Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha
This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.
Ch. M. Kristanti
Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in
Jiang, Yongwen; Perry, Donald K; Hesser, Jana E
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among high school students in the U.S. This study examined the relationships among indicators of depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and demographics and risk behaviors in Rhode Island high school students. Data from Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were utilized for this study. The statewide sample contained 2210 randomly selected public high school students. Data were analyzed in 2008 to model for each of five depressed mood/suicide indicators using multivariable logistic regression. By examining depressed mood and suicide indicators through a multivariable approach, the strongest predictors were identified, for multiple as well as specific suicide indicators. These predictors included being female, having low grades, speaking a language other than English at home, being lesbian/gay/bisexual/unsure of sexual orientation, not going to school as a result of feeling unsafe, having been a victim of forced sexual intercourse, being a current cigarette smoker, and having a self-perception of being overweight. The strength of associations between three factors (immigrant status, feeling unsafe, and having forced sex) and suicide indicators adds new information about potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.
Frankel, Anne S.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Patterson, Freda; Dai, Ting; Brown, Deanna
Background: Sexting, the sharing of sexually suggestive photos, may be a gateway behavior to early sexual activity and increase the likelihood of social ostracism. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 6021) data from 2015 among Pennsylvania 9th-12th grade students were used to examine associations between consensual and nonconsensual sexting…
Wiener, R Constance; Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Findley, Patricia A
Rural residents are overrepresented in the military; however, access to Veteran services is limited in rural areas. There is a need to identify rural Veteran healthcare utilization. This study addresses that need and has two purposes: a) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and Veteran utilization of dental services; and b) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and the oral health outcome of missing teeth. Data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were used in this study. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Rural Veterans were less likely to have a dental visit during the previous year as compared with metropolitan Veterans in unadjusted analysis (Odds ratio = 0.71, 95% Confidence Interval, 0.64, 0.77) and in adjusted analysis [0.87 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.78, 0.96)]. In cases in which all teeth were missing, rural Veterans had an unadjusted odds ratio of 1.79 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.55, 2.08] and an adjusted odds ratio of 1.37 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.17, 1.62] as compared with metropolitan Veterans. The Veterans Health Administration develops policies for establishing centers for care for Veterans. The policy development should take into consideration that rural Veterans have not been as likely as urban Veterans to utilize dental services and have poorer oral health outcomes. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.
This report summarizes the survey answers Ohio high school students (N=2,314) reported about alcohol, tobacco, and other health risk behaviors. The survey contains questions relating to: (1) behaviors that result in intentional and non-intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that result in HIV…
Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.
The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle
We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.
May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…
Kim, Yongjoo; Austin, S Bryn; Subramanian, S V; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T; Franko, Debra L; Rodgers, Rachel F; Kawachi, Ichiro
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills. Sex-stratified four-level multilevel logistic models examined potential predictors of DWCB, including age, body-mass index, puberty, perceived household economic status, parental education, living structure, school type and sex-composition, percentage of students participating in school nutrition programs, and urbanicity. Overall, 6.2% of Korean adolescents (8.9% of girls, 3.7% of boys) exhibited any DWCB. We found significant between-school variation among girls and boys and between-classroom variation among girls. Older age, overweight/obesity, pubertal maturity, high household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), and vocational schooling (vs. general) were positively associated with DWCB among girls and boys. Low household economic status (vs. mid-range economic status), higher parental education, and coeducational schooling (vs. single-sex) were positively associated with DWCB among girls only. The findings suggest that DWCB are prevalent among Korean adolescents across age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Social contextual factors including school and familial environmental factors, as well as individual characteristics, should be considered when developing effective prevention strategies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaley, Sean; Mancino, Michael J; Messias, Erick
Exposure to drugs is unfortunately common among high school students and its use has been linked to depression and suicide risk. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of drug abuse and to measure its association with teen suicidality. Three types of substance misuse were reported by more than 10% of Arkansas high school students: cannabis (33.3% ever use). inhalants (18.7% ever use). and prescription drugs without a prescription (13.2% ever use). We found in all suicide outcomes a stronger association with prescription drug abuse, followed by inhalant abuse, then cannabis abuse.
Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more common in Latina adolescents than White or African-American adolescents. Several health risk behaviors have been identified as being associated with Latina adolescent suicides. However, to date, no study has identified the consistency and stability of these risk behaviors over time. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behaviors Survey from 2001 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors in Latina adolescents. Our analysis found the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied significantly over the 13-year study span, decreasing from 2001 to 2009 and increased from 2011 to 2013. The analyses found 11 health risk behaviors that were significantly associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts that did not vary over time. The stability of these 11 health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors could be useful to school personnel to identify early at risk Latina adolescents who may benefit from school and community mental health resources.
Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari
Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A
We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.
Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…
Sauer, Ann Goding; Liu, Benmei; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Fedewa, Stacey A
Cancer screening prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), designed to provide state-level estimates, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), designed to provide national estimates, are used to measure progress in cancer control. A detailed description of the extent to which recent cancer screening estimates vary by key demographic characteristics has not been previously described. We examined national prevalence estimates for recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using data from the 2012 and 2014 BRFSS and the 2010 and 2013 NHIS. Treating the NHIS estimates as the reference, direct differences (DD) were calculated by subtracting NHIS estimates from BRFSS estimates. Relative differences were computed by dividing the DD by the NHIS estimates. Two-sample t-tests (2-tails), were performed to test for statistically significant differences. BRFSS screening estimates were higher than those from NHIS for breast (78.4% versus 72.5%; DD=5.9%, pNHIS, each survey has a unique and important role in providing information to track cancer screening utilization among various populations. Awareness of these differences and their potential causes is important when comparing the surveys and determining the best application for each data source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
West, Bethany A
Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention
Franca, Carolina da; Colares, Viviane
The objective of this article is to translate, to adapt and to validate the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to apply at Brazilian college students. 208 college students from the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE) and University of Pernambuco (UPE) participated in the study. The validation was carried through in five stages: (1) translation; (2) retrotranslation; (3) correction and semantic adaptation (cultural adaptation); (4) face validation; (5) test-retest. Adaptations were done to deal with any semantic disagreements found between translation and retrotranslation. After face validation, the questionnaire was reduced from 96 to 52 questions. From the 11 items analyzed, the majority presented good and perfect Kappa: security and violence (Kappa=0.89); suicide (Kappa=1.00); use of the tobacco (Kappa=0.90); drinking consumption (Kappa=0.78); cocaine and other drugs consumption (Kappa=0.70); sexual behavior (Kappa=0,88) and corporal weight (Kappa=0.89). Only the item about feeding presented weak Inter-examiner Kappa (Kappa = 0.26) and the topic on health information presented moderate Kappa (Kappa=0.56). The average Kappa for all items was good (0.76). The instrument may be considered validated in the Portuguese language in Brazil with acceptable reproducibility.
Betz, Marian E.; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew
The association between home firearms and the likelihood and nature of suicidal thoughts and plans was examined using the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey, a 2001-2003 representative telephone survey of U.S. households. Of 9,483 respondents, 7.4% reported past-year suicidal thoughts, 21.3% with a plan. Similar proportions of those with and…
This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…
Smith, Diane Lynn
Among working aged adults (18-64) with disabilities, three out of 10 (32%) work full or part-time, compared to eight out of 10 (81%) of those without disabilities . In addition, 24.7% of women with a severe disability and 27.8% of men with a severe disability are employed, while women with a non-severe disability have an employment rate of 68.4% and men with a non-severe disability have an employment rate of 85.1% . This study examined data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 1995-2002 to determine whether or not disparities exist in the rate of unemployment for women with disabilities, compared to men with disabilities and women and men without disabilities. In addition, regression analysis looked at the how disability and gender predict the outcome of unemployment. Results showed that there has been essentially no change with regard to employment for any of these populations. In addition, disability and gender were found to be the strongest predictors of unemployment for women with disabilities. Possible explanations were discussed as to the reasons for the results and issues were presented for future research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide, especially in eastern Europe, South America, and east and southeast Asia. Among people actively injecting drugs, provision of clean needles and opioid substitution reduce HIV-transmission. However, former injecting drug users (fIDUs are often overlooked as a high risk group for HIV transmission. We compared HIV risk behavior among current and former injecting drug users (IDUs in Indonesia, which has a rapidly growing HIV-epidemic largely driven by injecting drug use. Methods Current and former IDUs were recruited by respondent driven sampling in an urban setting in Java, and interviewed regarding drug use and HIV risk behavior using the European Addiction Severity Index and the Blood Borne Virus Transmission Questionnaire. Drug use and HIV transmission risk behavior were compared between current IDUs and former IDUs, using the Mann-Whitney and Pearson Chi-square test. Results Ninety-two out of 210 participants (44% were self reported former IDUs. Risk behavior related to sex, tattooing or piercing was common among current as well as former IDUs, 13% of former IDUs were still exposed to contaminated injecting equipment. HIV-infection was high among former (66% and current (60% IDUs. Conclusion Former IDUs may contribute significantly to the HIV-epidemic in Indonesia, and HIV-prevention should therefore also target this group, addressing sexual and other risk behavior.
Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M
National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculat...
Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Agbanu, Harry L K; Toma-Drane, Mariana; Dhawan, Ashish
While numerous studies have examined the relationships among correlates of physical activity (PA), less attention has been given to identifying the correlates of low PA duration. The main objective of the current study was to examine correlates of low PA duration, team sports participation and smoking behaviors among adolescents. Data from the 2005 Colorado Youth Behavioral Risk Survey were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. We evaluated associations between two measures of low PA duration, assessed as per Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objectives and 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) for Americans, and smoking behaviors, participation in the physical education (PE) and team sports, controlling for age, gender and other behavioral characteristics. Forty percent and 70%, respectively, of adolescents did not meet the 2008 PAG and HP2010 objectives. After adjustment, smoking remained associated with failure to meet the 2008 PAG. However, no significant relationship was found with low PA duration as per the HP2010 objectives. The risk of low PA was higher among girls for both outcome measures. Likewise, adolescents who reported no participation in team sports presented a 7-fold higher risk of low PA as per the 2008 PAG and 51% higher risk of low PA as per the HP2010 objectives compared with the group with team sports participation. Regular participation in school PE and team sports may represent an important avenue for increasing PA duration and reducing smoking behaviors among adolescents.
Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David
In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Squiers, Linda; Herrington, James; Kelly, Bridget; Bann, Carla; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Stamm, Lola; Johnson, Mihaela; McCormack, Lauren
Limited data exist about U.S. travelers' knowledge, risk perceptions, and behaviors related to the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using an internet research panel, in March 2017, we surveyed 1,202 Americans in the continental United States and Puerto Rico who planned to travel to a ZIKV-affected country, state, or U.S. territory in 2017. We compared levels of knowledge and perceived risk of ZIKV, and intentions to practice ZIKV prevention behaviors across respondents from three regions: Puerto Rico, at-risk states, and other states. More than 80% of respondents correctly understood that a person could acquire ZIKV through a bite from an infected mosquito, and over 64% of respondents knew that a pregnant woman could pass the virus to her fetus. Less than half of the respondents from at-risk states and other states knew that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually, as compared with three-quarters of respondents from Puerto Rico. Compared with respondents from at-risk and other states, respondents from Puerto Rico were the most knowledgeable for almost all types of knowledge assessed. Knowledge about post-travel precautions was low across all three regions. Differences in perceived risk and intentions to practice specific prevention behaviors also varied among regions. Significant gaps exist in U.S. travelers' knowledge about how to prevent ZIKV transmission both during and after travel. Input and collaboration from the travel industry, health care providers, and the media are needed to help educate travelers about how to prevent ZIKV infection and transmission.
Elliott, John O; Lu, Bo; Moore, J Layne; McAuley, James W; Long, Lucretia
Based on the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, persons with a history of epilepsy report lower educational attainment, lower annual income, and poorer health status, similar to other state-based epidemiological surveys. Previous studies have found persons with epilepsy exercise less and smoke more than the nonepilepsy population. The medical literature has also shown that antiepileptic drugs may cause nutritional deficiencies. Persons with a history of epilepsy in the 2005 CHIS report they walk more for transportation, drink more soda, and eat less salad than the nonepilepsy population. Exercise and dietary behaviors at recommended levels have been found to reduce mortality from many comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, depression, anxiety, and osteoporosis for which persons with epilepsy are at increased risk. Health professionals in the epilepsy field should step up their efforts to engage patients in health promotion, especially in the areas of exercise, diet, and smoking cessation.
Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L
We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.
Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul
This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts. © 2014 APJPH.
Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale
We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…
This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…
Vozza, Iole; Capasso, Francesca; Marrese, Elisa; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia
The aim of this survey was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of parents and caregivers about potential oral health risk factors for their children in their first months of life (3-30 months). The participation to the survey was proposed to all parents or caregivers of children attending the public consulting service in Latina for mandatory vaccinations during the period of June to August 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was completed to obtain information regarding demographic variables, infant feeding practice, maternal oral health during and after pregnancy, children's oral hygiene habits and risk behaviors (e.g., sharing cutlery, tasting of baby food, nightly using of baby bottles with sugared beverages, or sugared pacifier), and knowledge about caries and its transmission. The analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 14.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The variance analysis and chi-square test were used to investigate the relationship between the variables. Overall, the parents of 304 children consented to fill the questionnaire. Data analysis showed that about 50% of respondents considered dental caries an infectious disease, however, 53.6% was not aware of the potential vertical transmissibility of cariogenic bacteria through contaminated saliva. It is a common trend in the early stages of weaning to taste the baby food (53%) and sharing cutlery (38.5%). With regard to children oral health care, parents reported no toothbrushing for 53.1% of the children in their first 3 years of life. The relationship between the two variables concerning caries transmissibility and tools sharing carried out on through Pearson chi-square test identified P = 0.32. From this survey, the need for parental oral health promoting program emerged to control children oral health risk status.
Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that the context of sport may not be an additional site for stress among adolescent athletes who identify as a sexual minority, and subsequently may have little impact on substance use behaviors. However, participating in sport may not serve as a protective context for adolescent sexual minorities given that substance use behaviors may be learned and reinforced.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...
Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Eisenmann, Joey C
Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data. Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none. Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.
Burk, Thad; Edmondson, Andrea Hamor; Whitehead, Tyler; Smith, Barbara
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between exposure to bullying and other forms of violence and suicide risk among public high school students in Oklahoma. Data from the 2009 and 2011 Oklahoma Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used for this analysis and were representative of public school students in grades 9-12 in Oklahoma. Students who were bullied, threatened or injured by someone with a weapon, physically hurt by their partner, or had ever been forced to have sex, were twice as likely as students who had not experienced victimization to have experienced persistent sadness, considered attempting suicide, made a plan to attempt suicide, and attempted suicide. The results of this study indicate that being a victim of bullying or other forms of violence significantly increases the likelihood for experiencing signs and symptoms of depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans, or suicidal attempts.
Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Fang; Wang, Min Qi
The purpose of this investigation was to identify risky driving behaviors and dispositions that distinguish drivers who use a cell phone while operating a motor vehicle from non-cell phone using drivers. Annual telephone surveys were used to identify drivers who reported using a cell phone while driving in the last month (n=1803) and were compared to those who said they did not use cell phones while driving (n=1578). Cell phone using drivers were more likely to report driving while drowsy, going 20 mph over the speed limit, driving aggressively, running a stop sign or red light, and driving after having had several drinks. They were also more likely to have had a prior history of citation and crash involvement than non-cell phone using drivers. Cell phone using drivers also reported they were less careful and more in a hurry when they drive than non-cell phone using drivers. Cell phone using drivers report engaging in many behaviors that place them at risk for a traffic crash, independent of the specific driving impairments that cell phone usage may produce. Strategies that combine coordinated and sustained enforcement activities along with widespread public awareness campaigns hold promise as effective countermeasures for these drivers, who resemble aggressive drivers in many respects.
Kim, Min Joung; Yu, Seon Yeong; Kim, Sunyoung; Won, Chang Won; Choi, Hyunrim; Kim, Byung Sung
The number of North Korean adolescent defectors entering South Korea has been increasing. The health behavior, including mental health-related behavior, and factors associated with depression in North Korean adolescent defectors residing in South Korea were investigated. Data obtained from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2011-2014) dataset were utilized. In total, 206 North Korean adolescent defectors were selected, and for the control group, 618 matched South Korean adolescents were selected. Frequency analysis was used to determine the place of birth and nationality of the parents, chi-square tests were used to compare the general characteristics of the North and South Korean subjects, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to compare the health behavior of the two sets of subjects. To determine the factors associated with depression in the North Korean subjects, a logistic regression was performed. The North Korean adolescents reported higher current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 4.35), current drinking (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.99), and drug use rates (aOR, 10.99; 95% CI, 4.04 to 29.88) than did the South Korean adolescents. The factors associated with depression in the North Korean adolescents were current smoking (aOR, 6.99; 95% CI, 1.62 to 30.06), lifetime drinking experience (aOR, 5.32; 95% CI, 1.51 to 18.75), and perceived stress (aOR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.74 to 12.90). There were differences in health behavior between the North and South Korean adolescents. A specialized approach for North Korean adolescent defectors is required to promote proper health behavior and adaptation to South Korean society.
Lee, Hanna; Park, Eun Suk; Yu, Jae Kook; Yun, Eun Kyoung
The purpose of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for adolescent obesity in Korea that could be used for obesity policy analysis. On the basis of the casual loop diagram, a model was developed by converting to stock and flow diagram. The Vensim DSS 5.0 program was used in the model development. We simulated method of moments to the calibration of this model with data from The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey 2005 to 2013. We ran the scenario simulation. This model can be used to understand the current adolescent obesity rate, predict the future obesity rate, and be utilized as a tool for controlling the risk factors. The results of the model simulation match well with the data. It was identified that a proper model, able to predict obesity probability, was established. These results of stock and flow diagram modeling in adolescent obesity can be helpful in development of obesity by policy planners and other stakeholders to better anticipate the multiple effects of interventions in both the short and the long term. In the future we suggest the development of an expanded model based on this adolescent obesity model.
Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F
This study aimed to examine the association between sexual orientation and health disparities among a stratified random sample of 3776 secondary students in Hong Kong. The prevalence of homosexuality and bisexuality were 1.5% and 2.6% in boys and 1.8% and 3.7% in girls, respectively. A total of 10.7% of boys and 8.8% of girls were unsure of their sexual orientation. Homosexual and bisexual boys reported poorer physical and mental health than their heterosexual peers. Homosexual and bisexual boys were more likely to engage in smoking, frequent drinking, and vaginal sex and be subjected to sexually transmitted disease and sexual victimization. However, lesbian and bisexual girls were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors except for smoking and being subjected to sexual victimization. There is a gender-specific problem that may warrant prevention and intervention programs to address the unique health issues facing homosexual and bisexual adolescents in Hong Kong.
Kim, Soo Jeong; Han, Jin A; Lee, Tae-Yong; Hwang, Tae-Yoon; Kwon, Keun-Sang; Park, Ki Soo; Lee, Kyung Jong; Kim, Moon Shik; Lee, Soon Young
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with H1N1 preventive behaviors in a community-based population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three urban and two rural communities in Korea. Interviews were conducted with 3462 individuals (1608 men and 1854 women) aged ≥ 19 years during February-March 2010. Influenza-related information including anxiety, preventive behaviors and their perceived effectiveness, vaccination status, past influenza-like illness symptoms, and sources of and trust in information was obtained. Among 3462 participants, 173 reported experiencing influenza-like illness symptoms within the past 12 months. The mean H1N1 preventive behavior score was 25.5 ± 5.5 (out of a possible 40). The percent of participants reporting high perceived effectiveness and high anxiety was 46.2% and 21.4%, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, H1N1 preventive behavior scores were predicted by a high (β = 3.577, p < 0.001) or moderate (β = 2.529, p < 0.001) perception of their effectiveness. Similarly, moderate (β = 1.516, p < 0.001) and high (β = 4.103, p < 0.001) anxiety scores predicted high preventive behavior scores. Effective methods of promoting population behavior change may be nationwide campaigns through mass media, as well as education and promotion by health care providers and broadcasters.
Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun
This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.
Validação do National College Health Risk Behavior Survey para utilização com universitários brasileiros Validation of National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to be use with Brazilian college students
Carolina da Franca
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é traduzir, adaptar e validar o National College Health Risk Behavior Survey para utilização com universitários brasileiros. Participaram do estudo 208 universitários da UFPE e UPE. A validação foi realizada em cinco etapas: (1 tradução; (2 retrotradução; (3 correção e adaptação semântica (transculturalização; (4 validação de face; (5 teste e reteste. A tradução e retrotradução não apresentaram muitas discordâncias, tendo sido feitas as adaptações necessárias. Após a validação de face, o questionário foi reduzido de 96 para 52 questões. A reprodutibilidade foi avaliada através do teste de Kappa. Dos onze tópicos analisados, a maioria apresentou Kappa bom a perfeito: segurança e violência (Kappa=0,89; suicídio (Kappa=1,00; uso do tabaco (Kappa=0,90; bebida alcoólica (Kappa=0,78; consumo de cocaína e outras drogas (Kappa=0,70; comportamento sexual (Kappa=0,88 e peso corporal (Kappa=0,89. Apenas o tópico sobre alimentação apresentou Kappa fraco (Kappa = 0,26 e o tópico sobre informações em saúde apresentou Kappa moderado (Kappa=0,56. O Kappa médio para todos os tópicos foi 0,76, classificado como bom. A versão reduzida do instrumento pode ser considerada validada na língua portuguesa com nível de reprodutibilidade aceitável.The objective of this article is to translate, to adapt and to validate the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to apply at Brazilian college students. 208 college students from the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE and University of Pernambuco (UPE participated in the study. The validation was carried through in five stages: (1 translation; (2 retrotranslation; (3 correction and semantic adaptation (cultural adaptation; (4 face validation; (5 test-retest. Adaptations were done to deal with any semantic disagreements found between translation and retrotranslation. After face validation, the questionnaire was reduced from 96 to 52
Messias, Erick; Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan
While school bullying has been shown to be associated with depression and suicidality among teens, the relationship between these outcomes and cyberbullying has not been studied in nationally representative samples. Data came from the 2011 CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a nationally representative sample of high-school students (N=15,425). We calculated weighted estimates representative of all students in grades 9-12 attending school in the US. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Overall, girls are more likely to be report being bullied (31.3% vs. 22.9%), in particularly to be cyberbullied (22.0% vs. 10.8%), while boys are only more likely to report exclusive school bullying (12.2% vs. 9.2%). Reports of 2-week sadness and all suicidality items were highest among teens reporting both forms of bullying, followed by those reporting cyberbullying only, followed by those reporting school bullying only. For example, among those reporting not being bullied 4.6% reported having made a suicide attempt, compared to 9.5% of those reporting school bullying only (adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 2.3, 95% C.I. 1.8-2.9), 14.7% of those reporting cyberbullying only (AOR 3.5 (2.6-4.7)), and 21.1% of those reporting victimization of both types of bullying (AOR 5.6 (4.4-7)). Bullying victimization, in school, cyber, or both, is associated with higher risk of sadness and suicidality among teens. Interventions to prevent school bullying as well as cyberbullying are needed. When caring for teens reporting being bullied, either at school or in cyberbullying, it's important to screen for depression and suicidality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Seulki; Shin, Aesun
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease which has been known to negatively influence the mental health of patients. However, only a few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric problems among AD patients, particularly among adolescents. In this study, we aimed to assess the association of AD with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors among adolescents by analyzing data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide web-based survey. Data from 72,435 adolescent middle and high school students in Korea were analyzed. Students self-reported AD diagnosed by a doctor and yes-or-no answers to questions about depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempts were analyzed. Relationships between AD and depressive symptoms or suicidal behaviors were tested by logistic regression models after controlling for potential confounding factors. The proportion of adolescents who had AD was 6.8%. The proportion of adolescents reporting depressive feelings was 31.0%, suicide ideation was 16.3%, suicide planning was 5.8%, and suicide attempts was 4.2%. Compared to adolescents without AD, adolescents with AD were significantly more likely to experience depressive feelings (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 1.19-1.36), suicide ideation (OR: 1.34, 95% Cl: 1.24-1.45), suicide planning (OR: 1.46, 95% Cl: 1.32-1.65), and suicide attempts (OR: 1.51, 95% Cl: 1.33-1.72). In the multivariate model, the relationships between AD and suicide ideation (OR: 1.26, 95% Cl:1.16-1.36), suicide planning (OR: 1.28, 95% Cl:1.14-1.44), and suicide attempt (OR: 1.29, 95% Cl:1.13-1.49) were statistically significant. Adolescents who have AD are associated with a higher prevalence of depression symptoms and suicidal behaviors. Adolescent AD patients may need interventions from clinicians and caregivers that use a holistic approach to prevent psychological comorbidities, although further research is needed to clarify this
Conde-Glez Carlos J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18% and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking, but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity. Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors.
Jeoung A Kwon
Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18. We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.
Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.
Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS Consumption frequencie...
Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.
