poor or fair health from BRFSS was similar to that from NHANES, but higher than that from NHIS. The prevalence estimates of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.0% to 0.8% (relative differences: 0.2% to 17.1%). While the BRFSS continues to provide invaluable health information at state and local level, it is reassuring to observe consistency in the prevalence estimates of key health indicators of similar caliber between BRFSS and other national surveys. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Teacher Behavioral Practices: Relations to Student Risk Behaviors, Learning Barriers, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andrew; Mcmahon, Susan D.; Coker, Crystal; Keys, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Student behavioral problems pose a myriad of challenges for schools. In this study, we examine the relations among teacher and school-level constructs (i.e., teacher collaboration, supervision/discipline, instructional management), and student-related outcomes (i.e., high-risk behaviors, barriers to learning, student social-behavioral climate).…

  4. Examining Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors in Relation to Gun Carrying and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea; Bauman, Sheri; Ritter, Marissa; Anand, Payal

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the interpersonal theory of suicide, this study examines the associations between gun carrying, bullying, and suicidal behaviors among high school students. Arizona Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were completed by 2,677 students in 2011; 9.0% reported suicide attempt in the past year, 5.5% carried a gun in the past 30 days, 8.5% were…

  5. Examining the relationship between use of sexually explicit media and sexual risk behavior in a sample of men who have sex with men in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traeen, Bente; Noor, Syed W; Hald, Gert Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway, with a particular emphasis on a possible relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants included 529 MSM...... living in Norway recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Of the 507 participants who responded to the all items measuring exposure to SEM, 19% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner (UAI) in last 90 days, and 14% reported having had sero-discordant UAI....... Among those with UAI experience, 23% reported receptive anal intercourse (R-UAI) and 37% reported insertive anal intercourse (I-UAI). SEM consumption was found to be significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Participants with increased consumption of bareback SEM reported higher odds of UAI...

  6. Depression and HIV risk behavior practices among at risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between depression and HIV-related risk behavior practices in a sample of 250 at risk, predominantly African American women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Our conceptual model hypothesized a relationship between depression and HIV risk in which depression and condom-related attitudes were construed as intervening (or mediating) variables. A multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between depression and women's risk behaviors. The results showed that depression was a key-mediating variable, having its primary influence on women's risky practices through its impact upon their attitudes toward using condoms. Factors associated with depression, included religiosity, closeness of family relationships, financial problems, childhood maltreatment experiences, and drug-related problems. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts are: (1) heightening faith community involvement and religious participation to decrease depression; (2) working with women whose familial bonds are in need of strengthening to combat depression; (3) providing mental health and counseling services to women who were emotionally and/or sexually abused during their formative years seems to help these women to recover from unresolved issues that may be fueling depression; (4) assisting at risk women who need training in money management issues to minimize their risk for depression; and (5) helping women drug abusers to receive treatment for their drug problems to combat their depression and lower their HIV risk.

  7. Planned versus Unplanned Risks: Neurocognitive Predictors of Subtypes of Adolescents' Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel P.; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John

    2011-01-01

    Risk behavior contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality during adolescence. This study examined neurocognitive predictors of proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned (premeditated) versus unplanned (spontaneous). Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 [1.0] years) completed neurocognitive tasks (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT],…

  8. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  9. Relationships between bullying, school climate, and student risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jennifer; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    This study examined whether characteristics of a positive school climate were associated with lower student risk behavior in a sample of 3,687 high school students who completed the School Climate Bullying Survey and questions about risk behavior from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Confirmatory factor analyses established fit for 20 items with three hypothesized school climate scales measuring (1) prevalence of bullying and teasing; (2) aggressive attitudes; and (3) student willingness to seek help. Structural equation modeling established the relationship of these measures with student reports of risk behavior. Multigroup analyses identified differential effects across gender and race. A positive school climate could be an important protective factor in preventing student risk behavior.

  10. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior: A Longitudinal TRAILS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 adolescents, of which 66% revealed an increased risk for mental health problems. To assess behavioral control at age 11 we used both self-report (effortful control) as well as behavioral measures of cognitive control (i.e., working memory and response inhibition). Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Bangor Gambling Task. The main finding of this study was that effortful control at age 11 was the best predictor of risk taking behavior (alcohol and cannabis use) at age 16, particularly among adolescents who were more reward sensitive. Risk taking behavior in adolescents might be explained by relatively weak behavioral control functioning combined with high sensitivity for reward.

  11. [Study on health support strategies by analyzing the diet, alcohol intake, and smoking behavior of university students: examination of non-communicable disease risk factors according to their sex, age and living arrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamaki, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the diet, drinking, and smoking behaviors of university students and to analyze the health behaviors that could be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in order to contribute to the promotion of NCD prevention in youth. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire with closed questions including items about health behaviors. The subjects surveyed were students of 10 universities on the main island of Japan (1,196 valid responders). The score for the nutritional balance was significantly low in the group living alone for both students in their teens and 20s. For the frequency of not eating breakfast, results suggest that living alone and increase in age are related to the lack of breakfast for both males and females. Teenage males living alone tended to lack in consideration for the intake of animal fat than those not living alone. The females showed a higher tendency to eat sweets and snacks during the day than the males. For the males who living alone, results suggest that they tended to have a higher or equal alcohol intake to females in their 20s and males in their 20s not living alone even when they are underage. Males in their 20s tended to have a higher amount and frequency of smoking than other groups regardless of their living arrangement. Accumulation of health behavior that could be a risk for NCDs was found in some of the groups, such as males living alone.

  12. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  13. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  14. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bijen FİLİZ; Gıyasettin DEMİRHAN

    2018-01-01

    In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S)” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 i...

  15. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  16. Maternal medical risks during pregnancy and childhood externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-04-25

    Research has indicated that maternal health during the prenatal period and at delivery carries far reaching significance for the development of offspring. Even so, the role of the accumulation of maternal medical risks during pregnancy in the development of externalizing behavior during childhood has generally been overlooked. The present study investigates whether the accumulation of maternal medical risks during the prenatal period is positively associated with childhood externalizing behavior, and whether this association is stronger among male offspring. We examined a large, nationally representative sample of children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Information concerning maternal medical history, including the presence of a number of medical risks during pregnancy, was obtained through hospital records. A subsample of children with both parent and teacher reports of externalizing behavior during kindergarten was employed in the present study. A greater number of maternal medical risks during pregnancy increased the odds of childhood externalizing behavior across settings, but only among male offspring. The predicted probability of persistent externalizing behavior among males increased from .084 in the absence of maternal medical risks during pregnancy to .241 in the presence of three or more maternal medical risks during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that maternal medical risks during the prenatal period can have far-reaching consequences for the behavioral development of male offspring. Treatment of medical risks among expectant mothers may have the added benefit of reducing the likelihood of childhood externalizing behavior among male progeny. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risky music-listening behaviors and associated health-risk behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vogel (Ineke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Burdorf (Alex); F. de Waart (Frouwkje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes,

  18. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S.

    2016-01-01

    We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation. PMID:27047418

  19. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la O eGonzález

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation.

  20. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S

    2016-01-01

    We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation.

  1. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns are associated with selected adolescent health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2006-04-01

    Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less

  2. [Parental practices and pedestrian risk behaviors in Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Andrea C; Repetto, Paula B

    2014-08-01

    Traffic accidents are the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in Chile. However, few studies have examined this behavior among this age group. Parental practices have a great influence on risk behaviors in adolescents, such as substance use, sexuality and violence, among others. Specifically, we propose that these practices will influence pedestrian risk behaviors among adolescents. To study the role of parental practices such as mother and father support, and behavioral control (monitoring and presence of rules) in pedestrian risk behaviors of teenagers. A sample of 470 adolescents attending schools in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile were studied. They answered a self-administered questionnaire in which they were asked about parental practices and pedestrian risk behaviors. Analyses were performed using descriptive and inferential statistics, using multiple regression. Paternal support and the presence of rules were protective factors for pedestrian risky behaviors. However, maternal support or monitoring did not influence these behaviors. Parental practices influence pedestrian behaviors of teenagers. The study provides further evidence for the importance of these practices in the development of behavioral self-regulation.

  3. Adolescent suicide and health risk behaviors: Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongwen; Perry, Donald K; Hesser, Jana E

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among high school students in the U.S. This study examined the relationships among indicators of depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and demographics and risk behaviors in Rhode Island high school students. Data from Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were utilized for this study. The statewide sample contained 2210 randomly selected public high school students. Data were analyzed in 2008 to model for each of five depressed mood/suicide indicators using multivariable logistic regression. By examining depressed mood and suicide indicators through a multivariable approach, the strongest predictors were identified, for multiple as well as specific suicide indicators. These predictors included being female, having low grades, speaking a language other than English at home, being lesbian/gay/bisexual/unsure of sexual orientation, not going to school as a result of feeling unsafe, having been a victim of forced sexual intercourse, being a current cigarette smoker, and having a self-perception of being overweight. The strength of associations between three factors (immigrant status, feeling unsafe, and having forced sex) and suicide indicators adds new information about potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  5. Integrating Household Risk Mitigation Behavior in Flood Risk Analysis: An Agent-Based Model Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating. We show that neglecting human behavior in flood risk assessment studies can result in a considerable misestimation of future flood risk, which is in our case study an overestimation of a factor two. Furthermore, we show how behavior models can support flood risk analysis under different behavioral assumptions, illustrating the need to include the dynamic adaptive human behavior of, for instance, households, insurers, and governments. The method presented here provides a solid basis for exploring human behavior and the resulting flood risk with respect to low-probability/high-impact risks. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  7. Delegated Portfolio Management and Risk Taking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Barros Fernandes; Juan Ignacio Peña; Benjamin Miranda Tabak

    2009-01-01

    Standard models of moral hazard predict a negative relationship between risk and incentives; however empirical studies on mutual funds present mixed results. In this paper, we propose a behavioral principal-agent model in the context of professional managers, focusing on active and passive investment strategies. Using this general framework, we evaluate how incentives affect the risk taking behavior of managers, using the standard moral hazard model as a special case; and solve the previous c...

  8. Parental knowledge and adolescents' risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Albertos, A. (Aranzazu); Osorio, A. (Alfonso); Lopez-del-Burgo, C. (Cristina); Carlos, S. (Silvia); Beltramo, C. (Carlos); Trullols, F. (Fernando)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents’ activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answere...

  9. Risky music-listening behaviors and associated health-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje

    2012-06-01

    To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drugs) and unsafe sexual intercourse. A total of 944 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Risky MP3-player listeners used cannabis more often during the past 4 weeks. Students exposed to risky sound levels during discotheque and pop concert attendance used cannabis less often during the past 4 weeks, were more often binge drinkers, and reported inconsistent condom use during sexual intercourse. The coexistence of risky music-listening behaviors with other health-risk behaviors provides evidence in support of the integration of risky music-listening behaviors within research on and programs aimed at reducing more traditional health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and unsafe sexual intercourse.

  10. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  11. Risk behavior in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars

  12. Sexting behaviors among young Hispanic women: incidence and association with other high-risk sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2011-09-01

    Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.

  13. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S

    2013-03-01

    Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

  15. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Hutchinson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling and physical activity (92 studies or sedentary behaviors (19 studies. Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14, including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste and other health behaviors ((n = 20 smoking, dietary intake, alcohol. These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

  16. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  17. Relationships between Sports Team Participation and Health-Risk Behaviors among Alternative High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…

  18. Work stress and health risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.

  19. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  20. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  1. Sexual Behavior, Risk Beliefs, and Assertiveness among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michelle A.

    HIV risk behaviors were examined with 457 adolescents, ages 12 to 19, from four environments (community, high school, and two youth conferences). Over half reported being sexually experienced, with an average age of 13.6 for willingly engaging in first sexual intercourse. Boys reported engaging in intercourse at a significantly younger age than…

  2. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  4. Staff dosimetry and risk assessment during digestive and angiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, J.; Osteaux, M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in medical applications involves not only a risk for the patient, but also for the staff which executed the related examinations. The dose to the forehead, neck, fingers and wrist of a radiologist and an assisting nurse were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters during angiographic and digestive examinations respectively. Dose to eye lenses and effective dose were estimated for a working period of one year. Effective doses were under the established limit of 20 mSv per year. Nurse eye lens dose was higher than the limit of 150 mSv. Differences of a factor of 3.8 were observed between nurse and radiologist doses. Angiographic procedures are considered as high risk examinations, however, digestive examinations can have a higher risk than interventional procedures. (author)

  5. Sexting and sexual behavior in at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ(2)[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ(2)[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents.

  6. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  7. Drug use Discrimination Predicts Formation of High-Risk Social Networks: Examining Social Pathways of Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Ford, Chandra; Rudolph, Abby; Kim, BoRin; Lewis, Crystal M

    2017-09-01

    Experiences of discrimination, or social marginalization and ostracism, may lead to the formation of social networks characterized by inequality. For example, those who experience discrimination may be more likely to develop drug use and sexual partnerships with others who are at increased risk for HIV compared to those without experiences of discrimination. This is critical as engaging in risk behaviors with others who are more likely to be HIV positive can increase one's risk of HIV. We used log-binomial regression models to examine the relationship between drug use, racial and incarceration discrimination with changes in the composition of one's risk network among 502 persons who use drugs. We examined both absolute and proportional changes with respect to sex partners, drug use partners, and injecting partners, after accounting for individual risk behaviors. At baseline, participants were predominately male (70%), black or Latino (91%), un-married (85%), and used crack (64%). Among those followed-up (67%), having experienced discrimination due to drug use was significantly related to increases in the absolute number of sex networks and drug networks over time. No types of discrimination were related to changes in the proportion of high-risk network members. Discrimination may increase one's risk of HIV acquisition by leading them to preferentially form risk relationships with higher-risk individuals, thereby perpetuating racial and ethnic inequities in HIV. Future social network studies and behavioral interventions should consider whether social discrimination plays a role in HIV transmission.

  8. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  9. Protective response to technological emergency: risk perception and behavioral intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Barnes, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines why, as suggested by the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (TMI) event, the public is more inclined to evacuate in response to a radiation release than to a natural hazard. During the TMI incident, for example, did authorities present confusing or conflicting information or did the public have an exaggerated perception of radiation risk. Behavioral intention studies are combined with risk perception analyses to ascertain (1) the extent to which intentions to evacuate can be generalized from one sample to another and from one hazard to another, (2) the degree to which behavioral intentions are related to specific dimensions of risk perception, and (3) how public perceptions of risk compare with estimates of risk produced by reactor accident consequence analyses

  10. Chest X ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indovina, P.L.; Reggiani, A.; Calicchia, A.; Nicolosi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Chest X-ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk: critical analysis of legal and radiation protection aspects. Chest X-ray examination is one of the most common radiological examinations practised in Italy. According to Presidential Decree 1124/65, workers exposed to risk of asbestosis and silicosis must undergo a chest radiography once a year, on occasion of the periodic medical examination. Basic requirements aimed at the radiation protection of the patient must therefore be complied with, and optimization of the chest radiography execution procedures is required. This paper illustrates the results obtained with the implementation of the NEXT programme in Italy for this kind of X-ray examination. The main objective of the NEXT programme is the optimization of radiological techniques. On the basis of the most recent publications in the field of radiation protection, a critical analysis is made of the laws in force in Italy

  11. Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

  12. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijen FİLİZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 items and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were applied to 330 high-school students. Items that did not apply as a result of the analysis were omitted from 52-item trial scale and the scale was reduced to 14 items. A final scale consisting of two factors was created. Obtained scale was applied to different 250 high-school students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. It has been determined that EFA and CFA results of two-factor PSRB-S and reliability and validity of internal consistency coefficients are at an acceptable level. It was not detected a significance difference in total scores of athlete students’ responsibility behaviors in terms of gender and age variables while there were significant difference in their total scores of years of sport practice.

  13. High-Risk Health and Credit Behavior among 18- to 25-Year-Old College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique

    2007-01-01

    The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…

  14. Risk and benefit associated with preventive mammography examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The risk of mammographic examination was estimated. It is concluded that a mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1 mGy per exposure can be associated with a risk of 1 radiation-induced carcinoma per less than 100 positive detected by the preventive examination. The variability of actual MGD at various hospitals can be quite large. Although the majority of measurements were made on phantoms it is assumed that the national MGD average will exceed 3 mGy for the average breast size of 55 mm

  15. Examination of the use of the expectation value of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The UK regulatory authorities have published guidance on the requirements for authorisation for the disposal of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The guidance specifies an individual risk target for the post-closure period and requires developers to consider collective radiological impacts. Information on how risks and impacts should be calculated or assessed has not been published. The objective of this project was to identify a suitable approach for making judgements of acceptability in relation to a risk target. The project examined the basis for using the expectation value of risk and investigated what approach the Agency might adopt in judging the acceptability of a dose versus probability profile for a given facility. Regulatory criteria are often expressed as a single number representing a constraint, limit or target. However, calculations or measurements of quantities for comparison with these criteria commonly give rise to distributions rather than single values. The expectation value of a distribution, which is equivalent to the arithmetic average, is one means of summarising a distribution as a single value. The project included general consideration of the mathematical basis of the expectation value of a distribution, with specific reference to the calculation of the expectation value of risk. The disadvantages of using the expectation value were also examined in the project. These include its sensitivity to changes at the high-end of the distribution, the need for an arbitrary integration limit for distributions that cannot be integrated analytically and the fact that risk is calculated as a function of time for each of many sets of events. The concept of risk as a basis for regulatory decision-making is becoming more widespread, particularly in the European Union, as directives such as the Control of Major Accident Hazards become effective. Planning of industrial development and transport systems does take account of risks to

  16. Parental knowledge and adolescents' risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertos, Aranzazu; Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; Beltramo, Carlos; Trullols, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents' activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answered by 6208 adolescents. We observed that the greater the degree of knowledge, the lower the frequency of risk behaviors among youth. The degree of knowledge was inversely associated with children's age, and we observed that being female was associated with a greater degree of parental knowledge. The study shows that parents' supervision criteria might be influenced by gender stereotypes, which would have a harmful effect on young males, as the lower degree of knowledge puts them at higher odds of risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  18. Individual-Based Compulsive Sexual Behavior Scale: Its Development and Importance in Examining Compulsive Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario

    2018-04-03

    Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.

  19. Pre-migration trauma and HIV-risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Herlitz, Claes; Matthews, Jesse; Snyder, Wendy; Mazzaferro, Kathryn; Baum, Andy; Theorell, Töres

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between pre-migration trauma and HIV-risk behavior in refugees from sub-Saharan Africa. The sample comprised 122 persons who had emigrated from sub-Saharan Africa and were currently residing in Sweden. Qualitative methods including individual interviews, focus groups, and interviews with key informants addressed questions regarding trauma experience and HIV-risk behavior. A history of pre-migration trauma was found to be associated with HIV-risk behavior. According to the participants, symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, adjustment disorder, and substance use mediated the relationship between pre-migration trauma and sexual risk behavior. In contrast, a minority of the participants who reported pre-migration trauma but not psychological sequelae, or experienced post-traumatic growth, reported safer sexual practices. It appears that for some individuals, pre-migration trauma resulted in psychiatric sequelae, which may increase an individual's risk to be infected with HIV. Interventions targeted at individuals at increased risk (i.e. pre-migration trauma with unresolved psychiatric symptomatology) may facilitate the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in this population. Integration of multiple psychosocial and health issues is recommended for comprehensive treatment and prevention programs.

  20. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  1. Risk Factors, Pathobiomechanics and Physical Examination of Rotator Cuff Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Samuel G.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important to appreciate the risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears and specific physical examination maneuvers. Methods: A selective literature search was performed. Results: Numerous well-designed studies have demonstrated that common risk factors include age, occupation, and anatomic considerations such as the critical shoulder angle. Recently, research has also reported a genetic component as well. The rotator cuff axially compresses the humeral head in the glenohumeral joint and provides rotational motion and abduction. Forces are grouped into coronal and axial force couples. Rotator cuff tears are thought to occur when the force couples become imbalanced. Conclusion: Physical examination is essential to determining whether a patient has an anterosuperior or posterosuperior tear. Diagnostic accuracy increases when combining a series of examination maneuvers. PMID:27708731

  2. High-Risk Driving Behaviors among Adolescent Binge-Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Meyer, Rachel A.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is common among adolescents. Alcohol use, and binge-drinking in particular, has been associated with neurocognitive deficits as well as risk-taking behaviors, which may contribute to negative driving outcomes among adolescents even while sober. Objectives To examine differences in self-reported driving behaviors between adolescent binge-drinkers and a matched sample of controls, including (a) compliance with graduated licensing laws, (b) high risk driving behaviors, and (c) driving outcomes (crashes, traffic tickets). Methods The present study examined driving behaviors and outcomes in adolescent recent binge drinkers (n=21) and demographically and driving history matched controls (n=17), ages 16-18. Results Binge drinkers more frequently violated graduated licensing laws (e.g., driving late at night), and engaged in more “high risk” driving behaviors, such as speeding and using a cell-phone while driving. Binge drinkers had more traffic tickets, crashes and “near crashes” than the control group. In a multivariate analysis, binge drinker status and speeding were the most robust predictors of a crash. Conclusion Binge drinking teens consistently engage in more dangerous driving behaviors and experience more frequent crashes and traffic tickets. They are also less compliant with preventative restrictions placed on youth while they are learning critical safe driving skills. Scientific Significance These findings highlight a need to examine the contribution of underlying traits (such as sensation seeking) and binge-related cognitive changes to these high-risk driving behaviors, which may assist researchers in establishing alternative prevention and policy efforts targeting this population. PMID:22324748

  3. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  4. Screening for Behavioral Risk: Identification of High Risk Cut Scores within the Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to support the identification of Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) cut scores that could be used to detect high-risk students. Teachers rated students across two time points (Time 1 n = 1,242 students; Time 2 n = 704) using the SAEBRS and the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System…

  5. Estimation of foetus risk from x-ray pelvimetric examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iba, Shozo; Sato, Kazuichi

    1983-01-01

    X-ray pelvimetric examinations are carried out for the purpose of diagnosing the cephalo pelvic disproportion at terminal pregnancy and they are still an excellent method, being performed more often than other examinations. However the invitable fetal exposure is considered to be a significant dose and makes an estimation of stochastic fetal risk related to x-ray exposure and to investigate the methods of dose reduction. As the methods judging the exposure dose actually made in the hospitals, a questionnarie regarding the main technical factors of an x-ray examination was given to 26 hospitals, including 5 university hospitals, in Kantou district, and the answeres were analyzed. The estimated risks involving genetics, leukemia and malignant diseases were dependent on the exposure dose which could be calculated on the basis of the technical factors obtained. Total risks on the foetus ranged widely from 1.27 x 10 rad -1 to 1.19 x 10 rad -1 . So for as we have investigated, if all the hospitals used a grid ratio of 5:1, a tube voltage of 120 kV, intensitying screens with rare earth phosphors and green-sensitive orthomatic medical x-ray films for the x-ray pelvimetric examinations, it would be possible to reduce the present exposure dose by one-fourth. The ratio of the x-ray pelvimetry taken on pregnant patients ranged from 2 % to 33 %, having a mean value of 15 %. (author)

  6. X-ray examination for breast cancer: Benefit versus risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalrymple, G.V.; Baker, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer of the breast is the most common malignancy afflicting American women. According to the American Cancer Society, one of 11 women (9 percent) born in the United States today, will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. Twenty-seven percent of all cancers in women and 19 percent of all cancer deaths in women are attributable to breast cancer. In 1982, 112,000 women were found to have cancer of the breast, and 37,000 women died from breast cancer. X-ray examinations of the breast are of considerable value in the diagnosis of breast cancer. This may be especially true in the asymptomatic patient who does not have a palpable mass. These x-ray examinations, however, are associated with both a finite though small risk of induction of cancer of the breasts and even smaller risk of death from cancer of the breast. This chapter presents a brief review of cancer of the breast and discusses the value of diagnostic studies, including x-ray mammography; the benefits and risks associated with x-ray examinations; and the future potential of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound as imaging modalities in the detection of breast cancer

  7. Health Risk Behaviors With Synthetic Cannabinoids Versus Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Heather B; Lowry, Richard; Ashley, Carmen; Wolkin, Amy; Grant, Althea M

    2017-04-01

    Data are limited on the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use with those among marijuana users. Data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 ( N = 15 624), were used to examine the association between self-reported type of marijuana use (ie, never use of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids, ever use of marijuana only, and ever use of synthetic cannabinoids) and self-report of 36 risk behaviors across 4 domains: substance use, injury/violence, mental health, and sexual health. Multivariable models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids had a significantly greater likelihood of engaging in each of the behaviors in the substance use and sexual risk domains compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids were more likely than students who ever used marijuana only to have used marijuana before age 13 years, to have used marijuana ≥1 times during the past 30 days, and to have used marijuana ≥20 times during the past 30 days. Several injury/violence behaviors were more prevalent among students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Health professionals and school-based substance use prevention programs should include strategies focused on the prevention of both synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Supportive relationships and sexual risk behavior in adolescence: an ecological-transactional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan

    2006-04-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.

  9. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  11. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behavior among public secondary school students in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-12-28

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  12. Improving measurement of injection drug risk behavior using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulis, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Recent research highlights the multiple steps to preparing and injecting drugs and the resultant viral threats faced by drug users. This research suggests that more sensitive measurement of injection drug HIV risk behavior is required. In addition, growing evidence suggests there are gender differences in injection risk behavior. However, the potential for differential item functioning between genders has not been explored. To explore item response theory as an improved measurement modeling technique that provides empirically justified scaling of injection risk behavior and to examine for potential gender-based differential item functioning. Data is used from three studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. A two-parameter item response theory model was used to scale injection risk behavior and logistic regression was used to examine for differential item functioning. Item fit statistics suggest that item response theory can be used to scale injection risk behavior and these models can provide more sensitive estimates of risk behavior. Additionally, gender-based differential item functioning is present in the current data. Improved measurement of injection risk behavior using item response theory should be encouraged as these models provide increased congruence between construct measurement and the complexity of injection-related HIV risk. Suggestions are made to further improve injection risk behavior measurement. Furthermore, results suggest direct comparisons of composite scores between males and females may be misleading and future work should account for differential item functioning before comparing levels of injection risk behavior.

  13. Influence of Social Stress on Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a r...

  14. Examination of the Obesity Epidemic from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, A. Tamlyn

    2009-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has doubled among adults and overweight has tripled among children since 1980. This article discusses behavioral approaches to the obesity epidemic, focusing on recent environmental changes, the resulting behaviors, and possible solutions. Over the last 4 decades, time spent in sedentary activities, the consumption of fast food,…

  15. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette’s disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using 4 methods: (1) the onset of new tic symptoms; (2) the occurrence of adverse events; (3) change in tic medications; and (4) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette’s disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of 8 sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette’s disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the longstanding concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's Disorder. PMID:26763495

  16. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated With Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

  18. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  19. A brief behavioral feedback intervention in hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, Maria J.; Peters, Ellen; Elving, Lammy D.; Bredie, Sebastian J. H.; Wollersheim, Hub; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle

  20. A brief behavioral feedback intervention in hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, M.J.; Peters, E.; Elving, L.D.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schippers, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle

  1. A brief behavioral feedback intervention in hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, M.J.; Peters, E.; Elving, L.D.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Bleijenberg, G.; Schippers, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Examining the prevalence of risk behavior and motivation to change among hospital outpatients with a high cardiovascular risk, and the implementation and results of a brief behavioral feedback intervention by internists. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one patients completed a lifestyle

  2. Behavior Risk Factors Among Russian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.

  3. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  4. Predicting Academics via Behavior within an Elementary Sample: An Evaluation of the Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Bowman, Nicollette A.; Christ, Theodore J.; Taylor, Crystal N.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the "Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener" (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional…

  5. Risk Perception and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remien, Robert H; Halkitis, Perry N; O'Leary, Ann; Wolitski, Richard J; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2005-06-01

    There are reports of increased sexual risk behavior among people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to beliefs about risk of HIV transmission when on HAART. In a cross-sectional study (Seropositive Urban Men's Study), we examined the relationship between risk perception and sexual risk behavior among sexually active, culturally diverse HIV positive men who have sex with men (N = 456). Less than twenty-five percent engaged in unprotected anal sex (either with an HIV negative, or unknown-status partner, or an HIV positive partner) within the past 3 months. Most men believed there was significant health risk (to partner or self) associated with unprotected sex when on HAART. There was no increased risk behavior associated with being on HAART, although the perception of negative health consequences, including HIV transmission, when on HAART was significantly lower for the relatively small subset of men who reported unprotected sex. Prevention strategies need to be tailored to address risk perception associated with HAART.

  6. Sex differences in behavioral impulsivity in at-risk and non-risk drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eWeafer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk. Methods: Participants performed a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and a measure of delay discounting to assess impulsive choice. Results: On the measure of inhibitory control, at-risk women committed significantly more inhibitory errors than at-risk men, indicating poorer behavioral control among the women. By contrast, no sex differences were observed between at-risk men and women in delay discounting, or between the male and female non-risk drinkers on any measure. Conclusion: Heavy drinking women displayed poorer inhibitory control than heavy drinking men. It remains to be determined whether the sex differences in inhibitory control are the result of drinking, or whether they pre-dated the problematic drinking in these individuals.

  7. The impact of adolescent risk behavior on partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P; Krohn, Marvin D; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J

    2016-06-01

    Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation.

  8. The impact of adolescent risk behavior on partner relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation. PMID:27429604

  9. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  10. Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-02-28

    Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavior therapy and callous-unemotional traits: effects of a pilot study examining modified behavioral contingencies on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E

    2014-09-01

    The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Bipolar Disorder: Identifying Demographic and Clinical Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum

  13. Culture's influence on consumers : exploratory behavior and risk taking

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    This theoretical paper addresses the influence of culture on risk taking and exploratory behavior. The cultural dimensions of long-term orientation, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and masculinity (Hofstede, 1984, 2001) are hypothesized to influence risk-taking behavior in general, and, through it, exploratory consumption behavior, risk taking, and risk attitudes and perception towards specific products. We also propose an empirical study to test the emergent model. Fu...

  14. Examining Household Asthma Management Behavior through a Microeconomic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Brandt, Sylvia J.; Tager, Ira B.

    2014-01-01

    National guidelines on the effective management of pediatric asthma have been promoted for over 20 years, yet asthma-related morbidity among low-income children remains disproportionately high. To date, household and clinical interventions designed to remediate these differences have been informed largely by a health behavior framework. However,…

  15. Examining Multiple Parenting Behaviors on Young Children's Dietary Fat Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Christina M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Crespo, Noe C.; Lopez, Nanette V.; Zive, Michelle Murphy; Corder, Kirsten; Wood, Christine; Elder, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the association between parenting and children's dietary fat consumption, this study tested a comprehensive model of parenting that included parent household rules, parent modeling of rules, parent mediated behaviors, and parent support. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Baseline data from the "MOVE/me Muevo"…

  16. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: An Examination of the Antecedents of Behavior Among Air Force Members at Work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark

    1996-01-01

    .... The behaviors and intentions individuals have towards recycling, energy conservation, and carpooling were examined, with the demographic variables of gender, age, and education also investigated...

  17. The Success Of Stock Selection Strategies In Emerging Markets: Is It Risk Or Behavioral Bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Hart; G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe examine competing explanations, based on risk and behavioral models, for the profitability of stock selection strategies in emerging markets. We document that both emerging market risk and global risk factors cannot account for the significant excess returns of selection strategies

  18. Staying on track: behavioral engagement of at-risk and non-at-risk students in post-secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral disengagement from school is a proximal predictor of dropout. Therefore, the enhancement of behavioral engagement is a useful point of entry for dropout prevention. In this study, we examine the behavioral engagement of at-risk and non-at-risk students in Dutch senior vocational education

  19. Predicted cancer risks induced by computed tomography examinations during childhood, by a quantitative risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journy, Neige; Ancelet, Sophie; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Aubert, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-03-01

    The potential adverse effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) in pediatrics must be characterized in relation to their expected clinical benefits. Additional epidemiological data are, however, still awaited for providing a lifelong overview of potential cancer risks. This paper gives predictions of potential lifetime risks of cancer incidence that would be induced by CT examinations during childhood in French routine practices in pediatrics. Organ doses were estimated from standard radiological protocols in 15 hospitals. Excess risks of leukemia, brain/central nervous system, breast and thyroid cancers were predicted from dose-response models estimated in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors' dataset and studies of medical exposures. Uncertainty in predictions was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. This approach predicts that 100,000 skull/brain scans in 5-year-old children would result in eight (90 % uncertainty interval (UI) 1-55) brain/CNS cancers and four (90 % UI 1-14) cases of leukemia and that 100,000 chest scans would lead to 31 (90 % UI 9-101) thyroid cancers, 55 (90 % UI 20-158) breast cancers, and one (90 % UI risks without exposure). Compared to background risks, radiation-induced risks would be low for individuals throughout life, but relative risks would be highest in the first decades of life. Heterogeneity in the radiological protocols across the hospitals implies that 5-10 % of CT examinations would be related to risks 1.4-3.6 times higher than those for the median doses. Overall excess relative risks in exposed populations would be 1-10 % depending on the site of cancer and the duration of follow-up. The results emphasize the potential risks of cancer specifically from standard CT examinations in pediatrics and underline the necessity of optimization of radiological protocols.

  20. Ownership of High-Risk ("Vicious") Dogs as a Marker for Deviant Behaviors: Implications for Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Dates, Harold F.; Mahlman, Andrew R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status…

  1. Impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished, at-risk couples: A multilevel latent variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, JA; Nyamathi, A; Ullman, JB; Bentler, PM

    2007-01-01

    Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance us...

  2. Cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia : The effect of communicating risk factors on intended healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.

    Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated

  3. Examining unpriced risk heterogeneity in the Dutch health insurance market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen-Koster, A.A. (A. A.); R.C. van Kleef (Richard); F. Eijkenaar (Frank)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractA major challenge in regulated health insurance markets is to mitigate risk selection potential. Risk selection can occur in the presence of unpriced risk heterogeneity, which refers to predictable variation in health care spending not reflected in either premiums by insurers or risk

  4. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: A controlled analog analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, M.F.; Fragale, C.; Gainey, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Koch, H.; Shubert, J.; El Zein, F.; Longino, D.; Chung, M.; Xu, Z.W.; White, P.J.; Lang, R.B.; Davis, T.; Rispoli, M.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Healy, O.; Kagohara, D.; Meer, L. van der; Sigafoos, J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. individual

  5. Examination of validity of fall risk assessment items for screening high fall risk elderly among the healthy community-dwelling Japanese population

    OpenAIRE

    DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...

  6. [Risk behavior among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Marć, Małgorzata; Sobolewski, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of science and medical environments and the society in the scope of behavioral conditioning of many diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, tumors and injuries motivates to shape pro-health behaviors and eliminate harmful habit also in rural areas. There is a need for constant monitoring of behaviors related to health among rural areas inhabitants. The results enriches present state of knowledge in that scope, as well as might be use to increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education activities and shape pro-health lifestyle among rural areas inhabitants, and particularly among farmers. The aim of the study was to acquaint socio-demographic features related to risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking) among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece. The study was carried out between January and December 2009 among 755 farmers with national health insurance KRUS for minimum last year, living in Podkarpacie Provinece, whom had their own farm business, owned a farm either spouse or household member works on the farm. The study population was purposefully chosen. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire including above all questions considering tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and demographic issues. Results from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical package STATISTICA 9.0 (Statsoft). The gathered data was statistically prepared using chi-square test, logistic regression model with stepwise and progressive regression. Based on results it was assumed that frequency of tobacco smoking in the studied group values 31.5%. More frequent smoke: men than women, people with high economic status and those evaluating their Heath state as a good one. Gender and material status are strong predictors of tobacco smoking among farmers. Age and level of education do not influence on tobacco smoking among studied farmers. Frequency of alcohol drinking in the studied group values 82.0%. More

  7. Health risk behavior of rural secondary school students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, C K; McDermott, R J; Westhoff, W W; Mushore, M; Mushore, T; Chitsika, E; Majange, C S; Chauke, P

    2001-10-01

    A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio = 5.02, p < .0001) and to report drug use behaviors. Males also were significantly more likely to report early initiation (by age 13 years) of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. School site violence and drug use behaviors also were prevalent in this sample. An interaction between gender and grade was evident for some behaviors. Additional research may further the understanding of these risk behaviors and facilitate development of effective, culturally relevant risk reduction programs.

  8. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  9. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  10. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  11. Examining the development and sexual behavior of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mary A

    2010-04-01

    A careful examination of young men's sexuality by health professionals in pediatrics, primary care, and reproductive health is foundational to adolescent male sexual health and healthy development. Through a review of existing published data, this article provides background and a developmental framework for sexual health services for adolescent boys. The article first defines and provides an overview of adolescent boys' sexual health, and then discusses developmentally focused research on the following topics: (1) early romantic relationships and the evolution of power and influence within these relationships; (2) developmental "readiness" for sex and curiosity; (3) boys' need for closeness and intimacy; (4) adopting codes of masculinity; (5) boys' communicating about sex; and (6) contextual influences from peers, families, and providers. This article concludes by examining the implications of these data for sexual health promotion efforts for adolescent males, including human papillomavirus vaccination.

  12. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have done on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) in order to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ...

  13. Religious affiliations and consumer behavior: an examination of hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeleeb, S S

    1993-01-01

    The author re-examines the conclusions of an earlier study which contends that religious affiliation of a hospital is important in influencing hospital selection and contributes to overall patient satisfaction. In this new survey, patients ranked religious affiliation low in importance when choosing among hospitals. However, hospitals of a particular religious affiliation were more likely to be recalled, preferred, and selected by people of the same religious affiliation. Furthermore, on quality-of-care measures, religious affiliation influenced hospital evaluations.

  14. Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    assessing behavioral and cognitive markers of risk for suicide among U.S. Army National Guard personnel. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Policy...effective ways to prevent injury and death from suicide • No reliable method for predicting suicide risk in military personnel • Behavioral (e.g...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0632 TITLE: Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian

  15. An exploration of the relationship between parenting styles and health risk-taking behaviors among early phase adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Howerton, Mollie W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between parenting styles, adolescent self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 343 middle school students from Harrisonburg, Virginia who completed a questionnaire consisting of three major components: parenting styles, self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The health risk behaviors component contained questions concerning alcohol use, drug use, sexual activity, and eating behaviors. The parenting s...

  16. Risks and safety aspects related to PET/MR examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A.; Nosske, Dietmar; Griebel, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) systems into medical practice in the foreseeable future may not only lead to a gain in clinical diagnosis compared to PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging due to the superior soft-tissue contrast of the MR technology but can also substantially reduce exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. On the other hand, there are also risks and health effects associated with the use of diagnostic MR devices that have to be considered carefully. This review article summarizes biophysical and biological aspects, which are of relevance for the assessment of health effects related to the exposure of patients to both ionizing radiation in PET and magnetic and electromagnetic fields in MR. On this basis, some considerations concerning the justification and optimization of PET/MR examinations are presented - as far as this is possible at this very early stage. Current safety standards do not take into account synergistic effects of ionizing radiation and magnetic and electromagnetic fields. In the light of the developing PET/MR technology, there is an urgent need to investigate this aspect in more detail for exposure levels that will occur at PET/MR systems. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Exposure to Suicidal Behavior on Suicide Attempt in a High-Risk Sample of Offspring of Depressed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…

  18. Examining College Students’ Reading Behaviors and Needs for Ebook Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese

  19. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.

  20. An Experimental Study of Risk Taking Behavior among Adolescents: A Closer Look at Peer and Sex Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anouk; Peeters, Margot; Koning, Ina

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, it was examined to what extent peers and sex were important predictors of risk taking behavior of adolescents. Participants were 140 Dutch adolescents (52.9% boys, 12-15 years) who completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a measure of risk taking behavior, either individually or in the presence of homogenous…

  1. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Differential Effects for Sexual Risk Behavior: An Application of Finite Mixture Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Kugler, Kari C.; Mathur, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the multiple factors that place individuals at risk for sexual risk behavior is critical for developing effective intervention programs. Regression-based methods are commonly used to estimate the average effects of risk factors, however such results can be difficult to translate to prevention implications at the individual level. Although differential effects can be examined to some extent by including interaction terms, as risk factors and moderators are added to the model inte...

  3. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. An association rule mining-based framework for understanding lifestyle risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age. We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. RESULTS: Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously.

  5. EXAMINATION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORT FACILITY ADMINISTRATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi YETİM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study, transformational leadership levels of sport facility administrators were established and differences according to the demographic characteristics of participants were examined. In the study where descriptive survey model was used transformational leadership scale developed by Bass and Avolio (1995 was implemented as a data collection tool on 293 sport administrators in the Province of Ankara. In the search res ult, the fact that administrators who graduated from educational institutions related to physical education and sports have a higher kevel of transformational leadership (  =4,07 and idealized effect dimension take the place on top has been established. It was determined that Private Sport Facility administrators have higher transformational leadership levels, and significant difference in favour of private sport facility administrators in “Motivation with Prompting” and “Intellectual S timulation” sub - dimenstions, and sport facility administrators working in local authorities in “Idealized Effect (Behavior” sub - dimension was identified. The fact that gender variable and leadership levels of the participants are on the same level and, no netheless, there is a significant difference in favour of administrators who graduated from educational institutions related to physical education and sports in transformational leadership scale and “Idealized Effect (Imputed”, “Motivation with Prompting” , “Intellectual Stimulation”, “Individual Support” sub - dimensions was detected.

  6. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Risk Factors for Behavioral and Emotional Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined risk factors for behavioral and emotional problems in 1973 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results revealed six correlates of sibling internalizing and externalizing problems: male gender, smaller family size, older age of the child with ASD, lower family income, child with ASD behavior problems, and…

  8. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  9. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  10. Validity of Suicidality Items from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a High School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…

  11. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  12. Informant Effects on Behavioral and Academic Associations: A Latent Variable Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…

  13. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  15. "Let's Get This Party Started!": An Analysis of Health Risk Behavior on MTV Reality Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Mark A; Morin, David; Park, Sung-Yeon; Stana, Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Past research has examined portrayals of risk behavior in various media, including television, advertising, and film. To address an underexplored area, this study analyzed drinking, smoking, and sexual activities in MTV reality programming popular among adolescent viewers from 2004 to 2011. Cast members' demographic attributes were also examined in relation to their risk behaviors. Results demonstrated that drinking and casual sexual behaviors were pervasive among cast members. Smoking and more intense sexual behaviors were also present, but to a smaller degree. Men and young adult cast members were more likely to engage in risk behaviors than women and teenage cast members. Also, ethnic/racial minority characters were shown drinking more often than were White cast members. Interpretations of these findings are discussed based in social cognitive theory and the concept of super peers. Implications for future research are provided.

  16. Unwanted online sexual solicitation and online sexual risk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Yan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter

  17. Catching fire? Social interactions, beliefs, and wildfire risk mitigation behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Dickinson; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia Champ; Nicholas Flores

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions are widely recognized as a potential influence on risk-related behaviors. We present a mediation model in which social interactions (classified as formal/informal and generic-fire-specific) are associated with beliefs about wildfire risk and mitigation options, which in turn shape wildfire mitigation behaviors. We test this model using survey data...

  18. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....

  19. Sexual Health Risk Behavior Disparities Among Male and Female Adolescents Using Identity and Behavior Indicators of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis

    2017-12-04

    Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.

  20. Developmental pathways from maltreatment to risk behavior: Sexual behavior as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya

    2018-05-01

    Although delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity are established to be highly intercorrelated, the extant research provides minimal evidence in support of one particular sequence of risk behavior or on the cascade effects from maltreatment. The present study tested a longitudinal model incorporating maltreatment, deviant peers, sexual behavior, delinquency, and substance use to elucidate the sequential pathway(s) from maltreatment to each specific risk behavior throughout adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal study on the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development (N = 454) with four study assessments from early (Time 1 M age = 10.98) to late adolescence (Time 4 M age = 18.22). Results from the cross-lagged model showed a sequence from maltreatment to sexual behavior (Time 1), to delinquency (Time 2), to sexual behavior (Time 3), to substance use and delinquency (Time 4). These findings support sexual behavior as the initial risk behavior that is the catalyst for engagement in more advanced risk behaviors across adolescence.

  1. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  3. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  4. Influence of Mother, Father, and Child Risk on Parenting and Children's Cognitive and Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Fagan, Jay; Wight, Vanessa; Schadler, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    The association among mothers', fathers', and infants' risk and cognitive and social behaviors at 24 months was examined using structual equation modeling and data on 4,200 on toddlers and their parents from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. There were 3 main findings. First, for cognitive outcomes, maternal risk was directly…

  5. Risk for Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior after Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…

  6. an examination of risk allocation preferences in public-private

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chikara Onda

    tension in many negotiations between the public and private sector in PPPs ... compensates for higher cost of capital used by private sector partners .... this study, both the public sector client and private sector contractor should share the risks.

  7. Buying Behavior Of Organic Vegetables Product The Effects Of Perceptions Of Quality And Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alamsyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumer behaviors are more important in the study of Green Marketing. This studied aims to examined buying behavior of consumers on organic products which is formed by perception of quality and perception of risk. The research model with three hypotheses to explained the relationship and influenced between the constructs that perception of quality perception of risk and purchase decision. In these empirical studied treated 366 respondents from customer of retail supermarkets in West Java - Indonesia. Results of research founded a significant negative relationship between perception of quality and perception of risk. As well as the behavior of perception of quality and the perception of risk has a significant influenced on purchase decision. Retail self-service needs to improve the perception of quality and reduces the risk perception of the consumers if purchasing behavior of consumers want increase on organic products. This studied was useful in raising awareness of self-service retail and consumers for environmentally friendly products.

  8. Examining Physical and Sexual Abuse Histories as Correlates of Suicide Risk Among Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Melanie A; Matheny, Natalie L; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Cougle, Jesse R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that physical and sexual abuse are associated with increased suicide risk; however, these associations have not been investigated among firefighters-an occupational group that has been shown to be at elevated suicide risk. This study examined whether physical and sexual abuse histories are associated with (a) career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; and (b) current suicide risk (controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms) in this occupational group. A sample of 929 U.S. firefighters completed self-report surveys that assessed lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse; career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; current suicide risk; and theoretically relevant symptoms. Logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to report career suicide ideation, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.12, plans, AOR = 13.05, and attempts, AOR = 23.81, than those who did not. A similar pattern of findings emerged for individuals who reported a sexual abuse history, AORs = 7.83, 18.35, and 29.58 respectively. Linear regression analyses revealed that physical and sexual abuse histories each significantly predicted current suicide risk, even after controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms and demographics, pr 2 = .07 and .06, respectively. Firefighters with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A history of physical and sexual abuse were each significantly correlated with current suicide risk in this population, even after accounting for the effects of theoretically relevant symptoms. Thus, when conceptualizing suicide risk among firefighters, factors not necessarily related to one's firefighter career should be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Behavior is a major determinant of predation risk in zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; van Someren Gréve, Hans; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    as prey for different predatory copepods. Copepods with “active” feeding behaviors (feeding-current and cruising feeders) showed significantly higher mortality from predation (~2–8 times) than similarly sized copepods with low motility feeding behavior (ambush feeders). Copepod males, which have a more...... active motile behavior than females (mate-seeking behavior), suffered a higher predation mortality than females in most of the experiments. However, the predation risk for mate-searching behavior in copepods varied depending on feeding behavior with ambush feeders consistently having the greatest......Zooplankton exhibit different small-scale motile behaviors related to feeding and mating activities. These different motile behaviors may result in different levels of predation risk, which may partially determine the structure of planktonic communities. Here, we experimentally determined predation...

  10. Reducing Youth Risk Behaviors Through Interactive Theater Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.

  11. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated with Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Alan L.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Hatch, John P.; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 6 decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a longstanding concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt...

  12. Co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meneses, Carmen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.

    Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y

  13. Risk Behaviors of Youth Living With HIV: Pre- and Post-HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Swendeman, Dallas; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Comulada, W. Scott; Weiss, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the transmission behavior among youth living with HIV (YLH), pre- and post-HAART. Methods: Two cohorts were recruited: (1) 349 YLH during 1994 to 1996 and (2) 175 YLH during 1999 to 2000, after the wide availability of HAART. Differences in sexual and substance-use risk acts and quality of life were examined. Results:…

  14. Negative radiographic examinations: Evaluation of risks from exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Suarez, I.; Jerez Vegueria, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    The individual dose of radiation per radiological diagnosis is decreasing, which is an important contribution for the number of exposed population. This is a result of a completed study presented by the Manuel Fajardo Surgery Clinic of the Municipality of Havana, which evaluated the behaviour of the negative radiological examinations and their contribution to the collective dose as well as the associated detriment. 486 cases with radiographic examinations are reported over a period of four months. The information on individual cases is classified by type of radiographic examination and whether the outcome of the examination was positive or negative, the absorbed doses per organ and irradiated tissue, dose equivalent, collective and effective doses. The probability of the occurrence of a fatal cancer and associated genetic damage due to the examinations is also considered. 41% of the examinations performed were negative, with a collective dose of 11.35 manSv and 52.9 % of the total doses contributed for all the radiological examinations of the population studied

  15. Predicting adolescent's cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of

  17. Skin examination behavior: the role of melanoma history, skin type, psychosocial factors, and region of residence in determining clinical and self-conducted skin examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Nadine A; Bränström, Richard; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Tibben, Aad; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy; Bergman, Wilma; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2012-10-01

    To examine the frequency and correlates of skin examination behaviors in an international sample of individuals at varying risk of developing melanoma. A cross-sectional, web-based survey. Data were collected from the general population over a 20-month period on behalf of the Melanoma Genetics Consortium (GenoMEL). A total of 8178 adults from Northern (32%), Central (33%), and Southern (14%) Europe, Australia (13%), and the United States (8%). Self-reported frequency of skin self-examination (SSE) and clinical skin examination (CSE). After adjustment for age and sex, frequency of skin examination was higher in both Australia (odds ratio [OR]SSE=1.80 [99% CI, 1.49-2.18]; ORCSE=2.68 [99% CI, 2.23-3.23]) and the United States (ORSSE=2.28 [99% CI, 1.76-2.94]; ORCSE=3.39 [99% CI, 2.60-4.18]) than in the 3 European regions combined. Within Europe, participants from Southern Europe reported higher rates of SSE than those in Northern Europe (ORSSE=1.61 [99% CI, 1.31-1.97]), and frequency of CSE was higher in both Central (ORCSE=1.47 [99% CI, 1.22-1.78]) and Southern Europe (ORCSE=3.46 [99% CI, 2.78, 4.31]) than in Northern Europe. Skin examination behavior also varied according to melanoma history: participants with no history of melanoma reported the lowest levels of skin examination, while participants with a previous melanoma diagnosis reported the highest levels. After adjustment for region, and taking into account the role of age, sex, skin type, and mole count, engagement in SSE and CSE was associated with a range of psychosocial factors, including perceived risk of developing melanoma; perceived benefits of, and barriers to, skin examination; perceived confidence in one's ability to engage in screening; and social norms. In addition, among those with no history of melanoma, higher cancer-related worry was associated with greater frequency of SSE. Given the strong association between psychosocial factors and skin examination behaviors, particularly among people with

  18. Capital Regulation and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Nadeem Ashraf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2009, risk-based capital requirements have been reinforced in the new Basel III Accord to counter excessive bank risk-taking behavior. However, prior theoretical as well as empirical literature that studies the impact of risk-based capital requirements on bank risk-taking behavior is inconclusive. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of risk-based capital requirements on bank risk-taking behavior, using a panel dataset of 21 listed commercial banks of Pakistan over the period 2005–2012. Purely regulatory measures of bank capital, capital adequacy ratio, and bank assets portfolio risk, risk-weighted assets to total assets ratio, are used for the main analysis. Recently developed small N panel methods (bias corrected least squares dummy variable (LSDVC method and system GMM method with instruments collapse option are used to control for panel fixed effects, dynamic dependent variables, and endogenous independent variables. Overall, the results suggest that commercial banks have reduced assets portfolio risk in response to stringent risk-based capital requirements. Results also confirm that all banks having risk-based capital ratios either lower or higher than the regulatory required limits, have decreased portfolio risk in response to stringent risk-based capital requirements. The results are robust to alternative proxies of bank risk-taking, alternative estimation methods, and alternative samples.