The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…
Validação da versão brasileira do Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 Validación de la versión brasilera del Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2007 Validation of the Brazilian version of the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, versão 2007. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas tradução para o português da versão original do YRBS2007 e retrotradução para o inglês. As versões do questionário foram analisadas por comitê de juízes. O comitê utilizou como critério de análise as equivalências semântica, idiomática, cultural e conceitual. Para identificação das propriedades psicométricas, a versão final do questionário YRBS2007 traduzida foi administrada em duas ocasiões com intervalo de duas semanas em amostra de 873 estudantes de ambos os sexos, do ensino médio, em Londrina, PR, em 2007. A confiabilidade teste-reteste foi analisada pelo cálculo do índice de concordância Kappa e da taxa de prevalência de cada comportamento de risco nas réplicas de aplicação. Teste de qui-quadrado foi empregado para identificar diferenças estatísticas entre a primeira e a segunda aplicações do questionário. RESULTADOS: Após discretas modificações apontadas nos processos de tradução, o comitê de juízes considerou que a versão para o idioma português do YRBS2007 apresentou equivalências semântica, idiomática, cultural e conceitual. Diferenças significativas entre as taxas de prevalências de ambas as aplicações foram observadas em 23,4% dos itens. A identificação de 91% dos itens com índice de concordância Kappa entre moderado a substancial e valor médio desse índice de 68,6% indicou a qualidade das propriedades psicométricas do YRBS2007 traduzido para o idioma português. CONCLUSÕES: A tradução, a adaptação transcultural e as qualidades psicométricas do questionário YRBS2007 foram satisfatórias, o que viabiliza sua aplicação em estudos epidemiológicos no Brasil.OBJETIVO: Validar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión brasileña del cuestionario Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, versión 2007. MÉTODOS: Se
Stone, Deborah M; Luo, Feijun; Ouyang, Lijing; Lippy, Caroline; Hertz, Marci F; Crosby, Alex E
We examined the associations between 2 measures of sexual orientation and 4 suicide risk outcomes (SROs) from pooled local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We aggregated data from 5 local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2009. We defined sexual minority youths (SMYs) by sexual identity (lesbian, gay, bisexual) and sex of sexual contacts (same- or both-sex contacts). Survey logistic regression analyses controlled for a wide range of suicide risk factors and sample design effects. Compared with non-SMYs, all SMYs had increased odds of suicide ideation; bisexual youths, gay males, and both-sex contact females had greater odds of suicide planning; all SMYs, except same-sex contact males, had increased odds of suicide attempts; and lesbians, bisexuals, and both-sex contact youths had increased odds of medically serious attempts. Unsure males had increased odds of suicide ideation compared with heterosexual males. Not having sexual contact was protective of most SROs among females and of medically serious attempts among males. Regardless of sexual orientation measure used, most SMY subgroups had increased odds of all SROs. However, many factors are associated with SROs.
Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.
Sanchez, Zila M.; Ribeiro, Karen J.; Wagner, Gabriela A.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons’ BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs. PMID:26287954
Zila M Sanchez
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
To examine the relation between "sexting" (sending and sharing sexual photos online, via text messaging, and in person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, in which they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined-particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Although the media has portrayed sexting as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Patten, Ryan; Weinstock, Jeremiah; McGrath, Andrew B
Problem and pathological gambling refers to subclinical and clinical levels of maladaptive gambling, respectively, and is associated with specific sociodemographic characteristics as well as a number of poor health outcomes. We examined such demographic, physical health, mental health, and health-related behaviors in a sample of 7045 low-risk gamblers and 244 problem/pathological gamblers. Participants completed the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone survey. Using the National Opinion Research Center's Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders-CLiP, participants were categorized as either "problem/pathological gamblers" or "low-risk gamblers." Problem/pathological gamblers were younger, more likely to be male, of ethnic minority status, unmarried, and of lower education than low-risk gamblers. No physical health variables differentiated the groups but problem/pathological gamblers reported experiencing significantly more adverse childhood experiences and engaging in significantly more tobacco and alcohol use compared to low-risk gamblers. Moreover, gender moderated relationships between gambling group and several of the alcohol use variables such that male problem/pathological gamblers exhibited greater alcohol use behavior than male low-risk gamblers but no such relationship was present in females. Overall, this study expands the current knowledgebase on disordered gambling and highlights the need to assess disordered gambling in public health samples. Clinical implications are discussed.
Watson, Steven J; Zizzo, Daniel J; Fleming, Piers
Increasing the perception of legal risk via publicized litigation and lobbying for copyright law enforcement has had limited success in reducing unlawful content sharing by the public. We consider the extent to which engaging in file sharing online is motivated by the perceived benefits of this activity as opposed to perceived legal risks. Moreover, we explore moderators of the relationship between perceived risk and perceived benefits; namely, trust in industry and legal regulators, and perceived online anonymity. We examine these questions via a large two-part survey of consumers of music (n = 658) and eBooks (n = 737). We find that perceptions of benefit, but not of legal risk, predict stated file-sharing behavior. An affect heuristic is employed: as perceived benefit increases, perceived risk falls. This relationship is increased under high regulator and industry trust (which actually increases perceived risk in this study) and low anonymity (which also increases perceived risk). We propose that, given the limited impact of perceived legal risk upon unlawful downloading, it would be better for the media industries to target enhancing the perceived benefit and availability of lawful alternatives. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.
Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah
Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities.
Deborah M. Whitley
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.
Kimura, Masaki; Shimura, Satoru; Tai, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Baba, Shiro; Kano, Munehide; Nagao, Koichi
Erection hardness is an elemental component of men's sexual quality of life that can be easily measured by the Erection Hardness Score (EHS). However, there are few published data regarding EHS, and there is little understanding of its relationships to aging, men's sexual behavior, sexual confidence, and risk factors in Japan. To assess EHS and how it correlates to aging, sexual behaviors, sexual self-confidence, and risk factors in a Japanese population database. A web-based cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between March and May 2009 in Japan. EHS, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, general health, sexual confidence, frequency of sexual behaviors, and attitudes toward treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 7,710 men with a mean age of 39.3 ± 13.0 years participated in this survey. In 6,528 participants who were not using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 3,540 (54.2%) had EHS ≤ 3 and 1,196 (18.3%) had EHS ≤ 2. We found a significant age-dependent decrease in EHS, sexual confidence, and frequency of sexual activities. Sexual confidence was strongly associated with higher EHS but was also associated with older age groups, presence of offspring, awareness of better general health, and greater frequency of sexual activity. In age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for a lower EHS (defined as EHS ≤ 2) were heavy smoking, which was defined as more than two packs per day (odds ratio [OR], 1.7) or a history of metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.4), hypertension (OR, 1.2), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.4). EHS correlates to various elements, such as aging, sexual behaviors, sexual confidence, and ED-related risk factors, and can be a valuable tool in clinical practice for monitoring and treating ED and thereby improving the quality of life for men and their sexual partners. Kimura M, Shimura S, Tai T, Kobayashi H, Baba S, Kano M, and Nagao K. A web-based survey of Erection Hardness Score and its relationship to aging, sexual
Dandara de Oliveira Ramos
Full Text Available Abstract: This study assessed the consistency of self-reports of risk behavior (overall and within four specific domains: alcohol use, tobacco use, drug use, and sexual activity in two editions of the Brazilian National School Based Survey of Adolescent Health (PeNSE: 2009 and 2012. The overall proportion of cases with at least one inconsistent response in the two editions was 11.7% (2.7% on the alcohol items, 2.1% for drug use, 4.3% for cigarette use, 3% for sexual activity and 22.7% (12.8% on alcohol items, 2.5% for drug use, 4.3% for cigarette use, 4.1% for sexual activity, respectively. Such inconsistency was more prevalent among males, delayed students, those who reported having experimented with drugs, and those who did not have a cellphone. Because inconsistent responses were more prevalent among the students who claimed to have engaged in risky activities, removing inconsistent responders affected the estimated prevalence of all risk behaviors in both editions of the survey. This study supports the importance of performing consistency checks of self-report surveys, following the growing body of literature on this topic.
... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...
Magaly M Blas
Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM account for the greatest burden of the HIV epidemic in Peru. Given that MSM are frequent users of the Internet, understanding the risk behaviors and the reasons for not getting tested among MSM who surf the Internet may improve the tailoring of future online behavioral interventions.From October 2007 to April 2008, we conducted an online survey among users of seven Peruvian gay websites.We received 1,481 surveys, 1,301 of which were included in the analysis. The median age of the participants was 22.5 years (range 12-71, 67% were homosexual, and the remainder was bisexual. Of survey respondents, 49.4% had never been tested for HIV and only 11.3% were contacted in-person during the last year by peer health educators from the Peruvian Ministry of Health and NGOs. Additionally, 50.8% had unprotected anal or vaginal sex at last intercourse, and a significant percentage reported a condom broken (22.1%, slipped (16.4% or sexual intercourse initiated without wearing a condom (39.1%. The most common reasons for not getting tested for HIV among high-risk MSM were "I fear the consequences of a positive test result" (n = 55, 34.4%, and "I don't know where I can get tested" (n = 50, 31.3%.A small percentage of Peruvian MSM who answered our online survey, were reached by traditional peer-based education programs. Given that among high-risk MSM, fear of a positive test result and lack of awareness of places where to get tested are the most important reasons for not taking an HIV test, Internet interventions aimed at motivating HIV testing should work to reduce fear of testing and increase awareness of places that offer free HIV testing services to MSM.
Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S
Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gwon, Seok Hyun; Lee, Chung Yul
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influence sexual intercourse among middle school students in South Korea. Using statistics from the 8th (2012) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted. The study sample comprised 37,297 middle school students aged primarily 12 to 15. The significant predictors of sexual intercourse were grade, ever smoking, ever drinking, habitual or purposeful drug use, economic status, weekly allowance, cohabitation with family, and type of school. The results suggest that intensified sex education is needed not only in the 1st grade of middle school, but also in the upper grades of elementary school. Sexual health interventions for high-risk groups may be needed, given the factors predicting sexual intercourse.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, young people in Kazakhstan have been only moderately affected by the global HIV epidemic. Today, however, the HIV epidemic in Central Asia is one of the most rapidly increasing epidemics in the world. It is mainly concentrated to vulnerable groups such as intravenous drug users, sex workers, the purchasers of sexual services and the financially marginalized. Young, sexually active people may however be the gateway for the epidemic to the general population, and knowledge about their attitudes and behavior is therefore important in planning preventive measures. Methods To gather information about young students and their attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, we collected 600 structured questionnaires and made 23 semi-structured interviews among three groups of students. Response rate was 99%. Results Almost 99% of the respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, and 89% could identify ways to protect oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. The main routes of transmission, sexual contact without condom and intravenous drug use, were both identified by 97% of the students. Twenty-five percent of the female students and 75% of the male students had had one or more sexual partners. More than 30% of the young men had purchased sex, and homosexuality was widely stigmatized. Conclusion Risks for the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people in Kazakhstan include prostitution as well as stigmatization of the HIV positive and of homosexuals. Protective factors are good knowledge about risks and protection, and opportunities to talk and gather information about sexuality and HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most effective survey interview method for measuring risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic. Methods: 1200 young adults were randomized to one of four different survey interview methods: two interviewer-assisted methods [face-to-face interview (FTFI, and computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI], and two self-administered methods [self-administered interview (SAI, and audio computer-assisted, self-administered interview (ACASI]. Youth were asked about a wide range of youth-specific risk behaviors, including violence, substance use, as well as sexual and reproductive health. Quality of data collected was examined by looking at how the survey was administered, including identifying two sources of errors that typically threaten data quality11 This study assumes that bias does not change with sample size. In order to increase the sample size, the data collection period was extended, leaving everything else unchanged. It is, therefore, assumed that the decreasing effects of the learning curve are negligible.: (i errors at the individual level with regards to survey methodology performance and cognitive difficulties [measured with the Response Consistency Index (RCI]; and (ii errors at the aggregate level (how desirability bias, interviewer gender, and interview privacy settings affect responses. Results: No statistically significant differences in participant non-response rates were found at the individual level across all survey interview methods. At the individual question level, self-completion methods generated higher non-response and error rates than assisted methods. The SAI method showed the poorest performance of all four methods in terms of non-response rate (1.6%22 Percentage of data with non-response values at the question level. and RCI (83.0%.At the aggregate level, the prevalence of several key risk indicators was statistically significant between methods. Using means-adjustment for
A comparison of prevalence estimates for selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the National Health Interview Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008.
Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Ford, Earl S; Okoro, Catherine A; Zhao, Guixiang; Pierannunzi, Carol
To compare the prevalence estimates of selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions among three national health surveys in the United States. Data from adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=807,524), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2007 and 2008 (n=44,262), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2007 and 2008 (n=5871) were analyzed. The prevalence estimates of current smoking, obesity, hypertension, and no health insurance were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.7% to 3.9% (relative differences: 2.3% to 20.2%). The prevalence estimate of poor or fair health from BRFSS was similar to that from NHANES, but higher than that from NHIS. The prevalence estimates of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke were similar across the three surveys, with absolute differences ranging from 0.0% to 0.8% (relative differences: 0.2% to 17.1%). While the BRFSS continues to provide invaluable health information at state and local level, it is reassuring to observe consistency in the prevalence estimates of key health indicators of similar caliber between BRFSS and other national surveys. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kim, Jae-Woo; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Yeon Soo
Asthma is the leading chronic illness among children and adolescents in several nations. This study investigated the association between asthma and physical activity (PA). The findings in this study are based on the data obtained from the 2007 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-III), a cross-sectional survey of health-risk behaviours among a representative sample of Korean middle- and high-school students aged 13-18 years. This survey is conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 72 943 study subjects were selected using the complex sampling design of the survey. The association between asthma and PA was assessed by conducting multiple logistic regression analyses of the data by using the statistical software SPSS 17.0 Complex Sample. Compared with the adolescents without current asthma, significantly fewer adolescents with current asthma had a sedentary time of 3 h or less per day (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.97). Sedentary time was defined as time spent watching television, surfing the Internet, or playing computer games and excluded the time spent doing homework or study during leisure time. The analysis was adjusted for age, gender, family affluence level (FAL), obesity, allergic rhinitis, atopy and smoking. With regard to participation in adequate vigorous or moderate PA, strengthening exercise or physical education class, no significant differences were found between the adolescent students with current asthma and those without current asthma. In addition, it was found that all PA had no significant differences in their effects on asthma severity (medication, inability to work and absence from school). Our results show that the amount of sedentary time influenced asthma prevalence; however, PA did not influence asthma prevalence in Korean adolescents.
Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana
There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42-2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09-1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24-1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34-2.21] and 1.80 [1.45-2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report engaging in transactional sex. Respondents who
Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely
Liu, Ying; Ozodiegwu, Ifeoma D; Yu, Yang; Hess, Rick; Bie, Ronghai
Both depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) confer an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence suggests healthy behaviors are crucial to maintain, improve and manage chronical disease and mental health; and unhealthy diet and sedentary behavior were found two major risk factors of MetS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, diet and recreational physical activity) are associated with depression and metabolic syndrome simultaneously. This study included 1300 participants aged 20 years and over who had answered mental health-depression screener questions (PHQ-9) and finished examinations and laboratory tests related to five risk factors of MetS during the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014. A set of series of weighted logistic regression models were used to investigate the aforementioned relationship. The prevalence of depression among U.S. adults is 15.08%. The two most often reported depression symptoms were "Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much" and "Feeling tired or having little energy", with rates of14.68% and 13.09%, respectively. Participants who engaged in only light physical activity were more likely to have been identified as experiencing depression and MetS than those who engaged in vigorous physical activity with odd ratios 3.18 (95% CI: 1.59, 6.37) and 3.50 (95%CI: 2.17, 5.63), respectively. Individuals in the study having poor diets were more likely to suffer from depression than those eating good diets (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.47, 3.22). Physical activity is strongly and inversely associated with depression and MetS. Diet is significantly associated with depression rather than MetS in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of
Phillips, Gregory; Turner, Blair; Salamanca, Paul; Birkett, Michelle; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Newcomb, Michael E; Marro, Rachel; Mustanski, Brian
Alcohol use among underage youth is a significant public health concern. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol is the "drug of choice" among adolescents, meaning more youth use and abuse alcohol than any other substance. Prevalence of alcohol use is disproportionately higher among sexual minority youth (SMY) than among their heterosexual peers. We examined sexual identity and sexual behavior disparities in alcohol use, and the mediational role of bullying in a sample of high school students. Data from the 2015 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to assess the association between sexual minority status (identity and behavior) and alcohol use with weighted logistic regression. Due to well-documented differences between males and females, we stratified models by gender. Physical and cyberbullying were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual minority status and alcohol use. We detected associations between certain subgroups of sexual minority youth and alcohol use across all four drinking variables (ever drank alcohol, age at first drink, current alcohol use, and binge drinking). Most of these associations were found among bisexual-identified youth and students with both male and female sexual partners; these individuals had up to twice the odds of engaging in alcohol use behaviors when compared with sexual majority students. Associations were strongest among females. Bullying mediated sexual minority status and alcohol use only among bisexual females. As disparities in alcohol use differ by gender, sexual identity, and sexual behavior, interventions should be targeted accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are marginalized, hidden, underserved and at high risk for HIV in Nepal. We examined the association between MSM sub-populations, psychosocial health problems and support, access to prevention and non-use of condoms. METHODS: Between September-November of 2010, a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related risk behavior was performed across Nepal through snowball sampling facilitated by non-governmental organizations, recruiting 339 MSM, age 15 or older. The primary outcomes were: (a non-use of condoms at least once in last three anal sex encounters with men and (b non-use of condoms with women in the last encounter. The secondary outcome was participation in HIV prevention interventions in the past year. RESULTS: Among the 339 MSM interviewed, 78% did not use condoms at their last anal sex with another man, 35% did not use condoms in their last sex with a woman, 70% had experienced violence in the last 12 months, 61% were experiencing depression and 47% had thought of committing suicide. After adjustment for age, religion, marital status, and MSM subpopulations (bisexual, ta, meti, gay, non-use of condoms at last anal sex with a man was significantly associated with non-participation in HIV interventions, experience of physical and sexual violence, depression, repeated suicidal thoughts, small social support network and being dissatisfied with social support. Depression was marginally associated with non-use of condoms with women. The findings suggest that among MSM who reported non-use of condoms at last anal sex, the ta subgroup and those lacking family acceptance were the least likely to have participated in any preventive interventions. CONCLUSIONS: MSM in Nepal have a prevalence of psychosocial health problems in turn associated with high risk behavior for HIV. Future HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM in Nepal should cover all MSM subpopulations and prioritize psychosocial health interventions.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…
Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.
Lau Joseph TF
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM are using the internet to seek sex partners, and many HIV-related studies targeting MSM collect data from gay venues in order to inform the design of prevention programs. However, internet-based MSM may have different HIV risk behaviors and associated factors from those attending venues. This study examined differences in risk behaviors and socio-cultural profiles between MSM recruited from venues (e.g., gay bars/saunas and from the internet respectively. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 566 Chinese MSM (340 recruited from gay-venues and 226 recruited from the internet who self-reported having had anal or oral sex with another man in the last 12 months completed a structured questionnaire. Results Internet-based MSM were more likely than venue-based MSM to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (53.3% vs. 33.8% or commercial sex (as clients: 12.8% vs. 5.3%; as sex workers: 6.2% vs. 1.5%, to have sought MSM partners from the internet (51.3% vs. 20.9%, and to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD in the last 12 months (4.4% vs. 0.3%. On the other hand, internet-based MSM were less likely to have multiple sex partners (58.4% vs. 75.6% and to have used psychoactive substances (7.1% vs. 15.6% or drunk alcohol before sex (8.8% vs. 16.2%. Moreover, internet-based MSM reported poor acceptance of their own sexual orientation, felt more discriminated against, and received less social support than venue-recruited MSM. Conclusions Significant differences were observed between the two groups of MSM. Segmentation and targeted interventions are recommended when designing preventive interventions.
Tsui, Hi Yi; Lau, Joseph T F
Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM) are using the internet to seek sex partners, and many HIV-related studies targeting MSM collect data from gay venues in order to inform the design of prevention programs. However, internet-based MSM may have different HIV risk behaviors and associated factors from those attending venues. This study examined differences in risk behaviors and socio-cultural profiles between MSM recruited from venues (e.g., gay bars/saunas) and from the internet respectively. An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 566 Chinese MSM (340 recruited from gay-venues and 226 recruited from the internet) who self-reported having had anal or oral sex with another man in the last 12 months completed a structured questionnaire. Internet-based MSM were more likely than venue-based MSM to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (53.3% vs. 33.8%) or commercial sex (as clients: 12.8% vs. 5.3%; as sex workers: 6.2% vs. 1.5%), to have sought MSM partners from the internet (51.3% vs. 20.9%), and to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the last 12 months (4.4% vs. 0.3%). On the other hand, internet-based MSM were less likely to have multiple sex partners (58.4% vs. 75.6%) and to have used psychoactive substances (7.1% vs. 15.6%) or drunk alcohol before sex (8.8% vs. 16.2%). Moreover, internet-based MSM reported poor acceptance of their own sexual orientation, felt more discriminated against, and received less social support than venue-recruited MSM. Significant differences were observed between the two groups of MSM. Segmentation and targeted interventions are recommended when designing preventive interventions.
Lala, A I; Sturzu, L M; Picard, J P; Druot, F; Grama, F; Bobirnac, G
The Emergency Department (ED) has the highest workload in a hospital, offering care to patients in their most acute state of illness, as well as comforting their families and tending to stressful situations of the physical and psychological areal. Method. A cross-sectional survey of 366 Emergency Unit staff members including medical doctors, medical residents, medical nurses and ward aids, was undergone. Study participants came from four periphery hospitals in the Moselle Department of Eastern France with similar workforce and daily patient loads statistics. The instruments used were the Perceived Stress Scale PSS-10 and the Brief COPE questionnaire. Conclusions. Perceived work overload and overall stress is strongly related to work hours and tend to have a stronger influence on doctors than on the nursing staff. Substance use is a common coping method for medical interns, consistent with prior research. The regular assessment of the ED staff perception of stress and stress related factors is essential to support organizational decisions in order to promote a better work environment and better patient care.
Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.
Kim, Yangsuk; Kwon, Yong-Suk; Park, Young-Hee; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Jin-Young
This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits more than once a day significantly decreased in 2011 compared to 2006 based on Chi-square test conducted for every factor employed in the study. Analysis of factors showed that consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits were reduced in both study years as subjective income decreased, whereas intake frequencies increased with mother's education level and reduction of adolescent stress level. In general, consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits decreased in 2011 compared to those in 2006. Thus, future research needs to improve dietary guidelines for nutrition education in order for students to recognize the importance of food consumption and necessity of increasing daily serving sizes of vegetables and fruits for their balanced consumption.
Dietrich, Janan Janine; Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari
Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Mobile phone-based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions.
Kwon, Jeoung A.; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Be...
Nie, Rong; Han, Yanhong; Xu, Jiaqi; Huang, Qiao; Mao, Jing
To explore illness perception and perceived risk of developing diabetes complications in relation to health-promoting self-care behaviors among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Illness and risk perceptions are important determinants of various health behaviors. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the impacts of these two constructs on self-care among diabetic patients. Data were collected on participants' characteristics, illness perception, risk perception, and health-promoting self-care behaviors over 6months among 304 subjects from three general hospitals. Significant associations between illness perception and risk perception were observed. Illness perception and/or risk perception explained an independent, small but significant proportion of the variance in each health-promoting self-care behavior. One's perceptions of illness and future risk might be influential in understanding health-promoting self-care among diabetic patients. It may be useful to improve self-management by tailoring intervention content to individuals' illness-related perceptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.
Rao, Saadiyah; Shah, Nadia; Jawed, Nida; Inam, Sumera; Shafique, Kashif
Unhealthy behaviors are associated with mental health problems and violence in adolescents, yet their combined association has been understudied. Using the Global School Health Survey, this study examined the association between combined unhealthy behaviors (including fast food, soft drink, smoking, other tobacco products and physical inactivity) and anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight among Pakistani adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School Health Survey conducted in Pakistan (2009). The study population consisted of school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. Association of combined unhealthy behaviors with anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight were studied through secondary analysis. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis by complex sample method, accounting for cluster sampling technique used for data collection. Of the total 4583 students, weighted percentage and unweighted count for one, two, three and four or more unhealthy behaviors was 39.4% (n = 1770), 22.1% (n = 963), 5.9% (n = 274) and 1.2% (n = 62) respectively. The weighted prevalence for anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight were 8.4%, 7.3% and 37.4% respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment showed that students who had four or more unhealthy behaviors had higher odds of; being anxious (OR 2.45, 95%CI 1.31-4.59, p value 0.004), suicide ideation (OR 4.56, 95%CI 2.58-8.07, p value <0.001) and being involved in physical fight (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.63-6.08, p value <0.001) as compared to those who had not adopted any unhealthy behaviors. This study suggests that the co-occurrence of unhealthy behaviors is associated with anxiety, suicidal ideation and physical fight among adolescents. These findings should be considered when developing interventions to combat detrimental outcomes of unhealthy behaviors during adolescence.
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell
In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…
Katherine Dickinson; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Patricia Champ; Nicholas Flores
Social interactions are widely recognized as a potential influence on risk-related behaviors. We present a mediation model in which social interactions (classified as formal/informal and generic-fire-specific) are associated with beliefs about wildfire risk and mitigation options, which in turn shape wildfire mitigation behaviors. We test this model using survey data...
Kang, Kiwon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Chang Yup
We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m(2)). Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.