  19. Carbon Dioxide as a Fire Suppressant: Examining the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory authority to set phase-out dates for ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and to evaluate potential risks posed by proposed ODS substitutes.

  20. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students from Diverse Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda A. Price

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students ( N = 61 by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.

  1. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments. PMID:26449645

  2. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  3. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D.; Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Adams, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Methods Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Results Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as “not sure” also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Conclusion Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations. PMID:25110718

  4. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  5. Summer Treatment Program for Preschoolers with Externalizing Behavior Problems: a Preliminary Examination of Parenting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Ros, Rosmary; Hart, Katie C; Slavec, Janine

    2017-11-07

    Within an at-risk sample of preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP), the current study examined the initial promise of a multimodal intervention, the Summer Treatment Program for Pre-Kindergarteners (STP-PreK), in improving parenting outcomes. Using an open trial design, 154 parents and their preschool children (73% male; M age  = 5.06 years; 82% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP (57% of which were referred by schools or mental health/medical professionals) completed a baseline and post-treatment assessment. A subsample of 90 families completed a follow-up assessment approximately 6 to 9 months after treatment completion. Parental measures of parenting stress and discipline strategies were collected across all three assessments. Observational data were also collected across all assessments during a 5-min standardized child-led play situation and a 5-min parent-led clean up task. The parenting component of the STP-PreK included a School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP) of which the behavioral management component was implemented via a Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) adaptation (8 weekly group sessions with 15-20 parents in each group, lack of requirement of "mastery" criteria). All parenting outcomes (both ratings and observed) significantly improved after the intervention (Cohen's d mean effect size across measures 0.89) with all effects being maintained at the 6-9 month follow-up. These findings highlight the initial promise of our SRPP's PCIT adaptation in targeting multiple aspects of parenting while yielding comparable parenting skills acquisition compared to traditional individual PCIT.

  6. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  7. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  8. Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.

  9. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Durkee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE. Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ. Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752, with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  10. Depressive symptoms predict head and neck cancer survival: Examining plausible behavioral and biological pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmaro, Lauren A; Sephton, Sandra E; Siwik, Chelsea J; Phillips, Kala M; Rebholz, Whitney N; Kraemer, Helena C; Giese-Davis, Janine; Wilson, Liz; Bumpous, Jeffrey M; Cash, Elizabeth D

    2018-03-01

    Head and neck cancers are associated with high rates of depression, which may increase the risk for poorer immediate and long-term outcomes. Here it was hypothesized that greater depressive symptoms would predict earlier mortality, and behavioral (treatment interruption) and biological (treatment response) mediators were examined. Patients (n = 134) reported depressive symptomatology at treatment planning. Clinical data were reviewed at the 2-year follow-up. Greater depressive symptoms were associated with significantly shorter survival (hazard ratio, 0.868; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.819-0.921; P ratio, 0.865; 95% CI, 0.774-0.966; P = .010), and poorer treatment response (odds ratio, 0.879; 95% CI, 0.803-0.963; P = .005). The poorer treatment response partially explained the depression-survival relation. Other known prognostic indicators did not challenge these results. Depressive symptoms at the time of treatment planning predict overall 2-year mortality. Effects are partly influenced by the treatment response. Depression screening and intervention may be beneficial. Future studies should examine parallel biological pathways linking depression to cancer survival, including endocrine disruption and inflammation. Cancer 2018;124:1053-60. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  11. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  12. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Disproportionate Representation in Special Education by Examining Group Differences in Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christina D.; Kranzler, John H.; Algina, James; Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior-Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used…

  14. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  15. Prosocial Behaviors in Context: Examining the Role of Children's Social Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Maria Rosario T.; Carlo, Gustavo; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of immediate social companions in the prosocial behaviors of children from two cultural communities from the USA and the Philippines. Materials for this study comprised behavioral observations drawn from the Six Cultures Study--with 612 five-minute observations of 23 children (12 girls, 11 boys) from Orchard Town, MA…

  16. Examining Relationships among Enabling School Structures, Academic Optimism and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Penelope Pope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among enabling school structures, academic optimism, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, it sought to determine if academic optimism served as a mediator between enabling school structures and organizational citizenship behaviors. Three existing survey instruments, previously tested for…

  17. Theory of Planned Behavior in the Classroom: An Examination of the Instructor Confirmation-Interaction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael E.; Houser, Marian L.; Farris, Kristen LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    The current study utilizes the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen "Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes," 50, 179-211 Ajzen 1991) to examine an instructor confirmation-interaction model in the instructional communication context to discover a means by which instructors might cultivate positive student attitudes and…

  18. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  19. An Examination of College Students' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Organic Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Katie; Gillan, Wynn; Naquin, Millie

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although organic foods have been available for decades, they are an emerging trend with increasing prevalence of organic food choices in mainstream markets. College-aged students' consumer behaviors are understudied in this industry. Purpose: This study examined college students' knowledge, perceptions, and current behaviors regarding…

  20. Do Family Structure and Poverty Affect Sexual Risk Behaviors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Family Structure, Poverty and Sexual Risk Behaviors ... Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Demography and Social Statistics Department, .... to high rate of adolescent sexual promiscuity as a ..... birth control and consequences of premarital sex.

  1. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  2. Sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive persons in Jamaica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    positive status potentially place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. The study findings highlight the need to promote safe sexual behaviors and a positive social environment for people living with ...

  3. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  4. Impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished, at-risk couples: a multilevel latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Nyamathi, Adeline; Ullman, Jodie B; Bentler, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance use problems, HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived HIV/AIDS risk, needle-sharing, condom use, multiple sex partners, and HIV/AIDS testing. More variance was explained in the protective and risk variables by couple-level latent variable predictors than by individual latent variable predictors, although some gender effects were found (e.g., more alcohol problems among men). The couple-level variable of marriage predicted lower perceived risk, less deviant social support, and fewer sex partners but predicted more needle-sharing.

  5. Social Desirability Bias and Prevalence of Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among People Who Use Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for Identifying Individuals Prone to Underreporting Sexual Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-07-01

    The role of social desirability bias (SDB) in self-reported HIV risk behaviors continues to be problematic. This study examined whether SDB was associated with self-reported, via audio computer assisted self-interviewing, sexual risk behaviors among people who use drugs. The present study was conducted among 559 participants who reported having a recent sexual partner at their 6-month visit of a longitudinal study. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the association between SDB and five risk behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender and partner type. Higher scores of SDB were associated with decreased reporting of selling sex and having more than one sexual partner. Higher SDB scores were associated with increased reporting of always using condoms during oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Gender-specific differences were observed. The inclusion of a measure of SDB in data collection, along with other strategies, can be used to both identify and reduce self-report biases.

  6. Risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents: Multilevel analysis of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongjoo; Austin, S Bryn; Subramanian, S V; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Franko, Debra L; Rodgers, Rachel F; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills. Sex-stratified four-level multilevel logistic models examined potential predictors of DWCB, including age, body-mass index, puberty, perceived household economic status, parental education, living structure, school type and sex-composition, percentage of students participating in school nutrition programs, and urbanicity. Overall, 6.2% of Korean adolescents (8.9% of girls, 3.7% of boys) exhibited any DWCB. We found significant between-school variation among girls and boys and between-classroom variation among girls. Older age, overweight/obesity, pubertal maturity, high household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), and vocational schooling (vs. general) were positively associated with DWCB among girls and boys. Low household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), higher parental education, and coeducational schooling (vs. single-sex) were positively associated with DWCB among girls only. The findings suggest that DWCB are prevalent among Korean adolescents across age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social contextual factors including school and familial environmental factors, as well as individual characteristics, should be considered when developing effective prevention strategies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  8. A latent class analysis of cancer risk behaviors among U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joseph; Ciecierski, Christina Czart; Malin, Emily L; Carroll, Allison J; Gidea, Marian; Craft, Lynette L; Spring, Bonnie; Hitsman, Brian

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how cancer risk behaviors cluster in U.S. college students and vary by race and ethnicity. Using the fall 2010 wave of the National College Health Assessment (NCHA), we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to evaluate the clustering of cancer risk behaviors/conditions: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, alcohol binge drinking, and overweight/obesity. The identified clusters were then examined separately by students' self-reported race and ethnicity. Among 30,093 college students surveyed, results show a high prevalence of unhealthy diet as defined by insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (>95%) and physical inactivity (>60%). The LCA identified behavioral clustering for the entire sample and distinct clustering among Black and American Indian students. Cancer risk behaviors/conditions appear to cluster among college students differentially by race. Understanding how risk behaviors cluster in young adults can lend insight to racial disparities in cancer through adulthood. Health behavior interventions focused on modifying multiple risk behaviors and tailored to students' racial group could potentially have a much larger effect on cancer prevention than those targeting any single behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Job stress and behavioral characteristics in relation to coronary heart disease risk among Japanese police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Maki; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Morioka, Ikuharu; Utsumi, Miyoko; Hattori, Sonomi; Koike, Hiroaki; Arita, Mikio; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2017-08-08

    This study examined the association between job-related behavioral characteristics and the risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) in Japanese male police officers. Compared to office clerks, police officers exhibited greater age-related increases of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, and a clustering number of CHD risk factors was significantly higher in the group of those over 45 yr of age. Among the police officers, coronary-prone behavior was more frequent than that seen in office clerks. The police officers with coronary-prone behavior tended to engage in shift work and to work overtime more; yet they were less likely to perceive job stress and to express the relevant physical and psychological symptoms than those without coronary-prone behavior. The subjects with such behavioral characteristics had a significantly greater number of CHD risk factors. In a multiple regression analysis, coronary-prone behavior together with age, social support, walking hours per day, and amount of alcohol consumption were selected as significant determinants of a cluster of CHD risk factors. These results suggest that coronary-prone behavior may contribute to the higher prevalence of CHD risk factors in police officers via leading the long working hours and the work-related unfavorable lifestyles, such as alcohol drinking and physical inactivity.

  10. Homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers: Investigating the importance of social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV.

  11. Coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of and the factors associated with the coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of adolescents (mostly aged 13-15years) enrolled from public and private schools of Brazil in 2012. The co-occurring sedentary behavior and inadequate food consumption (regular intake of sugary and fried foods, and irregular consumption of fruits and vegetables-FV) was estimated using a Venn diagram. Sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors associated with the number of risk behaviors for being overweight were identified using an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Sedentary behavior was observed in 62.0% of adolescents. Regular intake of sugary or fried food was observed in 55.3% and 23.5% of adolescents, respectively, with 51.9% having an inadequate intake of FV. At least one risk behavior was reported in >90.0% of adolescents; 6.1% reported all 4. Being female, having a higher maternal education level, attending private school, not having breakfast or meals with parents regularly, eat watching television, and not practicing weekly leisure time physical activity were associated with an increased chance of having multiple risk behaviors. This study observed a high prevalence of coexisting of risk behaviors, which was associated with sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors. These findings may contribute to a clearer understanding of the associations between different behaviors among adolescents, and may be used to improve public health surveillance and to develop strategies that address multiple behaviors, in order to prevent overweight among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adoptive parent hostility and children's peer behavior problems: examining the role of genetically informed child attributes on adoptive parent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-05-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation [rGE]) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative rGE while examining the associations between family processes and children's peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children's later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn links to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Zoё D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hensel, Devon J; Heiman, Julia R

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) is a less well-studied risk factor, but it has been theorized to relate to both sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior. Thus, this study sought to (1) confirm the relationship between sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, (2) establish CSA and negative affect as shared risk factors for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, and (3) evaluate whether negative affect mediates the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and HIV sexual risk in a sample of heterosexual men. We recruited 18- to 30-year-old heterosexual men (N = 377) from urban sexually transmitted infection clinics. Men completed measures of sexual HIV risk history (number of partners and condom use), sexual aggression history, CSA history, and trait negative affect (anger, anxiety, and depression). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized direct and indirect relationships. In the final SEM model, sexual aggression history and sexual HIV risk behavior were correlated. CSA was associated with both types of problematic sexual behavior. Anxiety significantly mediated the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and sexual HIV risk behavior (χ 2 [1300] = 2121.79, p Sexual aggression appears to be part of a constellation of sexual risk behaviors; thus, it may be possible to develop prevention programs that target both sexual HIV risk and sexual aggression. CSA is a shared risk factor for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior through the pathway of anxiety. Thus, anxiety might be one promising target for intervention.

  14. Examining visitors' behavioral intentions and behaviors in a Taiwan National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieh-Lu Li; Garry E. Chick

    2011-01-01

    In 2007-2008, some visitors to Taroko National Park in Taiwan were surveyed to allow testing of a behavioral prediction model in the context of national park recreation. This model includes three constructs: values (a cultural anthropology factor), perceptions of service quality (service marketing factors), and perceptions of crowding (a national park recreation factor...

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial Examination of a Remote Parenting Intervention: Engagement and Effects on Parenting Behavior and Child Abuse Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Kathleen; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward; Sheeber, Lisa; Landry, Susan; Leve, Craig; Johnson, Ursula

    2017-11-01

    Technology advances increasingly allow for access to remotely delivered interventions designed to promote early parenting practices that protect against child maltreatment. Among low-income families, at somewhat elevated risk for child maltreatment, there is some evidence that parents do engage in and benefit from remote-coaching interventions. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such programs to engage and benefit families at high risk for child maltreatment due to multiple stressors associated with poverty. To address this limitation, we examined engagement and outcomes among mothers at heightened risk for child abuse, who were enrolled in a randomized controlled, intent-to-treat trial of an Internet adaptation of an evidence-based infant parenting intervention. We found that engagement patterns were similar between higher and lower risk groups. Moreover, an intervention dose by condition effect was found for increased positive parent behavior and reduced child abuse potential.

  16. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  18. Concurrent multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents in Luangnamtha province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple health risk behaviors (HRBs among adolescents pose a threat to their health, including HIV/AIDS. Health risk behaviors such as alcohol use, smoking, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors among youth have been shown to co-occur with each others. The objectives of this study was to estimate the prevalence of single and concurrent health risk behaviors and to explore how health risk behavior is associated with socio-demographic factors and peers' behaviors. Methods A cross sectional design was used to examine health risk behaviors of adolescents between the age 14 and 19 years living in the Luangnamtha province, Lao PDR. The study was conducted between June and August, 2008. An ordinal logistic regression model that simultaneously explored demographic factors and the influence of the behavior of peers on three categories of multiple HRBs (no risk, one risk, and two or more health risk behaviors was performed. Results A total of 1360 respondents, 669 (49.1% boys with mean age 16.7 ± 1.6 and 699 (50.9% girls aged 16.1 ± 1.5 were recruited into the study. The majority reported two or fewer risk behaviors. However, multiple risk behaviors increased with age for both sexes. About 46.8% (n = 637 reported no risk, 39.3 percent (n = 535 reported one risk, 8.1 percent (n = 110 reported two risks, and 5.8 percent reported more than two health risk behaviors. The protective factors among boys were school attendance (OR = .53, CI = .33-.86, being Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = .48, CI-.26-.90, while being above the age of 15 (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.33-3.60, Akha ethnicity (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.04-4.61, peer's smoking (OR = 3.11, 95% CI = 2.1-4.6, and peer's drinking alcohol (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.1-3.21 were significantly associated with the presence of multiple risk behaviors among boys. Having some education (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.06-0.45, and being of Hmong and Yao ethnicity (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18-0.80 were factors that

  19. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g. diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and young adults who have dropped out of school and those with lower perceived relative social position within their community are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors than those with higher relative social position. We conclude that youth-specific measures may be important in identifying the most at-risk

  20. Suicidal and online: how do online behaviors inform us of this high-risk population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie

    2014-01-01

    To assist suicide prevention we need a better understanding of how suicidal individuals act in their environment, and the online world offers an ideal opportunity to examine daily behaviors. This anonymous survey (N = 1,016) provides first-of-its-kind empirical evidence demonstrating suicide-risk people (n = 290) are unique in their online behaviors. Suicidal users reported more time online, greater likelihood of developing online personal relationships, and greater use of online forums. In addition, suicide-risk women reported more time browsing/surfing and social networking. The authors conclude that suicide prevention efforts should respond to suicide-risk users' greater demands for online interpersonal communications.

  1. Predictive Validity of a Student Self-Report Screener of Behavioral and Emotional Risk in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…

  2. The influence of family history on cognitive heuristics, risk perceptions, and prostate cancer screening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Michelle E; Occhipinti, Stefano; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2013-11-01

    To examine how family history of prostate cancer, risk perceptions, and heuristic decision strategies influence prostate cancer screening behavior. Men with a first-degree family history of prostate cancer (FDRs; n = 207) and men without a family history (PM; n = 239) completed a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) examining prostate cancer risk perceptions, PSA testing behaviors, perceptions of similarity to the typical man who gets prostate cancer (representativeness heuristic), and availability of information about prostate cancer (availability heuristic). A path model explored family history as influencing the availability of information about prostate cancer (number of acquaintances with prostate cancer and number of recent discussions about prostate cancer) to mediate judgments of risk and to predict PSA testing behaviors and family history as a moderator of the relationship between representativeness (perceived similarity) and risk perceptions. FDRs reported greater risk perceptions and a greater number of PSA tests than did PM. Risk perceptions predicted increased PSA testing only in path models and was significant only for PM in multi-Group SEM analyses. Family history moderated the relationship between similarity perceptions and risk perceptions such that the relationship between these variables was significant only for FDRs. Recent discussions about prostate cancer mediated the relationships between family history and risk perceptions, and the number of acquaintances men knew with prostate cancer mediated the relationship between family history and PSA testing behavior. Family history interacts with the individuals' broader social environment to influence risk perceptions and screening behavior. Research into how risk perceptions develop and what primes behavior change is crucial to underpin psychological or public health intervention that seeks to influence health decision making.

  3. Perceived risk and risk-taking behavior during the festival firework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Naseripour, Masoud; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between perceived risk and risk-taking behaviors during the Iranian Last Wednesday Eve Fireworks (ILWEF). A random sample of 2475 Tehranian households were asked on perceived risk of injury, risk-taking behaviors, experience of injuries, and their perception of ability to manage the harmful events during the ILWEF. Lower perceived injury risk and higher perceived ability of managing an injured household member were associated with participation in fireworks practice and incidence of injury. These findings can be of practical importance to increase safety during festivals by improving risk perception in the community.

  4. An examination of the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Andrew; Martin, Ryan; Beaujean, Alex; Usdan, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS) is an emergent adverse health behavior among undergraduate college students. However, current research on MPS is largely atheoretical. The purpose of this study was to validate a survey to assess MPS-related theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs (i.e. attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and determine the relationship between these constructs, MPS-related risk factors (e.g. gender and class status), and current MPS (i.e. past 30 days use) among college students. Participants (N = 978, 67.8% female and 82.9% Caucasian) at a large public university in the southeastern USA completed a survey assessing MPS and MPS-related TPB constructs during fall 2010. To examine the relationship between MPS-related TPB constructs and current MPS, we conducted (1) confirmatory factor analyses to validate that our survey items assessed MPS-related TPB constructs and (2) a series of regression analyses to examine associations between MPS-related TPB constructs, potential MPS-related risk factors, and MPS in this sample. Our factor analyses indicated that the survey items assessed MPS-related TPB constructs and our multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that perceived behavioral control was significantly associated with current MPS. In addition, analyses found that having a prescription stimulant was a protective factor against MPS when the model included MPS-related TPB variables.

  5. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and

  6. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mollborn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship

  7. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.

  8. Depressive symptoms in adolescence: the association with multiple health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne; Richardson, Laura; Russo, Joan; McCarty, Carolyn A; Rockhill, Carol; McCauley, Elizabeth; Richards, Julie; Grossman, David C

    2010-01-01

    Although multiple studies of adolescents have examined the association of depression with individual health risk behaviors such as obesity or smoking, this is one of the few studies that examined the association between depression and multiple risk behaviors. A brief mail questionnaire, which screened for age, gender, weight, height, sedentary behaviors, physical activity, perception of general health, functional impairment and depressive symptoms, was completed by a sample of 2291 youth (60.7% response rate) aged 13-17 enrolled in a health care plan. A subset of youth who screened positive on the two-item depression screen and a random sample of those screening negative were approached to participate in a telephone interview with more in-depth information obtained on smoking and at-risk behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Youth screening positive for high levels of depressive symptoms compared to those with few or no depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to meet criteria for obesity, had a poorer perception of health, spent more time on the computer, got along less well with parents and friends, had more problems completing school work and were more likely to have experimented with smoking and a wide array of behaviors associated with drug and alcohol use. Because many adverse health behaviors that develop in adolescence continue into adulthood, the association of depressive symptoms with multiple risk behaviors and poor functioning suggest that early interventions are needed at an individual, school, community and primary care level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting Cancer-Prevention Behavior: Disentangling the Effects of Risk Aversion and Risk Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddel, Mary; Hales, David

    2018-05-16

    Experimental and survey research spanning the last two decades concludes that people who are more risk tolerant are more likely to engage in risky health activities such as smoking and heavy alcohol consumption, and are more likely to be obese. Subjective perceptions of the risk associated with different activities have also been found to be associated with health behaviors. While there are numerous studies that link risk perceptions with risky behavior, it is notable that none of these controls for risk aversion. Similarly, studies that control for risk aversion fail to control for risk misperceptions. We use a survey of 474 men and women to investigate the influence of risk aversion, risk misperceptions, and cognitive ability on the choice to engage in behaviors that either increase or mitigate cancer risk. We measure optimism in two dimensions: baseline optimists are those who inaccurately believe their cancer risk to be below its expert-assessed level, while control optimists are those who believe they can reduce their risk of cancer (by changing their lifestyle choices) to a greater extent than is actually the case. Our results indicate that baseline optimism is significantly and negatively correlated with subjects' tendencies to engage in cancer-risk-reducing behaviors, and positively correlated with risky behaviors. Subjects' control misperceptions also appear to play a role in their tendency to engage in risky and prevention behaviors. When controlling for both of these types of risk misperception, risk aversion plays a much smaller role in determining health behaviors than found in past studies. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  11. The role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors in a sample of 365 undergraduate students. Regression analyses were used to test the influence of narcissism on health behaviors. Narcissism was positively predictive of alcohol use, marijuana use, and risky driving behaviors, and it was associated with an increased likelihood of consistently having a healthy eating pattern. Narcissism was also positively predictive of physical activity. Results are discussed with reference to the potential short-term and long-term health implications and the need for future research on the factors involved in the relationship between narcissism and health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. HIV Risk Perception, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Transgender Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E

    2017-05-01

    Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An Examination of the Mechanisms of Action in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Diane L.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) has received considerable empirical support for its efficacy. However, few investigators have examined the mechanisms proposed to account for the reduction of BN symptoms during CBT. The current study examined the associations between therapist interventions, client mechanisms, and…

  14. An Examination of Self-Perceived Transformational Leadership Behaviors of Texas Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Walter Lloyd; Mixon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This study examined self-perceived transformational leadership behaviors among Texas superintendents. The purpose of this study was to examine if relationships existed between superintendents' self-perceived transformational leadership style, district size, teaching, principal, and superintendent years of experience. A review of the literature…

  15. The Risk of Divorce and Household Saving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Ozcan, Berkay

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the causal impact of an increase in the risk of marital dissolution on the saving behavior of married couples. We use the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous shock to the risk of divorce. We propose several comparison groups (unaffected by the law change) that allow us to use a difference-in-differences approach.…

  16. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  17. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, hence the need for early identification of risk factors. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks among secondary school staff in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

  18. Risk & Hedging Behavior: The Role and Determinants of Latent Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2010-01-01

    The notion of heterogeneous behavior is well grounded in economic theory. Recently it has been shown in a hedging context that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions varies for different segments using a generalized mixture regression model. Here, using recently developed individual

  19. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...

  20. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.

  1. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.

  3. Predicting risk behaviors: development and validation of a diagnostic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K; Cameron, K A; McKeon, J K; Berkowitz, J M

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and validate the Risk Behavior Diagnosis (RBD) Scale for use by health care providers and practitioners interested in promoting healthy behaviors. Theoretically guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM; a fear appeal theory), the RBD scale was designed to work in conjunction with an easy-to-use formula to determine which types of health risk messages would be most appropriate for a given individual or audience. Because some health risk messages promote behavior change and others backfire, this type of scale offers guidance to practitioners on how to develop the best persuasive message possible to motivate healthy behaviors. The results of the study demonstrate the RBD scale to have a high degree of content, construct, and predictive validity. Specific examples and practical suggestions are offered to facilitate use of the scale for health practitioners.