Full Text Available Background and aim Although sweepers are one of the high risk groups for HIV and HBV infections; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into high risk behaviors of sweepers. The aim of this study was to determine occupational high risk behaviors leading to infection in sweepers who are working in district twenty, Tehran municipality. MethodsThis study is a descriptive-analytical type. A convenience sample included 400 sweepers working in district twenty, Tehran municipality were selected by simple sampling. Demographic and occupational high risk behavior lead to infection inventories were two instruments for collecting data in the present study. Reliability and validity of scales had estimated. Statistical analysis of data was performed with SPSS 16 software for Windows. Results Thirty percents of sweepers had a history of needle stick injuries and 35/5% of them had a history of cuts of hand from blades existing rubbishes. %25/5 of sweepers had not action encounter to discarded syringes and needles in streets and other places. In the case of needle stick injury occurred, 2/5 percent of sweepers were washing damaged organ with clean water, 3/8% with soap and water and 7/8% with alcohol. 0/5% of them were sent out blood of damaged organ with pressure, 11 percent reported the incident to a doctor to get post-exposure treatment and 74/5% had not action. 4/8% of sweepers never wear gloves for collecting garbage and only 54% of sweepers were using gloves regularly. 4/8% of sweepers were never using boots when collecting garbage and only 41/5% of sweepers were using boots regularly . 65 percent of sweepers reported that municipal contractors provides boots and gloves and 53 percents of them reported that these tools are unsafe and thin. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrated that there are numerous occupational high risk behaviors which may lead to infection in sweepers. Educational talks were given to sweepers and municipal
Klein, Jennifer; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy
This study examined whether characteristics of a positive school climate were associated with lower student risk behavior in a sample of 3,687 high school students who completed the School Climate Bullying Survey and questions about risk behavior from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Confirmatory factor analyses established fit for 20 items with three hypothesized school climate scales measuring (1) prevalence of bullying and teasing; (2) aggressive attitudes; and (3) student willingness to seek help. Structural equation modeling established the relationship of these measures with student reports of risk behavior. Multigroup analyses identified differential effects across gender and race. A positive school climate could be an important protective factor in preventing student risk behavior.
Gwede, C K; McDermott, R J; Westhoff, W W; Mushore, M; Mushore, T; Chitsika, E; Majange, C S; Chauke, P
A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio = 5.02, p < .0001) and to report drug use behaviors. Males also were significantly more likely to report early initiation (by age 13 years) of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. School site violence and drug use behaviors also were prevalent in this sample. An interaction between gender and grade was evident for some behaviors. Additional research may further the understanding of these risk behaviors and facilitate development of effective, culturally relevant risk reduction programs.
These model-based estimates use two surveys, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The two surveys are combined using novel statistical methodology.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...
Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy
Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Oraka, Emeka; Breiding, Mathew J; Chavez, Pollyanna R
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with higher rates of HIV infection among women, underscoring the importance of encouraging IPV victims to receive HIV testing. However, we do not know how much HIV testing behavior is influenced by IPV victimization. The current study characterized the association between individual types of IPV and HIV testing in a large sample of non-pregnant women in 15 US states/territories. The 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed after restricting the sample to non-pregnant women. The dependent variable, whether a woman ever had an HIV test, was examined in relation to individual types of IPV victimization (threatened physical violence; attempted physical violence; completed physical violence; and unwanted sex). Associations between HIV testing and types of IPV were assessed using adjusted risk ratios (aRR) that controlled for demographics and HIV-related risk factors (intravenous drug use, sexually transmitted diseases, exchange sex, unprotected anal sex). Approximately 28.6 % of women reported ever having experienced IPV, and 52.8 % of these women reported being tested for HIV. Among women who had not experienced IPV, 32.9 % reported ever having been tested for HIV. HIV testing was associated with lifetime experience of threatened violence (aRR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.65), attempted violence (aRR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.20-1.69), completed physical violence (aRR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.13-1.48), and unwanted sex (aRR = 1.66; 95 % CI = 1.48-1.86). Women who experienced each type of IPV were more likely to have been ever tested for HIV compared to women with no IPV history. However, nearly half of those reporting IPV, even though at greater risk for HIV infection, had never been tested. Additional efforts are needed to address barriers to testing in this group.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira, Martha Regina de; Moura, Erly Catarina de; Silva, Sara Araújo; Zouain, Cláudia Soares; Santos, Fausto Pereira Dos; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de; Penna, Gerson de Oliveira
This article aims at estimating the prevalence of adults engaging in protective and risk health behaviors among members of private health insurance plans. It was used a random sample of individuals over the age of 18 living in the Brazilian state capitals collected on 28,640 telephone interviews in 2008. The results showed that among males there was a high prevalence of the following risk factors: tobacco, overweight, low fruit and vegetable consumption, high meat with fat consumption and alcohol drinking. Among females we found a high prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia and osteoporosis. Men were generally more physically active and women consumed more fruit and vegetables. As more educated males were lower was the prevalence of tobacco, high blood pressure, but also a higher prevalence of overweight, consumption of meat with fat, dyslipidemia and lower number of yearly check-ups done. For females, tobacco smoking, overweight, obesity, decreasing with schooling, and consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, mammography and PAP test, increased with schooling. The health insurance user population constitutes about 26% of Brazilian people and the current study aims to accumulate evidence for health promotion actions by this public.
Mushkatel, A.; Nigg, J.; Pijawka, D.
This paper reviews the approach taken to assess the social impacts of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada on residents in the closest metropolitan area, Las Vegas. The purpose of this portion of the assessment is to investigate the effects of the repository on the future well-being and behavior of Las Vegas residents under different operational futures of the repository. To investigate these effects, a research design and conceptual framework were developed to collect data from a random sample of Las Vegas metropolitan area residents. The design allows for the collection of both baseline data (to determine current risk perceptions and behaviors) and projected effects of the repository under four different operational futures
A Survey of Knowledge, Individual Perceived Risk, General Perceived Risk, and Behavioral Intentions Regarding Hepatitis B among Students in the Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014.
Karimiankakolaki, Zohreh; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Gerayllo, Sakineh; Sheikh Samani, Nadia; Hadipour, Hajar
Hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver disease, and medical students are a risk group for the disease given their future occupations. The aim of the study was to assess of predictors of hepatitis B in the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 students from the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University. The students answered questionnaires with items covering demographic characteristics, individual knowledge, public risk perception, perceived personal risk, and behavioral intentions regarding hepatitis B. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 18 software. The mean knowledge score of the students was 4.77 ± 1.71, the mean public risk perception score was 24.22 ± 3.44, the mean perceived personal risk score was 6.51 ± 1.97, and the mean behavioral intention score was 12.06 ± 2.97. There were significant differences in the mean knowledge scores in terms of gender, level of awareness, and level of education. There were also differences in the mean behavioral intention scores in terms of gender and field of study, the mean perceived personal risk scores in terms of level of education and field of study, and the mean public risk perception scores in terms of field of study. According to the results of this study, it is necessary to implement educational intervention in order to allow students to identify risk factors and overcome barriers to understanding the implications of the disease in this context.
McCarrier, Kelly P; Martin, Diane P; Ralston, James D; Zimmerman, Frederick J
Minimum wage policies have been advanced as mechanisms to improve the economic conditions of the working poor. Both positive and negative effects of such policies on health care access have been hypothesized, but associations have yet to be thoroughly tested. To examine whether the presence of minimum wage policies in excess of the federal standard of $5.15 per hour was associated with health care access indicators among low-skilled adults of working age, a cross-sectional analysis of 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data was conducted. Self-reported health insurance status and experience with cost-related barriers to needed medical care were adjusted in multi-level logistic regression models to control for potential confounding at the state, county, and individual levels. State-level wage policy was not found to be associated with insurance status or unmet medical need in the models, providing early evidence that increased minimum wage rates may neither strengthen nor weaken access to care as previously predicted.
The 2015 National Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors (NSDDAB) is the third in a series of telephone surveys on distracted driving providing data to help further the understanding of driving behavior and to contribute to the developm...
Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.
Riddel, Mary; Hales, David
Experimental and survey research spanning the last two decades concludes that people who are more risk tolerant are more likely to engage in risky health activities such as smoking and heavy alcohol consumption, and are more likely to be obese. Subjective perceptions of the risk associated with different activities have also been found to be associated with health behaviors. While there are numerous studies that link risk perceptions with risky behavior, it is notable that none of these controls for risk aversion. Similarly, studies that control for risk aversion fail to control for risk misperceptions. We use a survey of 474 men and women to investigate the influence of risk aversion, risk misperceptions, and cognitive ability on the choice to engage in behaviors that either increase or mitigate cancer risk. We measure optimism in two dimensions: baseline optimists are those who inaccurately believe their cancer risk to be below its expert-assessed level, while control optimists are those who believe they can reduce their risk of cancer (by changing their lifestyle choices) to a greater extent than is actually the case. Our results indicate that baseline optimism is significantly and negatively correlated with subjects' tendencies to engage in cancer-risk-reducing behaviors, and positively correlated with risky behaviors. Subjects' control misperceptions also appear to play a role in their tendency to engage in risky and prevention behaviors. When controlling for both of these types of risk misperception, risk aversion plays a much smaller role in determining health behaviors than found in past studies. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.
This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…
Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas
Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…
Suk Jeong Lee, PhD, RN
Conclusion: Since renal functions are affected by lifestyle factors, it is critical for healthcare professionals to provide diabetic patients with health education focused on changing their behavior so that it is conducive to health. It is also necessary to consider that diabetes education should be made more available and provided more effectively to these patients.
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…
Full Text Available Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE. Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ. Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752, with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.
Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A
Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.
The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).
The research team conducted a survey of travel and activity scheduling behavior to better understand senior : citizens trip chaining behavior in the Chicago metropolitan areas most populous counties. The team used an : internet-based, prompted ...
Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.
To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…
REV-03.18.2016.0 2017 Emerging Technology Domains Risk Survey Daniel Klinedinst Joel Land Kyle O’Meara October 2017 TECHNICAL REPORT CMU/SEI...Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release. Distribution is Unlimited. List of Tables Table 1: New and Emerging Technologies 2 Table 2: Security...Impact of New and Emerging Technologies 4 Table 3: Severity Classifications and Impact Scores 5 CMU/SEI-2017-TR-008 | SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
Peeters, M.; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, W.A.M.
Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this
Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma
Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this
Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.
José Luiz Barros Fernandes; Juan Ignacio Peña; Benjamin Miranda Tabak
Standard models of moral hazard predict a negative relationship between risk and incentives; however empirical studies on mutual funds present mixed results. In this paper, we propose a behavioral principal-agent model in the context of professional managers, focusing on active and passive investment strategies. Using this general framework, we evaluate how incentives affect the risk taking behavior of managers, using the standard moral hazard model as a special case; and solve the previous c...
Albertos, A. (Aranzazu); Osorio, A. (Alfonso); Lopez-del-Burgo, C. (Cristina); Carlos, S. (Silvia); Beltramo, C. (Carlos); Trullols, F. (Fernando)
In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents’ activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answere...
Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ(2) = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ(2) = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents.
Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2 = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2 = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678
In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars
DiBello, Angelo M.; Benz, Madeline B.; Miller, Mary Beth; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.
Objective: The current study is aimed to evaluate college student residence as a unique risk factor for a range of negative health behaviors. Participants: We examined data from 63,555 students (66% females) from 157 campuses who completed the National College Health Assessment Survey in Spring 2011. Methods: Participants answered questions about…
Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Marć, Małgorzata; Sobolewski, Marek
Increasing awareness of science and medical environments and the society in the scope of behavioral conditioning of many diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, tumors and injuries motivates to shape pro-health behaviors and eliminate harmful habit also in rural areas. There is a need for constant monitoring of behaviors related to health among rural areas inhabitants. The results enriches present state of knowledge in that scope, as well as might be use to increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education activities and shape pro-health lifestyle among rural areas inhabitants, and particularly among farmers. The aim of the study was to acquaint socio-demographic features related to risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking) among farmers from Podkarpacie Provinece. The study was carried out between January and December 2009 among 755 farmers with national health insurance KRUS for minimum last year, living in Podkarpacie Provinece, whom had their own farm business, owned a farm either spouse or household member works on the farm. The study population was purposefully chosen. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire including above all questions considering tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and demographic issues. Results from questionnaires were analyzed using the statistical package STATISTICA 9.0 (Statsoft). The gathered data was statistically prepared using chi-square test, logistic regression model with stepwise and progressive regression. Based on results it was assumed that frequency of tobacco smoking in the studied group values 31.5%. More frequent smoke: men than women, people with high economic status and those evaluating their Heath state as a good one. Gender and material status are strong predictors of tobacco smoking among farmers. Age and level of education do not influence on tobacco smoking among studied farmers. Frequency of alcohol drinking in the studied group values 82.0%. More
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…
The mediating effect of sleep satisfaction on the relationship between stress and perceived health of adolescents suffering atopic disease: Secondary analysis of data from the 2013 9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey.
Oh, Won Oak; Im, YeoJin; Suk, Min Hyun
Difficulty in sleep is one disturbing symptom in adolescents with atopic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Assuming psychological stress can affect adolescents' health status, impaired sleep quality can be one mediator that negatively impacts the health status of adolescents with atopic disease. This study aimed to identify the mediating effect of sleep satisfaction on the relationship between stress and perceived health status in Korean adolescents with atopic disease and to examine the differences among three types of atopic disease. A cross-sectional descriptive study was completed based on secondary analysis of raw data from the 2013 9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The 21,154 adolescents (29.2%) ever diagnosed and treated for at least one atopic disease regardless of the symptom presence in a recent year were extracted out of 72,435 survey participants. Then, the 13,216 individuals with exclusively single atopic diseases were included in analyzing the mediation model. Variables including demographics, stress, perceived health status, and sleep satisfaction were included. Pearson correlation, one-way ANOVA, path analysis to define direct/indirect effects with bootstrapping analysis, and multi-group variance analysis were conducted. High levels of stress in adolescents with atopic diseases had a significant and direct effect on their negative health status perception for all atopic disease groups. A significant negative mediating effect of sleep satisfaction was identified on the relationship between stress and perceived health status, irrespective of the type of atopic disease. Total effect and remaining direct effect on the path from stress and perceived health status via sleep satisfaction was high in adolescents with atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis compared to those with asthma. To improve sleep satisfaction for adolescents with atopic diseases, interventions are needed to enhance the adolescents
Kayla de la Haye
Full Text Available In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related.The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics.Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.
Link, Michael W; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R; Osborn, Larry; Mokdad, Ali H
Use of random-digit dialing (RDD) for conducting health surveys is increasingly problematic because of declining participation rates and eroding frame coverage. Alternative survey modes and sampling frames may improve response rates and increase the validity of survey estimates. In a 2005 pilot study conducted in six states as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the authors administered a mail survey to selected household members sampled from addresses in a US Postal Service database. The authors compared estimates based on data from the completed mail surveys (n = 3,010) with those from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone surveys (n = 18,780). The mail survey data appeared reasonably complete, and estimates based on data from the two survey modes were largely equivalent. Differences found, such as differences in the estimated prevalences of binge drinking (mail = 20.3%, telephone = 13.1%) or behaviors linked to human immunodeficiency virus transmission (mail = 7.1%, telephone = 4.2%), were consistent with previous research showing that, for questions about sensitive behaviors, self-administered surveys generally produce higher estimates than interviewer-administered surveys. The mail survey also provided access to cell-phone-only households and households without telephones, which cannot be reached by means of standard RDD surveys.
Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas
This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.
Raj, Rama; Gupta, Vishal; Pathak, Mona; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sood, Seema; Singh, Sarman; Verma, Kaushal K; Khanna, Neena; Das, Bimal K; Gupta, Somesh
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem in developing nations. Identification of risk factors can help in formulating effective strategies against them. The present study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in North India over 1 year to identify the risk factors associated with STIs. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional case-control survey was conducted where participants answered questions on demographic details, sexual behavior, and awareness of STIs. Cases were patients with STIs whereas controls were randomly selected from healthy individuals accompanying patients with nonvenereal complaints attending our hospital. There were 106 cases and 64 controls. STI patients had sexual debut 2 years before controls. A higher proportion of STI cases had lower education, multiple sexual partners, lived separately from their partner, had nonregular partners, had protected sex in the last month, had sex under influence of alcohol/illicit drugs, sex in unstructured settings, and engaged in transactional sex, in comparison to controls ( P sexual partners, sex under influence of alcohol/illicit drugs with nonregular partner, protected sex in the last month, and knowledge of preventive measures were found to be statistically associated with STIs ( P diseases. Increasing the knowledge about STIs in these patients can translate into more common condom usage that lends support for strengthening sexual health programs at grass-root levels. The small size of the study population could have led to decreased power of the study to detect differences between cases and controls. The external validity of our results needs to be tested in different population groups involving larger sample sizes.
Clayton, Heather B; Lowry, Richard; Ashley, Carmen; Wolkin, Amy; Grant, Althea M
Data are limited on the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use with those among marijuana users. Data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 ( N = 15 624), were used to examine the association between self-reported type of marijuana use (ie, never use of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids, ever use of marijuana only, and ever use of synthetic cannabinoids) and self-report of 36 risk behaviors across 4 domains: substance use, injury/violence, mental health, and sexual health. Multivariable models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids had a significantly greater likelihood of engaging in each of the behaviors in the substance use and sexual risk domains compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids were more likely than students who ever used marijuana only to have used marijuana before age 13 years, to have used marijuana ≥1 times during the past 30 days, and to have used marijuana ≥20 times during the past 30 days. Several injury/violence behaviors were more prevalent among students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Health professionals and school-based substance use prevention programs should include strategies focused on the prevention of both synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J
This paper reviews recent work regarding the link between one's societal ranking (or social class), and risk preferences and behavior. While the topic of social class and its relationship to risk has been studied only tentatively in psychology, preliminary evidence suggests that experiences with rank, access to resources, and movement between classes have a meaningful impact on people's risk preferences and behaviors. Yet, a clear pattern of results remains elusive. Some studies suggest that lower social class standing is related to risk aversion, while others suggest it is related to risk taking. These mixed results highlight the need for future research that examines when and why lower social class standing is related to more or less risky decisions. By shedding light on this important phenomenon, the hope is to offer intervention opportunities that influence policies and mitigate inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kasila, K; Hallman, M; Kautiainen, H; Vanhala, M; Kettunen, T
This study explored behavioral health risk factors among healthcare professionals and investigated the at-risk persons' satisfaction with their health habits and ongoing change attempts. The study was based on a cross-sectional web-based survey directed at the nurses and physicians ( N = 1233) in Finnish healthcare. Obesity, low physical activity, smoking, and risky alcohol drinking were used as behavioral health risk factors. In all, 70% of the participants had at least one behavioral risk factor, and a significant number of at-risk persons were satisfied with their health habits and had no ongoing change process. Good self-rated health and good self-rated work ability were significantly associated with whether a participant had a behavioral health risk factor. Overall, unhealthy behaviors and a lack of ongoing change attempts were commonly observed among healthcare professionals. Work in healthcare is demanding, and healthy lifestyles can support coping. Thus, healthy lifestyle programs should also be targeted to healthcare professionals.
Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn
We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.
Touzet, R.; Remedi, J.; Baron, J.; Caspani, C.
The fact that the risks deriving from different activities involving the same radiation exposure are seen very differently by a single population is a highly significant one. Exactly identical risks are considered oppositely, depending on the origin of radiation (whether produced by medical applications or by nuclear power plants, resulting from natural radiation or from artificial radiation). It appears as if there was good radiation and bad radiation..! One of the purposes of the paper is the discussion of causes. The acceptance of a given risk by a certain section of the population is closely related to the benefits that the group expects to receive-either consciously or unconsciously-from the activity producing the risk. Consequently, an analysis of the factors influencing the eventual rejection of a practice should explore not only fears, but also hopes...! On the basis of a risk-perception survey carried out in a population sector attending hospitals-including both patients and physicians-, a prior objective analysis of the results obtained was performed and, later on, the various statements by those surveyed were studied. The design of the survey allowed for a comparative assessment of the perception of different risks depending on the people's educational and social level. An epistemological study was made on the validity involved in the use of the data resulting from the survey, so as to reach different conclusions. The population's opinion about the capacity for response, the qualification and the mitigation means available to the State authorities in order to face an eventual radiological emergency plays a leading role in risk perception. In an analysis of the relevant factors involved in risk and benefits perception by the population (in the real world), attention must be paid to the existence of organized opinion groups representing the interest of a given sector. Of course, the population's confidence in the experts providing the information is a key
Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody
Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collect and analyze survey data from recreational saltwater fishermen in Oregon and Washington. Model trip demand using stated frequency / contingent behavior data....
Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard
To date, tanning prevention programs have led to limited success. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential unexpected prevention effects of completing an online survey focused on tanning attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge among female college tanners. A sample of 92 female undergraduate students from the USA, mean age = 20.09, SD = 1.41 years, who engaged in indoor tanning completed an online survey assessing awareness of tanning-related health risks, appearance-based motivations to tan and not to tan, media literacy related to tanning marketing, and tanning behaviors in 2013. Four months later, participants were invited to complete a follow-up survey assessing tanning intentions and behaviors since completing the initial survey. Fifty-one participants (55%) completed the follow-up questions, of whom 43 (84.3%) reported having decreased or ceased engaging in indoor tanning. In addition participants provided comments indicating that completing the survey had lead to decreases in their tanning behaviors. Our study presents novel and compelling support for using brief online surveys for decreasing health-risk behaviors such as sunbed use. Such measures are extremely cost-effective and easy to disseminate and implement. Replication and extension of these findings are warranted.
Guanghua, Lan; Yi, Chen; Shuai, Tang; Zhiyong, Shen; Zhenzhu, Tang; Yuhua, Ruan; Yousuf, Mohammed Adnan; Wensheng, Fan
To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in southwestern China, where HIV started as a drug-driven epidemic, and shifted to mainly heterosexual transmission.These cross-sectional studies were conducted yearly in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Guangxi, China. A total of 1,996, 1,965, and 1,697 participants were recruited in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The data included demographic and sexual behavioral variables. Other variables included individuals who used illegal drugs, and who received HIV counseling, testing, and free condoms, and peer education. Participants were tested for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with whole blood specimens. Questionnaires and laboratory testing data were double entered, and validated with EpiData software. The data were then transferred into SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) and Chi-square test performed.The prevalence of HIV was 6.6% in 2013, 8.4% in 2014, and 11.2% in 2015. The prevalence of syphilis was 9.3% in 2013, 9.8% in 2014, and 6.1% in 2015. And HCV prevalence was 0.5% in 2013 and remained stable at 0.4% in 2014, and 2015. HIV infection, and associated factors among MSM in these 3 annual cross-sectional survey showed that HIV-infected MSM were significantly, more likely, to perform unprotected anal intercourse with any commercial male partners in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.50-2.20), had sex with any female partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01-1.71), used drugs in the past (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.30-5.71), and are syphilis infected (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.77-4.49).There is an urgent need for intervention strategies like condom distribution, HIV counseling, free testing, and education regarding safe sex, HIV, and other sex-related diseases in Guangxi to curb, and prevent HIV among MSM.
Albertos, Aranzazu; Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; Beltramo, Carlos; Trullols, Fernando
In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents' activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answered by 6208 adolescents. We observed that the greater the degree of knowledge, the lower the frequency of risk behaviors among youth. The degree of knowledge was inversely associated with children's age, and we observed that being female was associated with a greater degree of parental knowledge. The study shows that parents' supervision criteria might be influenced by gender stereotypes, which would have a harmful effect on young males, as the lower degree of knowledge puts them at higher odds of risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Guangcheng; Zhao, Kuimin; Zuo, Zhaoying; Liu, Gang; Jian, Binguo; Lin, Yan; Fan, Yukun; Wang, Fei
The paper assesses the risks of vessel floating in the seawater for draft survey by using the analytic hierarchy process. On this basis, the paper established draft survey risk index from the view of draft reading, ballast water, fresh water, and calculation process and so on. Then the paper proposes the method to deal with risk assessment using one concrete sample.
...-0010, Docket Number NIOSH-265] Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management Practices AGENCY: National...), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Proposed NIOSH Survey of Nanomaterial Risk Management... questions addressing risk management practices for ENMs? (5) What should be the maximum amount of time...
Patricia L. Brougham
Full Text Available Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties.
Enyeart Smith, Theresa M.; Wessel, Maria T.
This project was significant in that it administered the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS), a health risk assessment, to a sample of students at three public universities in Virginia. Virginia was never included in the original or subsequent nationwide assessments using this instrument. This health risk assessment is…
Rachel F. Rodgers
Conclusions: Our study presents novel and compelling support for using brief online surveys for decreasing health-risk behaviors such as sunbed use. Such measures are extremely cost-effective and easy to disseminate and implement. Replication and extension of these findings are warranted.
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.
The purpose of this study was to support the identification of Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) cut scores that could be used to detect high-risk students. Teachers rated students across two time points (Time 1 n = 1,242 students; Time 2 n = 704) using the SAEBRS and the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System…
Hearst, Norman; Kajubi, Phoebe; Hudes, Esther Sid; Maganda, Albert K; Green, Edward C
Uganda was one of the first countries to substantially reduce HIV rates through behavior change, but these gains have not continued in recent years. Little is known about what messages Ugandans are currently hearing about AIDS prevention, what they themselves believe to be important prevention strategies, and how these beliefs are associated with behavior. We interviewed men and women aged between 20 and 39 in two poor peri-urban areas of Kampala, using a random sample, cross-sectional household survey design. Respondents provided detailed reports of sexual behavior over the past six months, the main prevention message they are currently hearing about AIDS, and their own ranking of the importance of prevention strategies. Condom use was the main AIDS prevention message that respondents reported hearing, followed by getting tested. These were also what respondents themselves considered most important, followed closely by faithfulness. Abstinence was the lowest ranked strategy, but a higher ranking for this prevention strategy was the only one consistently associated with less risky behavior. A higher ranking for condoms was associated with higher levels of risk behavior, while the ranking of testing made no difference in any behavior. These results present challenges for AIDS prevention strategies that rely primarily on promoting condoms and testing. HIV prevention programs need to assess their impact on behavior.
Carroll, Sean T; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Roberts, Timothy A; Myhre, Elizabeth B
This study assessed tattoos and body piercings as markers of risk-taking behaviors in adolescents. A 58-question survey, based on the 1997 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey, was offered to all adolescent beneficiaries that came to the Adolescent Clinic. The survey contained standard Youth Risk Behavior Survey questions that inquire about eating behavior, violence, drug abuse, sexual behavior, and suicide. Questions about tattoos and body piercings were added for the purposes of this study. Participants with tattoos and/or body piercings were more likely to have engaged in risk-taking behaviors and at greater degrees of involvement than those without either. These included disordered eating behavior, gateway drug use, hard drug use, sexual activity, and suicide. Violence was associated with males having tattoos and with females having body piercings. Gateway drug use was associated with younger age of both tattooing and body piercing. Hard drug use was associated with number of body piercings. Suicide was associated with females having tattoos and younger age of both tattooing and body piercing. Tattoos and body piercings were found to be more common in females than males. Tattoos and/or body piercings can alert practitioners to the possibility of other risk-taking behaviors in adolescents, leading to preventive measures, including counseling. Tattoo and body piercing discovery should be an important part of a health maintenance visit to best direct adolescent medical care.
Cossio, María Laura T; Giesen, Laura F; Araya, Gabriela; Pérez-Cotapos, María Luisa S
The use of tattoos and piercings has increased, especially among adolescents in the last decades. To evaluate the prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents and their association with risk behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use and sexual promiscuity. An anonymous and confidential survey about tattooing and piercings was applied to randomly selected high school teenagers, attending municipal, private-subsidized and private schools, in four sectors of Santiago (north-east, south-east, north-west, south-west). The surveys were answered by 1329 participants with a mean age of 15 years (62% women) from 9 schools in Santiago. The prevalence of tattoos was 1.7% (confidence intervals (CI) 1.1% to 2.5%). The figure for piercings was 30.6% (CI 28.2 to 33.1%). A higher prevalence of tattooing and piercings was observed in groups with a history of psychiatric disorders, criminal records, alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption and initiation of sexual activity (p < 0,001). This study confirms that tattoos and piercings are indicators of adolescent risk behaviors.
Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E
In this study, we examined the relationship between depression and HIV-related risk behavior practices in a sample of 250 at risk, predominantly African American women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Our conceptual model hypothesized a relationship between depression and HIV risk in which depression and condom-related attitudes were construed as intervening (or mediating) variables. A multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between depression and women's risk behaviors. The results showed that depression was a key-mediating variable, having its primary influence on women's risky practices through its impact upon their attitudes toward using condoms. Factors associated with depression, included religiosity, closeness of family relationships, financial problems, childhood maltreatment experiences, and drug-related problems. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts are: (1) heightening faith community involvement and religious participation to decrease depression; (2) working with women whose familial bonds are in need of strengthening to combat depression; (3) providing mental health and counseling services to women who were emotionally and/or sexually abused during their formative years seems to help these women to recover from unresolved issues that may be fueling depression; (4) assisting at risk women who need training in money management issues to minimize their risk for depression; and (5) helping women drug abusers to receive treatment for their drug problems to combat their depression and lower their HIV risk.
A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh
Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...
Full Text Available Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.
In organizational behavior and management survey courses, students are likely to maximize certain career-appropriate knowledge when their classroom groups are leadered rather than leaderless. Using leadered groups facilitates the learning of the professional and managerial skills associated with formal leadership while reducing some problematic…
Alex S Bennett
Full Text Available To identify meaningful classes of opioid-using military veterans in terms of self-reported opioid overdose risk behaviors.The study recruited a sample of 218 military veterans in the NYC area who were discharged from active duty service after September 11, 2001 and reported past-month opioid use. Survey data including measures of mental health, social stressors, substance use, and opioid-related overdose risk behaviors were analyzed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA.A five group solution had excellent fit scores and interpretability. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two major dimensions of variation: non-adherence and heroin use. The five groups included lower-risk prescription opioid users, non-adherent prescription opioid users and heroin users. The non-adherent prescription opioid users and heroin user classes were both further subdivided into "occasional" and "regular" use categories. In addition to endorsing a greater number of overdose risk behaviors, users in the regular use classes were more likely to screen positive for alcohol and substance use disorders, reported greater self-medicating opioid use to relieve anxiety, reported greater problems with physical pain, were more likely to have had mental health, alcohol and drug treatment, and were less likely to be employed or in school. Heroin users also were less likely to report stable housing.Findings indicate that opioid overdose risk classes are grounded in contextual factors related to experiences of psychological, physiological, and social adjustment pain and distress which should be addressed in tailored interventions targeting opioid users' unique constellations of risk behaviors and comorbid conditions.
Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.
This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…
Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…
Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F.
On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk behaviors. Bisexual and same-sex attracted groups were characterized by heightened high-risk…
Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.
Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…
Anischenko, Aleksander; Arhangelskaya, Anna; Klenov, Michael; Burdukova, Ekaterina; Ogarev, Valrii; Ignatov, Nikolay; Osadchenko, Irina; Gurevich, Konstantin
Purpose To analyze the prevalence of risk factors among Russian students. Methods In this study, 834 students were included from five Federal universities which were localized in four Federal regions of Russian Federation. Future doctors, school teachers, and wellness trainers were included in this study. Students were specifically asked about smoking, physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and food preference. Waist, hip, weight, and height were measured. Results The region of study and ethnic group were not influenced with respect to age and body mass index ( p > .1), while all other factors had a significant influence ( p students in comparison with those in future teachers and wellness instructors ( p obesity (due to levels of body mass index and waist-hip ratio) were found in medical students. Perspective Special programs to prevent the most common behavior risk factors in future medical doctors have to be designed.
Kunreuther, H.; Nigg, J.; Desvousges, W.H.
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples' perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain
Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.
Soares, Ana Maria; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Shoham, Aviv
This theoretical paper addresses the influence of culture on risk taking and exploratory behavior. The cultural dimensions of long-term orientation, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and masculinity (Hofstede, 1984, 2001) are hypothesized to influence risk-taking behavior in general, and, through it, exploratory consumption behavior, risk taking, and risk attitudes and perception towards specific products. We also propose an empirical study to test the emergent model. Fu...
So Hyun Park
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors in Korean adults. METHODS: We utilized data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 14,833 adults (>20 years of age. We used association rule mining to analyze patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors by characterizing non-adherence to public health recommendations related to the Alameda 7 health behaviors. The study variables were current smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, obesity, inadequate sleep, breakfast skipping, and frequent snacking. RESULTS: Approximately 72% of Korean adults exhibited two or more lifestyle risk behaviors. Among women, current smoking, obesity, and breakfast skipping were associated with inadequate sleep. Among men, breakfast skipping with additional risk behaviors such as physical inactivity, obesity, and inadequate sleep was associated with current smoking. Current smoking with additional risk behaviors such as inadequate sleep or breakfast skipping was associated with physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle risk behaviors are intercorrelated in Korea. Information on patterns of lifestyle risk behaviors could assist in planning interventions targeted at multiple behaviors simultaneously.
Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and
González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S.
We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation. PMID:27047418
María de la O eGonzález
Full Text Available We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation.
González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S
We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation.
Romo, Matthew L
Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.
This model-based approach uses data from both the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to produce estimates of the prevalence rates of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors at the state, health service area, and county levels.
Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba
There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.
Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated
Full Text Available Naoya Emoto,1 Fumitaka Okajima,1 Hitoshi Sugihara,2 Rei Goto3,4 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital, Chiba, 2Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, 3Hakubi Center of Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 4Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Background: Adherence to treatment and the metabolic control of diabetes are challenging in many patients with diabetes. The theory of neuroeconomics can provide important clues for understanding unreasonable human behavior concerning decisions between outcomes occurring at different time points. Objective: We investigated patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes to determine whether patients who are at a risk of developing complications are less risk averse. We also examined whether patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different behavioral traits in decision making under risk. Methods: We conducted a behavioral economics survey of 219 outpatients, 66 with type 1 diabetes and 153 with type 2 diabetes. All patients had been referred by general practitioners or other departments in the hospital. At the time of the survey, levels of hemoglobin A1c were not significantly different between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Results: Patients with type 2 diabetes showed a lower response rate to the survey compared with patients with type 1 diabetes (71.9% vs 87.9%, P<0.01. Logistic regression analysis indicated that diabetic retinopathy was negatively associated with risk averse in pricing of hypothetical lotteries, myopic time preference, willingness to pay for preventive medicine, and levels of satisfaction with life. Diabetic nephropathy was also negatively associated with risk averse in pricing of hypothetical lotteries. Detailed analysis revealed that a lower proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes (22.7% were categorized
Nielsen Louise Hjort
Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
Liliana Chicaíza; Mario García; Giancarlo Romano
This article surveys the literature on risk aversion in medical decision making. The search covered Econlit, Jstor Science Direct and Springer Link since 1985. The results are classified in three topics: Risk aversion in the frameworks of Expected Utility and Rank Dependent Expected Utility theories, and the methodologies for measuring risk aversion and its applications to clinical situations from the points of view of economics and psychology. It was found that, despite conceptual and method...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...
assessing behavioral and cognitive markers of risk for suicide among U.S. Army National Guard personnel. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Policy...effective ways to prevent injury and death from suicide • No reliable method for predicting suicide risk in military personnel • Behavioral (e.g...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0632 TITLE: Technologies for Assessing Behavioral and Cognitive Markers of Suicide Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian
Incremento en la prevalencia del VIH y en las conductas de riesgo asociadas en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres: 12 años de encuestas de vigilancia conductual en Cataluña Increase in the prevalence of HIV and in associated risk behaviors in men who have sex with men: 12 years of behavioral surveillance surveys in Catalonia (Spain
Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las tendencias en la prevalencia de la infección por VIH, las conductas de riesgo asociadas a su transmisión y las actitudes respecto a los tratamientos antirretrovirales en el colectivo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en Cataluña entre 1995 y 2006. Métodos: Estudios transversales bianuales en una muestra de conveniencia de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en saunas, sex-shops, bares y un parque público, y por correo a los socios de la Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana, mediante un cuestionario anónimo y autoadministrado. Se recogieron muestras de saliva para determinar la prevalencia de la infección por VIH. La significación de las tendencias lineales en las proporciones se analizó mediante el test de ji² de tendencia lineal, estratificando por edad. Resultados: La prevalencia global del VIH aumentó del 8,5% (1995 al 14,1% (2006 en los menores de 30 años (p=0,162, y del 18,2% (1995 al 21,2% (2006 en los de 30 años y más (p=0,07. El uso consistente del preservativo en la penetración anal con parejas ocasionales descendió del 72,9% al 58,7% en los menores de 30 años (pObjectives: To describe trends in HIV prevalence, in risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission, and in knowledge and attitudes related to antiretroviral therapy (ART among men who have sex with men (MSM recruited in Catalonia between 1995 and 2006. Methods: Biannual cross-sectional surveys were performed. An opportunistic sample of MSM was recruited in saunas, sex shops, bars and a cruising site in a public park. In addition, an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was sent by mail to all members of a gay and lesbian association (Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana. Oral fluid samples were collected to determine HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the chi² test, stratified by age. Results: The overall prevalence of HIV infection increased from 8.5% (1995 to 14.1% (2006 among men aged less than
Risk behaviors, prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection and population size of current injection drug users in a China-Myanmar border city: results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012.
Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua
Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs) in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8%) and non-regular (30.4%) partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617-5,846). IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate more comprehensive contents is urgently needed.
Xu, Jianhua; Peng, Zongchao
Influenza pandemics can severely impact human health and society. Understanding public perception and behavior toward influenza pandemics is important for minimizing the effects of such events. Public perception and behavior are expected to change over the course of an influenza pandemic, but this idea has received little attention in previous studies. Our study aimed to understand the dynamics of public perception and behavior over the course of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were administered among Beijing residents with random-digit dialing techniques in March 2008 and August and November 2009. Effective samples of 507, 508 and 1006 respondents were interviewed in each of the three surveys, respectively. The mean scores of risk perception were low to moderate across the three surveys. The perceived risk of infection of self was significantly lower than that of the community, revealing an optimistic bias. Longitudinally, the perceived risk of contracting H1N1 increased, whereas the perceived risk of being unable to obtain medicine and medical care once influenza permeated the community first increased and then decreased. Responsive actions toward influenza varied. Most respondents took actions that required little extra effort, such as ventilating rooms; these actions did not change over time. Comparatively, a smaller number of respondents took actions for coping with influenza, such as vaccination; however, these actions were taken by an increasing number of respondents over time. The association between risk perception and behavior was unstable. Positive, insignificant, and negative associations were obtained in the three surveys. In conclusion, the evolving patterns of risk perception and responsive behavior over the course of an influenza pandemic are sensitive to how risk and behavior are defined and scoped.
Xu, Jianhua; Peng, Zongchao
Influenza pandemics can severely impact human health and society. Understanding public perception and behavior toward influenza pandemics is important for minimizing the effects of such events. Public perception and behavior are expected to change over the course of an influenza pandemic, but this idea has received little attention in previous studies. Our study aimed to understand the dynamics of public perception and behavior over the course of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys were administered among Beijing residents with random-digit dialing techniques in March 2008 and August and November 2009. Effective samples of 507, 508 and 1006 respondents were interviewed in each of the three surveys, respectively. The mean scores of risk perception were low to moderate across the three surveys. The perceived risk of infection of self was significantly lower than that of the community, revealing an optimistic bias. Longitudinally, the perceived risk of contracting H1N1 increased, whereas the perceived risk of being unable to obtain medicine and medical care once influenza permeated the community first increased and then decreased. Responsive actions toward influenza varied. Most respondents took actions that required little extra effort, such as ventilating rooms; these actions did not change over time. Comparatively, a smaller number of respondents took actions for coping with influenza, such as vaccination; however, these actions were taken by an increasing number of respondents over time. The association between risk perception and behavior was unstable. Positive, insignificant, and negative associations were obtained in the three surveys. In conclusion, the evolving patterns of risk perception and responsive behavior over the course of an influenza pandemic are sensitive to how risk and behavior are defined and scoped. PMID:26658371
In 2012, NHTSA conducted a national telephone survey to obtain a status report on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to outdoor walking and bicycling. This study updates national telephone survey data collected by NHTSA in 2002. The survey ad...
Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy
Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.
Noroozi, Mehdi; Ahounbar, Elahe; Karimi, Salah Eddin; Ahmadi, Sina; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Farhadi, Mohammad Hassan; Higgs, Peter; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Sharhani, Asaad; Armoon, Bahram; Waye, Katherine
Understanding and increasing awareness on individual risk for HIV infection as well as HIV risk perception's effects on different behavioral outcomes for people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for policymaking and planning purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether HIV risk perception was associated with greater injection and sexual risk-taking behaviors among PWIDs. We surveyed 460 PWID in Kermanshah regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, HIV risk perception, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to the study. Three classes of HIV risk perception were identified using ordinal regression to determine factors associated with HIV risk perception. Study participants were categorized as follows: "low" (n = 100, 22%), "moderate" (n = 150, 32%), and "high" (n = 210, 46%) risk perception for becoming infected with HIV. The odds of categorizing as "high" risk for HIV was significantly greater in PWID that reported unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.4, p value 0.02), receptive syringe sharing (AOR 1.8, p value 0.01), and multiple sex partners (AOR 1.4, p value 0.03). PWID who reported unprotected sex had 2.7 times the odds of "high" risk perception when compared to PWID with "low" risk perception. Findings show that PWID could rate their HIV risk with acceptable accuracy. Additionally, perceived HIV risk was associated with many risk factors for transmission of HIV, emphasizing the importance of developing targeted prevention and harm reduction programs for all domains of risk behaviors, both sexual and drug-related use.
Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni
Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter
Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie
To assist suicide prevention we need a better understanding of how suicidal individuals act in their environment, and the online world offers an ideal opportunity to examine daily behaviors. This anonymous survey (N = 1,016) provides first-of-its-kind empirical evidence demonstrating suicide-risk people (n = 290) are unique in their online behaviors. Suicidal users reported more time online, greater likelihood of developing online personal relationships, and greater use of online forums. In addition, suicide-risk women reported more time browsing/surfing and social networking. The authors conclude that suicide prevention efforts should respond to suicide-risk users' greater demands for online interpersonal communications.
Jon C. Schommer
Full Text Available Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1 the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2 patient-physician communication, and (3 preferred method for receiving information. Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels from March 14-30, 2016. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and items related to health-risk behaviors. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. However, chi-square analysis with large sample sizes (e.g. 10,500 in this study readily yields statistical significance. Practical significance was set at four or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Regarding objective 1, personality type was associated with all nine health-risk behaviors studied. Personality types within the Experiencer temperament (17% of the U.S. population accounted for 46% of the undesirable scores we computed for health-risk behaviors. The Idealist temperament (17% of population accounted for 32% of the undesirable scores. Conceptualizers (10% of population accounted for 17% of the undesirable scores and Traditionalists (46% of population accounted for 5% of the undesirable scores. Regarding objective 2, the findings showed that personality type was associated with (1 the importance people place on the patient-physician relationship, (2 which characteristics of that relationship are most desirable, (3 desire for
Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael
A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…
Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.
Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614
Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L
Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.
Park, Jee-Eun; Sohn, Aeree
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD). Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study. Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior. Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate.
LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert
Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…
Hertz, Marci Feldman; Everett Jones, Sherry; Barrios, Lisa; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Holt, Melissa
Background: Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between…
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Bouris, Alida, M.
A communication framework of persuasion and attitude change was utilized to analyze parent-adolescent communication about adolescent risk behavior. Three parent dimensions were deemed important: (a) perceived expertise, (b) perceived trustworthiness, and (c) perceived accessibility. Data were collected in surveys from 668 mother-adolescent dyads…
Merchant, James A; Kelly, Kevin M; Burmeister, Leon F; Lozier, Matt J; Amendola, Alison; Lind, David P; KcKeen, Arlinda; Slater, Tom; Hall, Jennifer L; Rohlman, Diane S; Buikema, Brenda S
To estimate quality-of-life (QoL), primary care, health insurance, prevention behaviors, absenteeism, and presenteeism in a statewide sample of the unemployed, self-employed, and organizationally employed. A statewide survey of 1602 Iowans included items from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention QoL and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey prevention behavior questionnaires used to assess employee well-being; their indicator results are related to World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-derived absenteeism and presenteeism scores. The unemployed exhibited poorer QoL and prevention behaviors; the self-employed exhibited many better QoL scores due largely to better prevention behaviors than those employed by organizations. Higher QoL measures and more prevention behaviors are associated with lower absenteeism and lower presenteeism. Employment status is related to measures of well-being, which are also associated with absenteeism and presenteeism.
Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya
Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matthews, Derrick D.; Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Adams, Brian J.
Purpose Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Methods Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Results Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as “not sure” also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Conclusion Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations. PMID:25110718
Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Yan, Z.
In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter
Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A
Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....
Waldron, Kelly; Ramnarine, Emma; Hartman, Jeffrey
This paper investigates the concept of quality risk management (QRM) maturity as it applies to the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries, using the results and analysis from a QRM benchmarking survey conducted in 2015 and 2016. QRM maturity can be defined as the effectiveness and efficiency of a quality risk management program, moving beyond "check-the-box" compliance with guidelines such as ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management , to explore the value QRM brings to business and quality operations. While significant progress has been made towards full adoption of QRM principles and practices across industry, the full benefits of QRM have not yet been fully realized. The results of the QRM Benchmarking Survey indicate that the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries are approximately halfway along the journey towards full QRM maturity. LAY ABSTRACT: The management of risks associated with medicinal product quality and patient safety are an important focus for the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries. These risks are identified, analyzed, and controlled through a defined process called quality risk management (QRM), which seeks to protect the patient from potential quality-related risks. This paper summarizes the outcomes of a comprehensive survey of industry practitioners performed in 2015 and 2016 that aimed to benchmark the level of maturity with regard to the application of QRM. The survey results and subsequent analysis revealed that the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries have made significant progress in the management of quality risks over the last ten years, and they are roughly halfway towards reaching full maturity of QRM. © PDA, Inc. 2017.
Bastide, S.; Brenot, J.
At first, some approaches used to study risk perception are briefly reviewed. Then, results of a survey devoted to general public risk perception, are presented. Risky activities are ranked. Clusters of activities which are judged similar for danger, are given. The relations between perception of danger, trust in the safety organization and the characteristics of the interviewed people are emphasized. The nuclear and chemical sectors are shortly compared. (author)
Although delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity are established to be highly intercorrelated, the extant research provides minimal evidence in support of one particular sequence of risk behavior or on the cascade effects from maltreatment. The present study tested a longitudinal model incorporating maltreatment, deviant peers, sexual behavior, delinquency, and substance use to elucidate the sequential pathway(s) from maltreatment to each specific risk behavior throughout adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal study on the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development (N = 454) with four study assessments from early (Time 1 M age = 10.98) to late adolescence (Time 4 M age = 18.22). Results from the cross-lagged model showed a sequence from maltreatment to sexual behavior (Time 1), to delinquency (Time 2), to sexual behavior (Time 3), to substance use and delinquency (Time 4). These findings support sexual behavior as the initial risk behavior that is the catalyst for engagement in more advanced risk behaviors across adolescence.
Renn, O.; Peters, H.P.
Using the instruments of the empirical social sciences, a cross-section study was conducted comprising experiments on qualitative risk characteristics, in-depth interviews on mechanisms of risk perception and representative surveys of the public on technical risk sources, in particular with regard to nuclear energy. The results of these studies show that person-related expectations in respect of risk consequences, the possibility of personal influencing control, the severity of risk consequences and one's own risk propensity play a significant role in the evaluation of risks
Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.
Kang, Joseph; Ciecierski, Christina Czart; Malin, Emily L; Carroll, Allison J; Gidea, Marian; Craft, Lynette L; Spring, Bonnie; Hitsman, Brian
The purpose of this study is to understand how cancer risk behaviors cluster in U.S. college students and vary by race and ethnicity. Using the fall 2010 wave of the National College Health Assessment (NCHA), we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to evaluate the clustering of cancer risk behaviors/conditions: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, alcohol binge drinking, and overweight/obesity. The identified clusters were then examined separately by students' self-reported race and ethnicity. Among 30,093 college students surveyed, results show a high prevalence of unhealthy diet as defined by insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (>95%) and physical inactivity (>60%). The LCA identified behavioral clustering for the entire sample and distinct clustering among Black and American Indian students. Cancer risk behaviors/conditions appear to cluster among college students differentially by race. Understanding how risk behaviors cluster in young adults can lend insight to racial disparities in cancer through adulthood. Health behavior interventions focused on modifying multiple risk behaviors and tailored to students' racial group could potentially have a much larger effect on cancer prevention than those targeting any single behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bansback, Nick; Sizto, Sonia; Guh, Daphne; Anis, Aslam H
Numerous websites offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing, yet it is unknown how individuals will react to genetic risk profiles online. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a web-based survey and conjoint methods to elicit individuals' interpretations of genetic risk profiles by their anticipated worry/anxiousness and health-seeking behaviors. A web-based survey was developed using conjoint methods. Each survey presented 12 hypothetical genetic risk profiles describing genetic test results for four diseases. Test results were characterized by the type of disease (eight diseases), individual risk (five levels), and research confidence (three levels). After each profile, four questions were asked regarding anticipated worry and health-seeking behaviors. Probabilities of response outcomes based on attribute levels were estimated from logistic regression models, adjusting for covariates. Overall, 319 participants (69%) completed 3828 unique genetic risk profiles. Across all profiles, most participants anticipated making doctor's appointments (63%), lifestyle changes (57%), and accessing screening (57%); 40% anticipated feeling more worried and anxious. Higher levels of disease risk were significantly associated with affirmative responses. Conjoint methods may be used to elicit reactions to genetic information online. Preliminary results suggest that genetic information may increase worry/anxiousness and health-seeking behaviors among consumers of DTC tests. Further research is planned to determine the appropriateness of these affects and behaviors.
Young, Sean D; Nianogo, Roch A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Lucho; Galea, Jerome
Peru is experiencing a concentrated HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Substance use (alcohol and drug use) has been found to be associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A recent surge in the number of social media users in Peru has enabled these technologies to be potential tools for reaching HIV at-risk individuals. This study sought to assess the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM who use social media. A total of 556 Peruvian MSM Facebook users (ages 18-59) were recruited to complete a 92-item survey on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We performed a logistic regression of various sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, casual sex) on substance abuse, including alcohol, adjusting for potential covariates. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day in the past three months was associated with an increased odds of having unprotected sex (vaginal and anal) (aOR: 1.52; 95% CL: 1.01, 2.28), casual sex (1.75; 1.17, 2.62), and sex with unknown persons (1.82; 1.23, 2.71). Drug use was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Among Peruvian MSM social media users, findings suggest that alcohol use was associated with increased HIV-related sexual risk behaviors.
Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma
Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this study we tested whether the imbalance between behavioral control and reward sensitivity underlies risk taking behavior in adolescence, using a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 715 adolescents, of which 66% revealed an increased risk for mental health problems. To assess behavioral control at age 11 we used both self-report (effortful control) as well as behavioral measures of cognitive control (i.e., working memory and response inhibition). Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Bangor Gambling Task. The main finding of this study was that effortful control at age 11 was the best predictor of risk taking behavior (alcohol and cannabis use) at age 16, particularly among adolescents who were more reward sensitive. Risk taking behavior in adolescents might be explained by relatively weak behavioral control functioning combined with high sensitivity for reward.