  4. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A LONGITUDINAL EXAMINATION OF TODDLERS’ BEHAVIORAL CUES AS A FUNCTION OF SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHERS’ DISENGAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hannah F.; Borelli, Jessica L.; Decoste, Cindy; Suchman, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    As a group, substance-abusing parents are at risk for maladaptive parenting. The association between substance abuse and parenting may result, in part, from parents’ emotional disengagement from the parent–child relationship, which makes perceiving and responding to children’s cues more challenging. In this study, we examined whether substance-abusing mothers’ levels of disengagement from their relationship with their children (ages 2–44 months), operationalized in two different ways using parenting narratives (representational and linguistic disengagement), prospectively predicted children’s engagement and disengagement cues during a structured mother–child interaction. Within a sample of 29 mothers, we tested the hypotheses that greater maternal disengagement at Time 1 would predict a decrease in children’s engagement and an increase in children’s disengagement at Time 2. Results indicated that representational disengagement predicted a decrease in children’s engagement cues whereas linguistic disengagement predicted an increase in children’s disengagement cues. Results provide partial support for a reciprocal, iterative process in which mothers and children mutually adjust their emotional and behavioral disengagement with one another. PMID:26938485

  6. Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kathy; Harrison, Lynda; Dashiff, Carol; Davies, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors. The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment. Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions.

  7. Behavioral control in at-risk toddlers: the influence of the family check-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelleby, Elizabeth C; Shaw, Daniel S; Cheong, Jeewon; Chang, Hyein; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of one component of emotion regulation, behavioral control, in the growth of children's early behavior problems by examining whether increases in parental positive behavior support brought about by a family-centered intervention were associated with greater child behavioral control, and whether greater behavioral control at age 3 mediated the association between improvements in aspects of positive behavior support from ages 2 to 3 and decreases in growth of behavior problems from ages 2 to 4. The sample included 713 at-risk children (50% female) and their primary caregivers (50% European American, 28% African American, 13% biracial, 9% other) who were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Children had a mean age of 29.91 months at the initial assessment. Data were collected through home visits at child ages 2 to 4, which involved questionnaires for primary caregivers and structured and unstructured play activities for children with primary and alternative caregivers and siblings. Results indicated that the intervention improved parental positive behavior support and reduced growth of child behavior problems. One dimension of positive behavior support, proactive parenting, was modestly associated with behavioral control at age 3, which in turn was significantly associated with growth in behavior problems from ages 2 to 4, with greater behavioral control related to lower levels of growth in behavior problems. Results provide support for the notion that proactive parenting is an important factor in the development of children's behavioral control and that behavioral control plays an important role in the growth of behavior problems.

  8. Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviors among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Walsh, Elaine

    2009-08-01

    If and how family support and self-esteem might interact to protect against adolescent suicide risk is not well understood. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the moderating effect of family support on the relationship between self-esteem and suicide risk behaviors among potential high school dropouts (N = 849), using questionnaires and in-depth assessment interviews. Family support moderated the impact of self-esteem on suicide risk; the ameliorating effect of self-esteem was stronger among adolescents with low versus high family support. Self-esteem influences adolescent suicide risk behaviors for youth with low as well as high family support. Interventions designed to strengthen both self-esteem and support resources are appropriate.

  9. Association of maltreatment with high-risk internet behaviors and offline encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E; Barnes, Jaclyn E; Haralson, Katherine J

    2013-02-01

    High-risk Internet behaviors, including viewing sexually explicit content, provocative social networking profiles, and entertaining online sexual solicitations, were examined in a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated adolescent girls aged 14 to 17 years. The impact of Internet behaviors on subsequent offline meetings was observed over 12 to 16 months. This study tested 2 main hypotheses: (1) maltreatment would be a unique contributor to high-risk Internet behaviors and (2) high-quality parenting would dampen adolescents' propensity to engage in high-risk Internet behaviors and to participate in offline meetings. Online and offline behaviors and parenting quality were gleaned from 251 adolescent girls, 130 of whom experienced substantiated maltreatment and 121 of whom were demographically matched comparison girls. Parents reported on adolescent behaviors and on the level of Internet monitoring in the home. Social networking profiles were objectively coded for provocative self-presentations. Offline meetings with persons first met online were assessed 12 to 16 months later. Thirty percent of adolescents reported having offline meetings. Maltreatment, adolescent behavioral problems, and low cognitive ability were uniquely associated with high-risk Internet behaviors. Exposure to sexual content, creating high-risk social networking profiles, and receiving online sexual solicitations were independent predictors of subsequent offline meetings. High-quality parenting and parental monitoring moderated the associations between adolescent risk factors and Internet behaviors, whereas use of parental control software did not. Treatment modalities for maltreated adolescents should be enhanced to include Internet safety literacy. Adolescents and parents should be aware of how online self-presentations and other Internet behaviors can increase vulnerability for Internet-initiated victimization.

  10. Multicontextual Influences on High Risk Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Audrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether peer involvement, family involvement, media within the school campus, and cultural beliefs about college life were related to student involvement in risky behaviors, such as binge drinking, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, and problem gambling. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model was…

  11. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...

  12. Covariance among multiple health risk behaviors in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla de la Haye

    Full Text Available In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related.The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics.Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.

  13. Adolescent expectations of early death predict adult risk behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh C Nguyen

    Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.

  14. Multiple risk-behavior profiles of smokers with serious mental illness and motivation for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Fromont, Sebastien C; Delucchi, Kevin; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L; Hall, Stephen; Bonas, Thomas; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) are dying on average 25 years prematurely. The leading causes are chronic preventable diseases. In the context of a tobacco-treatment trial, this exploratory study examined the behavioral risk profiles of adults with SMI to identify broader interventional needs. Recruited from five acute inpatient psychiatry units, participants were 693 adult smokers (recruitment rate = 76%, 50% male, 45% Caucasian, age M = 39, 49% had income change 11 health behaviors, referencing the period prior to acute hospitalization. Participants averaged 5.2 (SD = 2.1) risk behaviors, including smoking (100%), high-fat diet (68%), inadequate fruits/vegetables (67%), poor sleep (53%), physical inactivity (52%), and marijuana use (46%). The percent prepared to change ranged from 23% for tobacco and marijuana to 76% for depression management. Latent class analysis differentiated three risk groups: the global higher risk group included patients elevated on all risk behaviors; the global lower risk group was low on all risks; and a mood and metabolic risk group, characterized by inactivity, unhealthy diet, sleep problems, and poor stress and depression management. The global higher risk group (11% of sample) was younger, largely male, and had the greatest number of risk behaviors and mental health diagnoses; had the most severe psychopathologies, addiction-treatment histories, and nicotine dependence; and the lowest confidence for quitting smoking and commitment to abstinence. Most smokers with SMI engaged in multiple risks. Expanding targets to treat co-occurring risks and personalizing treatment to individuals' multibehavioral profiles may increase intervention relevance, interest, and impact on health.

  15. Optimal use of acute headache medication: a qualitative examination of behaviors and barriers to their performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Holroyd, Kenneth A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to qualitatively examine the behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication and the barriers to successful performance of these behaviors. The efficacy of drug treatment is partly determined by medication adherence. The adherence literature has focused almost exclusively on the behaviors required to optimally use medications that are taken on a fixed schedule, as opposed to medications taken on an as needed basis to treat acute episodes of symptoms, such as headaches. Twenty-one people with headache and 15 health care providers participated in qualitative phenomenological interviews that were transcribed and coded by a multidisciplinary research team using phenomenological analysis. Interviews revealed 8 behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication, including cross-episode behaviors that people with headache regularly perform to ensure optimal acute headache medication use, and episode-specific behaviors used to treat an individual headache episode. Interviews further revealed 9 barriers that hinder successful performance of these behaviors. Behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication were numerous, often embedded in a larger chain of behaviors, and were susceptible to disruption by numerous barriers. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  16. An Examination of Behavioral Rehearsal During Consultation as a Predictor of Training Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, Julie M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Ringle, Vanesa A.; Read, Kendra L.; Brodman, Douglas A.; Pimentel, Sandra S.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2013-01-01

    The training literature suggests that ongoing support following initial therapist training enhances training outcomes, yet little is known about what occurs during ongoing support and what accounts for its effectiveness. The present study examined consultation sessions provided to 99 clinicians following training in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety. The 104 recorded consultation sessions were coded for content and consultative methods. It was hypothesized that behavioral rehears...

  17. An Experiment Examining the Relationship of Affect, Equity, and Equity Sensitivity, With Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanick, Julie Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an experimental design intended to be an analog to the workplace to simultaneously examine the affect orientation and equity theory explanations of OCBs, which were evaluated as prosocial behaviors. Participants were 188 undergraduates. Participantsâ dispositional variables were measured at time 1, and at time 2, participants experienced an equity manipulation and were given the opportunity to perform prosocial behaviors. Results indicated a distinction between the decis...

  18. Psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior among university students in contemporary China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships between young stallions' temperament and their behavioral reactions during standardized veterinary examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Marie; Verwilghen, Denis; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    radiological examination. During the years 2008 and 2009, 93 stallions were evaluated. Stallions were observed from the moment they were unloaded from the trailer at the clinic until the end of veterinary examinations. In addition to the behavioral observations made by the experimenter, each staff member......," and " learning level" temperament traits were the most consistent, as shown by the significant Spearman correlations between judges' assessments. Undesirable behaviors during veterinary examinations leading to handling difficulties were associated with a low " easiness of manipulation" score assessed...... by the clinical staff. These low " easiness of manipulation" scores were positively correlated to temperament traits such as " anxiousness" and " aggressiveness" and negatively correlated to others such as " sociability" or " learning level." Temperament assessment and behavioral observations can therefore...

  20. Trade Openness and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence from Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Nadeem Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of trade openness on bank risk-taking behavior. Using a panel dataset of 291 banks from 37 emerging countries over the period from 1998 to 2012, we find that higher trade openness decreases bank risk-taking. The results are robust when we use alternative bank risk-taking proxies and alternative estimation methods. We argue that trade openness provides diversification opportunities to banks in lending activities, which decrease overall bank risk. Further to this end, we observe that higher trade openness helps domestic banks to smooth out income volatility and decreases the impact of a financial crisis on banks.

  1. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  2. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  3. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  4. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in

  5. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals: Linking Behavioral Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance to Biological Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking...comprehensive evaluation of biological safety zones for diving marine mammals . In this way we intend to identify those marine mammal species or specific...improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring

  6. Classroom Practices and Academic Outcomes in Urban Afterschool Programs: Alleviating Social-Behavioral Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H. J.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Yates, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Given the potential of afterschool programs to support youth in urban, low-income communities, we examined the role of afterschool classroom ecology in the academic outcomes of Latino and African American youth with and without social-behavioral risk. Using multireporter methods and multilevel analysis, we find that positive classroom ecology…

  7. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  9. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  10. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  11. Participation in Athletics and Female Sexual Risk Behavior: The Evaluation of Four Causal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Jaccard, James

    2002-01-01

    Compared sexual risk behavior of female athletes and nonathletes. Examined mediation, reverse mediation, spurious effects, and moderated causal models, using as potential mediators physical development, educational aspirations, self-esteem, attitudes toward pregnancy, involvement in a romantic relationship, age, ethnicity, and social class. Found…

  12. Association between Bullying Victimization and Health Risk Behaviors among High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Marci Feldman; Everett Jones, Sherry; Barrios, Lisa; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Holt, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between…

  13. The development of adolescents’ online sexual risk behavior and its relationship to negative online experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Sumter, S.; Valkenburg, P.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental pathways of online sexual risk behavior from early to late adolescence. Moreover, this study examined how these trajectories are related to negative online experiences, such as online sexual solicitation, online harassment, and online

  14. The role of contextual risk, impulsivity, and parental knowledge in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A.; Barker, E.D.; Koot, H.M.; Maughan, B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597;

  15. Arthritis and employment: an examination of behavioral coping efforts to manage workplace activity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M

    2005-06-15

    To examine ways in which individuals with arthritis manage their employment and health by focusing on the type and determinants of diverse behavioral coping strategies used to manage activity limitations, and to examine the relationship between coping behaviors and participation in employment. The study group comprised 492 patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. All participants were employed, and all participants were administered an in-depth, structured questionnaire. The study used an inductive approach and distinguished among 4 categories of coping behaviors as follows: adjustments to time spent on activities; receipt of help; modification of behaviors; and anticipatory coping. Fewer coping behaviors were reported at the workplace than outside of the workplace. Anticipatory coping was used most often in the workplace. Workplace activity limitations were related to increased reports of all types of coping. Women, those with more joints affected, and people expecting to remain employed reported more anticipatory coping. Expectations of continued employment were also related to modifications of activities, as was longer disease duration and discussing arthritis with one's employer. Help from others was associated with talking to an employer and positive job perceptions. Compared with work, reports of a greater number of coping behaviors used at home were associated with changes in overall work participation (e.g., absenteeism). These results expand our understanding of the experience of having a chronic illness and working and highlight the ways in which people accommodate to workplace limitations by using a variety of different behavioral coping efforts to remain employed.

  16. Assessment of factors that increase and reduce the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior among juveniles (a review of foreign literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova N.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an overview of foreign researches about factors that increase the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior among juveniles and reduce the risk of such behavior. Such definitions as risk factor, protective factor (defensive, aggression and violence were examined. It is shown how the methods of assessment for both social and negative consequences of unlawful behavior, including aggressive one, have been developed, starting from discretionary approach based on unstructured clinical statement and ending with a method of structured risk assessment. The article contains the descriptions of researches about prognostic structured risk assessment of aggressive criminal behavior among adolescents. The results of contemporary foreign researches that were aimed at identifying factors that either increase or reduce the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior in childhood and adolescence, were outlined.

  17. Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms and risk-taking behavior in veterans of the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlicky, Vlad; Solomon, Zahava; Benbenishty, Rami; Levi, Ofir; Lubin, Gadi

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has revealed heightened risk-taking behavior among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined whether the risktaking behavior is a direct outcome of the traumatic exposure or whether this relationship is mediated by posttraumatic stress symptoms. The sample was comprised of 180 traumatized Israeli reserve soldiers, who sought treatment in the wake of the Second Lebanon War. Combat exposure was indirectly associated with risk-taking behavior primarily through its relationship with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results of the multivariate analyses depict the implication of posttraumatic stress symptoms in risk taking behavior, and the role of self-medication and of aggression in traumatized veterans.

  18. Parenting behaviors, perceptions, and psychosocial risk: impacts on young children's development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Leew, Shirley

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess which parenting behaviors, perceptions, and risk factors were associated with optimal versus delayed development. A total of 382 families from the national Brigance Infant and Toddler Screens standardization and validation study participated. Data sources included parent questionnaires, child testing, and examiner observations of parent-child interactions. Parenting styles research was operationalized with the Brigance Parent-Child Interactions Scale, a brief measure of parenting behaviors and perceptions. Six positive parenting behaviors and perceptions predicted average to above-average development on the Brigance screens. Conversely, parenting behaviors and negative perceptions of children indicated child performance nearly 2 SDs below the mean on Brigance screens. Psychosocial risk factors associated with fewer positive parenting behaviors and with negative perceptions included >3 children in the home, multiple moves, limited English, and parental depression. A dearth of positive parenting behaviors plus negative perceptions of children, with or without psychosocial risk factors, negatively affect child development, which is apparent as early as 6 months of age. The older the child is, the greater the performance gaps are. Language development is particularly at risk when parenting is problematic. Findings underscore the importance of early development promotion with parents, focusing on their talking, playing, and reading with children, and the need for interventions regarding psychosocial risk factors.

  19. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus; Oeberst, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383) demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray); but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144) replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue). Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors. PMID:26207983

  20. Red Color and Risk-Taking Behavior in Online Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Gnambs

    Full Text Available In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383 demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray; but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144 replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue. Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors.

  1. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  2. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  4. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.

  5. Personal Network Characteristics as Predictors of Change in Obesity Risk Behaviors in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2018-05-17

    The potential for peers to influence obesity risk behavior increases in adolescence, yet there are knowledge gaps of how behaviors are modified in response to peers over time. This study examined how personal friendship network characteristics were associated with obesity-related behaviors from late childhood to early adolescence. Two waves of friendship, physical activity, screen time, and dietary recall data were collected from 11- to 13-year-old students (99% retention) in Australia (n = 308) over a five- to eight-month period. Regression models identified friendship network characteristics that predicted later health behaviors which varied by gender and behavior type, such as the number of friends positively associated with physical activity intensity (males) and screen time (females). The need for considering context to influence behavior change is discussed. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  6. Examining adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety after training and consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, Julie M.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Ringle, Vanesa A.; Read, Kendra L.; Kendall, Philip C.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined 115 service providers’ adherence to components of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety prior to training, post workshop training, and after three months of weekly consultation. Adherence was measured using a role-play with a trained actor. We examined differences in individual adherence to CBT components across time and the relationship between number of consultation sessions attended and adherence ratings following consultation. Findings indicated t...

  7. The many faces of manhood: examining masculine norms and health behaviors of young fathers across race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Reid, Allecia E; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Niccolai, Linda M; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between the traditional masculine norms ("status," "toughness" and "antifemininity") of 296 ethnically and racially diverse, young men transitioning to fatherhood and substance use (smoking, alcohol, marijuana, hard drugs) and health behaviors (diet, exercise). Participants were recruited from urban obstetric clinics in the Northeast United States. Logistic and multiple regression equations were constructed to examine the relationship between masculine norms and health behaviors. Moderator effects were also examined. Masculine norm "status" was most endorsed and "antifemininity" was least endorsed. African American young men had higher masculine norm scores than Latino and Whites. Different masculine norms were associated with health-promoting and health-undermining behaviors. Different racial groups who had higher scores on some masculine norms were more likely to engage in either health-promoting or health-undermining behaviors when compared with other ethnic groups in this study. These results observed different relationships between the traditional masculine norms measured and the substance use and health behaviors of diverse, young men transitioning to fatherhood. This may have implications for intervention strategies and future research.

  8. The gap between behavioral risk status and willingness to change behavior among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasila, K; Hallman, M; Kautiainen, H; Vanhala, M; Kettunen, T

    2018-01-01

    This study explored behavioral health risk factors among healthcare professionals and investigated the at-risk persons' satisfaction with their health habits and ongoing change attempts. The study was based on a cross-sectional web-based survey directed at the nurses and physicians ( N = 1233) in Finnish healthcare. Obesity, low physical activity, smoking, and risky alcohol drinking were used as behavioral health risk factors. In all, 70% of the participants had at least one behavioral risk factor, and a significant number of at-risk persons were satisfied with their health habits and had no ongoing change process. Good self-rated health and good self-rated work ability were significantly associated with whether a participant had a behavioral health risk factor. Overall, unhealthy behaviors and a lack of ongoing change attempts were commonly observed among healthcare professionals. Work in healthcare is demanding, and healthy lifestyles can support coping. Thus, healthy lifestyle programs should also be targeted to healthcare professionals.

  9. Partner dependence and sexual risk behavior among STI clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between partner dependence and sexual risk behavior in the context of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. STI clinic patients (n = 1432) completed a computerized interview assessing partner dependence, condom use, and IMB variables. Men had higher partner-dependence scores than women did. Patients reporting greater dependence reported less condom use. Gender did not moderate the partner dependence-condom-use relationship. Partner dependence did not moderate the relation between IMB constructs and condom use. Further research is needed to determine how partner dependence can be incorporated into conceptual models of safer sex behaviors.

  10. Home Environmental and Behavioral Risk Indices for Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Ennis, Chelsea R; Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 ( M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading. Results showed that Home and/or Behavior accounted for 4-7% of the variance in reading fluency and spelling and 20-35% of the variance in parent-rated problems in math, social anxiety, and other dimensions. These metrics show promise as environmental and temperament/behavior risk scores that could be used to predict and potentially screen for further assessment of reading related problems.

  11. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  13. Stochastic risk estimation from medical x-ray diagnostic examinations, 2. Risk estimates of individuals from x-ray diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Noda, Y; Iwai, K; Tateno, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Nishizawa, K

    1981-01-01

    The risks of genetic, leukemia and malignant diseases from medical X-ray diagnostic examinations were estimated using the frequency of radiographic and fluoroscopic exposures per diagnostic examination, child expectancy, leukemia and malignancy significant factors, and using a weighting factor determined on the basis of data concerning the cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki and of a recommendation of International Commission of Radiological Protection. The organ or tissue doses with respect to the stochastic risks were determined with ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the positions of the organs or tissues in a RANDO woman phantom which was exposed to diagnostic X-rays according to technical factors of typical radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations obtained from a nationwide survey. The resultant risks by age-group and type of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination are tabulated in terms of risk level of 10/sup -6/. In general, the total risk defined as the sum of genetic, leukemia and malignant risks was a high value for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs involving barium meal and barium enema. For example, the total risk for young age-group was 100 to 200 x 10/sup -6/ for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk from the chest radiography was lower value as compared with the risk from the X-ray diagnosis of other organs or tissues. On the contrary, the risk from the chest tomography was comparable to the risk from the diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk decreased with increasing of age for every X-ray diagnostic examination.

  14. Influence of Permissive Parenting on Youth Farm Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.

  15. Examining the Relationships Between the Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs and Behavioral Deviance in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, C Adam; Cox, Jennifer; Kopkin, Megan R

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have examined the extent to which psychopathic traits relate to the commission of mild to moderate acts of deviance, such as vandalism and minor traffic violations. Given that psychopathy is now studied in community populations, the relationship between psychopathic traits and less severe deviant behaviors, which are more normative among noninstitutionalized samples, warrants investigation. The current study examined the relationships between the triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles & Krueger, 2009) and seven forms of deviant behavior (drug use, alcohol use, theft, vandalism, school misconduct, assault, and general deviance) in a nationally representative sample. Triarchic disinhibition positively predicted each form of normative deviance. Boldness positively predicted drug and alcohol use as well as general deviance, while meanness negatively predicted school misconduct. Boldness and disinhibition also positively predicted overall lifetime engagement in deviant behavior. Implications are discussed, including support of the role of boldness within the psychopathy construct.

  16. Political ideologies and health-oriented beliefs and behaviors: an empirical examination of strategic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, J J; Coulter, R L; Coulter, M K

    2000-01-01

    The area of health care has been called the most important political issue of the 1990s. Attitudes toward health care reform, increasing health costs, and defensive medical practices have been examined in the public press and by academicians. In addition, a substantial amount of research has been directed toward the improvement of individual personal health due to changes in personal health-related habits and behaviors. To date, there are relatively few studies which have attempted to examine the political tendencies of a nationwide sample of respondents as they relate to personal health-related beliefs and behaviors. This article explores the consumer's views on critical questions relating to health orientations and political tendencies. The results indicate a divergence between the political orientations of respondents and their beliefs and behaviors associated with health and wellness. Implications for policy-makers are discussed.

  17. Teachers Matter: An Examination of Student-Teacher Relationships, Attitudes toward Bullying, and Bullying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Swearer, Susan M.; Lembeck, Paige; Collins, Adam; Berry, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of student-teacher relationships and attitudes toward bullying on middle school students' bullying behaviors. Gender and grade differences were also examined. Data were collected from 435 middle school students. Results indicated that students' attitudes toward bullying mediated the relationship between…

  18. Men's Intentions to Engage in Behaviors to Protect Against Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pask, Elizabeth B; Rawlins, Sarah T

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the risk perception attitude framework (RPA), this study examined men's perceptions of risk and efficacy beliefs as predictors of their intentions to engage in self-protective behaviors. The results of multiple regression analyses did not provide support for the RPA prediction that efficacy beliefs moderate the relationship between risk perceptions and self-protective behavior. However, the results provide support for the main effects of risk and efficacy on all four behavioral intentions examined (i.e., Internet information seeking, communication with a health provider, HPV vaccination, and condom use). Risk and efficacy were positively related to (and significant individual predictors of) all four behavioral intentions. Scholarly and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Psychiatric Severity and HIV-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M.; Komer, Anne C.; Jason, and Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use) and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity), to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Methods Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110, 110/266), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74, 74/266) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34, 34/266). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Results Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not

  20. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. A SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED IN FOUR ACADEMIC DATABASES: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that

  1. Examination of the Addictive and Behavioral Properties of Fatty Acid Binding Protein Inhibitor SBFI26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis eThanos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The therapeutic properties of cannabinoids have been well demonstrated but are overshadowed by such adverse effects as cognitive and motor dysfunction, as well as their potential for addiction. Recent research on the natural lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, have shed light on the mechanisms of intracellular transport of the endocannabinoid anandamide by fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. These findings facilitated the recent development of SBFI26, a pharmacological inhibitor of epidermal- and brain-specific FABP5 and FABP7, which effectively increases anandamide signaling. The goal of this study was to examine this compound for any possible rewarding and addictive properties as well as effects on locomotor activity, working / recognition memory, and propensity for sociability and preference for social novelty given its recently reported anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Male C57BL mice were split into four treatment groups and conditioned with 5.0 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 40.0 mg/kg SBFI26 or vehicle during a conditioned placed preference (CPP paradigm. Following CPP, mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests (open field, novel object recognition (NOR, and social interaction (SI and novelty (SN paired with acute SBFI26 administration. Results showed that SBFI26 did not produce conditioned placed preference or conditioned place aversion regardless of dose, and did not induce any differences in locomotor and exploratory activity during CPP or SBFI26-paired open field activity. We also observed no differences between treatment groups in NOR, SI, and SN. In conclusion, as SBFI26 was shown previously by our group to have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, here we show that it does not pose a risk of dependence or motor and cognitive impairment under the conditions tested.

  2. Attention regulates anger and fear to predict changes in adolescent risk-taking behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Holmes, Christopher; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Background Regulation of negative affect is critical to healthy development in childhood and adolescence. We conducted a longitudinal study examining the moderating role of attention control in the effects of anger and fear on changes in risk-taking behaviors from early to middle adolescence. Method The sample involved participants from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), assessed at 9, 11, and 15 years of age. Composite scores for anger, fear, and attention control were computed using indicators from multiple informants, and risk-taking behaviors were assessed based on adolescents’ self-reports. Results Latent difference score analysis indicated significant moderating effects of attention control showing that increased anger between 9 and 11 years was related to increases in risk-taking behaviors between 11 and 15 years only for adolescents with low attention control but not for adolescents with high attention control. In contrast, significant moderating effects of attention control for the link between fear and risk-taking behaviors suggested increased fear between 9 and 11 years tended to be associated with decreases in risk-taking behaviors between 11 and 15 years only for adolescents with high attention control but not for adolescents with low attention control. Conclusions Attention control regulates the connections between negative affect such as anger and fear with changes in adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Our data suggest the protective role of strong attention control against the development of risk-taking behaviors in adolescence as it demotes the effects of anger and promotes the effects of fear. PMID:25280179

  3. The role of behavioral, normative and control beliefs in breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tania E; White, Katherine M

    2008-01-01

    A limited number of studies have been conducted examining the role of beliefs in the prediction of breast self-examination (BSE) behavior in Australian women, particularly women under 50 years of age for which it is the primary method of early detection of breast cancer. The present research investigated the differences in behavioral, normative and control beliefs between BSE performers and non-performers, within a theory of planned behavior framework, to assist in the development of specific education programs aimed at increasing BSE amongst this demographic group. Two hundred and fifty-three women enrolled in an undergraduate psychology course completed a questionnaire assessing beliefs regarding BSE. One month later, these women reported their BSE behavior during the previous month. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify belief-based differences between BSE performers and non-performers. Underlying behavioral and control, but not normative, beliefs about BSE distinguished between BSE performers and non-performers. Performers were more likely than non-performers to believe that engaging in BSE would be associated with identifying a lump or breast change sooner and detecting a breast cancer earlier in its course. Non-performers were more likely to perceive factors such as forgetting to perform the behavior, lack of time, lack of knowledge about how to perform the behavior, laziness, and a lack of confidence in their ability to identify lumps and breast changes as factors preventing their control over the performance of BSE. The belief-based differences between BSE performers and non-performers found in this study can be used to inform health promotion strategies aimed at increasing BSE behavior in women less than 50 years of age.

  4. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  5. Child maltreatment and risk behaviors: The roles of callous/unemotional traits and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Korean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2012-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth.

  7. Is energy imparted a good measure of the radiation risk associated with CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.

    1984-01-01

    The dose distribution in a Rando phantom has been measured for typical EMI 5005 CT scans of the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. These dose distributions have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the somatic and genetic radiation risks associated with these CT examinations and also to measure the total energy imparted during each scan. A comparison has been made between the radiation risk estimates and the energy imparted measurements. The energy imparted measurements are not a good indicator of the somatic and/or genetic risks when one type of CT scan is compared with another. However, for a given type of scan, the energy imparted may be a reasonable indicator of the relative somatic risks associated with different CT examinations. Considerable care should be taken when interpreting and using any measured value of energy imparted in a radiological examination since published values of the risk per unit energy imparted can significantly underestimate the radiation risk. (author)

  8. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  9. Examining the link between adolescent brain development and risk taking from a social-developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Good, Marie; Adachi, Paul J C; Hamza, Chloe; Tavernier, Royette

    2013-12-01

    The adolescent age period is often characterized as a health paradox because it is a time of extensive increases in physical and mental capabilities, yet overall mortality/morbidity rates increase significantly from childhood to adolescence, often due to preventable causes such as risk taking. Asynchrony in developmental time courses between the affective/approach and cognitive control brain systems, as well as the ongoing maturation of neural connectivity are thought to lead to increased vulnerability for risk taking in adolescence. A critical analysis of the frequency of risk taking behaviors, as well as mortality and morbidity rates across the lifespan, however, challenges the hypothesis that the peak of risk taking occurs in middle adolescence when the asynchrony between the different developmental time courses of the affective/approach and cognitive control systems is the largest. In fact, the highest levels of risk taking behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, often occur among emerging adults (e.g., university/college students), and highlight the role of the social context in predicting risk taking behavior. Moreover, risk taking is not always unregulated or impulsive. Future research should broaden the scope of risk taking to include risks that are relevant to older adults, such as risky financial investing, gambling, and marital infidelity. In addition, a lifespan perspective, with a focus on how associations between neural systems and behavior are moderated by context and trait-level characteristics, and which includes diverse samples (e.g., divorced individuals), will help to address some important limitations in the adolescent brain development and risk taking literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Executive function, approach sensitivity, and emotional decision making as influences on risk behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Blair, Clancy; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2008-05-01

    Relations among executive function, behavioral approach sensitivity, emotional decision making, and risk behaviors (alcohol use, drug use, and delinquent behavior) were examined in single female college students (N = 72). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated a significant Approach Sensitivity x Working Memory interaction in which higher levels of alcohol use were associated with the combination of greater approach tendency and better working memory. This Approach Sensitivity x Working Memory interaction was also marginally significant for drug use and delinquency. Poor emotional decision making, as measured by a gambling task, was also associated with higher levels of alcohol use, but only for individuals low in inhibitory control. Findings point to the complexity of relations among aspects of self-regulation and personality and provide much needed data on neuropsychological correlates of risk behaviors in a nonclinical population.

  11. The risk of X-ray examinations of the lungs in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrøe, M

    1991-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the lungs is an important element in the evaluation of the neonates and their respiratory function. It is often necessary to perform a large number of X-ray examinations depending upon the infant's birthweight, gestational age and respiratory problems. To estimate the risk o....... It is concluded, that even using the latest increased risk factors, the radiation risk of repeated X-ray examinations of the chest in prematures will be very low considering the benefit for the infant.......X-ray examinations of the lungs is an important element in the evaluation of the neonates and their respiratory function. It is often necessary to perform a large number of X-ray examinations depending upon the infant's birthweight, gestational age and respiratory problems. To estimate the risk...

  12. Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

  13. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  14. Comorbidity and Risk Behaviors among Drug Users Not in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Wells, Rebecca S.; Theno, Shelley A.; Fisher, Dennis G.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 700 drug users, 64% evidenced comorbidity (i.e., coexisting substance use and psychiatric disorders). Robust relationships between the presence of comorbidity and increased levels of risk behavior, such as needle sharing and trading sex for money, were revealed. (Contains 44 references and 2 tables.) (Author)

  15. Cross-cultural differences and sexual risk behavior of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Yarandi, Hossein N; Dalmida, Safiya George; Frados, Andrew; Klienert, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined population-specific risk factors that increase emerging adults' risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papillomavirus (HPV). A cross-sectional sample of 335 diverse, emerging adults ages 18 to 24 years was recruited from a health center at a large university in the Southeastern United States. The mean age was 20.6 ± 1.9 years, majority were females (74.0%), and 61.0% were Hispanic. Findings revealed inconsistent condom use, reasons for not using condoms, and a need for more culturally specific intervention strategies. Healthcare providers should identify culturally specific reasons for inconsistent condom use, examine cultural and geographic differences in sexual risk behaviors among groups and communities, and modify communication, educational programs, and interventions accordingly. By adopting a multicultural approach to the control of STIs, nurses can address specific cultural attitudes and behaviors that may influence exposure to STIs, including HPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Hanging Out With the Right Crowd: Peer Influence on Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorn, Jorien; Crone, Eveline A; Van Leijenhorst, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Peer influence plays a key role in the increase of risk-taking behavior during adolescence. However, its underlying processes are not fully understood. This study examined the effects of social norms, conveyed through peer advice, on risk-taking behavior in 15- to 17-year-old adolescents (N = 76). Participants played a card-guessing task alone and with online peer advice. Results showed that risk-taking increased in the presence of peers. The results further showed that adolescents took into account the uncertainty associated with gambles, as well as the social norms conveyed by peers. Our findings suggest that peers are most influential in uncertain situations and demonstrate the value of a social norms approach in examining the processes underlying peer effects. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  17. Decrease Risk Behavior HIV Infected on Construction Laborers with Behavior Change Communication (BCC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of BCC approach to the reduction of contracting HIV risk behavior in the construction laborers. Method: This study used operational research design. In this study measures the effectiveness of behavior change of construction workers on the prevention of HIV transmission by comparing the behavior of the construction workers before and after the intervention. The subjects of this study were 150 people risk group of construction workers who work and are spread throughout the city of Surabaya. This research was carried out into three phases, namely, phase preintervention research, intervention research, and post-intervention phase of the study. Implemented in the first year and second year praintervensi stage implemented intervention and post-intervention phases. Result: The results of this study showed that 72% of construction workers is productive (18–35 years and visit his family more than once a month (38%. There is 20% of construction workers had sex with commercial sex workers and no one was using drugs. By 50% of construction workers never get information about HIV/AIDS and as many as 48% never use the services of HIV/AIDS. Discussion: External motivation construction workers associated with the utilization of behavioral HIV/AIDS services with sufficient correlation. Strong external motivation is influenced by risk behaviors of HIV/AIDS were conducted and the desire to get help. Weak external motivation is influenced by a lack of exposure to information related to HIV/AIDS services. The results of the FGD stakeholders have the perception is the same if a construction worker is a high risk group of contracting HIV. Most of the construction workers not have enough knowledge for the prevention of HIV transmission because they do not have access to HIV care and behavior are at risk of contracting HIV by construction workers. Keywords: construction workers, behavior change communication, behavior

  18. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bisakha; Goldfarb,Samantha; Tarver,Will

    2014-01-01

    Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear w...

  19. Female methamphetamine users: social characteristics and sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to expand our knowledge regarding the personal and social characteristics of female methamphetamine (meth) users, their motivations for using meth, patterns of meth use, medical and social problems associated with meth use, and the relationship between meth use and sexual risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 98 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using females residing in San Diego, California. Female meth users were characterized by personal and social disadvantage, high rates of psychiatric symptomatology, and high levels of sexual risk behavior, including multiple partners, risky partner types (e.g., anonymous sex partners), and high rates of unprotected vaginal and oral sex. Meth use was also associated with the subjective positive experience of sex. These finding suggest that behavioral interventions should be tailored to the social characteristics of female meth users, and program content should reflect the intertwining of women's sexual experience and meth use.

  20. Toddlers with Early Behavioral Problems at Higher Family Demographic Risk Benefit the Most from Maternal Emotion Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Vallotton, Claire D; Stansbury, Kathy E; Senehi, Neda; Dalimonte-Merckling, Danielle; Lee, Young-Eun

    2015-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that toddlers at highest risk for behavioral problems from the most economically vulnerable families will benefit most from maternal talk about emotions. This study included 89 toddlers and mothers from low-income families. Behavioral problems were rated at 2 time points by masters-level trained Early Head Start home visiting specialists. Maternal emotion talk was coded from a wordless book-sharing task. Coding focused on mothers' emotion bridging, which included labeling emotions, explaining the context of emotions, noting the behavioral cues of emotions, and linking emotions to toddlers' own experiences. Maternal demographic risk reflected a composite score of 5 risk factors. A significant 3-way interaction between Time 1 toddler behavior problems, maternal emotion talk, and maternal demographic risk (p = .001) and examination of slope difference tests revealed that when maternal demographic risk was greater, more maternal emotion talk buffered associations between earlier and later behavior problems. Greater demographic risk and lower maternal emotion talk intensified Time 1 behavior problems as a predictor of Time 2 behavior problems. The model explained 54% of the variance in toddlers' Time 2 behavior problems. Analyses controlled for maternal warmth to better examine the unique contributions of emotion bridging to toddlers' behaviors. Toddlers at highest risk, those with more early behavioral problems from higher demographic-risk families, benefit the most from mothers' emotion talk. Informing parents about the use of emotion talk may be a cost-effective, simple strategy to support at-risk toddlers' social-emotional development and reduce behavioral problems.

  1. Novice drivers' risky driving behavior, risk perception, and crash risk: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.

  2. Bounded rationality and risk perception in human behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kenichi; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Nagashima, Miyuki; Oda, Junichiro; Tokushige, Kohko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of risk perception associated with nuclear power plants in the framework of the behavioral economics, such as prospect theory. Due to the bounded rationality of the people, the public tends to overestimate the risk of nuclear power, especially after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Social acceptance is an essential element for the nuclear power plants, but nuclear option is getting regarded as a risky choice. On the other hand, experts define and measure risk by the calculation of the probability of damage to the core as a result of sequences of accidents identified by the study. However, this approach also involves limitations to some extent. We explore a possible way to close the gap under in the by wider social context with consideration of risk trade-off among various risk factors, rather than focusing only on nuclear issue. (author)

  3. HIV sexual risk behaviors and perception of risk among college students: implications for planning interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balogun Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The college environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. While the overall incidence of HIV infection has seen some decline in recent years, rates of HIV infection among young adults have not seen a proportionate decline. As in the general population, African American young adults have been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined the sexual risk behaviors and perception of HIV risk of students in a predominantly African American commuter urban university in the Midwest. Methods Students enrolled in randomly selected general education courses completed a paper and pencil survey. Data were collected in Fall 2007, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows v.16. Results The sample included 390 students, the majority (83% of whom were never married and 87% were sexually experienced. Among males reporting male partnerships those who used marijuana (OR = 17.5, p = 0.01 and those who used alcohol along with illegal drugs (OR = 8.8, p = 0.03 were significantly more likely to report multiple partnerships. Among females reporting male partnerships, those 30 years and older were significantly less likely (OR = 0.09, p = 0.03 to report having multiple male partners. There were significant differences in condom use last sex (p = 0.01 and consistent condom use (p = 0.002 among the different age groups. Older students were less likely to report condom use. Females age 30 years and older (OR = 3.74, p = 0.05 and respondents age 20–29 years (OR = 2.41, p = 0.03 were more likely to report inconsistent condom use than those below 20 years. Marijuana use was correlated with inconsistent condom use (p = 0.02 and alcohol with not using condom last sex among females. Perception of HIV risk was generally poor with 54% of those age 30 years and older, 48.1% of 20–29 year olds, and 57.9% of those

  4. Structural characteristics of the online social networks of maltreated youth and offline sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Valente, Thomas W

    2018-02-07

    Maltreated youth are at risk for exposure to online sexual content and high-risk sexual behavior, yet characteristics of their online social networks have not been examined as a potential source of vulnerability. The aims of the current study were: 1) to test indicators of size (number of friends) and fragmentation (number of connections between friends) of maltreated young adults' online networks as predictors of intentional and unintentional exposure to sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior and 2) to test maltreatment as a moderator of these associations. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study on the effects of child maltreatment (n = 152; Mean age 21.84 years). Data downloaded from Facebook were used to calculate network variables of size (number of friends), density (connections between friends), average degree (average number of connections for each friend), and percent isolates (those not connected to others in the network). Self-reports of intentional and unintentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior were the outcome variables. Multiple-group path modeling showed that only for the maltreated group having a higher percent of isolates in the network predicted intentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior. An implication of this finding is that the composition of the Facebook network may be used as a risk indicator for individuals with child-welfare documented maltreatment experiences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Relationship between Risk Behavior for Eating Disorders and Dental Caries and Dental Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Lorenna Mendes Temóteo; Fernandes, Liege Helena Freitas; Aragão, Amanda Silva; Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; Auad, Sheyla Márcia; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Sérgio D'Ávila Lins Bezerra; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between risk behavior for eating disorders (EDs) and dental erosion and caries. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil, involving 850 randomly selected female adolescents. After evaluating risk behavior for eating disorders through the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, 12 adolescents were identified with severe risk behavior for EDs and matched to 48 adolescents without such risk. Dental examinations, anthropometric measurements, and eating habits and oral hygiene were performed. Adolescents with high severity eating disorder condition were not more likely to show dental caries ( p = 0.329; OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 0.35-13.72) or dental erosion ( p = 0.590; OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 0.56-9.70). Adolescents with high body mass index (BMI) were five times more likely to have high severity eating disorder condition ( p = 0.031; OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.61-23.07). Therefore, high severity risk behavior for EDs was not significantly associated with dental caries and dental erosion. However, high BMI was a risk factor for developing eating disorders and should be an alert for individuals with this condition.

  6. Where is my car? Examining wayfinding behavior in a parking lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines wayfinding behavior in an extended parking lot belonging to one of the largest shopping malls in Santiago, Chile. About 500 people were followed while going to the mall and returning from it, and their trajectories were mapped and analyzed. The results indicate that inbound paths were, in average, 10% shorter that outbound paths, and that people stopped three times more frequently when leaving the mall than when accessing it. It is argued that these results are in line with previous research on the subject, which stress the importance of environmental information in shaping people`s behavior.

  7. Stochastic risk estimation from medical x-ray diagnostic examinations, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi; Noda, Yutaka; Iwai, Kazuo; Tateno, Y.; Nishizawa, Kanae.

    1981-01-01

    The risks of genetic, leukemia and malignant diseases from medical X-ray diagnostic examinations were estimated using the frequency of radiographic and fluoroscopic exposures per diagnostic examination, child expectancy, leukemia and malignancy significant factors, and using a weighting factor determined on the basis of data concerning the cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki and of a recommendation of International Commission of Radiological Protection. The organ or tissue doses with respect to the stochastic risks were determined with ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the positions of the organs or tissues in a RANDO woman phantom which was exposed to diagnostic X-rays according to technical factors of typical radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations obtained from a nationwide survey. The resultant risks by age-group and type of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination are tabulated in terms of risk level of 10 -6 . In general, the total risk defined as the sum of genetic, leukemia and malignant risks was a high value for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs involving barium meal and barium enema. For example, the total risk for young age-group was 100 to 200 x 10 -6 for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk from the chest radiography was lower value as compared with the risk from the X-ray diagnosis of other organs or tissues. On the contrary, the risk from the chest tomography was comparable to the risk from the diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk decreased with increasing of age for every X-ray diagnostic examination. (author)

  8. Sharing and giving across adolescence: an experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güroğlu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N = 119) played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior toward friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior toward friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence. PMID:24782796

  9. Sharing and giving across adolescence: an experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güroğlu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N = 119) played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior toward friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior toward friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

  10. Sharing and giving across adolescence: An experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna eGüroğlu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N=119 played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior towards friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior towards friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence.

  11. Self-Reported Risk and Delinquent Behavior and Problem Behavioral Intention in Hong Kong Adolescents: The Role of Moral Competence and Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Zhu, Xiaoqin

    2018-01-01

    Based on the six-wave data collected from Grade 7 to Grade 12 students ( N = 3,328 at Wave 1), this pioneer study examined the development of problem behaviors (risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention) and the predictors (moral competence and spirituality) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Individual growth curve models revealed that while risk and delinquent behavior accelerated and then slowed down in the high school years, adolescent problem behavioral intention slightly accelerated over time. After controlling the background socio-demographic factors, moral competence and spirituality were negatively associated with risk and delinquent behavior as well as problem behavioral intention across all waves as predicted. Regarding the rate of change in the outcome measures, while the initial level of spirituality was positively linked to the growth rate of risk and delinquent behavior, the initial level of moral competence was negatively associated with the growth rate of problem behavioral intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the present findings are discussed with reference to the role of moral competence and spirituality in the development of adolescent problem behavior.

  12. Self-Reported Risk and Delinquent Behavior and Problem Behavioral Intention in Hong Kong Adolescents: The Role of Moral Competence and Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Zhu, Xiaoqin

    2018-01-01

    Based on the six-wave data collected from Grade 7 to Grade 12 students (N = 3,328 at Wave 1), this pioneer study examined the development of problem behaviors (risk and delinquent behavior and problem behavioral intention) and the predictors (moral competence and spirituality) among adolescents in Hong Kong. Individual growth curve models revealed that while risk and delinquent behavior accelerated and then slowed down in the high school years, adolescent problem behavioral intention slightly accelerated over time. After controlling the background socio-demographic factors, moral competence and spirituality were negatively associated with risk and delinquent behavior as well as problem behavioral intention across all waves as predicted. Regarding the rate of change in the outcome measures, while the initial level of spirituality was positively linked to the growth rate of risk and delinquent behavior, the initial level of moral competence was negatively associated with the growth rate of problem behavioral intention. The theoretical and practical implications of the present findings are discussed with reference to the role of moral competence and spirituality in the development of adolescent problem behavior. PMID:29651269

  13. The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of different parenting characteristics on child disruptive behavior and emotional regulation among a sample of at-risk children. The sample consisted of 373 Australian 5- to 9-year-old children who were screened for serious behavior problems. Seven parenting variables based on self-report were…

  14. The Effect of Parenting Stress on Child Behavior Problems in High-Risk Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…

  15. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…

  16. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  17. n examination of risk propensities in an orginizational context: differences by discipline and position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Walls

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of risk-taking suggest there are significant variations across individuals' willingness to take financial risk within the organisational context. For example, a decision maker's propensity to take risk may be more aligned with his unique planning horizon. Previous research also suggests that division and lower level managers are typically more risk averse than top managers in the organisation. In this case study we investigate differences in risk propensity across managerial and functional designations in a major oil company, BP Exploration, Inc. We present a model for measuring risk propensity, examine the results of a survey of 39 staff and supervisory personnel, and explore the implications of a divergence between individual risk propensities and the firm's corporate risk policy.

  18. Neurological function, information-motivation-behavioral skills factors, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Robert M; Dévieux, Jessy G; Stein, Judith A; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Lerner, Brenda G; Attonito, Jennifer; Villalba, Karina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neurological impairment in combination with information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) variables. The study tests the role of IMB variables as mediators of antecedent variables of demographics, life stress, social support, and neurological impairment with outcome measures of HIV preventive and risk behaviors in a sample of HIV-positive, alcohol-using adults (n = 250) with a history of alcohol abuse/dependence. Neurological impairment was measured with the Color Trails Test (CTT). Average performance on the CTT by the sample was substantially worse than established norms. In a directional latent variable model, neurological impairment directly predicted lower transmission knowledge scores and poorer performance on an observational condom skills assessment. Greater neurological impairment was significantly associated with greater age. Future interventions geared toward HIV+ adults who use alcohol should take into consideration HIV-related and age-related neurological functioning which may impede the facilitation of safe sex behaviors.

  19. Credit with Health Education in Benin: A Cluster Randomized Trial Examining Impacts on Knowledge and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean; Thuysbaert, Bram; Gray, Bobbi

    2017-02-08

    We evaluate whether health education integrated into microcredit lending groups reduces health risks by improving health knowledge and self-reported behaviors among urban and rural borrowers in eastern Benin. In 2007, we randomly assigned 138 villages in the Plateau region of Benin to one of four variations of a group liability credit product, varying lending groups' gender composition and/or inclusion of health education using a 2 × 2 design. Women in villages receiving health education, regardless of gender composition of the groups, showed improved knowledge of malaria and of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), but not of childhood illness danger signs. No significant changes in health behavior were observed except an increase in HIV/AIDS prevention behavior, a result predominantly driven by an increase in respondents' self-reported ability to procure a condom, likely an indicator of increased perceived access rather than improved preventative behavior. Women in villages assigned to mixed-gender groups had significantly lower levels of social capital, compared with villages assigned to female-only groups. This suggests there may be an important trade-off to consider for interventions seeking improved health outcomes and social capital through provision of services to mixed-gender groups. Although bundling health education with microcredit can expand health education coverage and lower service-delivery costs, the approach may not be sufficient to improve health behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Latent Class Analysis of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Russian Women at Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Som; Chaffin, Mark; Shaboltas, Alla; Bonner, Barbara; Isurina, Galina; Batluk, Julia; Bard, David; Tsvetkova, Larissa; Skitnevskaya, Larissa; Volkova, Elena; Balachova, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The number of HIV cases attributed to heterosexual contact and the proportion of women among HIV positive individuals has increased worldwide. Russia is a country with the highest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the region, and the infection spreads beyond traditional risk groups. While young women are affected disproportionately, knowledge of HIV risk behaviors in women in the general population remains limited. The objectives of this study were to identify patterns of behaviors that place women of childbearing age at high risk for HIV transmission and determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol use are predictive of the risk pattern. A total of 708 non-pregnant women, aged between 18 and 44 years, who were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy were enrolled in two regions in Russia. Participants completed a structured interview focused on HIV risk behaviors, including risky sexual behavior and alcohol and drug use. Latent class analysis was utilized to examine associations between HIV risk and other demographic and alcohol use characteristics and to identify patterns of risk among women. Three classes were identified. 34.93% of participants were at high risk, combining their risk behaviors, e.g., having multiple sexual partners, with high partner's risk associated with partner's drug use (class I). Despite reporting self-perceived risk for HIV/STI, this class of participants was unlikely to utilize adequate protection (i.e., condom use). The second high risk class included 13.19% of participants who combined their risky sexual behaviors, i.e., multiple sexual partners and having STDs, with partner's risk that included partner's imprisonment and partner's sex with other women (class II). Participants in this class were likely to utilize protection/condoms. Finally, 51.88% of participants were at lower risk, which was associated primarily with their partners' risk, and these participants utilized protection (class III). The odds

  1. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  2. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10?12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting s...

  3. Family structure and risk behaviors: the role of the family meal in assessing likelihood of adolescent risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfarb S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources: A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection: We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction: Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10, tobacco use (n=9, and marijuana use (n=6. Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2; depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4; violence and delinquency (n=4; school-related issues (n=2; and well-being (n=5. The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used

  4. Prevention messages and AIDS risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.

  5. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT.