Easton, A; Kiss, E; Mowery, P
In Hungary, a large proportion of adult morbidity and mortality can be attributed to health risk behaviors that begin in early adolescence. To date, studies examining health risk behaviors among youth have rarely been undertaken in Hungary. In order to expand current research in this area, the Hungarian Metropolitan Institute of State Public Health and Public Health Officer Service and the Office on Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented the Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey. The objective of this study was to examine health behavior risk factors among secondary school students in Budapest in 1999. The 1999 Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey is cross-sectional school-based survey A 2-stage cluster sampling design was used to produce a representative sample of secondary students in grades 9-12 in Budapest. Information was collected on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 28.7% of students had rarely or never worn a seatbelt and 68.1% drunk alcohol. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 14.5% had been threatened or injured with a weapon, 12.9% experienced dating violence, and 13.5% seriously considered suicide. Of the 44.7% of students who had had sexual intercourse, 29.5% had > or = 4 sex partners. Of sexually active students, 50.4% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Many secondary school students in Budapest practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems both in the short and long-term. Programs and policies that adequately address such behaviors among secondary school students are needed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.
Georges Dionne; Claude Fluet; Denise Desjardins
This research studies the perception of the risks associated with impaired driving-probability of being apprehended or of having an accident-and the relation between the perception of risks and driving behavior. The most important determinants of perceptual biases are age, an accumulation of violations in the year preceding the survey, being a non-drinker, knowledge of the legal alcohol limit for driving, opinion about zero tolerance for impaired driving, and family income. Perceptual biases ...
Chen, Yong; He, Wu
This paper describes a survey of online learning which attempts to determine online learning providers' awareness of potential security risks and the protection measures that will diminish them. The authors use a combination of two methods: blog mining and a traditional literature search. The findings indicate that, while scholars have…
Taylor, Jonathan G.; Carpenter, Edwin H.; Cortner, Hanna J.; Cleaves, David A.
Fire managers from the U.S. Forest Service were surveyed to determine which decision factors most strongly influenced their fire‐risk decisions. Safety, the resources at risk, public opinion, and the reliability of information were important influences on these decisions. This research allowed direct comparison between fire managers’ perceptions of factor importance and how their fire‐risk decisions changed in response to those factors. These risk decisions were highly responsive to changes in context (an escaped wildfire decision versus a prescribed burning decision) as well as to changing factors. The results demonstrate the utility of using scenarios in risk research and the vital importance of context in studying risk‐taking behavior. Research which attempts to remove risk decisions from their real‐world context may well distort the nature of risk‐taking behavior.
Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G
Research has indicated that maternal health during the prenatal period and at delivery carries far reaching significance for the development of offspring. Even so, the role of the accumulation of maternal medical risks during pregnancy in the development of externalizing behavior during childhood has generally been overlooked. The present study investigates whether the accumulation of maternal medical risks during the prenatal period is positively associated with childhood externalizing behavior, and whether this association is stronger among male offspring. We examined a large, nationally representative sample of children who participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Information concerning maternal medical history, including the presence of a number of medical risks during pregnancy, was obtained through hospital records. A subsample of children with both parent and teacher reports of externalizing behavior during kindergarten was employed in the present study. A greater number of maternal medical risks during pregnancy increased the odds of childhood externalizing behavior across settings, but only among male offspring. The predicted probability of persistent externalizing behavior among males increased from .084 in the absence of maternal medical risks during pregnancy to .241 in the presence of three or more maternal medical risks during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that maternal medical risks during the prenatal period can have far-reaching consequences for the behavioral development of male offspring. Treatment of medical risks among expectant mothers may have the added benefit of reducing the likelihood of childhood externalizing behavior among male progeny. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Almeda, Rodrigo; van Someren Gréve, Hans; Kiørboe, Thomas
as prey for different predatory copepods. Copepods with “active” feeding behaviors (feeding-current and cruising feeders) showed significantly higher mortality from predation (~2–8 times) than similarly sized copepods with low motility feeding behavior (ambush feeders). Copepod males, which have a more...... active motile behavior than females (mate-seeking behavior), suffered a higher predation mortality than females in most of the experiments. However, the predation risk for mate-searching behavior in copepods varied depending on feeding behavior with ambush feeders consistently having the greatest......Zooplankton exhibit different small-scale motile behaviors related to feeding and mating activities. These different motile behaviors may result in different levels of predation risk, which may partially determine the structure of planktonic communities. Here, we experimentally determined predation...
Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g. diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and young adults who have dropped out of school and those with lower perceived relative social position within their community are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors than those with higher relative social position. We conclude that youth-specific measures may be important in identifying the most at-risk
Gnambs, Timo; Kaspar, Kai
In surveys, individuals tend to misreport behaviors that are in contrast to prevalent social norms or regulations. Several design features of the survey procedure have been suggested to counteract this problem; particularly, computerized surveys are supposed to elicit more truthful responding. This assumption was tested in a meta-analysis of survey experiments reporting 460 effect sizes (total N =125,672). Self-reported prevalence rates of several sensitive behaviors for which motivated misreporting has been frequently observed were compared across self-administered paper-and-pencil versus computerized surveys. The results revealed that computerized surveys led to significantly more reporting of socially undesirable behaviors than comparable surveys administered on paper. This effect was strongest for highly sensitive behaviors and surveys administered individually to respondents. Moderator analyses did not identify interviewer effects or benefits of audio-enhanced computer surveys. The meta-analysis highlighted the advantages of computerized survey modes for the assessment of sensitive topics.
Barnthouse, L.W.; Bascietto, J.; Joseph, T.; Bilyard, G.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) Risk-Based Standards Working Group is studying standard-setting and remedial action based on realistic estimates of human health and ecological risks. Federal and state regulations require DOE to assess ecological risks due to present and past operation of DOE facilities and ecological damage caused by remedial actions. Unfortunately, little technical guidance has been provided by regulatory agencies about how these assessments should be performed or what constitutes an adequate assessment. Active ecological research, environmental characterization, and ecological risk assessment programs are already underway at many locations. Some of these programs were established more than 30 years ago. Because of the strength of its existing programs and the depth of expertise available within the DOE complex, the agency is in a position to lead in developing ecological risk assessment procedures that are fully consistent with the general principles defined by EPA and that will ensure environmentally sound and cost-effective restoration of its sites. As a prelude to guidance development, the working group conducted a survey of ecological risk assessment activities at a subset of major DOE facilities. The survey was intended to (1) identify approaches now being used in ecological risk assessments performed by DOE staff and contractors at each site, (2) record successes and failures of these approaches, (3) identify new technical developments with potential for general application to many DOE facilities, and (4) identify major data needs, data resources, and methodological deficiencies
Shen, Xin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Guilin; Pan, Shaolin; Mi, Tengfei
In order to disseminate knowledge and information on flood risks in flood-prone areas, raise public awareness of flood risks and reduce possible damage to the public, a questionnaire survey was coducted among 260 residents of nine selected communities in Jiaozhou City to learn the public awareness and behavioral response to flood risks at different early warning levels. IEC key information of flood risk awareness was modified and formulated through group discussions, in-depth individual interviews and on-site observation. The awareness of residents in the project area was enhanced through the public participation, environmental management and flood management training, which plays a very important role in reducing flood losses.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.
Prasanna J. Gamage
Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.
Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…
Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.
-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....
Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.
German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.
Boredom is closely aligned with depression, but is understood to be conceptually distinct. Little is known about boredom among active drug users and the potential association with depression and HIV risk. Current IDUs (n=845) completed a baseline behavioral survey including socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported boredom, depressive symptoms (CESD score), and HIV risk behaviors. One-third of the sample reported high boredom in the past week. In multivariate analysis, those who reported boredom were less likely to be older, African-American, have a main partner, and to be employed at least part-time. Controlling for covariates, those with high boredom were almost five times as likely to report high depressive symptoms. Co-occurrence of boredom and depressive symptoms (28%) was strongly and independently associated with a range of injection risk behaviors and sex exchange. This study demonstrates the need for more thorough understanding of mental health and HIV risk among urban drug users. PMID:22760741
Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A
Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.
Marcon, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang; Rava, Marta; Braggion, Marco; Grassi, Mario; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta
In environmental surveys, risk perception may be a source of bias when information on health outcomes is reported using questionnaires. Using the data from a survey carried out in the largest chipboard industrial district in Italy (Viadana, Mantova), we devised a score of health risk perception and described its determinants in an adult population. In 2006, 3697 parents of children were administered a questionnaire that included ratings on 7 environmental issues. Items dimensionality was studied by factor analysis. After testing equidistance across response options by homogeneity analysis, a risk perception score was devised by summing up item ratings. Factor analysis identified one latent factor, which we interpreted as health risk perception, that explained 65.4% of the variance of five items retained after scaling. The scale (range 0-10, mean ± SD 9.3 ± 1.9) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). Most subjects (80.6%) expressed maximum risk perception (score = 10). Italian mothers showed significantly higher risk perception than foreign fathers. Risk perception was higher for parents of young children, and for older parents with a higher education, than for their counterparts. Actual distance to major roads was not associated with the score, while self-reported intense traffic and frequent air refreshing at home predicted higher risk perception. When investigating health effects of environmental hazards using questionnaires, care should be taken to reduce the possibility of awareness bias at the stage of study planning and data analysis. Including appropriate items in study questionnaires can be useful to derive a measure of health risk perception, which can help to identify confounding of association estimates by risk perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barlett, Christopher P
The current study used the risk factor approach to test the unique and combined influence of several possible risk factors for cyberbullying attitudes and behavior using a four-wave longitudinal design with an adolescent US sample. Participants (N = 96; average age = 15.50 years) completed measures of cyberbullying attitudes, perceptions of anonymity, cyberbullying behavior, and demographics four times throughout the academic school year. Several logistic regression equations were used to test the contribution of these possible risk factors. Results showed that (a) cyberbullying attitudes and previous cyberbullying behavior were important unique risk factors for later cyberbullying behavior, (b) anonymity and previous cyberbullying behavior were valid risk factors for later cyberbullying attitudes, and (c) the likelihood of engaging in later cyberbullying behavior increased with the addition of risk factors. Overall, results show the unique and combined influence of such risk factors for predicting later cyberbullying behavior. Results are discussed in terms of theory. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herrera, Andrea C; Repetto, Paula B
Traffic accidents are the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in Chile. However, few studies have examined this behavior among this age group. Parental practices have a great influence on risk behaviors in adolescents, such as substance use, sexuality and violence, among others. Specifically, we propose that these practices will influence pedestrian risk behaviors among adolescents. To study the role of parental practices such as mother and father support, and behavioral control (monitoring and presence of rules) in pedestrian risk behaviors of teenagers. A sample of 470 adolescents attending schools in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile were studied. They answered a self-administered questionnaire in which they were asked about parental practices and pedestrian risk behaviors. Analyses were performed using descriptive and inferential statistics, using multiple regression. Paternal support and the presence of rules were protective factors for pedestrian risky behaviors. However, maternal support or monitoring did not influence these behaviors. Parental practices influence pedestrian behaviors of teenagers. The study provides further evidence for the importance of these practices in the development of behavioral self-regulation.
Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann
Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as "sufficiency") and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens' heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials-that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens' heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective.
Nelson, Melissa C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
Little is known about how physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and various adolescent health risk behaviors are associated. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between PA and sedentary behavior patterns and an array of risk behaviors, including leading causes of adolescent morbidity/mortality. Nationally representative self-reported data were collected (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health; wave I: 1994-1995; II: 1996; N = 11957). Previously developed and validated cluster analyses identified 7 homogeneous groups of adolescents sharing PA and sedentary behaviors. Poisson regression predicted the relative risk of health risk behaviors, other weekly activities, and self-esteem across the 7 PA/sedentary behavior clusters controlling for demographics and socioeconomic status. Main outcome measures were adolescent risk behaviors (eg, truancy, cigarette smoking, sexual intercourse, delinquency), other weekly activities (eg, work, academic performance, sleep), self-esteem. Relative to high television (TV) and video viewers, adolescents in clusters characterized by skating and video gaming, high overall sports and sports participation with parents, using neighborhood recreation center, strict parental control of TV, reporting few activities overall, and being active in school were less likely to participate in a range of risky behaviors, ranging from an adjusted risk ratio (ARR) of 0.42 (outcome: illegal drug use, cluster: strict parental control of TV) to 0.88 (outcome: violence, cluster: sports with parents). Active teens were less likely to have low self-esteem (eg, adolescents engaging in sports with parents, ARR: 0.73) and more likely to have higher grades (eg, active in school, ARR: 1.20). Participation in a range of PA-related behaviors, particularly those characterized by high parental sports/exercise involvement, was associated with favorable adolescent risk profiles. Adolescents with high TV/video viewership were less
Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas
Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...
Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel
Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.
Martinez, Andrew; Mcmahon, Susan D.; Coker, Crystal; Keys, Christopher B.
Student behavioral problems pose a myriad of challenges for schools. In this study, we examine the relations among teacher and school-level constructs (i.e., teacher collaboration, supervision/discipline, instructional management), and student-related outcomes (i.e., high-risk behaviors, barriers to learning, student social-behavioral climate).…
Full Text Available In October 2006 the European Civil Protection Exercise MESIMEX (Somma Vesuvio Mesimex – Major Emergency SIMulation Exercise on volcanic risk took place at Vesuvio, promoted by Campania Region and coordinated by the Italian Civil Protection Department. The exercise was focused on the preparedness phase for a major volcanic emergency in the area of Vesuvio. An evacuation of a sample of 1800 inhabitants from the Vesuvio Red Zone was also tested during the drill because the emergency plan ensures the complete evacuation of the population from the higher risk zone before the onset of the eruption. During that event a survey on volcanic risk perception was carried out on the evacuated population in order to compare the results with the ones coming from a previous similar survey, using the same questionnaire, carried out on a wider sample of residents in the Vesuvio Red Zone few months before MESIMEX exercise. The aim was to point out any differences in population’s attitude towards volcanic risk after having received detailed information on the emergency plan and on the hazards and risk related to the reactivation of Vesuvio, and experiencing the exercise. 463 questionnaires were distributed to the population evacuated from the 18 municipalities of the Red Zone and participating to the exercise. Main results in comparing data from MESIMEX survey with the Vesuvio previous one, put in evidence how the general level of Vesuvio residents’ trust remains quite low, indicating that a continuous and effective effort has to be done by both scientific community and Civil Protection Department. Particular attention should be paid in education and outreach activities and in involving people in risk mitigation procedures, also through more frequent exercises.
reproductive risks within the Serbian speaking territory. An alarming statistic is that 5% of the female adolescents in this sample reported that they had been raped, or forced to participate in non-consensual sex within an ongoing relationship with a regular partner. There is a need for systemic changes within the field of sexual education and protection from sexually risky behavior among young adults.
Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Yamano, Naoki
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has led to changes in the acceptance of nuclear power in many people. The authors conducted an opinion survey of 300 adult inhabitants of Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture, Japan. The aim of this survey is to obtain people's opinions concerning radiation and its risks. Authors classified Tsuruga inhabitants on the basis of responses to questions on the concept and knowledge of risk and the cognition of radiation by factor and cluster analyses of multivariable analysis. Using the results of these analyses, Tsuruga inhabitants have been assigned to five categories: “acceptance group,” “anxiety group,” and three intermediate groups. (author)
AJRH Managing Editor
Family Structure, Poverty and Sexual Risk Behaviors ... Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Demography and Social Statistics Department, .... to high rate of adolescent sexual promiscuity as a ..... birth control and consequences of premarital sex.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...
positive status potentially place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. The study findings highlight the need to promote safe sexual behaviors and a positive social environment for people living with ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...
Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan
Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Fava, Nicole M; Saftner, Melissa A; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S; Tate, Nutrena H; Stoddard, Sarah A; Martyn, Kristy K
Research on Arab-Americans as a distinct ethnic group is limited, especially when considering the health of Arab-American youth. This study describes health risk (substance use, violence); health promotive behaviors (hope, spirituality); and sexual activity (oral, vaginal, anal sex) of Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults (aged 15-23) within their life context, as well as the association between these behaviors. A secondary analysis of data on a subset of Arab-American participants obtained from a randomized-control trial was utilized to conduct mixed methods analyses. Qualitative analyses completed on the open-ended questions used the constant comparative method for a subsample (n = 24) of participants. Descriptive quantitative analyses of survey data utilized bivariate analyses and stepwise logistic regression to explore the relation between risk behaviors and sexual activity among the full sample (n = 57). Qualitative analyses revealed two groups of participants: (a) multiple risk behaviors and negative life-events, and (b) minimal risk behaviors and positive life-events. Quantitative analyses indicated older youth, smokers, and those with higher hope pathways were more likely to report vaginal sex. The unique cultural and social contexts of Arab-American youth provide a framework for recommendations for the prevention of risk behaviors. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Widome, Rachel; Kehle, Shannon M.; Carlson, Kathleen F.; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Gulden, Ashley; Lust, Katherine
Objective: To determine if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with health risk behaviors among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans attending college. Method: Using 2008 Boynton College Student Health Survey data, we tested associations between self-reported PTSD diagnosis and self-reported risk behaviors…
Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of and the factors associated with the coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of adolescents (mostly aged 13-15years) enrolled from public and private schools of Brazil in 2012. The co-occurring sedentary behavior and inadequate food consumption (regular intake of sugary and fried foods, and irregular consumption of fruits and vegetables-FV) was estimated using a Venn diagram. Sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors associated with the number of risk behaviors for being overweight were identified using an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Sedentary behavior was observed in 62.0% of adolescents. Regular intake of sugary or fried food was observed in 55.3% and 23.5% of adolescents, respectively, with 51.9% having an inadequate intake of FV. At least one risk behavior was reported in >90.0% of adolescents; 6.1% reported all 4. Being female, having a higher maternal education level, attending private school, not having breakfast or meals with parents regularly, eat watching television, and not practicing weekly leisure time physical activity were associated with an increased chance of having multiple risk behaviors. This study observed a high prevalence of coexisting of risk behaviors, which was associated with sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors. These findings may contribute to a clearer understanding of the associations between different behaviors among adolescents, and may be used to improve public health surveillance and to develop strategies that address multiple behaviors, in order to prevent overweight among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook
Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the
Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the
Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni
This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja
Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13-17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths' sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.
Dever, Bridget V.; Gallagher, Emily K.; Hochbein, Craig D.; Loukas, Austin; Dai, Chenchen
Behavioral and emotional problems among children and adolescents can lead to numerous negative outcomes without intervention. From a prevention standpoint, screening for behavioral and emotional risk is an important step toward identifying such problems before the point of diagnosis or referral. The present study conducted a k-means cluster…
Grappasonni, I; Paci, P; Mazzucchi, F; Amenta, F
Because the nature of their work seafarers spend long periods of time away from their families and therefore represent a group at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. This paper reports the results of a survey to evaluate awareness and knowledge of the risk of HIV infection among seafarers. Risky behaviours for HIV transmission were also assessed. The survey was conducted using anonymous questionnaires on 197 workers of 9 vessels and 26 office employees of an Italian shipping company (FINAVAL S.p.A., Rome). The respondents considered HIV/AIDS as one of the diseases with a high risk of transmission. Most respondents had a good general knowledge of HIV/AIDS and on the ways of its transmission. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the basics of this disease. On the other hand, in spite of knowledge and awareness about the risks of the disease, only 56.35% of the interviewed crewmembers used protection in sexual intercourse with occasional partners. Compared to data available in literature, the percentage of self-protecting people is increasing, but the number of seafarers exposing themselves to risky behaviours is still high. As expected, condoms are used with regular partners with lower frequency compared to occasional intercourse. The results of this survey indicate that adequate prevention campaigns and major attention paid to seafarers health is useful for stimulating responsible conduct for the prevention of infectious diseases, including HIV infection. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to increase information about the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and how to reduce it.
Jackson, C; Henriksen, L; Foshee, V A
Public health research demonstrates increasing interest in mobilizing parental influence to prevent health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. This research focuses on authoritative parenting, which previous studies suggest can prevent health risk behaviors among youth. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a new survey measure of authoritative parenting, data from studies of (1) substance use in a sample of 1,236 fourth- and sixth-grade students; (2) weapon carrying and interpersonal violence in a sample of 1,490 ninth- and tenth-grade students, and (3) anger, alienation, and conflict resolution in a sample of 224 seventh- and eighth-grade students were analyzed. The Authoritative Parenting Index had a factor structure consistent with a theoretical model of the construct; had acceptable reliability; showed grade, sex, and ethnic differences consistent with other studies; and identified parenting types that varied as hypothesized with multiple indicators of social competence and health risk behaviors among children and adolescents.
Haer, Toon; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen C J H
Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating. We show that neglecting human behavior in flood risk assessment studies can result in a considerable misestimation of future flood risk, which is in our case study an overestimation of a factor two. Furthermore, we show how behavior models can support flood risk analysis under different behavioral assumptions, illustrating the need to include the dynamic adaptive human behavior of, for instance, households, insurers, and governments. The method presented here provides a solid basis for exploring human behavior and the resulting flood risk with respect to low-probability/high-impact risks. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.
Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999–2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city
Marilia Arndt Mesenburg
Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups.
Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J
This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients. © The Author(s) 2014.
Saadat, Soheil; Naseripour, Masoud; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
To investigate the relationship between perceived risk and risk-taking behaviors during the Iranian Last Wednesday Eve Fireworks (ILWEF). A random sample of 2475 Tehranian households were asked on perceived risk of injury, risk-taking behaviors, experience of injuries, and their perception of ability to manage the harmful events during the ILWEF. Lower perceived injury risk and higher perceived ability of managing an injured household member were associated with participation in fireworks practice and incidence of injury. These findings can be of practical importance to increase safety during festivals by improving risk perception in the community.
Maslowsky, Julie; Keating, Daniel P.; Monk, Christopher S.; Schulenberg, John
Risk behavior contributes to substantial morbidity and mortality during adolescence. This study examined neurocognitive predictors of proposed subtypes of adolescent risk behavior: planned (premeditated) versus unplanned (spontaneous). Adolescents (N = 69, 49% male, M = 15.1 [1.0] years) completed neurocognitive tasks (Iowa Gambling Task [IGT],…
Coups Elliot J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genetic variants are associated with obesity risk. Promoting the notion of genes as a cause for obesity may increase genetically deterministic beliefs and decrease motivation to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Little is known about whether causal beliefs about obesity are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Study objectives were as follows: 1 to document the prevalence of various causal beliefs about obesity (i.e., genes versus lifestyle behaviors, and 2 to determine the association between obesity causal beliefs and self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods The study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS. A total of 3,534 individuals were included in the present study. Results Overall, 72% of respondents endorsed the belief that lifestyle behaviors have 'a lot' to do with causing obesity, whereas 19% indicated that inheritance has 'a lot' to do with causing obesity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the belief that obesity is inherited was associated with lower reported levels of physical activity (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.99 and fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99. In contrast, the belief that obesity is caused by lifestyle behaviors was associated with greater reported levels of physical activity (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62, but was not associated with fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28. Conclusions Causal beliefs about obesity are associated with some lifestyle behaviors. Additional research is needed to determine whether promoting awareness of the genetic determinants of obesity will decrease the extent to which individuals will engage in the lifestyle behaviors essential to healthy weight management.
Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S
Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017
Kataoka, Chie; Nozu, Yuji; Kudo, Masako; Sato, Yuki; Kubo, Motoyoshi; Nakayama, Naoko; Iwata, Hideki; Watanabe, Motoi
This study aimed to clarify relationships between prevalence of risk behaviors and sleep duration among Japanese high school students. Data from a national survey, the Japan Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2011 (the subjects were 9,778 students: 5,027 males, 4,751 females, in the first grade to the third grade of 102 schools randomly selected among high schools throughout Japan) was used for this analysis. We focused on nine items of risk behavior in JYRBS: "lack of vigorous physical activity," "skipping breakfast," "current cigarette use," "current alcohol use," "lifetime thinner use," "ever had sexual intercourse," "rarely or never wore seatbelts," "in a physical fight," and "seriously considered attempting suicide." Students with less than six hours of sleep duration accounted for approximately 40% of males and females. The odds ratios of prevalence of each of the nine risk behaviors were calculated on the basis of the group "six hours or more and less than eight hours" of sleep, whose prevalence of risk behaviors was the lowest. In the group with "four hours or more and less than six hours," the odds ratios of "lack of vigorous physical activity" and "skipping breakfast" for both males and females were significantly high. Furthermore, in the group with shorter sleep duration of "less than four hours," the odds ratios of all nine risk behaviors for males (odds ratios: 1.47-3.28) and eight risk behaviors (except for "rarely or never wore seatbelts") for females (1.54-4.68) were significantly high. On the other hand, in the group with long sleep duration of "10 hours or more," the odds ratios of "current cigarette use" and "lifetime thinner use" for both males and females were significantly high. It was shown that short sleep duration of less than six hours and long sleep duration of 10 hours or more related to the prevalence of youth risk behaviors among Japanese high school students. It was suggested that sleep duration should be considered as an important category
De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E
Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Simon, Robert I.
Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…
Gonzalez, Libertad; Ozcan, Berkay
We analyze the causal impact of an increase in the risk of marital dissolution on the saving behavior of married couples. We use the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous shock to the risk of divorce. We propose several comparison groups (unaffected by the law change) that allow us to use a difference-in-differences approach.…
Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth
Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…
Objective: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, hence the need for early identification of risk factors. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks among secondary school staff in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.
The notion of heterogeneous behavior is well grounded in economic theory. Recently it has been shown in a hedging context that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions varies for different segments using a generalized mixture regression model. Here, using recently developed individual
... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...
Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques.