  6. [Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that

  7. Associations between self-referral and health behavior responses to genetic risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kurt D; Roberts, J Scott; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Kardia, Sharon Lr; McBride, Colleen M; Linnenbringer, Erin; Green, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining whether genetic risk information about common, complex diseases can motivate individuals to improve health behaviors and advance planning have shown mixed results. Examining the influence of different study recruitment strategies may help reconcile inconsistencies. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from the REVEAL study, a series of randomized clinical trials examining the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We tested whether self-referred participants (SRPs) were more likely than actively recruited participants (ARPs) to report health behavior and advance planning changes after AD risk and APOE genotype disclosure. Of 795 participants with known recruitment status, 546 (69%) were self-referred and 249 (31%) had been actively recruited. SRPs were younger, less likely to identify as African American, had higher household incomes, and were more attentive to AD than ARPs (all P change to at least one health behavior 6 weeks and 12 months after genetic risk disclosure, nor in intentions to change at least one behavior in the future. However, interaction effects were observed where ε4-positive SRPs were more likely than ε4-negative SRPs to report changes specifically to mental activities (38% vs 19%, p change long-term care insurance among SRPs (20% vs 5%, p behavior changes than those who respond to genetic testing offers. These results demonstrate how the behavioral impact of genetic risk information may vary according to the models by which services are provided, and suggest that how participants are recruited into translational genomics research can influence findings. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00089882 and NCT00462917.

  8. Psychosocial predictors of sexual initiation and high-risk sexual behaviors in early adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab-Stone Mary

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.

  9. Away-from-home food intake and risk for obesity: Examining the influence of context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Rogers, Morgan; Arredondo, Elva M.; Campbell, Nadia R.; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan C.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined socio-demographic and cultural determinants of away-from-home food consumption in two contexts and the influence of frequency of away-from-home food consumption on children’s dietary intake and parent and child weight status. Research Methods and Procedures Parents of children (N=708) in grades K-2 were recruited from 13 elementary schools in Southern California. Parents were asked through a questionnaire the frequency with which they eat meals away from home and the restaurant they frequented most often. The height and weight of the parents and their children were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Results Consuming foods at least once a week from relatives/neighbors/friends [RNF] homes was associated with children’s dietary intake and children’s risk for obesity. For example, children of parents with weekly or greater RNF food consumption drank more sugar sweetened beverages. Parents of families who ate at restaurants at least weekly reported that their children consumed more sugar sweetened beverages, more sweet/savory snacks and less water compared with families who did not frequent restaurants this often. The type of restaurant visited did not impact diet intake or obesity. More acculturated families exhibited less healthy dietary behaviors than less acculturated families. Discussion Restaurants remain an important setting for preventing child and adult obesity, but other settings outside the home need to be considered in future intervention research. This may especially involve eating in the homes of relatives, neighbors and friends. PMID:18309297

  10. Using a Modified Theory of Planned Behavior to Examine Adolescents' Workplace Safety and Health Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behavioral Intention: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Rebecca J; Toland, Michael D; Okun, Andrea H; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Bernard, Amy L

    2018-03-31

    Work, a defining feature of adolescence in the United States, has many benefits. Work also has risks, as adolescents experience a higher rate of serious job-related injuries compared to adults. Talking Safety, a free curriculum from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is one tool educators may adopt to provide teens with essential workplace safety and health education. Adolescents (N = 2503; female, 50.1%; Hispanic, 50.0%) in a large urban school district received Talking Safety from their eighth-grade science teachers. This study used a modified theory of planned behavior (which included a knowledge construct), to examine students' pre- and post-intervention scores on workplace safety and health knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention to enact job safety skills. The results from confirmatory factor analyses indicate three unique dimensions reflecting the theory, with a separate knowledge factor. Reliability estimates are ω ≥ .83. The findings from the structural equation models demonstrate that all paths, except pre- to posttest behavioral intention, are statistically significant. Self-efficacy is the largest contributor to the total effect of these associations. As hypothesized, knowledge has indirect effects on behavioral intention. Hispanic students scored lower at posttest on all but the behavioral intention measure, possibly suggesting the need for tailored materials to reach some teens. Overall the findings support the use of a modified theory of planned behavior to evaluate the effectiveness of a foundational workplace safety and health curriculum. This study may inform future efforts to ensure that safe and healthy work becomes integral to the adolescent experience.

  11. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  12. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  13. Youth Drug Offenders: An Examination of Criminogenic Risk and Juvenile Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Jordan; Campbell, Christina; Onifade, Eyitayo; Anderson, Valerie; Davidson, William; Foster, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs of juvenile drug offenders is important because of the myriad negative outcomes that befall juveniles that are involved in drugs. A widely used juvenile risk assessment tool, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) was utilized to explore criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs to predict recidivism. Demographic differences between drug and nondrug offenders were also examined. Results ...

  14. Impact of financial incentives on behavior change program participation and risk reduction in worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than $100 and those with incentives of $100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.

  15. The dynamics of injection drug users' personal networks and HIV risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C; Astone, Nan M; Latkin, Carl A

    2006-07-01

    While studies of the social networks of injection drug users (IDUs) have provided insight into how the structures of interpersonal relationships among IDUs affect HIV risk behaviors, the majority of these studies have been cross-sectional. The present study examined the dynamics of IDUs' social networks and HIV risk behaviors over time. Using data from a longitudinal HIV-intervention study conducted in Baltimore, MD, this study assessed changes in the composition of the personal networks of 409 IDUs. We used a multi-nomial logistic regression analysis to assess the association between changes in network composition and simultaneous changes in levels of injection HIV risk behaviors. Using the regression parameters generated by the multi-nomial model, we estimated the predicted probability of being in each of four HIV risk behavior change groups. Compared to the base case, individuals who reported an entirely new set of drug-using network contacts at follow-up were more than three times as likely to be in the increasing risk group. In contrast, reporting all new non-drug-using contacts at follow-up increased the likelihood of being in the stable low-risk group by almost 50% and decreased the probability of being in the consistently high-risk group by more than 70%. The findings from this study show that, over and above IDUs' baseline characteristics, changes in their personal networks are associated with changes in individuals' risky injection behaviors. They also suggest that interventions aimed at reducing HIV risk among IDUs might benefit from increasing IDUs' social contacts with individuals who are not drug users.

  16. Parenting and environmental risk : an examination of child loss and maternal involvement among Bofi foragers in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Hillary N; Silverman, Lisa S

    2015-03-01

    The majority of adaptationist models and research related to parenting strategies have focused on extrinsic or population-level risk as predictors of parenting. However, some researchers have called for greater consideration of cultural factors as well as on intracultural variation in parenting. This study uses a biocultural approach to examine intracultural variation in environmental risk and parenting among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. In particular, we examine 30 mothers' experiences of child loss as a predictor of variation in maternal involvement (proximity, holding, and affection) with their young children. Multivariate and univariate analyses indicate that child loss accounted for substantial variation in maternal behaviors and was predictive of maternal holding and the expression of physical affection. In sum, our findings indicate that intracultural variation in child loss is predictive of maternal involvement with young children and that a biocultural approach is useful in explaining this variation.

  17. Exogenous Cortisol Administration; Effects on Risk Taking Behavior, Exercise Performance, and Physiological and Neurophysiological Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline V; Immink, Maarten A; Marino, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Exogenous cortisol is a modulator of behavior related to increased motivated decision making (Putman et al., 2010), where risky choices yield potentially big reward. Making risk based judgments has been shown to be important to athletes in optimizing pacing during endurance events (Renfree et al., 2014; Micklewright et al., 2015). Objectives: Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the effect of 50 mg exogenous cortisol on neurophysiological responses and risk taking behavior in nine healthy men. Further to this, to examine the effect of exogenous cortisol on exercise performance. Methods: Using a double blind counterbalanced design, cyclists completed a placebo (PLA), and a cortisol (COR) trial (50 mg cortisol), with drug ingestion at 0 min. Each trial consisted of a rest period from 0 to 60 min, followed by a risk taking behavior task, a 30 min time trial (TT) with 5 × 30 s sprints at the following time intervals; 5, 11, 17, 23, and 29 min. Salivary cortisol (SaCOR), Electroencephalography (EEG) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRs) were measured at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min post-ingestion. Glucose and lactate samples were taken at 0 and 60 min post-ingestion. During exercise, power output (PO), heart rate (HR), EEG, and NIRS were measured. SaCOR was measured 10 min post-exercise. Results: Cortisol increased risk taking behavior from baseline testing. This was in line with significant neurophysiological changes at rest and during exercise. At rest, SaCOR levels were higher ( P exogenous cortisol on exercise performance. These results are in line with previous research showing altered risk taking behavior following exogenous cortisol, however the altered behavior did not translate into changes in exercise performance.

  18. Combining fMRI and behavioral measures to examine the process of human learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Emberson, Lauren L; Aslin, Richard N

    2014-03-01

    Prior to the advent of fMRI, the primary means of examining the mechanisms underlying learning were restricted to studying human behavior and non-human neural systems. However, recent advances in neuroimaging technology have enabled the concurrent study of human behavior and neural activity. We propose that the integration of behavioral response with brain activity provides a powerful method of investigating the process through which internal representations are formed or changed. Nevertheless, a review of the literature reveals that many fMRI studies of learning either (1) focus on outcome rather than process or (2) are built on the untested assumption that learning unfolds uniformly over time. We discuss here various challenges faced by the field and highlight studies that have begun to address them. In doing so, we aim to encourage more research that examines the process of learning by considering the interrelation of behavioral measures and fMRI recording during learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Curvilinear Moderation—A More Complete Examination of Moderation Effects in Behavioral Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Ching-Hong Li

    2018-01-01

    In behavioral sciences, researchers often examine whether any linear moderations exist in their studies. That is, they evaluate the extent (i.e., magnitude, direction) to which a linear effect of a predictor X (e.g., cognitive ability) on a criterion Y (e.g., performance) may differ across the levels of a moderator M (e.g., gender). In that case, researchers often run a liner regression analysis for examining this moderation (e.g., gender by ability). Despite its popularity, linear moderation...

  20. Risk-Averse Newsvendor Model with Strategic Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic newsvendor problem focuses on maximizing the expected profit or minimizing the expected cost when the newsvendor faces myopic customers. However, it ignores the customer’s bargain-hunting behavior and risk preference measure of the newsvendor. As a result, we carry out the rational expectation (RE equilibrium analysis for risk-averse newsvendor facing forward-looking customers who anticipate future sales and choose purchasing timing to maximize their expected surplus. We propose the equations satisfied by the RE equilibrium price and quantity for the risk-averse retailer in general setting and the explicit equilibrium decisions for the case where demand follows the uniform distribution and utility is a general power function. We identify the impacts of the system parameters on the RE equilibrium for this specific situation. In particular, we show that the RE equilibrium price for some risk-averse newsvendors is lower than for a risk-neutral retailer and the RE equilibrium stocking quantity for some risk-averse newsvendors is higher than for a risk-neutral retailer. We also find that the RE equilibrium sale price for a risk-averse newsvendor is decreasing in salvage price in some situations.

  1. Examining Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Adopt Broadband in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Selamat, Mohamad H.; Wahab, Muhammad S. Abd; Samsudin, Mohd A. Mat; Lal, Banita

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting the adoption of broadband Internet in a developing country context by focusing upon Malaysia. The data relating to these factors was collected using a survey approach. The findings of this paper suggest that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social influence are significant factors for explaining the behavioral intention to adopt broadband Internet by Malaysian accountants. The paper proceeds to outline the research limitations, theoretical contributions, and implications for practice.

  2. Strategic Risk Management Behavior: What Can Utility Functions Tell Us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The validity of the utility concept, particularly in an expected utility framework, has been questioned because of its inability to predict revealed behavior. In this paper we focus on the global shape of the utility function instead of the local shape of the utility function. We examine

  3. Aggression and the Risk for Suicidal Behaviors among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    Two subtypes of aggression--reactive and proactive--were examined to see how they relate to suicidal behaviors among young children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care. The children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires/interviews. Regression analyses revealed that depressed girls who scored higher on reactive aggression…

  4. Brand priming effect on consumers’ financial risk taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.

  5. [What factors of prosocial behavior evoke recipients’ gratitude and indebtedness? An experimental examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yuma; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-12-01

    We examined two psychological processes of prosocial behavior: feeling gratitude and indebtedness. First, we asked if the value of the behavior for the receiver promotes gratitude; and second if the cost of the behavior for the giver promotes indebtedness. Gratitude and indebtedness were measured as behavioral indices of a quid pro quo (indirect reciprocity and direct reciprocity) to avoid social desirability effects in self-report measures. In Study 1, 119 undergraduates recalled a past experience in which they had been the recipients of prosocial behavior while emphasizing the value, cost, or situation (control) of the event. The level of gratitude was higher, and indirect reciprocity was observed more frequently, in the value condition than in the cost and control conditions. Indebtedness, however, did not differ across the conditions. In Study 2, 59 participants received a gift (the value and cost of which were manipulated) from an imaginary confederate. The value manipulation promoted indirect reciprocity, and both value and cost manipulations encouraged direct reciprocity. Implications for adaptive functions of gratitude in social selection processes are discussed.

  6. Sexual risk behavior and pregnancy in detained adolescent females: a study in Dutch detention centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Lucres MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.

  7. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  8. Cognitive Functioning and Family Risk Factors in Relation to Symptom Behaviors of ADHD and ODD in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M.; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and…

  9. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  10. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....

  11. Executive cognitive functions and impulsivity as correlates of risk taking and problem behavior in preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-11-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory power of these factors in a structural equation model with a community sample of 387 preadolescents ages 10-12 years. Participants were tested with a computerized battery of tasks to assess three facets of ECF (working memory, cognitive control, and reward processing) as well as with an audio assisted computerized self-interview to obtain reports of impulsivity and risk behaviors (use of cigarettes and alcohol as well as engaging in fighting and gambling for money) and a self-administered questionnaire to assess externalizing and internalizing problems. The best fitting model explained both early risk taking and externalizing symptoms as the result of individual differences in impulsivity. Although no ECF was directly related to risk taking, working memory and one measure of reward processing performance (reversal learning) were inversely related to impulsivity. The results are discussed in regard to theories of early risk taking with particular focus on the potential relation between ECF and impulsive behavior tendencies and the implications for early intervention to prevent the dysfunctional trajectory associated with early risk behavior.

  12. A Psychoneuroimmunologic Examination of Cumulative Perinatal Steroid Exposures and Preterm Infant Behavioral Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Isabell B.; Smith, Lynne; Wiley, Dorothy; Badr, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study’s aim was to explore relationships between preterm infant behavioral outcomes and maternal/infant glucocorticoid (dexamethasone [DEX]) treatments using a psychoneuroimmunologic approach. Research questions were (a) do relationships exist between infant cumulative perinatal steroid (PNS) exposure and child behavioral problems? and (b) do maternal/infant characteristics (e.g., immune markers and biophysiologic stressors) influence these relationships? Methods The convenience sample comprised 45 mother–child dyads in which the children (mean age 8 years ± 2.3) had been born at a mean postconceptional age of 28 weeks (± 4.2). We used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess behavior, the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) to score stress at birth, and retrospective record review to identify additional perinatal factors (PNS dosage, sepsis, and maternal and infant complete blood counts near delivery). Results Children were dichotomized into high (> 0.2mg/kg; n = 20) versus low–no (≤ 0.2 mg/kg; n = 25) PNS exposure groups. Significant relationships existed between CBCL Total Problems score and sepsis, PNS exposure, timing of initial PNS, and infant length percentile at discharge. Competence problems were significantly associated with PNS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant length percentile, CRIB score, sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, hearing deficit, and immunity markers (i.e., maternal lymphocyte percentage and infant band/seg ratio). Children in the higher PNS group exhibited more behavioral problems (e.g., withdrawn, attention, conduct, social, and rule breaking problems), but there were no significant differences. The findings are reassuring regarding long-term effects of this PNS dose on preterm infant behavioral outcomes. PMID:21900308

  13. Violence and Legalized Brothel Prostitution in Nevada: Examining Safety, Risk, and Prostitution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Barbara G.; Hausbeck, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    This article examines violence in legalized brothels in Nevada. Debates over prostitution policies in the United States have long focused on questions of safety and risk. These discourses inevitably invoke the coupling of violence and prostitution, though systematic examinations of the relationship between the two are sparse. This article explores…

  14. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  15. HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among male-to-female transgender people in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Dharma Nand

    2014-05-01

    Transgender women are a vulnerable and key risk group for HIV, and most research has shown an increased frequency of HIV infection among this minority population. This study examined the prevalence of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and the socio-demographic correlates with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons. Data were collected from a sample of 232 individuals through venue-based and snowball sampling and face-to-face interviews. The HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among the MtF transgender persons were: sex without using a condom (48.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 41.8-54.8), unprotected anal sex (68.1%; 95% CI 62.0-74.2), and unprotected sex with multiple partners (88.4%; 95% CI 84.3-92.5). Statistically significant differences were found for age, income, education, alcohol habit, and sex with more than two partners per day for these three different HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. MtF transgender persons with a secondary or higher level of education were three times (OR 2.93) more likely to have unprotected sex with multiple partners compared to those with a primary level or no education. Age, education, income, frequency of daily sexual contact, and an alcohol habit remain significant with regard to HIV-related sexual risk behavior. There is an urgent need for programs and interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviors in this minority population. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8% of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7% of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003, level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000, and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021. Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.

  17. Parenting practices, parents' underestimation of daughters' risks, and alcohol and sexual behaviors of urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée

    2008-05-01

    In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.

  18. An Examination of Negligence, Assumption of Risk, and Risk Management in Outdoor Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Travis L.

    This paper stresses the outdoor recreation and education professionals should understand aspects of liability, negligence, and risk management. There are four elements that must be present if a person or organization is to be considered negligent: the presence of a legal duty of care, a breach of duty, proximate cause, and actual damages. When…

  19. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  20. The risk of X-ray examinations of the lungs in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroee, M.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray examinations of the lungs is an important element in the evaluation of the neonates and their respiratory function. It is often necessary to perform a large number of X-ray examinations depending upon the infant's birthweight, gestational age and respiratory problems. To estimate the risk of X-ray examinations of the lungs the radiation dose to 18 infants at the Neonatal Intensive Care Univ, Hvidovre Hospital, was measured by means of the thermoluminescent dosimeter placed on the nipple of the infant. The radiation dose to various organs was estimated and the risk weighted whole body radiation dose calculated to 40 microsievert per examination (AP- and lateral). Using the latest increased risk factors this means an excess cancer mortality of 5x10 -5 for boys abd 11x10 -5 for girls per millisievert, corresponding to 25 X-ray examinations (AP- and lateral) of the lungs. It is concluded, that even using the latest increased risk factors, the radiation risk of repeated X-ray examinations of the chest in prematures will be very low considering the benefit for the infant. (au)

  1. Risk for Researchers Studying Social Deviance or Criminal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Brougham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties.

  2. Paternal influences on adolescent sexual risk behaviors: a structured literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia

    2012-11-01

    To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior.

  3. High-risk sexual behavior among drug-using men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, S N; Sterk-Elifson, C; Aral, S O

    1994-01-01

    Drug-using men are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of STD, presumably due to the risky behaviors practiced in environments of drug use. To study behaviors associated with STD transmission among drug-using men. Drug outreach workers distributed vouchers to self-identified drug-using men in urban Atlanta. Vouchers could be redeemed for cash at a storefront clinic where subjects provided urine for a urethritis screening test (leukocyte esterase test) and a drug screen, and were interviewed. Of 382 voucher recipients, 252 (66%) came to the clinic. Subjects were predominantly black (92%), homeless (70%), and aged 20 to 40 (88%). All used illicit drugs; none were currently receiving drug abuse treatment. Urine drug screen confirmed recent cocaine use in 63%, and recent opiate use in 4%. Three-fourths reported a history of STD, mostly gonorrhea. In the preceding 3 months, 14% had not had sex, 80% had sex exclusively with women, 4% had sex with both men and women, and 2% had sex exclusively with men. Of the heterosexually active men, 29% had 5 or more recent partners. Compared to other heterosexually active men, these men were more likely to always use alcohol or crack before having sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and to drink alcohol every day (PR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.3). Daily crack use was associated with choosing partners at elevated STD risk; daily alcohol use with having more partners. Positive drug screen for cocaine was associated with self-reported crack use. Urethritis, detected in 16%, was not correlated with behavior. A substantial number of drug-using men practice high-risk sexual behavior and should be targeted for intervention. Monetary and other incentives should be considered for recruitment. Further study is needed to clarify the relationship between sexual behavior, cocaine use, and STD.

  4. Behavioral Risk Assessment From Newborn to Preschool: The Value of Older Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Binnoon-Erez, Noam; Plamondon, Andre; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the plausibility of a risk prediction tool in infancy for school-entry emotional and behavioral problems. Familial aggregation has been operationalized previously as maternal psychopathology. The hypothesis was tested that older sibling (OS) psychopathology, as an indicator of familial aggregation, would enable a fair level of risk prediction compared with previous research, when combined with traditional risk factors. By using a longitudinal design, data on child and family risk factors were collected on 323 infants ( M = 2.00 months), all of whom had OSs. Infants were followed up 4.5 years later when both parents provided ratings of emotional and behavioral problems. Multiple regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted for emotional, conduct, and attention problems separately. The emotional and behavioral problems of OSs at infancy were the strongest predictors of the same problems in target children 4.5 years later. Other risk factors, including maternal depression and socioeconomic status provided extra, but weak, significant prediction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for emotional and conduct problems yielded a fair prediction. This study is the first to offer a fair degree of prediction from risk factors at birth to school-entry emotional and behavioral problems. This degree of prediction was achieved with the inclusion of the emotional and behavioral problems of OSs (thus limiting generalizability to children with OSs). The inclusion of OS psychopathology raises risk prediction to a fair level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. HIV/STD risk behaviors and perceptions among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Mao, Rong; Wang, Jing; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole; Stanton, Bonita

    2004-12-01

    Data from 2,153 sexually active rural-to-urban migrants in China were analyzed to examine the relationship between the movement of rural-to-urban migration and increased HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) risk and the applicability of constructs of a Western-based theory of behavioral change to the study population. Measurements included migrant mobility, sexual risk, and the seven constructs of the protection motivation theory (PMT). Data in the current study suggest that high mobility among rural-to-urban migrants was associated with increased sexual risk. The PMT constructs are applicable in identifying perceptions and attitudes associated with sexual risk behaviors in this culturally distinct population. Increased sexual risk was associated with increased perceptions of extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response cost. Also consistent with PMT, increased sexual risk was associated with perceptions of decreased severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy. After controlling for a number of key confounding factors, all seven PMT constructs were associated with sexual risk in the manner posited by the theory. The association between mobility and sexual risk underscores the importance of effective HIV/STD prevention efforts among this vulnerable population. The social cognitive theories including the PMT may form a logical base for prevention intervention programs targeting rural-to-urban migrants in China.

  6. Examining anxiety sensitivity as a mediator of the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with increased suicide risk. Anxiety sensitivity (AS)-the fear of anxiety-related sensations-is both a vulnerability factor for and consequence of PTSD symptoms. AS also predicts suicide risk. To our knowledge, no study has examined whether AS concerns account for the association between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk. A total of 254 women firefighters completed a web-based mental health survey. The Life Events Checklist for DSM-5 (LEC-5) was administered as a prelude to the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to assess for exposure to a Criterion A event. The PCL-5, Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were utilized to assess PTSD symptoms, AS concerns, and suicide risk, respectively. Bootstrap mediation analyses were conducted, controlling for depression symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Global and cognitive AS concerns, but neither physical nor social AS concerns, were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms (total score, re-experiencing and numbing clusters) and suicide risk. Alternate mediation models testing PTSD symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between AS concerns and suicide risk were not statistically significant, supporting the specificity of our proposed model. Anxiety sensitivity concerns-specifically, cognitive AS concerns-account for the link between PTSD symptoms and suicide risk among women firefighters. Among firefighters with elevated PTSD symptoms, interventions that address cognitive AS concerns may thwart the trajectory to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risky sexual behaviors: The role of ethnic identity in HIV risk in migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of additional brief counselling after periodic health examination on motivation for health behavior change [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ki Young; Lee, Cheol Min; Cho, BeLong; Lym, Youl Lee; Oh, Seung Won; Chung, Wonjoo; Lee, Jin-Seok; Park, DuShin; Kim, Han Suk

    2012-11-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of additional brief counseling by a primary care physician on lifestyle modification of examinees after a periodic health examination. 1,000 participants of the 2007 Korean national health screening program were asked to note any variation in their health behavior after participating in the screening program. The degree of comprehensive motivation for lifestyle modification was assessed in terms of stages of health behavior change. We calculated odds ratio of positive change (enhanced stage of change) with multiple logistic regression analysis and age-adjusted proportion of positive changers. Of 989 respondents, 486 and 503 received the basic and additional programs, respectively. Additional group were more likely to be positive changer than basic group (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.19-2.65), and this was more prominent in older age group (adjusted OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.23-4.58). The age-adjusted proportions of positive changers were 22.7% (95% CI, 17.9-28.3) and 36.2% (95% CI, 30.4-42.4) in the basic and additional groups, respectively (P behavior change after the health examination. Thus, such a consultation should be considered when designing a health-screening program.

  9. HURRICANE CHANGES: EXAMINING ENHANCED MOTIVATION TO CHANGE DRUG USING BEHAVIORS AMONG KATRINA EVACUEES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E

    2009-12-01

    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user's individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals' motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article's approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster.

  10. Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.

  11. Smoking cessation and the Internet: a qualitative method examining online consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Genevieve; Bessell, Tracey L; Borland, Ron; Anderson, Jeremy N

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and disability around the world. Smoking cessation support-including information, discussion groups, cognitive behavioral treatment, and self-help materials-can be delivered via the Internet. There is limited information about the reasons and methods consumers access smoking cessation information on the Internet. This study aims to determine the feasibility of a method to examine the online behavior of consumers seeking smoking cessation resources. In particular, we sought to identify the reasons and methods consumers use to access and assess the quality of these resources. Thirteen participants were recruited via the state-based Quit smoking cessation campaign, operated by the Victorian Cancer Council, in December 2001. Online behavior was evaluated using semi-structured interviews and Internet simulations where participants sought smoking cessation information and addressed set-case scenarios. Online interaction was tracked through pervasive logging with specialist software. Thirteen semi-structured interviews and 4 Internet simulations were conducted in January 2002. Participants sought online smoking cessation resources for reasons of convenience, timeliness, and anonymity-and because their current information needs were unmet. They employed simple search strategies and could not always find information in an efficient manner. Participants employed several different strategies to assess the quality of online health resources. Consumer online behavior can be studied using a combination of survey, observation, and online surveillance. However, further qualitative and observational research is required to harness the full potential of the Internet to deliver public health resources.

  12. Chaos, Hubbub, and Order Scale and Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Avik; Gillman, Matthew W; Wong, Mitchell D

    2015-12-01

    To determine the relationship between household chaos and substance use, sexual activity, and violence-related risk behaviors in adolescents. We analyzed cross-sectional data among 929 high-school students in Los Angeles who completed a 90-minute interview that assessed health behaviors and household chaos with the 14-question Chaos, Hubbub, and Order Scale (CHAOS). Using the generalized estimating equation and adjusting for personal, parental, and family covariates, we examined associations of CHAOS score with substance use, sexual activity, and violent behavior outcome variables. We also examined the role of depression and school engagement as mediators. Mean (SD) age of the 929 students was 16.4 (1.3) years, 516 (55%) were female, and 780 (84%) were Latino. After adjustment, compared with students with CHAOS score 0, those students with the greatest scores (5-14) had ORs of 3.1 (95% CI 1.1-8.7) for smoking, 2.6 (95% CI 1.6-4.4) for drinking, 6.1 (95% CI 1.8-21) for substance use at school, and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.3) for fighting in the past 12 months. Associations between CHAOS score and sexual risk and other violent behaviors were not significant. Depression and school engagement attenuated the associations. In this group of adolescents, greatest CHAOS score was associated with increased odds of risky health behaviors, with depression and school engagement as potential mediators. In the future, CHAOS score could be measured to assess risk for such behaviors or be a target for intervention to reduce chances of engaging in these behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A behavioral typology of opioid overdose risk behaviors among recent veterans in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S Bennett

    Full Text Available To identify meaningful classes of opioid-using military veterans in terms of self-reported opioid overdose risk behaviors.The study recruited a sample of 218 military veterans in the NYC area who were discharged from active duty service after September 11, 2001 and reported past-month opioid use. Survey data including measures of mental health, social stressors, substance use, and opioid-related overdose risk behaviors were analyzed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA.A five group solution had excellent fit scores and interpretability. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two major dimensions of variation: non-adherence and heroin use. The five groups included lower-risk prescription opioid users, non-adherent prescription opioid users and heroin users. The non-adherent prescription opioid users and heroin user classes were both further subdivided into "occasional" and "regular" use categories. In addition to endorsing a greater number of overdose risk behaviors, users in the regular use classes were more likely to screen positive for alcohol and substance use disorders, reported greater self-medicating opioid use to relieve anxiety, reported greater problems with physical pain, were more likely to have had mental health, alcohol and drug treatment, and were less likely to be employed or in school. Heroin users also were less likely to report stable housing.Findings indicate that opioid overdose risk classes are grounded in contextual factors related to experiences of psychological, physiological, and social adjustment pain and distress which should be addressed in tailored interventions targeting opioid users' unique constellations of risk behaviors and comorbid conditions.

  14. Stress, Health Risk Behaviors, and Weight Status Among Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Lytle, Leslie A; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between stress, weight-related health risk behaviors (e.g., eating behaviors, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking), and weight status using cross-sectional data on 2-year community college students enrolled in a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine crude and adjusted cross-sectional associations. Higher stress was associated with higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (crude prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.09]), though the relationship was no longer statistically significant after controlling for a wide range of weight-related health risk behaviors (adjusted PR = 1.04; 95% CI [1.00, 1.08]). Stress levels were significantly associated with meal skipping and being a current smoker. Future research should investigate the mechanisms through which stress is related to obesity risk and examine the causes of stress among this understudied population to inform the design of appropriate interventions. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Effects of cumulative risk on behavioral and psychological well-being in first grade: moderation by neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julie; Caughy, Margaret; Nettles, Saundra M; O'Campo, Patricia J

    2010-10-01

    This study builds upon existing research by examining whether risk indices for child psychological well-being behave in the same way in different types of neighborhoods. Specifically, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics acted to exacerbate or, alternatively, to buffer risk factors at the family and/or child level. Families with a child entering first grade in Fall 2002 were recruited from Baltimore City neighborhoods, defined as census block groups. This study included 405 children, and data came from an interview with the primary caregiver and an assessment of the first grader. The dependent variables were externalizing behavior and internalizing problems. A family risk index consisting of 13 measures, and a child risk index consisting of three measures were the main independent variables of interest. We examined the effects of these indices on child psychological well-being and behavior across two neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood potential for community involvement with children and neighborhood negative social climate. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that cumulative family risk was associated with an increase in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Perceived negative social climate moderated the effect of family risks on behavior problems such that more risk was associated with a larger increment in both externalizing behavior problems and psychological problems for children living in high versus low risk neighborhoods. These findings further emphasize the importance of considering neighborhood context in the study of child psychological well-being. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. AIDS Risk Perception and its related factors in Women with High-Risk Behaviors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Tafazoli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: AIDS is one of the major public health challenges all over the world. Perceived risk is a significant predictor of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. Women constitute more than half of the HIV patients, and the rate of female sex workers with AIDS is more than the rest of female population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate AIDS risk perception and its related factors in females with high-risk behaviors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 58 women who were arrested on prostitution charges and imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad Prison in 2013. The data were collected using self-designed questionnaires assessing knowledge regarding AIDS as well as sexual activities and also perceived risk of HIV questionnaire. One-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, linear regression, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean score of HIV risk perception was 18.43±5.92, which was average. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of perceived risk of HIV and knowledge regarding AIDS (P=0.005, alcohol consumption (P=0.04, history of addiction (P=0.008, using contraceptive methods (P=0.01, condom use during intercourse (P=0.02, voluntary HIV testing (P=0.001, and follow-up of HIV test (P=0.009. Conclusion:The findings of the present study revealed that knowledge, alcohol consumption, history of addiction, contraceptive methods, the rate of condom use during intercourse, as well as voluntary HIV testing and follow-up were associated with perceived risk of HIV infection. Therefore, taking the necessary steps towards health promotion through appropriate training and interventional approaches seems to be mandatory for reducing high-risk behaviors in populations with low risk perception.

  17. Lifestyle behaviors and ethnic identity among diverse women at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Kubo, Ai; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Hedderson, Monique M; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2016-07-01

    Diet and physical activity lifestyle behaviors are modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes and are shaped by culture, potentially influencing diabetes health disparities. We examined whether ethnic identity-the strength of attachment to one's ethnic group, and a long-standing focus of psychological research-could help account for variations in lifestyle behaviors within a diverse population at high risk for chronic disease. Using data from the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms trial, this US-based cross-sectional study included 1463 pregnant women (74% from minority ethnic/racial groups; 46% born outside the US) with gestational diabetes (GDM), a common pregnancy complication conferring high risk for type 2 diabetes after delivery. Mixed linear regression models examined whether ethnic identity is associated with lifestyle behaviors after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and acculturative characteristics (e.g., nativity and length of residence in the US). In the overall sample, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 3% greater fiber intake, 4% greater fruit/vegetable intake, 11% greater total activity, and 11% greater walking (p values ethnic/racial groups, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 17% greater fiber intake among Filipina women; 5% lower total caloric intake among non-Hispanic White women; and 40% greater total activity, 35% greater walking, and 8% greater total caloric intake among Latina women (p values ≤ 0.03). Results from this large study suggest that ethnic group attachment is associated with some lifestyle behaviors, independent of acculturation indicators, among young women with GDM who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Stronger ethnic identity may promote certain choices known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective research is needed to clarify the temporal nature of associations between ethnic identity and

  18. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social and behavioral research on risk: uses in risk management decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to describe the principal uses of social and behavioral research in risk management decision-making. Five such uses are identified and discussed, including uses in (1) identifying the nature and extent of public concern; (2) structuring public debate and resolving conflicts; (3) anticipating public responses to new technologies; (4) conducting and informing the public; and (5) designing and implementing risk management policies and systems. (author)

  20. Using crowdsourcing to examine behavioral economic measures of alcohol value and proportionate alcohol reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vanessa; Amlung, Michael; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Petker, Tashia; MacKillop, James

    2017-08-01

    Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics. Responses on the APT were highly systematic (crowdsourcing websites for investigating behavioral economic determinants of alcohol misuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Intimate Violence as It Relates to Risky Sexual Behavior Among At-Risk Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Danielle C; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Magill, Molly; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2017-10-05

    Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship. A cross-sectional design was used, and adolescent females (N = 179), recruited from social service agencies, were 18.9 years old on average and were 37.2% White, 19.3% Black, 37.9% multiracial, and 5.6% other. Regression results revealed that females who were physically assaulted and sexually victimized by their intimate partners did engage in more sex without condoms. Mediational analyses indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly influenced the relationship between (1) physical assault and risky sexual behavior and (2) sexual victimization and risky sexual behavior. Contrary to expectations, PTSD may act to reduce risk perhaps by reducing interest in sex. It is important to address victimization, PTSD, and sexual risk in young women. More work is needed to understand these complex relationships using longitudinal designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Sibling Influence on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Deviant and Sexual Risk Behaviors: The Role of Sibling Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other’s health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. Methods The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk taking behaviors in two home interviews across a two-year span. Results A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings’ perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings’ subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings’ earlier and younger siblings’ later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings’ earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Conclusions Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. PMID:24287013

  3. Examination of constitutive model for evaluating long-term mechanical behavior of buffer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Shigeno, Yoshimasa; Shimogouchi, Takafumi; Shiratake, Toshikazu; Tamura, Hirokuni

    2004-02-01

    On the R and D of the high-level radioactive waste repository, it is essential that Engineered Barrier System (EBS) is stable mechanically over a long period of time for maintaining each ability required to EBS. After closing the repository, the various external forces will be affected to buffer intricately for a long period of time. So, to make clear the mechanical deformation behavior of buffer against the external force is important, because of carrying out safety assessment of EBS accurately. In this report, several sets of parameters are chosen for the previously selected two constitutive models, Sekiguchi-Ohta model and Adachi-Oka model, and the element tests and mock-up tests are simulated using these parameters. Through the simulation, applicability of the constitutive models and parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters is examined. Moreover, simulation analyses of EBS using these parameters were carried out, and mechanical behavior is evaluated over a long period of time. Analysis estimated the amount of settlement of the over pack, the stress state of buffer material, the reaction force to a base rock, etc., and the result that EBS is mechanically stable over a long period of time was obtained. Next, in order to prove analyses results a side, literature survey was conducted about geological age, the dynamics history of a Smectite layer. The outline plan was drawn up about the natural analogue verification method and preliminary examination was performed about the applicability of Freezing Sampling'. (author)

  4. Do schools influence student risk-taking behaviors and emotional health symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Simon J; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa M; Grant, Sue; Milfont, Taciano L; Crengle, Sue; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Clark, Terryann

    2011-03-01

    Many schools engage in health promotion, health interventions, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being outcomes for students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of schools on student health risk-taking behaviors and depressive symptoms. A nationally representative sample (n = 9,056) of students from 96 secondary schools completed a health and well-being survey using Internet Tablets that included questions on school climate, health risk-taking behaviors, and mental health. Teachers (n = 2,901) and school administrators (n = 91) completed questionnaires on aspects of the school climate which included teacher well-being and burnout, the staff work environment, health and welfare services for students, and school organizational support for student health and well-being. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on the health risk-taking behaviors and depression symptoms among students. Schools where students reported a more positive school climate had fewer students with alcohol use problems, and fewer students engaging in violence and risky motor vehicle behaviors. Schools where teachers reported better health and welfare services for students had fewer students engaging in unsafe sexual health behaviors. Schools where teachers reported higher levels of well-being had fewer students reporting significant levels of depressive symptoms. More positive school climates and better school health and welfare services are associated with fewer health risk-taking behaviors among students. However, the overall school effects were modest, especially for cigarette use and suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the psychological pathways to behavior change in a group-based lifestyle program to prevent type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Christine R; Hardie, Elizabeth A; Moore, Susan M

    2012-04-01

    To examine the psychological process of lifestyle change among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. A randomized control trial in which 307 volunteers (intervention, n = 208; wait control, n = 99) diagnosed with prediabetes completed a six-session group-based intervention to promote healthier living. Participants' motivation to change, diet and exercise self-efficacy, mood, knowledge about diabetes, activity levels, healthy eating, waist circumference, and weight were assessed before and after the program. Participation in the program was associated with significant increases in healthy eating and physical activity, reductions in waist and weight, and improvements in motivation, positive mood, self-efficacy, and knowledge. Examination of the pathways to lifestyle change showed that the educational aspect of the program increased activity levels because it increased diabetes knowledge and improved mood. Eating behavior was not mediated by any of the psychological variables. Improvements in diet and physical activity were, in turn, directly associated with changes in weight and waist circumference. Although the program significantly improved motivation, self-efficacy, and mood, its impact on knowledge uniquely explained the increase in physical activity. Group-based programs that are tailored to lifestyle behaviors may provide a cost-effective method of diabetes prevention, but more research is needed to explain why they improve healthy eating.

  6. HIV Risk Behavior among Youth in the Dominican Republic: The Role of Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Viktor; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent-adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure.

  7. Association between pornography use and sexual risk behaviors in adult consumers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Emily L; Mullan, Barbara; Mullan, Barbara M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether an association exists between sexual risk behaviors and pornography consumption. Consumption of pornography is common, yet research examining its link with sexual risk behaviors is in its infancy. Indicators of sexual risk behavior, including unsafe sex practices and a higher number of sexual partners, have been linked to poor health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Pubmed, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they assessed the association between pornography use and indicators of sexual risk behaviors in an adult population. A total of 17 were included in the review, and all were assessed for research standards using the Quality Index Scale. For both Internet pornography and general pornography, links with greater unsafe sex practices and number of sexual partners were identified. Limitations of the literature, including low external validity and poor study design, restrict the generalizability of the findings. Accordingly, replication and more rigorous methods are recommended for future research.

  8. Decreasing sedentary behavior by 30 minutes per day reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Zyad T; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Bailey, Alison L; Novak, Michael J; Biddle, Martha; Khalil, Amani A; Darawad, Muhammad; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, a decrease in the amount of time spent during the remainder of the day in sedentary behavior may be equally important. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a decrease in sedentary behavior on CVD risk factors among 205 individuals living in rural Appalachia. All participants received a comprehensive CVD risk reduction life-style intervention and measurement of major CVD risk factors and physical activity levels. Participants were divided into: 1) Adopters: those who decreased their sedentary behavior by 30 min or more per day post-intervention and 2) Non-adopters: those who did not. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant group by time interaction showing that Adopters had a greater reduction in body weight and BMI than Non-adopters. These findings demonstrate that decreasing sedentary behavior is important for achieving optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cultural Effects on Cancer Prevention Behaviors: Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Risk Optimism Among Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Lwin, May O

    2017-10-01

    Although culture is acknowledged as an important factor that influences health, little is known about cultural differences pertaining to cancer-related beliefs and prevention behaviors. This study examines two culturally influenced beliefs-fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention, and optimistic beliefs about cancer risk-to identify reasons for cultural disparity in the engagement of cancer prevention behaviors. We utilized data from national surveys of European Americans in the United States (Health Information National Trends Survey 4, Cycle3; N = 1,139) and Asians in Singapore (N = 1,200) to make cultural comparisons. The odds of an Asian adhering to prevention recommendations were less than half the odds of a European American, with the exception of smoking avoidance. Compared to European Americans, Asians were more optimistic about their cancer risk both in an absolute and a comparative sense, and held stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Mediation analyses revealed that fatalistic beliefs and absolute risk optimism among Asians partially explain their lower engagement in prevention behaviors, whereas comparative risk optimism increases their likelihood of adhering to prevention behaviors. Our findings underscore the need for developing culturally targeted interventions in communicating cancer causes and prevention.

  10. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732

  11. Risk assessment of medical exposure in X-ray examinations of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Shatsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the effective dose (the concept of which was developed for radiation protection of workers and public and the nominal risk coefficients, averaged by sex and age, to assess the radiation risks of medical exposure has some significant limitations. Age and sex distribution of the staff and the entire population may be quite different from the sex and age distribution of patients undergoing medical exposure. Moreover, the structure of the age and sex of patients may be different for various medical examinations. There are simplified methods for evaluating individual risk for patients undergoing medical exposure. The methods are based on the effective dose evaluation and those take in to account age and gender. A more accurate assessment of lifetime risk of delayed stochastic effects for health of the patient is achieved by using the organ doses and the age and gender risk factors. The aim of this work was evaluation of the lifetime risk of long-term stochastic health effects for different gender and age groups of children undergoing various radiographic investigations by using organ doses and the age and gender risk factors, and subsequent classification in accordance with generally accepted international risk scale. Data from surveys of33 X-ray units in 29 specialized pediatric health care organizations in Russia were used in the work. Organ doses and patient’s effective doses were calculated on the basis of the defined for each x-ray machine typical modes for the 12 radiographic procedures (X-ray exam of the skull, chest, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine–all in two projections – of the abdomen and pelvis – both in one projectionusing a computer program PCXMC., Radiation risks for selected studies were estimated using the obtained organ doses and the age and gender risk factors calculated for the Russian population. The radiation risks were classified according to the international scale of the risks. It was found

  12. Correlating behavioral responses to FMRI signals from human prefrontal cortex: examining cognitive processes using task analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Joseph F X; Ovaysikia, Shima; Pynn, Laura

    2012-06-20

    The aim of this methods paper is to describe how to implement a neuroimaging technique to examine complementary brain processes engaged by two similar tasks. Participants' behavior during task performance in an fMRI scanner can then be correlated to the brain activity using the blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal. We measure behavior to be able to sort correct trials, where the subject performed the task correctly and then be able to examine the brain signals related to correct performance. Conversely, if subjects do not perform the task correctly, and these trials are included in the same analysis with the correct trials we would introduce trials that were not only for correct performance. Thus, in many cases these errors can be used themselves to then correlate brain activity to them. We describe two complementary tasks that are used in our lab to examine the brain during suppression of an automatic responses: the stroop(1) and anti-saccade tasks. The emotional stroop paradigm instructs participants to either report the superimposed emotional 'word' across the affective faces or the facial 'expressions' of the face stimuli(1,2). When the word and the facial expression refer to different emotions, a conflict between what must be said and what is automatically read occurs. The participant has to resolve the conflict between two simultaneously competing processes of word reading and facial expression. Our urge to read out a word leads to strong 'stimulus-response (SR)' associations; hence inhibiting these strong SR's is difficult and participants are prone to making errors. Overcoming this conflict and directing attention away from the face or the word requires the subject to inhibit bottom up processes which typically directs attention to the more salient stimulus. Similarly, in the anti-saccade task(3,4,5,6), where an instruction cue is used to direct only attention to a peripheral stimulus location but then the eye movement is made to the mirror opposite position

  13. Sexual Assault and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Lower-Income Rural Women: The Mediating Role of Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Julia; Littleton, Heather

    2017-02-01

    Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters. Participants were diverse (57.9% African American), low-income women recruited from an OB-GYN waiting room (n = 646). Women with a history of sexual victimization, 29.8% (n = 186) reported lower self-worth, t(586) = 5.26, p < .001, and more partners, t(612) = 2.45, p < .01, than nonvictims. Self-worth was a significant mediator only among women with combined CSA/ASA histories in both risk behavior models.

  14. Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: an examination of who is sharing passwords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Monica; Doodson, James; Creese, Sadie; Hodges, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the number of public advice campaigns, researchers have found that individuals still engage in risky password practices. There is a dearth of research available on individual differences in cyber security behaviors. This study focused on the risky practice of sharing passwords. As predicted, we found that individuals who scored high on a lack of perseverance were more likely to share passwords. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger [corrected] people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. We speculate on the reasons behind these findings, and examine how they might be considered in future cyber security educational campaigns.

  15. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Integration and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women: The Role of Lifestyle Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Glymour, Maria; Cornelis, Marilyn; Walter, Stefan; Rimm, Eric B; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-06-09

    Higher social integration is associated with lower cardiovascular mortality; however, whether it is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), especially in women, and whether associations differ by case fatality are unclear. This study sought to examine the associations between social integration and risk of incident CHD in a large female prospective cohort. Seventy-six thousand three hundred and sixty-two women in the Nurses' Health Study, free of CHD and stroke at baseline (1992), were followed until 2014. Social integration was assessed by a simplified Berkman-Syme Social Network Index every 4 years. End points included nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two incident CHD events occurred throughout follow-up. Adjusting for demographic, health/medical risk factors, and depressive symptoms, being socially integrated was significantly associated with lower CHD risk, particularly fatal CHD. The most socially integrated women had a hazard ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.73) of developing fatal CHD compared with those least socially integrated ( P for trend social integration and nonfatal myocardial infarction risk were largely explained by health-promoting behaviors, particularly through differences in cigarette smoking; however, the association with fatal CHD risk remained after accounting for these behaviors and, thus, may involve more direct biological mechanisms. Social integration is inversely associated with CHD incidence in women, but is largely explained by lifestyle/behavioral pathways. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. [Association between tattoos, piercings and risk behaviors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio, María Laura T; Giesen, Laura F; Araya, Gabriela; Pérez-Cotapos, María Luisa S

    2012-02-01

    The use of tattoos and piercings has increased, especially among adolescents in the last decades. To evaluate the prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents and their association with risk behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use and sexual promiscuity. An anonymous and confidential survey about tattooing and piercings was applied to randomly selected high school teenagers, attending municipal, private-subsidized and private schools, in four sectors of Santiago (north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west). The surveys were answered by 1329 participants with a mean age of 15 years (62% women) from 9 schools in Santiago. The prevalence of tattoos was 1.7% (confidence intervals (CI) 1.1% to 2.5%). The figure for piercings was 30.6% (CI 28.2 to 33.1%). A higher prevalence of tattooing and piercings was observed in groups with a history of psychiatric disorders, criminal records, alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption and initiation of sexual activity (p < 0,001). This study confirms that tattoos and piercings are indicators of adolescent risk behaviors.

  18. Reconsidering examining cannabis subtypes together due to opposing effects on brain, cognition and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Ewing, Sarah W. Feeldstein

    Cannabis use represents a major public health issue throughout the globe. Yet, we still lack the most fundamental of knowledge on long-term effects of cannabis on neural, cognitive, and behavioral function. Part of this stems from how cannabis has been measured. To this end, most empirical...... examinations of cannabis have historically consolidated all types of cannabis collectively. However, this approach misses a fundamental fact about how different cannabinoids operate. Here we address the contrasting properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and their opposing effects...... on a wide array of health function. In addition, we address the increase in cannabis potency throughout the past two decades and how that impacts generalizability of early data on current public health. We put forth the urgent need for future research to disaggregate examination of THC from CBD, along...

  19. Cardiometabolic risk factors and health behaviors in family caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Ross

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare components of cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors of 20 family caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients to those of age, gender, and race/ethnicity-matched controls. A prospective, repeated measures design was used to compare cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors in caregivers and controls at three time-points: pre-transplantation, discharge, and six weeks post-discharge. Measures included components of metabolic syndrome, Reynolds Risk Score, NMR serum lipoprotein particle analyses, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II. Mixed-model repeated measure analyses were used. There were no between or within group differences in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. There was a significant interaction effect between time and role in large VLDL concentration (VLDL-P (F (2, 76 = 4.36, p = .016, with the trajectory of large VLDL-P increasing over time in caregivers while remaining stable in controls. Within caregivers, VLDL particle size (VLDL-Z was significantly larger at time-point three compared to time-points one (p = .015 and two (p = .048, and VLDL-Z was significantly larger in caregivers than in controls at time point three (p = .012. HPLP-II scores were lower in caregivers than controls at all time-points (p < .01. These findings suggest that caregiving may have a bigger impact on triglycerides than on other lipids, and it is through this pathway that caregivers may be at increased cardiometabolic risk. More sensitive measurement methods, such as NMR lipoprotein particle analyses, may be able to detect early changes in cardiometabolic risk.

  20. Social Media Use and Sexual Risk Reduction Behavior Among Minority Youth: Seeking Safe Sex Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer

    Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p < .05) and 2.49 times (p < .08) more likely to have used contraception or a condom at last intercourse, respectively. Parents, schools, or traditional media as information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.

  1. Examining the Acceptability of mHealth Technology in HIV Prevention Among High-Risk Drug Users in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Altice, Frederick L; Krishnan, Archana; Copenhaver, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Despite promising trends of the efficacy of mobile health (mHealth) based strategies to a broad range of health conditions, very few if any studies have been done in terms of the examining the use of mHealth in HIV prevention efforts among people who use drugs in treatment. Thus, the goal of this study was to gain insight into the real-world acceptance of mHealth approaches among high-risk people who use drugs in treatment. A convenience sample of 400 HIV-negative drug users, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors, were recruited from a methadone clinic in New Haven, Connecticut. Participants completed standardized assessments of drug- and sex-related risk behaviors, neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and measures of communication technology access and utilization, and mHealth acceptance. We found a high prevalence of current ownership and use of mobile technologies, such as cell phone (91.5%) including smartphone (63.5%). Participants used mobile technologies to communicate mostly through phone calls (M = 4.25, SD = 1.24), followed by text messages (M = 4.21, SD = 1.29). Participants expressed interest in using mHealth for medication reminders (72.3%), receive information about HIV (65.8%), and to assess drug-related (72.3%) and sex-related behaviors (64.8%). Furthermore, participants who were neurocognitively impaired were more likely to use cell phone without internet and show considerable interest in using mHealth as compared to those without NCI. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence that mHealth-based programs, specifically cell phone text messaging-based health programs, may be acceptable to this high-risk population.