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults spend about one third of their day at work and occupation may be a risk factor for obesity because of associated socioeconomic and behavioral factors such as physical activity and sedentary time. The aim of this study was to examine body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity by occupation and explore the contributions of socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors (including leisure time and commuting physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol to occupational risk. Methods Secondary analyses of the National Health Survey in Australia (2005 were conducted for working age adults (20 to 64 years. Linear and logistic regression models using BMI as either dichotomous or continuous response were computed for occupation type. Model 1 was age-adjusted, Model 2 adjusted for age and socioeconomic variables and Model 3 adjusted for age, socioeconomic variables and lifestyle behaviours. All models were stratified by gender. Results Age-adjusted data indicated that men in associate professional (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63 and intermediate production and transport (OR 1.24 95% CI 1.03-1.50 occupations had a higher risk of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 than those without occupation, and women in professional (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61-0.82, management (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.92 and advanced clerical and service occupations (OR 0.73 95% CI 0.58-0.93 had a lower risk. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors no occupational group had an increased risk but for males, professionals, tradesmen, laborers and elementary clerical workers had a lower risk as did female associate professionals and intermediate clerical workers. Adjustment for lifestyle factors explained the lower risk in the female professional and associate professionals but failed to account for the lower odds ratios in the other occupations. Conclusions The pattern of overweight and obesity among occupations differs by gender. Healthy lifestyle behaviors appear to
Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash
Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.
Witte, K; Cameron, K A; McKeon, J K; Berkowitz, J M
The goal of this study was to develop and validate the Risk Behavior Diagnosis (RBD) Scale for use by health care providers and practitioners interested in promoting healthy behaviors. Theoretically guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM; a fear appeal theory), the RBD scale was designed to work in conjunction with an easy-to-use formula to determine which types of health risk messages would be most appropriate for a given individual or audience. Because some health risk messages promote behavior change and others backfire, this type of scale offers guidance to practitioners on how to develop the best persuasive message possible to motivate healthy behaviors. The results of the study demonstrate the RBD scale to have a high degree of content, construct, and predictive validity. Specific examples and practical suggestions are offered to facilitate use of the scale for health practitioners.
Kim, Hye Kyung; Lwin, May O
Although culture is acknowledged as an important factor that influences health, little is known about cultural differences pertaining to cancer-related beliefs and prevention behaviors. This study examines two culturally influenced beliefs-fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention, and optimistic beliefs about cancer risk-to identify reasons for cultural disparity in the engagement of cancer prevention behaviors. We utilized data from national surveys of European Americans in the United States (Health Information National Trends Survey 4, Cycle3; N = 1,139) and Asians in Singapore (N = 1,200) to make cultural comparisons. The odds of an Asian adhering to prevention recommendations were less than half the odds of a European American, with the exception of smoking avoidance. Compared to European Americans, Asians were more optimistic about their cancer risk both in an absolute and a comparative sense, and held stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Mediation analyses revealed that fatalistic beliefs and absolute risk optimism among Asians partially explain their lower engagement in prevention behaviors, whereas comparative risk optimism increases their likelihood of adhering to prevention behaviors. Our findings underscore the need for developing culturally targeted interventions in communicating cancer causes and prevention.
Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A
The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje
To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drugs) and unsafe sexual intercourse. A total of 944 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Risky MP3-player listeners used cannabis more often during the past 4 weeks. Students exposed to risky sound levels during discotheque and pop concert attendance used cannabis less often during the past 4 weeks, were more often binge drinkers, and reported inconsistent condom use during sexual intercourse. The coexistence of risky music-listening behaviors with other health-risk behaviors provides evidence in support of the integration of risky music-listening behaviors within research on and programs aimed at reducing more traditional health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and unsafe sexual intercourse.
Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping
Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Youn, Seounmi; Hall, Kimberly
Survey data from 395 high school students revealed that girls perceive more privacy risks and have a higher level of privacy concerns than boys. Regarding privacy protection behaviors, boys tended to read unsolicited e-mail and register for Web sites while directly sending complaints in response to unsolicited e-mail. This study found girls to provide inaccurate information as their privacy concerns increased. Boys, however, refrained from registering to Web sites as their concerns increased.
Lindell, M.K.; Barnes, V.E.
This article examines why, as suggested by the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (TMI) event, the public is more inclined to evacuate in response to a radiation release than to a natural hazard. During the TMI incident, for example, did authorities present confusing or conflicting information or did the public have an exaggerated perception of radiation risk. Behavioral intention studies are combined with risk perception analyses to ascertain (1) the extent to which intentions to evacuate can be generalized from one sample to another and from one hazard to another, (2) the degree to which behavioral intentions are related to specific dimensions of risk perception, and (3) how public perceptions of risk compare with estimates of risk produced by reactor accident consequence analyses
Walsh, Jennifer R.; Hebert, Angel; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Carey, Gale; Colby, Sarah; Brown-Esters, Onikia N.; Greene, Geoffrey; Hoerr, Sharon; Horacek, Tanya; Kattelmann, Kendra; Kidd, Tandalayo; Koenings, Mallory; Phillips, Beatrice; Shelnutt, Karla P.; White, Adrienne A.
Objective: To develop and test the validity of the Behavior, Environment, and Changeability Survey (BECS) for identifying the importance and changeability of nutrition, exercise, and stress management behavior and related aspects of the environment. Design: A cross-sectional, online survey of the BECS and selected validated instruments. Setting:…
Steel, Jennifer; Herlitz, Claes; Matthews, Jesse; Snyder, Wendy; Mazzaferro, Kathryn; Baum, Andy; Theorell, Töres
This study examined the relationship between pre-migration trauma and HIV-risk behavior in refugees from sub-Saharan Africa. The sample comprised 122 persons who had emigrated from sub-Saharan Africa and were currently residing in Sweden. Qualitative methods including individual interviews, focus groups, and interviews with key informants addressed questions regarding trauma experience and HIV-risk behavior. A history of pre-migration trauma was found to be associated with HIV-risk behavior. According to the participants, symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, adjustment disorder, and substance use mediated the relationship between pre-migration trauma and sexual risk behavior. In contrast, a minority of the participants who reported pre-migration trauma but not psychological sequelae, or experienced post-traumatic growth, reported safer sexual practices. It appears that for some individuals, pre-migration trauma resulted in psychiatric sequelae, which may increase an individual's risk to be infected with HIV. Interventions targeted at individuals at increased risk (i.e. pre-migration trauma with unresolved psychiatric symptomatology) may facilitate the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in this population. Integration of multiple psychosocial and health issues is recommended for comprehensive treatment and prevention programs.
Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
I. Vogel (Ineke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Burdorf (Alex); F. de Waart (Frouwkje)
textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes,
Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large
C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)
textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking...comprehensive evaluation of biological safety zones for diving marine mammals . In this way we intend to identify those marine mammal species or specific...improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring
Ueda, Yuka; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Ohira, Tetsuya; Fujii, Senta; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Harigane, Mayumi; Yasumura, Seiji
Recent evidence from alcohol and trauma studies suggests that disasters are associated with increases in the consumption of alcohol. The Great East Japan Earthquake and the associated nuclear disaster have continued to affect the mental health of evacuees from Fukushima. This study aimed to extend these findings by examining the relationship between drinking behaviors and the risk of mental illness after the compound disaster. We conducted the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey with 56,543 evacuees. Kessler's K6 was used to assess the risk of mental illness, and logistic regression models were applied to analyze how drinking behavior patterns influence the risk of serious mental illness after adjustment for confounding variables. Logistic regression analysis evidenced that beginning heavy and light drinkers had the highest and a higher risk of serious mental illness, respectively. Individuals who were nondrinkers pre- and postdisaster had the lowest proportional risk of mental illness. Abstainers also had some risk to their mental health after the compound disaster. The results of this study highlight that beginning drinkers have a high risk of serious mental illness. Thus, mental health professionals should pay attention to the drinking behaviors of evacuees, which might predict increased risk of serious mental illness and consequently indicate a need for psychological intervention. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline
We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks
Full Text Available A comprehensive feline health survey was conducted to reveal breed-specific inheritable diseases in Finnish pedigree cats for genetic research. Prevalences of 19 disease categories and 227 feline diseases were defined in a study population of 8175 cats belonging to 30 breeds. Dental and oral diseases with a prevalence of 28% and dental calculus and gingivitis (21% and 8%, respectively were the most prevalent disease category and diseases among all cats and in most of the breeds. An exception was Korats, which were more often affected by the diseases of the respiratory tract (23% and asthma (19%. Other prevalent disease categories affected various organ systems such as the skin (12%, the urinary system (12%, the digestive tract (11%, eyes, (10%, the musculoskeletal system (10%, and genitals of female cats (17%. Prevalent health or developmental issues included repetitive vomiting (4%, tail kink (4%, feline odontoclastic resorption lesion (FORL (4%, urinary tract infections (4%, as well as caesarean section (6% and stillborn kittens (6% among female cats. We found 57 breed-specific conditions by Fisher’s exact tests and logistic regression analyses, including 32 previously described and 19 new breed-specific diseases. The genetic defect has already been found in six of them: polycystic kidney disease (PKD, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and three types of tail malformations. Behavioral profiling revealed breed-specific traits, such as an increased human avoidance in British Short and Longhairs and a higher level of aggression in Turkish vans. Our epidemiological study reveals the overall health profile in Finnish pure and mixed breed cats and identifies many breed-specific conditions without molecular identity for genetic research.
Gnambs, Timo; Appel, Markus; Oeberst, Aileen
In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383) demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray); but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144) replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue). Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors. PMID:26207983
Full Text Available In many situations red is associated with hazard and danger. As a consequence, it was expected that task-irrelevant color cues in online environments would affect risk-taking behaviors. This assumption was tested in two web-based experiments. The first study (N = 383 demonstrated that in risky choice dilemmas respondents preferred the less risky option when the displayed university logo was in red (versus gray; but only when both choice alternatives were at least moderately risky. The second study (N = 144 replicated these results with a behavioral outcome: Respondents showed more cautious behavior in a web-based game when the focal stimuli were colored red (versus blue. Together, these findings demonstrate that variations in the color design of a computerized environment affect risk taking: Red color leads to more conservative choices and behaviors.
Raj, Anita; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H
The purpose of this study was to assess associations between substance use (alcohol to intoxication, heroin, and cocaine) and sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors, and STD among detoxification inpatients (n = 470). Participants were surveyed on past 30 day substance use, past 6 month sexual behaviors, and STD in the past 6 months and/or over 24 months of follow-up. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographics found that cocaine use was significantly associated with being sexually active (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.8) and selling sex (OR(adj) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Alcohol and heroin were not significantly associated with sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors or STD in this sample.
Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.
This study investigated risk perception, well-being, and organizational commitment among nuclear power plant personnel. The study group, 428 employees from a nuclear power plant, completed a questionnaire which included the same questions as those in previous surveys on risk perception of lay persons and industrial workers. Hazards at work were not seen as a sizable problem by nuclear power plant personnel. The study group estimated the safety of nuclear power plants better and the possibility of a serious nuclear accident as more unlikely than the general public. Compared to employees in other industrial companies, the overall perceived risks at work among plant personnel did not exceed the respective perceptions of the reference groups. Risk-related attitudes did not explain well-being among plant personnel, but the relationship between the perceived probability of a serious nuclear accident at work and organizational commitment yielded to a significant correlation: Those plant workers who estimated the likelihood of an accident higher were less committed to the organization. 21 refs., 2 tabs
Balogun Joseph A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The college environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. While the overall incidence of HIV infection has seen some decline in recent years, rates of HIV infection among young adults have not seen a proportionate decline. As in the general population, African American young adults have been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined the sexual risk behaviors and perception of HIV risk of students in a predominantly African American commuter urban university in the Midwest. Methods Students enrolled in randomly selected general education courses completed a paper and pencil survey. Data were collected in Fall 2007, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows v.16. Results The sample included 390 students, the majority (83% of whom were never married and 87% were sexually experienced. Among males reporting male partnerships those who used marijuana (OR = 17.5, p = 0.01 and those who used alcohol along with illegal drugs (OR = 8.8, p = 0.03 were significantly more likely to report multiple partnerships. Among females reporting male partnerships, those 30 years and older were significantly less likely (OR = 0.09, p = 0.03 to report having multiple male partners. There were significant differences in condom use last sex (p = 0.01 and consistent condom use (p = 0.002 among the different age groups. Older students were less likely to report condom use. Females age 30 years and older (OR = 3.74, p = 0.05 and respondents age 2029 years (OR = 2.41, p = 0.03 were more likely to report inconsistent condom use than those below 20 years. Marijuana use was correlated with inconsistent condom use (p = 0.02 and alcohol with not using condom last sex among females. Perception of HIV risk was generally poor with 54% of those age 30 years and older, 48.1% of 2029 year olds, and 57.9% of those
Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M
Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Prata, Ndola; Morris, Leo; Mazive, Elizio; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Stehr, Mark
The relationship between individuals' perception of their risk for acquiring HIV and their use of condoms is poorly understood. Understanding this relationship is crucial to the development of effective strategies to fight HIV and AIDS. Data from the Mozambique 2001 Adolescent and Young Adult Reproductive Health and Behavior Risk Survey are used to compare 15-24-year-olds' assessments of their HIV risk with assessments based on current and past sexual behavior. In bivariate and probit regression analyses, the relationship between correct risk assessment and the likelihood of condom use at last intercourse is examined. Twenty-seven percent of women and 80% of men who considered themselves to have no risk or a small risk of contracting HIV were actually at moderate or high risk. For both men and women, the prevalence of condom use at last sex was more than twice as high among those who assessed their risk correctly (30% and 16%, respectively) as among those who did not (14% and 6%). Multivariate analysis showed that correct assessment was positively associated with condom use; the association was driven by use among never-married individuals. Never-married males who assessed their risk correctly were 18% more likely than other males to report condom use; never-married females, 17% more likely than other females. Educational messages should aim at enabling individuals to correctly assess their own HIV risk and encouraging behavior change based on self-assessment of risk.
Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E
Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R
The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth.
Majer, John M.; Komer, Anne C.; Jason, and Leonard A.
Objective The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use) and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity), to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Methods Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110, 110/266), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74, 74/266) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34, 34/266). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Results Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
Prilutskaya, M V; Kuliev, R S
We studied play behavior of customers of betting offices. A study included 216 people who were surveyed using the Canadian problem gambling index. According to the results of the test, we stratified the sample by the risk of pathological gambling. The high prevalence of people with medium and high risk of pathological gambling was identified. Significant differences in the characteristics of gambling behavior were found. We described the qualitative and quantitative indicators of gaming activity that proved the appearance of the addicted dominant in the high-risk group (changes in the motivational sphere, financial loss, using alternative forms of the game, the regular play activity and low level of the reflection of problems caused by the game).
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
To investigate the relation between partner dependence and sexual risk behavior in the context of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. STI clinic patients (n = 1432) completed a computerized interview assessing partner dependence, condom use, and IMB variables. Men had higher partner-dependence scores than women did. Patients reporting greater dependence reported less condom use. Gender did not moderate the partner dependence-condom-use relationship. Partner dependence did not moderate the relation between IMB constructs and condom use. Further research is needed to determine how partner dependence can be incorporated into conceptual models of safer sex behaviors.
Luigi Guiso; Monica Paiella
We use household survey data to construct a direct measure of absolute risk aversion based on the maximum price a consumer is willing to pay to buy a risky asset. We relate this measure to a set of consumersï¿½ decisions that in theory should vary with attitude towards risk. We find that elicited risk aversion has considerable predictive power for a number of key household decisions such as choice of occupation, portfolio selection, moving decisions and exposure to chronic diseases in ways co...
Taylor, Jeanette; Ennis, Chelsea R; Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Schatschneider, Christopher
The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 ( M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading. Results showed that Home and/or Behavior accounted for 4-7% of the variance in reading fluency and spelling and 20-35% of the variance in parent-rated problems in math, social anxiety, and other dimensions. These metrics show promise as environmental and temperament/behavior risk scores that could be used to predict and potentially screen for further assessment of reading related problems.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...
Jinnah, Hamida A; Stoneman, Zolinda
Farm youth continue to experience high rates of injuries and premature deaths as a result of agricultural activities. Increased parental permissiveness is positively associated with many different types of high-risk behaviors in youth. This study explored whether permissive parenting (fathering and mothering) predicts youth unsafe behaviors on the farm. Data were analyzed for 67 youth and their parents. Families were recruited from a statewide farm publication, through youth organizations (i.e., FFA [Future Farmers of America]), local newspapers, farmer referrals, and through the Cooperative Extension Network. Hierarchical multiple regression was completed. Results revealed that fathers and mothers who practiced lax-inconsistent disciplining were more likely to have youth who indulged in unsafe farm behaviors. Key hypotheses confirmed that permissive parenting (lax-inconsistent disciplining) by parents continued to predict youth unsafe farm behaviors, even after youth age, youth gender, youth personality factor of risk-taking, and father's unsafe behaviors (a measure associated with modeling) were all taken into account. A key implication is that parents may play an important role in influencing youth farm safety behaviors. Parents (especially fathers) need to devote time to discuss farm safety with their youth. Farm safety interventions need to involve parents as well as address and respect the culture and values of families. Interventions need to focus not only on safe farm practices, but also promote positive parenting practices, including increased parent-youth communication about safety, consistent disciplining strategies, and increased monitoring and modeling of safe farm behaviors by parents.
O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Duran, Richard; Myint-U, Athi; Agronick, Gail; San Doval, Alexi; Wilson-Simmons, Renée
In urban economically distressed communities, high rates of early sexual initiation combined with alcohol use place adolescent girls at risk for myriad negative health consequences. This article reports on the extent to which parents of young teens underestimate both the risks their daughters are exposed to and the considerable influence that they have over their children's decisions and behaviors. Surveys were conducted with more than 700 sixth-grade girls and their parents, recruited from seven New York City schools serving low-income families. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined relationships among parents' practices and perceptions of daughters' risks, girls' reports of parenting, and outcomes of girls' alcohol use, media and peer conduct, and heterosexual romantic and social behaviors that typically precede sexual intercourse. Although only four parents thought that their daughters had used alcohol, 22% of the daughters reported drinking in the past year. Approximately 5% of parents thought that daughters had hugged and kissed a boy for a long time or had "hung out" with older boys, whereas 38% of girls reported these behaviors. Parents' underestimation of risk was correlated with lower reports of positive parenting practices by daughters. In multivariate analyses, girls' reports of parental oversight, rules, and disapproval of risk are associated with all three behavioral outcomes. Adult reports of parenting practices are associated with girls' conduct and heterosexual behaviors, but not with their alcohol use. Creating greater awareness of the early onset of risk behaviors among urban adolescent girls is important for fostering positive parenting practices, which in turn may help parents to support their daughters' healthier choices.
Feng, Tianjun; Keller, L Robin; Wu, Ping; Xu, Yifan
The outbreak of the toxic capsule crisis during April 2012 aroused widespread public concern about the risk of chromium-contaminated capsules and drug safety in China. In this article, we develop a conceptual model to investigate risk perceptions of the pharmaceutical drug capsules and behavioral responses to the toxic capsule crisis and the relationship between associated factors and these two variables. An online survey was conducted to test the model, including questions on the measures of perceived efficacy of the countermeasures, trust in the State FDA (Food and Drug Administration), trust in the pharmaceutical companies, trust in the pharmaceutical capsule producers, risk perception, concern, need for information, information seeking, and risk avoidance. In general, participants reported higher levels of risk perception, concern, and risk avoidance, and lower levels of trust in the three different stakeholders. The results from the structural equation modeling procedure suggest that perceived efficacy of the countermeasures is a predictor of each of the three trust variables; however, only trust in the State FDA has a dampening impact on risk perception. Both risk perception and information seeking are significant determinants of risk avoidance. Risk perception is also positively related to concern. Information seeking is positively related to both concern and need for information. The theoretical and policy implications are also discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
Goldfarb, Samantha; Tarver, Will L; Sen, Bisakha
Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. A SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED IN FOUR ACADEMIC DATABASES: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10), tobacco use (n=9), and marijuana use (n=6). Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2); depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4); violence and delinquency (n=4); school-related issues (n=2); and well-being (n=5). The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used sophisticated empirical techniques available to control for confounders in secondary data. More research is required to establish whether or not the relationship between family dinners and risky adolescent behaviors is an artifact of underlying confounders. We recommend that
Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.
Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…
King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang
In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among
An, Jing; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xi; Zu, Ping; Mai, Jin-cheng; Liang, Jian-ping; Xu, Zhi-yong; Man, Xue-jun; Mao, Yan; Tao, Fang-biao
To explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer pressure, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Based on the cluster sampling method, the participants who were recruited from 5 junior middle schools in Guangzhou and 3 junior middle schools in Shenyang city on October, 2010, were administered to complete the questionnaire concerned with their experiences with drinking and smoking during the past 30 days preceding the survey, and the hours using computer daily both in weekdays and in weekend. The level of resistance to peer influence and risky decision-making were assessed by Resistance to peer influence scale (RPIS) and Youth decision-making questionnaire (YDMQ). Logistic regression was used to explore possible interrelationships among resistance to peer influence, risky decision-making and health risk behaviors among young adolescents. A total of 1985 questionnaires were valid, including 1001(50.4%) boys and 984 (49.6%) girls. About 27.1% (537/1985) junior middle school students reported having health risk behaviors, boys' (30.7%, 307/1001) was higher than girls' (23.4%, 230/984) with significant gender difference (P peer influence (low and middle level vs high level, had odds ratios of 2.97 (1.96 - 4.50) and 1.51 (1.05 - 2.16)), and also the middle and high level of risky decision-making (middle and high level vs low level, had odds ratios of 1.62 (1.19 - 2.22) and 3.43 (2.39 - 4.90)) were all the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors. Adolescents with poor ability of resistance to peer pressure and high risky decision-making were both the risk factors of adolescent health risk behaviors.
Sanzo, D.; Kvam, P.; Apostolakis, G.; Wu, J.; Milici, T.; Ghoniem, N.; Guarro, S.
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated the nuclear power plant aging research program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. This report surveys the work on the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants, as well as associated data bases. We take a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. We identify a preliminary framework for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA and include the identification of necessary data for such an integration
Ingber, Alexandra; Garcia, Melissa N; Leon, Juan; Murray, Kristy O
Chagas disease is a parasitic infection, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Sylvatic T. cruzi-infected triatomine vectors are present in rural and urban areas in the southern USA and may transmit T. cruzi infection to at-risk populations, such as homeless individuals. Our study aimed to evaluate Chagas disease knowledge and behaviors potentially associated with transmission risk of Chagas disease among Houston, Texas' homeless population by performing interviews with 212 homeless individuals. The majority of the 212 surveyed homeless individuals were male (79%), African-American (43%), American-born individuals (96%). About 30% of the individuals reported having seen triatomines in Houston, and 25% had evidence of blood-borne transmission risk (IV drug use and/or unregulated tattoos). The median total time homeless was significantly associated with recognition of the triatomine vector. Our survey responses indicate that the homeless populations may exhibit potential risks for Chagas disease, due to increased vector exposure, and participation in blood-borne pathogen risk behaviors. Our findings warrant additional research to quantify the prevalence of Chagas disease among homeless populations.
Full Text Available Although e-cigarette use is increasing dramatically, numerous concerns persist regarding toxicity and their role in smoking cessation. We assessed beliefs and behavior regarding e-cigarettes in an adult French population.The 4th French nationwide observational survey, EDIFICE 4, was conducted among representative samples of 1602 laypersons (age, 40–75 years from 12 June-10 July 2014, using the quota method. Profile, beliefs and behavior were assessed by phone interviews of the participating lay population with no history of cancer (N = 1463. Tobacco use, nicotine dependence (Fagerström test and e-cigarette use were assessed.E-cigarette users represented 6% of the study lay population. E-cigarette users regarded e-cigarettes as helpful for quitting tobacco smoking and reducing the risk of lung cancer. Current dual users (e-cigarettes + cigarettes were more likely to attempt to quit than current exclusively cigarette smokers (odds ratio, 3.15 [1.74–5.70], and to consider themselves at higher risk for lung cancer (OR 3.85 [2.47–5.99]. They also considered e-cigarette vapor to be less toxic than tobacco smoke in terms of both active and passive exposure.Dual users typically consider themselves at higher risk for cancer and intend to quit smoking. Physicians should be made aware of this specific sub-population for whom e-cigarettes may be a useful trigger in the smoking cessation process. Keywords: Electronic cigarettes, Smoking cessation, Tobacco use, Lung neoplasms, Pulmonary disease, Risk factors, Smoke
Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin
This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.
This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...
Lang, Michelle A.
HIV risk behaviors were examined with 457 adolescents, ages 12 to 19, from four environments (community, high school, and two youth conferences). Over half reported being sexually experienced, with an average age of 13.6 for willingly engaging in first sexual intercourse. Boys reported engaging in intercourse at a significantly younger age than…
Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Wells, Rebecca S.; Theno, Shelley A.; Fisher, Dennis G.
In a sample of 700 drug users, 64% evidenced comorbidity (i.e., coexisting substance use and psychiatric disorders). Robust relationships between the presence of comorbidity and increased levels of risk behavior, such as needle sharing and trading sex for money, were revealed. (Contains 44 references and 2 tables.) (Author)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of BCC approach to the reduction of contracting HIV risk behavior in the construction laborers. Method: This study used operational research design. In this study measures the effectiveness of behavior change of construction workers on the prevention of HIV transmission by comparing the behavior of the construction workers before and after the intervention. The subjects of this study were 150 people risk group of construction workers who work and are spread throughout the city of Surabaya. This research was carried out into three phases, namely, phase preintervention research, intervention research, and post-intervention phase of the study. Implemented in the first year and second year praintervensi stage implemented intervention and post-intervention phases. Result: The results of this study showed that 72% of construction workers is productive (18–35 years and visit his family more than once a month (38%. There is 20% of construction workers had sex with commercial sex workers and no one was using drugs. By 50% of construction workers never get information about HIV/AIDS and as many as 48% never use the services of HIV/AIDS. Discussion: External motivation construction workers associated with the utilization of behavioral HIV/AIDS services with sufficient correlation. Strong external motivation is influenced by risk behaviors of HIV/AIDS were conducted and the desire to get help. Weak external motivation is influenced by a lack of exposure to information related to HIV/AIDS services. The results of the FGD stakeholders have the perception is the same if a construction worker is a high risk group of contracting HIV. Most of the construction workers not have enough knowledge for the prevention of HIV transmission because they do not have access to HIV care and behavior are at risk of contracting HIV by construction workers. Keywords: construction workers, behavior change communication, behavior
Sen, Bisakha; Goldfarb,Samantha; Tarver,Will
Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear w...
This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.
Semple, Shirley J; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L
The primary objective of this research was to expand our knowledge regarding the personal and social characteristics of female methamphetamine (meth) users, their motivations for using meth, patterns of meth use, medical and social problems associated with meth use, and the relationship between meth use and sexual risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 98 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using females residing in San Diego, California. Female meth users were characterized by personal and social disadvantage, high rates of psychiatric symptomatology, and high levels of sexual risk behavior, including multiple partners, risky partner types (e.g., anonymous sex partners), and high rates of unprotected vaginal and oral sex. Meth use was also associated with the subjective positive experience of sex. These finding suggest that behavioral interventions should be tailored to the social characteristics of female meth users, and program content should reflect the intertwining of women's sexual experience and meth use.
Harding, Anna K; Stone, David L; Cardenas, Andres; Lesser, Virginia
Although surfers have high incidental exposure to marine waters, no studies have investigated if surfer risk behaviors (such as surfing during advisories, near an outfall, during a rain event, or use of personal protective equipment) increase or decrease the risk of acquiring waterborne illnesses. We used a web-based survey to assess the association between risk-based behaviors and self-reported illnesses among Pacific Northwest surfers. Commonly reported illnesses include: ear infection or discharge (38%), sore throat or a cough (28%), diarrhea (16%), fever (10.5%), and vomiting (7%). Surfing often during rain events was associated with an increased likelihood of diarrhea (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.47), sore throat (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01-2.05), and ear infection (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01-2.32). Surfing during a health advisory was associated with increased likelihood of diarrhea (OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.03-4.64) and sore throat (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.23-4.40). Other behaviors associated with increased illnesses include body surfing, surfing near an outfall, frequency of surfing, and use of ear plugs. Approximately 40% of surfers were unaware if they had surfed during an active health advisory and 29% knowingly surfed during advisories, suggesting the need to engage this population about potential harm and behaviors that may increase health risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between health-risk behaviors and a history of sexual coercion among urban Chinese high school students. Design: A cross-sectional study was performed among 109,754 high school students who participated in the 2005 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Data were analyzed for 5,215 students who had experienced sexual intercourse (1,483 girls, 3,732 boys. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between sexual coercion and the related covariates, and data were stratified by gender. Results: Of those students who had had sexual intercourse, 40.9% of the females and 29.6% of the males experienced sexual coercion (p<0.01. When analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, in the study sample, that is, students who had sexual intercourse, drug use (odds ratios [OR], 2.44, attempted suicide (OR, 2.30, physical abuse (OR, 1.74, binge drinking (OR, 1.62, verbal abuse (OR, 1.29, experience of being drunk (OR, 0.68, and smoking of cigarettes (OR, 0.52 were related to a history of sexual coercion. Patterns of health-risk behaviors also differed among female and male students who had experienced sexual coercion. Conclusions: Sexual coercion is associated with health-risk behaviors. Initiatives to reduce the harm associated with sexual coercion among high school students are needed.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony
Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044
Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included
Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.
Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…
Wada, Kenichi; Akimoto, Keigo; Sano, Fuminori; Nagashima, Miyuki; Oda, Junichiro; Tokushige, Kohko
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of risk perception associated with nuclear power plants in the framework of the behavioral economics, such as prospect theory. Due to the bounded rationality of the people, the public tends to overestimate the risk of nuclear power, especially after the disaster of Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Social acceptance is an essential element for the nuclear power plants, but nuclear option is getting regarded as a risky choice. On the other hand, experts define and measure risk by the calculation of the probability of damage to the core as a result of sequences of accidents identified by the study. However, this approach also involves limitations to some extent. We explore a possible way to close the gap under in the by wider social context with consideration of risk trade-off among various risk factors, rather than focusing only on nuclear issue. (author)
Tran Bich Phuong
Full Text Available Background: Health risk behavior among young people is a public health problem in Vietnam. In addition, road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death for those aged 15–29 years. The consequences can be devastating for adolescents and their families, and can create a significant economic burden on society. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify protective and risk factors that may influence three health risk behaviors among school children: suicidal thinking (ST, drinking alcohol (DA, and underage motorbike driving (MD. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 972 adolescents (aged 12–15 years was conducted in two secondary schools in Hanoi, Vietnam. The schools were purposely selected, one each from the inner city and a suburban area, from which classes (grade 6 to 8 were randomly selected. All students attending classes on survey days took part in the survey. The anonymous, self-completed questionnaire included measures of risk behavior, school connectedness, parental bonding, and other factors. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between the independent variables and the three health risk behaviors controlling for confounding factors. Results: Young people in the inner city school reported a higher prevalence of all three risk behaviors than those in the suburban area (ST: 16.1% [95% confidence interval, or CI, 12.9–19.3] versus 4.6% [95% CI 2.7–6.5], p<0.001; DA: 20.3% [95% CI 16.8–23.8] versus 8.3% [95% CI 5.8–10.8], p<0.001, and MD: 10.1% [95% CI 7.4–12.8] versus 5.7% [95% CI 3.6–7.8], p<0.01. School connectedness and mother and father care appeared to be significant protective factors. For males, bullying in school was associated with suicidal thoughts, whereas for both males and females, school connectedness may be protective against suicidal ideation. Conclusion: This study supports findings from other nations regarding suicidal thoughts and alcohol use, and appears to be one of
Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Meyer, Rachel A.; Brown, Sandra A.
Background Binge drinking is common among adolescents. Alcohol use, and binge-drinking in particular, has been associated with neurocognitive deficits as well as risk-taking behaviors, which may contribute to negative driving outcomes among adolescents even while sober. Objectives To examine differences in self-reported driving behaviors between adolescent binge-drinkers and a matched sample of controls, including (a) compliance with graduated licensing laws, (b) high risk driving behaviors, and (c) driving outcomes (crashes, traffic tickets). Methods The present study examined driving behaviors and outcomes in adolescent recent binge drinkers (n=21) and demographically and driving history matched controls (n=17), ages 16-18. Results Binge drinkers more frequently violated graduated licensing laws (e.g., driving late at night), and engaged in more “high risk” driving behaviors, such as speeding and using a cell-phone while driving. Binge drinkers had more traffic tickets, crashes and “near crashes” than the control group. In a multivariate analysis, binge drinker status and speeding were the most robust predictors of a crash. Conclusion Binge drinking teens consistently engage in more dangerous driving behaviors and experience more frequent crashes and traffic tickets. They are also less compliant with preventative restrictions placed on youth while they are learning critical safe driving skills. Scientific Significance These findings highlight a need to examine the contribution of underlying traits (such as sensation seeking) and binge-related cognitive changes to these high-risk driving behaviors, which may assist researchers in establishing alternative prevention and policy efforts targeting this population. PMID:22324748
Denny, Simon J; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa M; Grant, Sue; Milfont, Taciano L; Crengle, Sue; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Clark, Terryann
Many schools engage in health promotion, health interventions, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being outcomes for students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of schools on student health risk-taking behaviors and depressive symptoms. A nationally representative sample (n = 9,056) of students from 96 secondary schools completed a health and well-being survey using Internet Tablets that included questions on school climate, health risk-taking behaviors, and mental health. Teachers (n = 2,901) and school administrators (n = 91) completed questionnaires on aspects of the school climate which included teacher well-being and burnout, the staff work environment, health and welfare services for students, and school organizational support for student health and well-being. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on the health risk-taking behaviors and depression symptoms among students. Schools where students reported a more positive school climate had fewer students with alcohol use problems, and fewer students engaging in violence and risky motor vehicle behaviors. Schools where teachers reported better health and welfare services for students had fewer students engaging in unsafe sexual health behaviors. Schools where teachers reported higher levels of well-being had fewer students reporting significant levels of depressive symptoms. More positive school climates and better school health and welfare services are associated with fewer health risk-taking behaviors among students. However, the overall school effects were modest, especially for cigarette use and suicidal behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Axinn, William G; Link, Cynthia F; Groves, Robert M
To address declining response rates and rising data-collection costs, survey methodologists have devised new techniques for using process data ("paradata") to address nonresponse by altering the survey design dynamically during data collection. We investigate the substantive consequences of responsive survey design-tools that use paradata to improve the representative qualities of surveys and control costs. By improving representation of reluctant respondents, responsive design can change our understanding of the topic being studied. Using the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle 6, we illustrate how responsive survey design can shape both demographic estimates and models of demographic behaviors based on survey data. By juxtaposing measures from regular and responsive data collection phases, we document how special efforts to interview reluctant respondents may affect demographic estimates. Results demonstrate the potential of responsive survey design to change the quality of demographic research based on survey data.
Kanda, Reiko; Tsuji, Satsuki; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori
A questionnaire survey was conducted on radiation risk and medical exposure, particularly in applications involving children. The survey was targeted at nurses (170 females) engaged in important roles in communicating risk regarding medical exposure. The questionnaire survey yielded the following findings. A significant number of respondents associated the word radiation' with 'cancer treatment,' 'exposure,' and 'X-ray pictures.' Perceptions about 'food exposure' differed between respondents with children and those without. Among the potential health problems posed by radiation, effects on children,' 'cancer and leukemia,' and 'genetic effects' were perceived as the most worrisome. Significant differences in perception were noted regarding infertility between respondents with children and those without. Concerning the effects of medical exposure on fetuses/children, only 10 percent of all respondents replied that they were not anxious about negative effects in either case. Among the respondents who felt uneasy about these aspects, most tended to assess exposed parts, doses, damage potentially suffered, timing of occurrence, and uncertainty, based on their professional experience and knowledge, to rationally distinguish acceptable risks from unacceptable ones and to limit concern to the unacceptable aspects. (author)
Abstract The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10?12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting s...
Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling
The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…
Full Text Available Samantha Goldfarb, Will L Tarver, Bisakha Sen Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: Previous literature has asserted that family meals are a key protective factor for certain adolescent risk behaviors. It is suggested that the frequency of eating with the family is associated with better psychological well-being and a lower risk of substance use and delinquency. However, it is unclear whether there is evidence of causal links between family meals and adolescent health-risk behaviors. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the empirical literature on family meals and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes in the US. Data sources: A search was conducted in four academic databases: Social Sciences Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO®, and PubMed/MEDLINE. Study selection: We included studies that quantitatively estimated the relationship between family meals and health-risk behaviors. Data extraction: Data were extracted on study sample, study design, family meal measurement, outcomes, empirical methods, findings, and major issues. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review that measured the relationship between frequent family meals and various risk-behavior outcomes. The outcomes considered by most studies were alcohol use (n=10, tobacco use (n=9, and marijuana use (n=6. Other outcomes included sexual activity (n=2; depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts (n=4; violence and delinquency (n=4; school-related issues (n=2; and well-being (n=5. The associations between family meals and the outcomes of interest were most likely to be statistically significant in unadjusted models or models controlling for basic family characteristics. Associations were less likely to be statistically significant when other measures of family connectedness were included. Relatively few analyses used
Kaufman, Annette R; Coa, Kisha I; Nguyen, Anh B
Cigarette smoking risk-reducing beliefs are ideas that certain health promoting behaviors (e.g., exercise) may mitigate the risks associated with smoking. The objective of this study was to describe smoking risk-reducing beliefs and the belief that quitting can reduce the harmful effects of smoking among the U.S. adult population and the associations between these beliefs, current smoking status, and sociodemographics. Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) Cycles 3 and 4 (2013-2014; N=6862). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine bivariate associations among the quit smoking belief, smoking risk-reducing beliefs, and covariates. Weighted ordinal logistic regression models examined the adjusted associations between smoking status and sociodemographics, with quit smoking belief and risk-reducing beliefs. Eighty-two percent of the population reported that quitting cigarette smoking can help reduce the harmful effects of smoking a lot: former smokers and individuals with higher educational attainment were more likely to endorse this belief than never smokers and those with lower educational attainment. Many people endorsed smoking risk-reducing beliefs about exercise (79.3%), fruits and vegetables (71.8%), vitamins (67.2%), and sleep (68.5%). Former smokers were less likely to subscribe to these beliefs than never smokers. Vulnerable populations who may be most at risk of smoking attributable morbidity and mortality were more likely to endorse risk-reducing beliefs. Future studies are needed to better understand how risk-reducing beliefs are formed and if modifying these beliefs may help to reduce cigarette smoking in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar
This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar
Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243
Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that
Thornberry, Terence P; Krohn, Marvin D; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J
Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation.
Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Buchanan, Molly; Greenman, Sarah J.
Prior literature suggests that involvement in adolescent risk behaviors will have short- and long-term consequences that disrupt the orderly flow of later development, including impacts on patterns of partner relationships. In this study, we explore how adolescent involvement in delinquency, drug use, and sexual behavior at an early age affects the likelihood and timing of both marriage and cohabitation using a sample from the Rochester Youth Development Study. We also examine the direct effects of dropping out of high school, teenage parenthood, and financial stress during emerging adulthood as well as their potential role as mediators of the relationships between adolescent risk behaviors and partnering for both males and females. Overall, there is not very strong support for a direct relationship between adolescent delinquency, drug use, or early sexual behavior and patterns of partner formation. In contrast, the more proximal relationships, indicated by precocious transitions to adulthood and financial instability, are more consistently related to partner formation. These findings support models of cumulative disadvantage: early adolescent problem behaviors are weakly related to partner formation, but appear to set in motion cascading consequences that influence the transition to adulthood and, in turn, these more proximal variables are more consistently related to partner formation. PMID:27429604
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted its third national telephone survey of distracted driving to monitor the public's attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior about cell phone use and texting while driving, an...
Full Text Available The classic newsvendor problem focuses on maximizing the expected profit or minimizing the expected cost when the newsvendor faces myopic customers. However, it ignores the customer’s bargain-hunting behavior and risk preference measure of the newsvendor. As a result, we carry out the rational expectation (RE equilibrium analysis for risk-averse newsvendor facing forward-looking customers who anticipate future sales and choose purchasing timing to maximize their expected surplus. We propose the equations satisfied by the RE equilibrium price and quantity for the risk-averse retailer in general setting and the explicit equilibrium decisions for the case where demand follows the uniform distribution and utility is a general power function. We identify the impacts of the system parameters on the RE equilibrium for this specific situation. In particular, we show that the RE equilibrium price for some risk-averse newsvendors is lower than for a risk-neutral retailer and the RE equilibrium stocking quantity for some risk-averse newsvendors is higher than for a risk-neutral retailer. We also find that the RE equilibrium sale price for a risk-averse newsvendor is decreasing in salvage price in some situations.
Salas-Espinoza, Kristian Jesús; Menchaca-Diaz, Rufino; Patterson, Thomas L; Urada, Lianne A; Smith, Davey; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V
Compared to HIV research on men who have sex with men, less is known about the risks and vulnerabilities for HIV among Male to Female (MTF) transgender persons, particularly in different geographic regions like Mexico. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, no precedent data exists on the MTF transgender population. Our aims were to estimate HIV prevalence and examine the behaviors and characteristics of the population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 MTF transgender persons recruited through time location sampling in 2012. Participants underwent interviewer-administered (paper and pen) surveys and rapid tests for HIV. Descriptive univariate analyses were conducted on various factors, including sociodemographics, substance use, accessing social services (requested vs. received), stigma, and sex behaviors. A total of 22% tested positive for HIV, a prevalence higher than other key populations at risk for HIV in Tijuana.
Zwick, M.M.; Renn, O. (eds.)
Since most of the empirical work on risk perception has been conducted in the 1970s and few studies are available that claim to span the full range of psychological, sociological and cultural variables, the Center of Technology Assessment in Stuttgart (Germany) has conducted a representative survey in the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg on risk perception in the general population. In addition, a qualitative investigation based on a sample of 62 respondents was launched in 2001. The objective of the study was to determine the relative importance of psychometric, stigma-related, social value-related, trust-related and cultural variables in explaining risk perception and acceptance. The following report summarizes the results of these investigations. (orig.)
De Graaf, Hanneke; Verbeek, Mirthe; Van den Borne, Marieke; Meijer, Suzanne
Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: "Sex under the age of 25." Adolescents and emerging adults aged 12 through 24 (8,053 boys and 12,447 girls) completed a digital questionnaire, including measures of the risk of STI/HIV and pregnancy, online sexual behavior and non-consensual sex. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to test for gender and age differences and compute associations between risk behavior and negative outcomes. The results showed that the risk of unplanned pregnancy is low in the Netherlands. It seems that adolescents and emerging adults are less aware of the risk of STI/HIV than of the risk of pregnancy. About 11% of the participants had had more than one partner in the last 6 months and had not used condoms consistently with their last partner, and these participants had a 3.56 times higher likelihood of ever being diagnosed with an STI. Although many young people stop using condoms with their partner after a while, most of them did not get tested for STIs. More emerging adults (aged 18-24) engage in sexting (sending personal nude pictures and sex videos to others), but the chance that these images are shared with other people than the intended recipient is higher among adolescents (aged 12-17). The results of this study can guide professionals working in sex education and sexual health services to focus their efforts on the risk behaviors in the Netherlands that deserve most attention.
Full Text Available Abstract Taking the perspective of brand priming theory, this study proposes that brands associated with an audacious personality trait may influence consumers to be take more risks in making subsequent decisions. Two experiments, run in sport brands contexts, showed that individuals exposed to brands with high (vs. low audacity traits demonstrated a higher rate of risk taking in financial decisions. The studies also showed that this effect is moderated by individuals’ experience with the financial market. This moderation suggests that there was an activation of a goal not just semantic activation, but through the brand priming. This research provides insights into how today's consumers deal with brand priming effects in risky choice settings. From a managerial perspective, it can help managers to understand the likely effects of brand priming on behavior and better predict the probability of risk aversion or risk seeking outcomes.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight misperception, unhealthy diet practices, and factors associated with these weight-related behaviors among Korean adolescents. The subjects were a nationally representative sample of non-overweight students (52,515 in 2005, 64,084 in 2006, and 67,113 in 2007) in middle and high schools who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The prevalence of weight-related behaviors and factors associated with these behaviors were assessed using a complex sampling design. Of non-overweight students, 14.9% of boys and 22.2% of girls reported their weight as overweight/obese. Dieting within the last year was reported by 19.8% of boys and 41.8% of girls. Of those who attempted dieting, 17.1% of boys and 24.6% of girls indicated practicing at least one unhealthy diet behavior within the last month. Overweight misperceptions were independently associated with diet attempts and unhealthy diets after adjustment for weight status, and demographic, social, and psychological factors. Additionally, these weight-related behaviors were also associated with psychosocial factors such as low school achievement, sadness, suicidal ideation, increased stress perception, and cigarette or alcohol use. In conclusion, the high prevalence of inappropriate weight-related behaviors suggests a need for comprehensive approaches to improve weight-related behaviors in non-overweight Korean adolescents.
St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A
Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...
Gwenyth R Wallen
Full Text Available Establishing the validity of health behavior surveys used in community-based participatory research (CBPR in diverse populations is often overlooked. A novel, group-based cognitive interviewing method was used to obtain qualitative data for tailoring a survey instrument designed to identify barriers to improved cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, DC. A focus group–based cognitive interview was conducted to assess item comprehension, recall, and interpretation and to establish the initial content validity of the survey. Thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts yielded 5 main themes for which participants (n = 8 suggested survey modifications, including survey item improvements, suggestions for additional items, community-specific issues, changes in the skip logic of the survey items, and the identification of typographical errors. Population-specific modifications were made, including the development of more culturally appropriate questions relevant to the community. Group-based cognitive interviewing provided an efficient and effective method for piloting a cardiovascular health survey instrument using CBPR.
Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.
Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Abstract Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models. Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33–2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54–2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61–3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81–4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35–4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27–3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19–13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03–1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06–1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26–1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16–1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37–2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34–2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents. Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities. PMID:27227939
Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Barros, Aluísio J D; Dos Santos, Janaína V; Gigante, Denise P
In 2006, we carried out a cross-sectional study in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, with the aim of outlining the profile of bicycle commuters, analyzing their use of safety equipment and risk behaviors and the association between these variables and involvement in traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. This study was based on the baseline survey carried out prior to an educational intervention aimed at reducing accidents among cyclists. The sample included 1133 male subjects aged 20 years or more, and who used a bicycle for commuting. Crude and adjusted analyses were carried out using Poisson regression. We recorded a total of 152 reported traffic accidents in the 12 months preceding the interview, involving 10.8% of subjects. Most risk behaviors studied and the use of safety equipment showed no significant association with accidents. Only commuting by bicycle seven days per week, as opposed to five or six, and a combination of extremely imprudent behaviors such as zigzagging through traffic, riding after ingesting alcohol, and high-speed riding were found to be risk factors for accidents. Our findings suggest that in the context where the study was done (poor road signaling, limited policing, aggressive driving) changing cyclist behavior may not have substantial impact in terms of accident reduction before other road traffic interventions are implemented. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thoreson, Richard W.; And Others
A national sample of female counselors (N=377) was surveyed regarding their psychological health and distress, work pressure and support, personal history (including erotic sexual contact with clients), personal traits, burnout and stress, personal work satisfaction, and professional concerns. Results revealed a wide variety of endorsed concerns.…
Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris
This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum
Zhou, Q.; Xie, J. Y.; Wang, F.; Huang, P.; Xu, K. W.; Lu, T. J.
The mechanical behavior of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMMs) has attracted much attention from both scientific and practical views. Compared with their monolithic counterparts, the large number of interfaces existing in the NMMs dictates the unique behavior of this special class of structural composite materials. While there have been a number of reviews on the mechanical mechanism of microlaminates, the rapid development of nanotechnology brought a pressing need for an overview focusing exclusively on a property-based definition of the NMMs, especially their size-dependent microstructure and mechanical performance. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the microstructure, mechanical property and plastic deformation physics of NMMs. We hope this review could accomplish two purposes: (1) introducing the basic concepts of scaling and dimensional analysis to scientists and engineers working on NMM systems, and (2) providing a better understanding of interface behavior and the exceptional qualities the interfaces in NMMs display at atomic scale.
Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote
Torres van Grinsven, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355608510
In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and
Seidman, S N; Sterk-Elifson, C; Aral, S O
Drug-using men are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of STD, presumably due to the risky behaviors practiced in environments of drug use. To study behaviors associated with STD transmission among drug-using men. Drug outreach workers distributed vouchers to self-identified drug-using men in urban Atlanta. Vouchers could be redeemed for cash at a storefront clinic where subjects provided urine for a urethritis screening test (leukocyte esterase test) and a drug screen, and were interviewed. Of 382 voucher recipients, 252 (66%) came to the clinic. Subjects were predominantly black (92%), homeless (70%), and aged 20 to 40 (88%). All used illicit drugs; none were currently receiving drug abuse treatment. Urine drug screen confirmed recent cocaine use in 63%, and recent opiate use in 4%. Three-fourths reported a history of STD, mostly gonorrhea. In the preceding 3 months, 14% had not had sex, 80% had sex exclusively with women, 4% had sex with both men and women, and 2% had sex exclusively with men. Of the heterosexually active men, 29% had 5 or more recent partners. Compared to other heterosexually active men, these men were more likely to always use alcohol or crack before having sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and to drink alcohol every day (PR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.3). Daily crack use was associated with choosing partners at elevated STD risk; daily alcohol use with having more partners. Positive drug screen for cocaine was associated with self-reported crack use. Urethritis, detected in 16%, was not correlated with behavior. A substantial number of drug-using men practice high-risk sexual behavior and should be targeted for intervention. Monetary and other incentives should be considered for recruitment. Further study is needed to clarify the relationship between sexual behavior, cocaine use, and STD.
Nelson, Melissa C; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed
To examine cross-sectional associations between credit card debt, stress, and health risk behaviors among college students, focusing particularly on weight-related behaviors. Random-sample, mailed survey. Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 3206) attending a large public university. Self-reported health indicators (e.g., weight, height, physical activity, diet, weight control, stress, credit card debt). More than 23% of students reported credit card debt > or = $1000. Using Poisson regression to predict relative risks (RR) of health behaviors, debt of at least $1000 was associated with nearly every risk indicator tested, including overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, excess television viewing, infrequent breakfast consumption, fast food consumption, unhealthy weight control, body dissatisfaction, binge drinking, substance use, and violence. For example, adjusted RR [ARR] ranged from 1.09 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.17) for insufficient vigorous activity to 2.17 (CI: 0.68-2.82) for using drugs other than marijuana in the past 30 days. Poor stress management was also a robust indicator of health risk. University student lifestyles may be characterized by a variety of coexisting risk factors. These findings indicate that both debt and stress were associated with wide-ranging adverse health indicators. Intervention strategies targeting at-risk student populations need to be tailored to work within the context of the many challenges of college life, which may serve as barriers to healthy lifestyles. Increased health promotion efforts targeting stress, financial management, and weight-related health behaviors may be needed to enhance wellness among young adults.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the frequency of risk behaviors in the zoonotic transmission of bovine brucellosis in suburban Dakar. The individual serological status of 300 cattle distributed in thirty farms in this area was determined by the rose Bengal and complement fixation tests. The frequency of risk behaviors toward this zoonosis was determined using two epidemiological surveys that inventoried the known risk factors of brucellosis transmission between animals and humans. Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of rose Bengal and complement fixation tests used in series, i.e. 85% and 98.75 %, respectively, the true prevalence was estimated to be 36.36%. At least one animal was infected in 96.6% of the herds. Positivity to the complement fixation test was significantly associated with age, breed, abortion and the presence of bursitis in cattle. The risk behaviors the most frequently observed in humans in this area were: assisting during calving and abortion, handling of aborted fetuses without gloves, and consuming unpasteurized raw or curd milk and fresh cheese. These results show that brucellosis is present in dairy cattle farms in suburban Dakar. Since the milk produced in these farms is used to supply the city of Dakar, measures must be developed to promote brucellosis prevention methods aimed at Dakar’s population.