  2. THE MAIN SOCIAL RISK FACTORS IN THE FEMININ DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Cristiana NILĂ STRATONE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The feminine criminality is a social phenomenon of defining importance in trying to draw the portrait of contemporary human society. What is the basic mechanism of this dimension of human behavior remains a continuing challenge for criminology researchers and beyond. The feminine offenses segment dresses a form of atypical aggressivity. This is the main reason who determine the identification, analization and explanation of the factors that influence and shapes the behavior of the woman, bringing it to the form of criminal behavior. The contradiction between femininity and criminality is outlined as an intrigue of gender stereotypes, which the researcher can not bypass. That is why patterns, items, everything on the background of social change are considered. The social change comes, in turn, with challenges both from the domestic area and from the outside of the family. In this paper we will review the main social nature factors that trigger the deviant behavior leading this to delinquency and even determining its identification with forms of delinquency. Women's evolution in time, in terms of age and social modernization, results in changes in the feminine attitude, the typical female actions, woman's personality as a mother, married couple, daughter, girlfriend, etc. The purpose of this study is to present risk factors with criminogen potential on women's behavior in society. Behavioral deviance, as a result of the multitude of bio-psychological, econ- omic, socio-cultural, political, natural factors, turns into violence, and violence tends to become an increasingly strong component of female temper. Last but not least, it is observed that the femininity itself, under the pressure of social factors, takes on new forms, dominated by aggressiveness.

  3. Behavioral inhibition and risk for posttraumatic stress symptoms in Latino children exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G

    2013-08-01

    Latino children in urban contexts marked by poverty are at high risk of being exposed to violence and developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nonetheless, there is great variability in individual responses to violence exposure. This study examines risk for developing re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of PTSD as a function of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and exposure to community violence. Participants were 148 Latino students (M age =11.43 years, SD = 0.69; 55 % girls) living in an area marked by poverty and crime. Children completed self-report measures of behavioral inhibition and posttraumatic stress symptoms during a baseline assessment. During a follow-up interview 6 months later, children completed self-report measures of exposure to community violence since the baseline assessment and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Structural equation models revealed that behavioral inhibition at baseline was positively associated with PTSD avoidance and arousal symptoms at follow-up, after controlling for symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, behavioral inhibition moderated the association between violence exposure and symptoms such that violence was more strongly associated with the development of PTSD avoidance symptoms as behavioral inhibition increased. Results suggest that individual differences in behavioral inhibition contribute to risk for specific PTSD symptoms and are important for understanding variation in responses to trauma exposure. By examining diathesis--stress models within a disorder, we may be better able to elucidate the etiology of a disorder and translate this improved understanding into personalized intervention approaches that maximize effectiveness.

  4. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  5. In Search of Black Swans: Identifying Students at Risk of Failing Licensing Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Cassandra; Hammond, Robert; Gula, Lorne; Tithecott, Gary; Chahine, Saad

    2018-03-01

    To determine which admissions variables and curricular outcomes are predictive of being at risk of failing the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part 1 (MCCQE1), how quickly student risk of failure can be predicted, and to what extent predictive modeling is possible and accurate in estimating future student risk. Data from five graduating cohorts (2011-2015), Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, were collected and analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models and determine whether they could be used to predict future risk, using the 2016 graduating cohort. Four predictive models were developed to predict student risk of failure at admissions, year 1, year 2, and pre-MCCQE1. The HGLM analyses identified gender, MCAT verbal reasoning score, two preclerkship course mean grades, and the year 4 summative objective structured clinical examination score as significant predictors of student risk. The predictive accuracy of the models varied. The pre-MCCQE1 model was the most accurate at predicting a student's risk of failing (AUC 0.66-0.93), while the admissions model was not predictive (AUC 0.25-0.47). Key variables predictive of students at risk were found. The predictive models developed suggest, while it is not possible to identify student risk at admission, we can begin to identify and monitor students within the first year. Using such models, programs may be able to identify and monitor students at risk quantitatively and develop tailored intervention strategies.

  6. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  7. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Stochastic risk estimation from medical x-ray diagnostic examinations, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Tadashi; Maruyama, Takashi; Noda, Yutaka; Iwai, Kazuo; Fukuhisa, Kenjiro

    1981-01-01

    The genetically significant dose (GSD), per Caput mean bone marrow dose (CMD), leukemia significant dose (LSD) and malignancy significant dose (MSD) from medical diagnostic X-ray examinations in Japan were estimated based on a 1979 nationwide survey of randomly sampled hospitals and clinics. The population risk estimates were carried out using the resultant values of GSD, LSD and MSD. In the risk estimates, the significant factors, namely, the relative child expectancy, the leukemia significant factor and the malignancy significant factor, for patients were assumed to be same as those of general population. The risk factors used were 185 x 10 -6 rad -1 for genetic risk of all generations, 20 x 10 -6 rad -1 for fatal leukemia and 165 x 10 -6 rad -1 for fatal malignant diseases, respectively. The resultant annual population doses per person were 15 mrad (0.15 mGy) for GSD, 107 mrad (1.07 mGy) for CMD, 86 mrad (0.86 mGy) for LSD and 43 mrad (0.43 mGy) for MSD, respectively. The present data other than the MSD were compared with the data in 1960, 1969 and 1974. For example, the GSD of 1979 was approximately same as that of 1974, although the annual number of examinations in 1979 increased by about 30 percent as compared with those of 1974. The population risks from X-ray diagnosis were estimated to be 260 persons per year for genetic risk of all generations, 192 person per year for fatal leukemic risk and 825 person per year for malignant risk, respectively, for the whole population in Japan, assuming that the X-ray diagnosis in 1979 will be performed continuously in the future. The average risks per one exposure for X-ray radiography were estimated using the weighted average of the significant factor and the organ or tissue dose with the number of radiographic exposures by age and by type of examination. The average risks per radiographic exposure were 176 x 10 -9 for genetic risk, 285 x 10 -9 for leukemic risk and 1.75 x 10 -6 for malignant risk respectively. (author)

  9. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Yan Jun; Zhang, Yong Hui; Yan, Qing Hua; Song, Xiu Ling; Xie, Hui Yan; Luo, Yuan; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Lin, Hua Liang; Ma, Wen Jun

    2013-10-02

    In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher

  10. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed 7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of

  11. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  12. How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Health Risk Behaviors in Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Alberto; Baizán, Eva María; Faya-Ornia, Goretti; López, María Luisa

    2015-08-01

    To explore the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and risky health behaviors in nursing students at the University of Oviedo (Spain). This cross-sectional study of 275 students used a validated questionnaire to measure EI level, nine risky behaviors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy diet, being overweight, sedentarism, risky sun exposure, occupational risk, and unsafe sex), and other factors that may influence EI. Students with the highest EI score had a lower probability of drinking too much alcohol (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.19, 0.67]), eating too few fruits and vegetables (OR, 0.60; 95% CI [0.34, 0.99]), and having unsafe sex (OR, 0.10; 95% CI [0.01, 0.74]). A dose-response effect was found for those three behaviors (p for trend excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, and unsafe sex. Training nursing students about EI could improve health behaviors, and thus the role of nurses as health promoters. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Family Consumer Behaviors, Adolescent Prediabetes and Diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sairaman; Khokhar, Aditi; Holmes, Danielle Sweetnam; Chandwani, Sheenu

    2017-01-01

    Prediabetes or diabetes (characterized by hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels ≥ 5.7 gm%) has been associated with numerous long-term complications. Family consumer behaviors are important risk factors that lead to impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However, few studies have studied the association between the family consumer environment and prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family consumer behaviors (healthy food availability and supermarket spending) and adolescent prediabetes and diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier #NCT03136289.) Methods: Data from a nationwide survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 2007-2010 data) were used for these analyses. Adolescents aged 12-19 years were selected for this study. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between family consumer behaviors and the prevalence of adolescent prediabetes and diabetes. Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, education, income, and household size. A total of 2520 adolescents were eligible for this study. Adolescents with healthier household food availability had negative odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.00), as did higher log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). Interaction models demonstrated that adolescent females had more negative odds of prediabetes/diabetes for both healthier food availability (OR = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.39-1.29) and for greater log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). This study shows that both healthy food availability and an increase in supermarket spending were associated with a decreased adjusted prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents, with a greater effect in females. These results suggest the need for policy and dietary interventions targeting the consumer

  15. Ultrasound examination and behavior scoring of captive broadnose sevengill sharks, Notorynchus cepedianus (Peron, 1807).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Jonathan; Gunn, Ian; Kirby, Nick; Jones, Robert; Galloway, David

    2007-09-01

    Serial ultrasound examination of four mature female sevengill sharks (Notorynchus cepedianus) was carried out over 18 months. Monitoring the reproductive cycle and development of follicles and fetuses in sharks in a noninvasive manner using this technique has not been reported previously. Sharks were caught out of the "Oceanarium" tank by divers using a specially made catch-out bag, and brought to a holding area for examination. A behavior scoring system was used to monitor the impact of regular handling on the well-being of the animals. Ultrasound showed the growth and regression of follicles in sevengill ovaries, and allowed an approximation of the reproductive stage of these sharks. Monitoring behavior at five time points during the procedure showed that regular handling of sharks for clinical studies could be done with minimal impact on animal welfare. The ability to follow reproductive events in elasmobranches using ultrasonography is an important step in the application of assisted reproductive technology in these species. Assisted reproductive technology, such as monitoring female reproductive cycles and artificial insemination, could potentially be used to maintain genetic diversity and compliment aquaria-based breeding programs for endangered species such as the gray nurse shark (Carcharias taurus). Zoo Biol 26:383-395, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Does mindfulness prepare adolescents for value-behavior concordance? Examining the role of value content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michael T; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Great thinkers throughout history advocated living one's values, yet little research has examined factors that contribute to adolescents' value-behavior concordance (VBC). Mindfulness may foster VBC via heightened awareness of values, but VBC for intrinsic values may be more adaptive than VBC for extrinsic values. To situate mindfulness in developmental context, we examined age and attachment security as predictors of mindfulness. We collected self- and parent-report data from 299 families (M age-adolescents  = 14.45, SD = 1.68; 51% female) from 42 US states to test these ideas. Results indicated that mindfulness was positively associated with intrinsic VBC but was negatively linked with extrinsic VBC, and both kinds of VBC partially mediated the link from mindfulness to meaning (but not life satisfaction). Attachment security was associated with higher mindfulness. Overall, mindfulness may deliver its benefits by helping young people avoid behaviors that align with extrinsic values. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mouth self-examination in a population at risk of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornet, P López; Garcia, F J Gómez; Berdugo, M Lucero; Perez, F Parra; Lopez, A Pons-Fuster

    2015-03-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is a public health problem and many cases are not diagnosed until the disease has reached an advanced stage. The aim of this study was to initiate an educational programme in self-examination for patients at risk from oral cancer. This quasi-experimental study set out to initiate an educational programme in self-examination for patients at risk from oral cancer, assessing the outcomes after three months. In individual 15-minute face-to-face sessions, patients were given information and training in oral cancer risk factors and then verbal instructions as how to carry out oral self-examination. Three months later, patients were interviewed by telephone and asked if they had carried out self-examination independently at home. The programme was evaluated by means of a health belief model questionnaire on perceived susceptibility (3 items), severity (8 items), benefits (4 items), barriers (8 items) and efficacy (6 items). Eighty-six patients (37 females [43.1%] and 49 males [56.9%]) with a mean age of 58.60±10.7 completed the oral self-examination programme. Logistic regression analysis indicated that patients who felt themselves subject to susceptibility (OR: 0.03 95% CI: 0.0-0.86; poral self-examination are needed to decrease morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  19. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Clough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT) best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual-processing frameworks. This

  20. Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Denovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy, the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT, the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale. Structural equation modeling examined three progressive models. Firstly, the Independence Model assumed that probabilistic reasoning, perception of risk and reality testing independently predicted terrorism-related behavior change. Secondly, the Mediation Model supposed that probabilistic reasoning and reality testing correlated, and indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change through perception of risk. Lastly, the Dual-Influence Model proposed that probabilistic reasoning indirectly predicted terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk, independent of reality testing. Results indicated that performance on probabilistic reasoning tasks most strongly predicted perception of risk, and preference for an intuitive thinking style (measured by the IPO-RT best explained terrorism-related behavior change. The combination of perception of risk with probabilistic reasoning ability in the Dual-Influence Model enhanced the predictive power of the analytical-rational route, with conjunction fallacy having a significant indirect effect on terrorism-related behavior change via perception of risk. The Dual-Influence Model possessed superior fit and reported similar predictive relations between intuitive-experiential and analytical-rational routes and terrorism-related behavior change. The discussion critically examines these findings in relation to dual

  1. Failure-To-Thrive, Maltreatment and the Behavior and Development of 6-Year-Old Children from Low-Income, Urban Families: A Cumulative Risk Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Mia A.; Black, Maureen M.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2000-01-01

    A cumulative risk model was used to examine the relationship among failure-to-thrive (FIT), maltreatment, and four aspects of children's development (cognitive performance, adaptive functioning at school, classroom behavior, and behavior at home) in 193 6-year-olds. Risk status was negatively associated with the four developmental outcomes.…

  2. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  3. Health risks, correlates, and interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare

    2011-08-01

    Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Masculine boys, feminine girls, and cancer risk behaviors: an 11-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Corliss, Heather L; Frazier, Lindsay; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-09-01

    Cancer risk behaviors often begin in adolescence and persist through adulthood. Tobacco use, indoor tanning, and physical inactivity are highly prevalent, socially patterned cancer risk behaviors, and their prevalence differs strongly by sex. It is therefore possible that these behaviors also differ by gender expression within the sexes due to social patterning. We examined whether five cancer risk behaviors differed by childhood gender expression within the sexes and whether patterns of media engagement (e.g., magazine readership and trying to look like media personalities) explained possible differences, in a U.S. population-based cohort (N = 9,435). The most feminine girls had higher prevalence of indoor tanning (prevalence risk ratio [pRR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-1.42) and physical inactivity (pRR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.01-1.34) and lower prevalence of worse smoking trajectory (prevalence odds ratio = .75, 95% CI = .65-.88) and smoking cigars (pRR = .61, 95% CI = .47-.79) compared with least feminine girls. Media engagement accounted for part of the higher prevalence of indoor tanning. The most masculine boys were more likely to chew tobacco (pRR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.14-2.79) and smoke cigars (pRR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.17-2.06) but less likely to follow a worse smoking trajectory (prevalence odds ratio = .69, 95% CI = .55-.87) and be physically inactive (pRR = .54, 95% CI = .43-.69) compared with least masculine boys. We found some strong differences in patterns of cancer risk behaviors by gender expression within the sexes. Prevention efforts that challenge the "masculinity" of smoking cigarettes and cigars and chewing tobacco and the "femininity" of indoor tanning to reduce their appeal to adolescents should be explored. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Irradiation Behavior and Post-Irradiation Examinations of an Acoustic Sensor Using a Piezoelectric Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, T.; Zacharie-Aubrun, I.; Hanifi, K.; Valot, Ch.; Fayette, L.; Rosenkantz, E.; Ferrandis, J.Y.; Tiratay, X.

    2013-06-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. In the framework of high burn-up fuel experiments under transient operating conditions, an innovative sensor based on acoustic method was developed by CEA and IES (Southern Electronic Institute).This sensor is used to determine the on-line composition of the gases located in fuel rodlet free volume and thus, allows calculating the molar fractions of fission gases and helium. The main principle of the composition determination by acoustic method consists in measuring the time of flight of an acoustic signal emitted and reflected in a specific cavity. A piezoelectric transducer, driven by a pulse generator, generates the acoustic wave in the cavity. The piezoelectric transducer is a PZT ceramic disk, mainly consisting of lead, zirconium and titanium. This acoustic method was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. However, during the irradiation test, acoustic signal degradation was observed, mainly due to irradiation effect but also due to the increasing of the gas temperature. Despite this acoustic signal degradation, the time of flight measurements were carried out with good accuracy throughout the test, thanks to the development of a more efficient signal processing. After experiment, neutronic calculations were performed in order to determine neutron fluence at the level of the piezoelectric transducer. In order to have a better understanding of the acoustic sensor behavior under irradiation, Post Irradiation Examination program was done on piezoelectric transducer and on acoustic coupling material too. These examinations were also realized on a non-irradiated acoustic sensor built in the same conditions and with the same materials and the same

  6. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in

  7. Predicting Risk-Mitigating Behaviors From Indecisiveness and Trait Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single...... control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction...

  8. Associations between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors and Personality Types

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    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1 the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2 patient-physician communication, and (3 preferred method for receiving information. Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels from March 14-30, 2016. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and items related to health-risk behaviors. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. However, chi-square analysis with large sample sizes (e.g. 10,500 in this study readily yields statistical significance. Practical significance was set at four or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Regarding objective 1, personality type was associated with all nine health-risk behaviors studied. Personality types within the Experiencer temperament (17% of the U.S. population accounted for 46% of the undesirable scores we computed for health-risk behaviors. The Idealist temperament (17% of population accounted for 32% of the undesirable scores. Conceptualizers (10% of population accounted for 17% of the undesirable scores and Traditionalists (46% of population accounted for 5% of the undesirable scores. Regarding objective 2, the findings showed that personality type was associated with (1 the importance people place on the patient-physician relationship, (2 which characteristics of that relationship are most desirable, (3 desire for

  9. Depositor Discipline and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence From the South-East Asian Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kabir Hassan; M. Ershad Hussain

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether the risk-taking behavior of commercial banks in five countries of South-East Asia changed after the Asian Crises of 1997. The paper utilizes the framework created by Gruben et al (1997, 1998, and 2003). It also examines the connection between the risk-taking behavior and depositor discipline of these banks after the Asian Crises of 1997. Based on bank level data from the Bank Scope, 2005 CD, he paper presents evidence that the state of depositor discipline is very ...

  10. Parent training: equivalent improvement in externalizing behavior for children with and without familial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnall, Ned; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H; Constantino, John N

    2014-08-01

    The Incredible Years Series intervention has demonstrated efficacy for decreasing conduct disorder (CD) symptomatology in clinically affected youth in multiple randomized controlled trials. Because children with family psychiatric histories of antisocial behavior are at markedly increased risk for enduring symptoms of antisocial behavior (compared with their counterparts with a negative family history), the authors examined whether intervention effects across studies would prevail in that subgroup or would be relatively restricted to children without genetic risk. A reanalysis was conducted of 5 randomized controlled trials of Incredible Years involving 280 clinically affected children 3 to 8 years of age for whom a family psychiatric history of externalizing behavior in first- and second-degree relatives was ascertained from at least 1 parent. Incredible Years equally benefitted children with CD with and without family psychiatric histories of externalizing behavior. Family psychiatric history of externalizing behavior and parental depressive symptomatology predicted greater severity of CD symptomatology at baseline. The beneficial effects of IY are evident in children with CD, irrespective of whether their conditions are more or less attributable to inherited susceptibility to enduring antisocial syndromes. A next phase of research should address whether earlier implementation of group-based education for parents of young children at increased familial risk for antisocial behavior syndromes-before the development of disruptive patterns of behavior-would result in even more pronounced effects and thereby constitute a cost-effective, targeted, preventive intervention for CD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early cumulative risk predicts externalizing behavior at age 10: The mediating role of adverse parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Emily J; Ip, Ka I; Sameroff, Arnold J; Olson, Sheryl L

    2018-02-01

    Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 10 years old at Time 2 (T2). Reports of contextual risk at T1 were used to develop a cumulative risk index consisting of 6 singular risk variables from 3 ecological levels: social resources (low income; social isolation), family resources (marital aggression; poor total family functioning), and maternal resources (single parent status; poor maternal mental health). At T1, parenting variables were measured (corporal punishment, warm responsiveness, maternal efficacy, and negative perceptions of child behavior). At T2, mothers, fathers, and teachers reported child externalizing problems. Johnson's relative weight analysis revealed that the cumulative risk index was a more powerful predictor of age 10 years externalizing behavior than any of the singular contextual risk variables. Adverse parenting mediated the effects of cumulative risk on later child externalizing problems. Our findings have significant implications for understanding long-term effects of multiple contextual risk factors present in early childhood and for the implementation of positive parenting interventions early on. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Examining the Longitudinal Relationship between Change in Sleep and Obesity Risk in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Laska, Melissa N.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is building regarding the association between inadequate amounts of sleep and the risk of obesity, especially in younger children. Less is known about the relationship between change in sleep and change in weight during adolescence. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between change in sleep duration…

  13. Risk of atherosclerosis in general Czech population is very high - preventive examinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Martinková, Patrícia

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, suppl 1 (2007), S66-S66 ISSN 1741-8267. [EuroPrevent Congress. 19.04.2007-21.04.2007, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : risk of atherosclerosis * preventive examinations * general population Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  14. A Critical Examination of the Climate Engineering Moral Hazard and Risk Compensation Concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, J.L.(Jesse)

    The widespread concern that research into and potential implementation of climate engineering would reduce mitigation and adaptation is critically examined. First, empirical evidence of such moral hazard or risk compensation in general is inconclusive, and the empirical evidence to date in the case

  15. Women's Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior about Maternal Risk Factors in Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Esposito

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy.Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity. Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9% reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity.The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women's levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy.

  16. Assessing university students' sexual risk behaviors as predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba

    2018-05-09

    There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Excess Cancer Risk Assessment from Some Common X-Ray Examinations in Sabzevar County

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    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays ionizing radiation has a considerable contribution in medical diagnostic and treatment. Using ionizing radiation is increasing rapidly, so biological effects of ionizing radiation should be considered more. X-rays in the range of diagnostic radiology have hazardous effects and risks that are defined as random effects. These effects obey the LNT hypothesis that occur at low doses and include many types of cancer and genetic mutations. So it is very important to assess the risk of exposure in medical examinations. Cancer is one of these hazardous risks caused by low dose ionizing radiation that may occur during life after exposure. According to BEAR 7, low dose radiation is defined as radiation that produces doses near zero up to 100 mSv. Materials and Methods: This work was carried out in eight radiology centers in the Sabzevar county of Iran for 485 patients in eight typical x-ray examinations chosen for the study: chest PA, chest AP, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine LAT, pelvis AP, abdomen AP, skull AP and Lat. In order to estimate the excess cancer risk, we need to obtain collective effective dose caused by radiation in the study population. Usually effective dose offers precise assessment of radiography examination injuries in adult patients. In this study, we used the PCXMC Monte Carlo based software to obtain effective dose and organ dose. This software calculates organ and effective dose following input of patient and radiographic conditions. Results: Average patient weight and height, entrance surface dose, parameters used for each type of examination, and DAP values were entered. Effective dose, collective effective dose, number of radiographs per year and the excess cancer risk arising from these radiographic examinations were then calculated.  Discussion and Conclusion: Excess risk of fatal cancer due to x-ray examinations in the study population was calculated by collective effective dose. This risk in the

  18. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fowokan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk.Adults ≥18 years (n = 77 from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score.Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent.Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members. Keywords: Food insecurity, Food banks, Cardiovascular disease, Risk factors, Canada

  19. A prospective 2-year examination of cognitive and behavioral correlates of provoked vestibulodynia outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Bergeron, Sophie; Bois, Katy; Sadikaj, Gentiana; Binik, Yitzchak M; Steben, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common genital pain disorder in women that is associated with sexual dysfunction and lowered sexual satisfaction. A potentially applicable cognitive-behavioral model of chronic pain and disability is the fear-avoidance model (FAM) of pain. The FAM posits that cognitive variables, such as pain catastrophizing, fear, and anxiety lead to avoidance of pain-provoking behaviors (eg, intercourse), resulting in continued pain and disability. Although some of the FAM variables have been shown to be associated with PVD pain and sexuality outcomes, the model as a whole has never been tested in this population. An additional protective factor, pain self-efficacy (SE), is also associated with PVD, but has not been tested within the FAM model. Using a 2-year longitudinal design, we examine (1) whether initial levels (T1) of the independent FAM variables and pain SE were associated with changes in pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction over the 2-year time period; (2) the prospective contribution of changes in cognitive-affective (FAM) variables to changes in pain, and sexuality outcomes; and (3) whether these were mediated by behavioral change (avoidance of intercourse). A sample of 222 women with PVD completed self-report measures of FAM variables, SE, pain, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction at time 1 and at a 2-year follow-up. Structural equation modeling with Latent Difference Scores was used to examine changes and to examine mediation between variables. Questionnaires included the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Scale, and Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Female Sexual Function Index. Participants who reported higher SE at T1 reported greater declines in pain, greater increases in sexual satisfaction, and greater declines in sexual function over the 2 time points. The overall change model did not support the FAM using negative cognitive

  20. Grit: A Potential Protective Factor Against Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Lourdes R; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Chung, Paul J; Dosanjh, Kulwant K; Wong, Mitchell D

    2016-04-01

    Grit, defined as "working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress," is strongly associated with academic achievement and life success and may also be associated with health outcomes and behaviors. We examined predictors of grit, and the association between grit and health behaviors among at-risk Latino adolescents. We analyzed baseline survey data collected in 2013-2014 from a sample of 1270 9th graders in low-income neighborhoods of Los Angeles. We examined factors associated with grit and whether grit is associated with substance use and delinquent behaviors, controlling for adolescent and parent sociodemographic factors. In a sample of mostly Latino adolescents (89.5%), compared to those with low grit, those with high grit had significantly lower odds of alcohol use in the last 30 days (odds ratio 0.30, P authoritative parenting style, parental employment, and high self-efficacy scores. Grit may be an important candidate protective factor against substance use and other risk behaviors among Latino adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.