Folch, Cinta; Fernández-Dávila, Percy; Ferrer, Laia; Soriano, Raúl; Díez, Mercedes; Casabona, Jordi
To describe the pattern of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Spain and its association with sexual risk practices. The European MSM Internet Survey was implemented in 2010 in 38 European countries on websites for MSM and collected data on sociodemographics, sexual behavior, and other sexual health variables. The association between unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners and drug consumption was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Among the 13,111 participants, most consumed drugs were cannabis (30.1%), popper (28.4%) and cocaine (18.7%). The risk of UAI with casual partners was 1.5 among those who had used drugs in relation to the other participants. The proportion of MSM who had injected drugs at least once in life was 2.5%, and 1.4% in the last 12 months. The prevalence of UAI with casual partners (53.4%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (23%), hepatitis C (8.2%) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) (15.8%) was higher in MSM injectors related to those who had not used injected drugs (P<.05). The results of this study confirm a high prevalence of drug use in MSM and their relationship to sexual risk behavior. Although the use of injected drugs in MSM is a minority, this group reported a higher level of sexual risk behaviors, self-reported HIV, hepatitis C and other STI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. Materials and Methods: A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Results: Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. Conclusion: General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.
Kaur, Supreet; Khurana, Pankaj; Kaur, Harjit
An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.
Remien, Robert H; Halkitis, Perry N; O'Leary, Ann; Wolitski, Richard J; Gómez, Cynthia A
There are reports of increased sexual risk behavior among people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to beliefs about risk of HIV transmission when on HAART. In a cross-sectional study (Seropositive Urban Men's Study), we examined the relationship between risk perception and sexual risk behavior among sexually active, culturally diverse HIV positive men who have sex with men (N = 456). Less than twenty-five percent engaged in unprotected anal sex (either with an HIV negative, or unknown-status partner, or an HIV positive partner) within the past 3 months. Most men believed there was significant health risk (to partner or self) associated with unprotected sex when on HAART. There was no increased risk behavior associated with being on HAART, although the perception of negative health consequences, including HIV transmission, when on HAART was significantly lower for the relatively small subset of men who reported unprotected sex. Prevention strategies need to be tailored to address risk perception associated with HAART.
Full Text Available Introduction: Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk. Methods: Participants performed a go/no-go task to assess inhibitory control and a measure of delay discounting to assess impulsive choice. Results: On the measure of inhibitory control, at-risk women committed significantly more inhibitory errors than at-risk men, indicating poorer behavioral control among the women. By contrast, no sex differences were observed between at-risk men and women in delay discounting, or between the male and female non-risk drinkers on any measure. Conclusion: Heavy drinking women displayed poorer inhibitory control than heavy drinking men. It remains to be determined whether the sex differences in inhibitory control are the result of drinking, or whether they pre-dated the problematic drinking in these individuals.
Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.
The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…
Benitez, I.; Padilla, J.L.; Ongena, Yfke
The aim of this study is to show how to analyze the quality of questions for proxy informants by means of behavior coding. Proxy questions can undermine survey data quality because of the fact that proxies respond to questions on behalf of other people. Behavior coding can improve questions by
Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping
The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…
Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Bergman, Hannah E.; Klein, William M. P.
Worry has been shown to predict a variety of health behaviors, such as cancer screening, yet there are few studies linking worry and nutrition. This study used nationally representative data from National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey ("n" = 3,397) to examine the association between health-related worry and a variety of…
Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Young, K. Richard
Many authors regard education as a way of increasing civility in society, and some have implemented interventions to improve civility in schools. However, very little empirical data exist on the extent and nature of students' civil behavior. The present study systematically gathered data from 251 school professionals regarding their perceptions of…
Full Text Available Abstract This report represents the first exploratory study of Chinese men who provide commercial sex services to other men ("money boys" in Jilin Province, People's Republic of China, through a convenience sample drawn from Changchun and Jilin City. A total of 86 active money boy participants (Changchun, n = 49; Jilin City, n = 37 were surveyed concerning background and demographics, basic HIV transmission knowledge, and sexual practices. The survey indicated that while Jilin Province money boy behavior matches other studies concerning propensity to high risk behavior and significant bridging potential, the Jilin money boys, unlike previous studies, exhibited a high level of basic HIV/AIDS transmission knowledge. In spite of this level of knowledge, none of the participants reported always using a condom in their sexual activities. They also exhibited a high level of awareness of voluntary counseling and testing available in the province, yet relatively few had availed themselves of these services. These preliminary findings will be used as a baseline and springboard for continuing study in the Jilin Province money boy community. Even now, however, it is becoming clear that the dynamics of male commercial sex work may vary greatly depending upon local influences, and will necessitate that future interventions are highly tailored to area-specific circumstances.
Full Text Available Rising global competition, increasing deregulation, and introduction of innovative products have pushed financial risk management to the forefront of today's financial landscape. Identification of different types of risks and effective management of these risks in the international financial system would help to alleviate crisis, financial losses and also helpful to the long term success of all the financial institutions. The present study aims to analyze different types of risk management strategies and throws some light on challenges and opportunities regarding implementation of Basel-II in international financial system. The present paper also attempts to discuss the different methods and techniques used to measure financial risk management. There are three types of risk faced by all financial institutions: market risk, credit risk and operational risk. In commercial banking, credit risk is the biggest risk; in investment banking, its market risk; and in asset management, it’s operational risk.
Johnson, Jennie E; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue; Kouba, Joanne
Evidence indicates that a healthy lifestyle can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, yet many people engage in unhealthy behaviors. New technologies such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening detect atherosclerosis before clinical disease is manifested. Knowledge of an abnormal finding could provide the "teachable moment" to enhance motivation for change. The aim of this study was to examine how knowledge of CAC score affects risk perception, likelihood of taking action, and health-promoting behavior change in persons at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This study used a descriptive prospective design with 174 high-risk adults (≥3 major risk factors) recruited at a radiology center offering CAC scans. Baseline self-report surveys using the Perception of Risk of Heart Disease Scale, the Benefits and Barriers Scale, the Quality of Life Index, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II were completed immediately after a screening CAC scan but before results were known. Follow-up occurred 3 months later using mailed packets. Participants' mean age was 58 years; 62% were men, 89% were white, and most were well educated. There was no significant change in risk perception scores over time or between groups, except for a positive interaction in the moderate-risk group (CAC scores of 101-400) (P = .004). Quality of life remained unchanged. Health-promoting behavior changes increased in all groups over time (P behavior change were perceived barriers (β = -.41; P Knowledge of CAC score does impact risk perception for some at-risk groups. This knowledge does enhance motivation for behavior change. Knowledge of CAC score does not impact quality of life. It is hoped that through improved understanding of the effect of CAC scoring on behavior change, nurses can better assist patients to modify behaviors during teachable moments.
Full Text Available Background & aim: AIDS is one of the major public health challenges all over the world. Perceived risk is a significant predictor of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. Women constitute more than half of the HIV patients, and the rate of female sex workers with AIDS is more than the rest of female population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate AIDS risk perception and its related factors in females with high-risk behaviors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 58 women who were arrested on prostitution charges and imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad Prison in 2013. The data were collected using self-designed questionnaires assessing knowledge regarding AIDS as well as sexual activities and also perceived risk of HIV questionnaire. One-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, linear regression, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean score of HIV risk perception was 18.43±5.92, which was average. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of perceived risk of HIV and knowledge regarding AIDS (P=0.005, alcohol consumption (P=0.04, history of addiction (P=0.008, using contraceptive methods (P=0.01, condom use during intercourse (P=0.02, voluntary HIV testing (P=0.001, and follow-up of HIV test (P=0.009. Conclusion:The findings of the present study revealed that knowledge, alcohol consumption, history of addiction, contraceptive methods, the rate of condom use during intercourse, as well as voluntary HIV testing and follow-up were associated with perceived risk of HIV infection. Therefore, taking the necessary steps towards health promotion through appropriate training and interventional approaches seems to be mandatory for reducing high-risk behaviors in populations with low risk perception.
Full Text Available Less is known about the multiplicative effects of social and psychological risk and protective factors of suicidality on college campuses. The current study aimed to investigate the multiplicative effects of social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, financial difficulty, violence victimization, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, drug use and risk/protective factors on suicidal behaviors among college students in the United States. Using a cross-sectional design, the Healthy Mind Study (HMS; 2016–2017, is a national online survey of college students in the United States. Social (identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, violence victimization, financial difficulty, and religiosity and psychological (anxiety, depression, problem alcohol use, and drug use risk/protective factors were assessed among 27,961 individuals. Three aspects of suicidality, including ideation, plan, and attempt, were also assessed. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Financial difficulty, violence victimization, identifying oneself as gay/lesbian, anxiety, depression, and drug use increased, while religiosity reduced the odds of suicidal behaviors. Multiplicative effects were found between the following social and psychological risk factors: (1 financial difficulty and anxiety; (2 financial difficulty and depression; (3 depression and drug use; (4 problem alcohol use and drug use; and (5 depression and problem alcohol use. There is a considerable overlap in the social and psychological processes, such as financial stress, mood disorders, and substance use problems, on risk of suicide in college students. As social and psychological risk factors do not operate independently, comprehensive suicidal risk evaluations that simultaneously address multiple social and psychological risk factors may be superior to programs that only address a single risk factor.
Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter
The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hori, Shiro; Kondo, Kayoko; Nogata, Daisuke; Ben, Han
It is difficult to control household energy consumption through regulation. From a policy standpoint, it is particularly challenging to identify the factors that influence people’s actions. Moreover, whatever these factors are, they are unlikely to uniformly span multiple cities in the Asian region. In this paper, we conduct a survey of energy-saving behavior to clarify the differences among such factors across five major Asian cities. The results from these surveys in Dalian, Chongqing, Fukuoka, Bangkok, and Ho Chi Minh indicate that global warming consciousness, environmental behavior, and social interaction significantly affect energy-saving behavior. Income and age also had weak positive effects on energy-saving behaviors. Social interaction was strongly linked to energy-saving behaviors, particularly in the rural areas of Dalian and Chongqing. This result indicates that community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors. - Highlights: ► We conduct a survey of energy saving behavior in household in major Asian cities. ► We identify the factors that influence people's actions. ► Global warming consciousness and social interaction affect people behavior. ► This indicates community-based activities impact energy-saving behaviors in Asia.
The overall objective of this paper is to describe the principal uses of social and behavioral research in risk management decision-making. Five such uses are identified and discussed, including uses in (1) identifying the nature and extent of public concern; (2) structuring public debate and resolving conflicts; (3) anticipating public responses to new technologies; (4) conducting and informing the public; and (5) designing and implementing risk management policies and systems. (author)
Full Text Available This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken husbandry to assess how they relate to risk of disease acquisition, hypothesizing that certain practices associated with a lower knowledge base may heighten the risk. This study used a survey distributed via social media to examine the self-reported knowledge base of individuals involved in chicken husbandry as they relate to beliefs and behaviors associated with the care of these animals. These results identify key factors that may heighten the risk of disease transmission and demonstrate that an increased knowledge base could act to lessen this risk.
Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Mellin, Alison; Leffert, Nancy; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A
To examine associations between family meal frequency and developmental assets and high-risk behaviors among a national sample of adolescents. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 99,462 sixth to 12th grade students from public and alternative schools in 213 cities and 25 states across the United States. Logistic regression analyses tested differences in assets and high-risk behaviors by family dinner frequency. Consistent positive associations were found between the frequency of family dinners and all developmental assets, including both external (e.g., support, boundaries and expectations; odds ratio [OR] 2.1-3.7) and internal assets (e.g., commitment to learning, positive values, social competencies, and positive identity; OR 1.8-2.6); relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and general family communication and support. Consistent inverse relationships were found between the frequency of family dinners and all high-risk behaviors measured (i.e., substance use, sexual activity, depression/suicide, antisocial behaviors, violence, school problems, binge eating/purging, and excessive weight loss; OR .36-.58), relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and family factors. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequency of family dinner is an external developmental asset or protective factor that may curtail high-risk behaviors among youth. Creative and realistic strategies for enhancing and supporting family meals, given the context within which different families live, should be explored to promote healthy adolescent development. Family rituals such as regular mealtimes may ease the stress of daily living in the fast-paced families of today's society.
Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer
Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p < .05) and 2.49 times (p < .08) more likely to have used contraception or a condom at last intercourse, respectively. Parents, schools, or traditional media as information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.
Wheaton, Anne G; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Miller, Gabrielle F; Croft, Janet B
Insufficient sleep is common among high school students and has been associated with an increased risk for motor vehicle crashes (1), sports injuries (2), and occupational injuries (3). To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep duration on an average school night and several injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) among U.S. high school students, CDC analyzed data from 50,370 high school students (grades 9-12) who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) in 2007, 2009, 2011, or 2013. The likelihood of each of the five risk behaviors was significantly higher for students who reported sleeping ≤7 hours on an average school night; infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a drinking driver, and drinking and driving were also more likely for students who reported sleeping ≥10 hours compared with 9 hours on an average school night. Although insufficient sleep directly contributes to injury risk, some of the increased risk associated with insufficient sleep might be caused by engaging in injury-related risk behaviors. Intervention efforts aimed at these behaviors might help reduce injuries resulting from sleepiness, as well as provide opportunities for increasing awareness of the importance of sleep.
Schmidt, Julianne D; Lynall, Robert C; Lempke, Landon Bryce; Weber, Michelle L; Devos, Hannes
Post-concussion driving restrictions are eminent, but we lack understanding of current behaviors and opinions about driving following concussion among populations at risk of concussion. We aimed to describe post-concussion driving behaviors and opinions among collegiate student-athletes. Student-athletes completed a survey (response rate=45.3%, 223/492) regarding their post-concussion driving behaviors and opinions. Response frequencies and percentages are presented. Student-athletes self-reported a total of 169 lifetime concussions (0.76±1.02 each). Of the 169 concussions, 52.1% (88/169) were diagnosed and 52.7% (89/169) occurred while the student-athlete possessed a valid driver's license. Student-athletes refrained from driving following 43.8% (39/89) of the concussive events. Student-athletes that refrained most commonly did so for only 24-48 hours (20.5%, 8/39) and because a health care provider advised them to (33.3%: 13/39). Student-athletes most commonly reported that they would feel "very unsafe" driving a car immediately following injury (38.4%, 84/219). When asked whether driving restrictions would influence your decision to report the injury to a health care provider, 7.9% reported that it "definitely would" (17/214), 26.6% "probably would" (57/214), 17.8% "neutral" (38/214), 24.8% "probably would not" (53/214), and 22.9% "definitely would not" (49/214). Despite generally believing that driving immediately following a concussion is unsafe, a majority of student-athletes did not refrain from driving at any point following their previous concussions. Post-concussion driving restrictions may have some influence on student-athletes' decisions to report the injury to a health care provider. Health care providers play a critical role in post-concussion driving restriction, but lack standardized recommendations to guide their care.
Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan
Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase
Hartjes, Laurie B; Baumann, Linda C; Henriques, Jeffrey B
The number of American study abroad students increased more than 150% in the past decade, along with growth in destinations with increased health risks. This study investigated travel health risk perceptions and prevention behaviors to guide interventions that address the emerging health needs of US study abroad students. A cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 318 American study abroad students using a Web-based survey. The primary source of travel health information was youth-oriented travel guidebooks (85%). The grand mean risk perception score for 18 travel health threats was 1.7 on a 1 to 4 scale, with top-rated threats being contaminated food/water, psychological distress, personal assault, and excessive sun exposure. Predeparture advice was received from primary care providers (52%) and travel health specialists (18%). Additional prevention measures were vaccines (42%) and medication (24%). Of 114 students listing their travel vaccinations, 11% described receiving a malaria vaccine and 4% a hepatitis C vaccine, although no such vaccines exist. Most respondents were confident/very confident in their ability to engage in prevention behaviors (94%). Health problems were primarily infectious disease (70%), psychological distress (10%), and injuries (8%). When asked if prior travel destinations involved areas where malaria transmission occurs, 20% responded, "Don't know." Identified gaps in travel health knowledge and prevention behaviors may produce hazardous consequences when combined with low-perceived risk, reliance on travel guidebooks for health information, and high ratings for prevention self-efficacy. Future research is needed to test the effectiveness of educational interventions designed for student travelers who would benefit from guided practice with destination-specific risk appraisal and prevention planning. Web-based educational resources are a good fit for this population because they are easily updated, available in all phases of
Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S
The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.
Pavel A. Kislyakov
Full Text Available Background. Throughout the ontogenic development period and life journey, everyone faces numerous threats and challenges. Certain of these challenges are beyond the individual’s control and are caused by social and environmental factors, but others, conversely, are provoked by the individual’s own lifestyle and mental and/or physical health condition. This paper considers how the social adaptation of children with intellectual developmental disorders affects the development of various forms of socially dangerous behavior. Objective. The primary goal of the study described in the article is to identify and analyze the potential risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (mental retardation based on a survey of teachers in special (correctional schools. The methodological basis of our research uses the provisions of Lev Vygotsky’s theory of socialization among children with intellectual disabilities. This article shows the importance of implementing Lev Vygotsky’s doctrine of correction and compensation of disturbed psychological, emotional and social development of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities. Design. To achieve this purpose, the following methods were used: interviews, questionnaires, and factor analysis. In the first stage of the study, interviews were conducted with teachers working in special (correctional schools (teachers, child and youth counselors, school psychologists, developmental pediatricians — of 108 teachers from 10 schools. Analysis of the interviews revealed a list of risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (only 35 points. The collected data formed the basis for a questionnaire, “Social Safety for Children with Intellectual Disabilities”. In the second stage, 83 teachers working in the special (correctional schools were surveyed. The survey was completed by teachers of children (12-13 years old who
Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.
The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism
Smith, Tanyka K; Larson, Elaine L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health concern in the United States, particularly among older Black women who comprise approximately 40% of the newly diagnosed cases among women. This systematic review sought to answer the research question: What are the sexual practices in older Black women associated with HIV risk? CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge electronic databases were searched for English-language research studies published between 2003 and 2013 that focused on the HIV sexual risk practices of Black women over the age of 50. Using PRISMA guidelines, two reviewers independently reviewed and appraised the quality of relevant articles; agreement of select studies was achieved by consensus. Among the 3,167 articles surveyed, 9 met inclusion criteria. The majority (88%) were quantitative, observational studies. All nine articles addressed at least one of three factors that contribute to HIV sexual risk: Behavioral (inconsistent condom use and multiple sexual partners), psychological (risk perception, depression/stress, trauma, and self-esteem issues), and social factors (economics, education, and drugs/alcohol use). Outcome measures varied across studies. Although this systematic review appraised few studies, findings suggest that many older Black women are engaged in HIV risk-taking practices. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the HIV risk practices of older Black women to improve health outcomes through education, effective communication and risk appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng
While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeong, Sun Young; Kim, Kyung Mi
Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent transmission of infection, but the compliance rate of healthcare workers is relatively low. This study was conducted to identify the knowledge, beliefs, behavior, and affecting factors about hand hygiene among nursing students. A descriptive survey study. The study was carried out in two South Korean nursing schools. A total 208 nursing students participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The percentage of correct answers in the survey section concerning hand hygiene knowledge was 68.1%. No significant difference in the knowledge, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, or control beliefs data was found related to general characteristics. Behavioral beliefs correlated with normative beliefs (r=.25, phand hygiene behavior (r=.17, p=.017), and control beliefs correlated with hand hygiene behavior (r=.18, p=.010). The results suggest that knowledge is not enough to change the beliefs related to hand hygiene; positive behavioral beliefs and strong control beliefs are also needed to increase hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare components of cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors of 20 family caregivers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients to those of age, gender, and race/ethnicity-matched controls. A prospective, repeated measures design was used to compare cardiometabolic risk and health behaviors in caregivers and controls at three time-points: pre-transplantation, discharge, and six weeks post-discharge. Measures included components of metabolic syndrome, Reynolds Risk Score, NMR serum lipoprotein particle analyses, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II. Mixed-model repeated measure analyses were used. There were no between or within group differences in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. There was a significant interaction effect between time and role in large VLDL concentration (VLDL-P (F (2, 76 = 4.36, p = .016, with the trajectory of large VLDL-P increasing over time in caregivers while remaining stable in controls. Within caregivers, VLDL particle size (VLDL-Z was significantly larger at time-point three compared to time-points one (p = .015 and two (p = .048, and VLDL-Z was significantly larger in caregivers than in controls at time point three (p = .012. HPLP-II scores were lower in caregivers than controls at all time-points (p < .01. These findings suggest that caregiving may have a bigger impact on triglycerides than on other lipids, and it is through this pathway that caregivers may be at increased cardiometabolic risk. More sensitive measurement methods, such as NMR lipoprotein particle analyses, may be able to detect early changes in cardiometabolic risk.
Owens, Judith; Wang, Guanghai; Lewin, Daniel; Skora, Elizabeth; Baylor, Allison
To examine the association between self-reported sleep duration (SD) and peer/individual factors predictive of risky behaviors (risk behavior factors) in a large socioeconomically diverse school-based sample of early adolescents. Survey data collected from 10718 and 11240 eighth-grade students in 2010 and 2012, respectively, were analyzed. N/A. Self-reported school night SD was grouped as ≤4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, and ≥10 hours. Scores on 10 peer/individual risk behavior factor scales were dichotomized according to national eigth-grade cut points. The percentage of students reporting an "optimal" SD of 9 hours was 14.8% and 15.6% in 2010 and 2012, respectively; 45.6% and 46.1% reported sleep compared to an SD of 9 hours. For example, ORs for students sleeping school students are at high risk of insufficient sleep; in particular, an SD Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ajibade, Phoebe Butler
This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy.Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity. Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9% reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity.The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women's levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy.
Guerrero, Lourdes R; Dudovitz, Rebecca; Chung, Paul J; Dosanjh, Kulwant K; Wong, Mitchell D
Grit, defined as "working strenuously toward challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress," is strongly associated with academic achievement and life success and may also be associated with health outcomes and behaviors. We examined predictors of grit, and the association between grit and health behaviors among at-risk Latino adolescents. We analyzed baseline survey data collected in 2013-2014 from a sample of 1270 9th graders in low-income neighborhoods of Los Angeles. We examined factors associated with grit and whether grit is associated with substance use and delinquent behaviors, controlling for adolescent and parent sociodemographic factors. In a sample of mostly Latino adolescents (89.5%), compared to those with low grit, those with high grit had significantly lower odds of alcohol use in the last 30 days (odds ratio 0.30, P authoritative parenting style, parental employment, and high self-efficacy scores. Grit may be an important candidate protective factor against substance use and other risk behaviors among Latino adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth
Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait and behavioral impulsivity, relative to individuals low in brooding and low in reflection; and (2) examine impulsivity as a mediator of the relation between ruminative subtypes and suicidal ideation. In Study 1, participants (N=78) were recruited based on high, average, and low scores on a measure of brooding and reflective rumination. Individuals who scored high in brooding and average in reflection scored significantly higher in negative urgency, that is, in the tendency to act rashly in an attempt to reduce negative affect, than did those who scored low in brooding and low in reflection. Study 2 (N=1638) examined the relationship between ruminative subtypes, impulsivity, and suicide risk. We found an indirect relationship between brooding and suicide risk through lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance, independently of reflection. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mirela Cristiana NILĂ STRATONE
Full Text Available The feminine criminality is a social phenomenon of defining importance in trying to draw the portrait of contemporary human society. What is the basic mechanism of this dimension of human behavior remains a continuing challenge for criminology researchers and beyond. The feminine offenses segment dresses a form of atypical aggressivity. This is the main reason who determine the identification, analization and explanation of the factors that influence and shapes the behavior of the woman, bringing it to the form of criminal behavior. The contradiction between femininity and criminality is outlined as an intrigue of gender stereotypes, which the researcher can not bypass. That is why patterns, items, everything on the background of social change are considered. The social change comes, in turn, with challenges both from the domestic area and from the outside of the family. In this paper we will review the main social nature factors that trigger the deviant behavior leading this to delinquency and even determining its identification with forms of delinquency. Women's evolution in time, in terms of age and social modernization, results in changes in the feminine attitude, the typical female actions, woman's personality as a mother, married couple, daughter, girlfriend, etc. The purpose of this study is to present risk factors with criminogen potential on women's behavior in society. Behavioral deviance, as a result of the multitude of bio-psychological, econ- omic, socio-cultural, political, natural factors, turns into violence, and violence tends to become an increasingly strong component of female temper. Last but not least, it is observed that the femininity itself, under the pressure of social factors, takes on new forms, dominated by aggressiveness.
Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna
Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…
Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.
Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this
Lana, Alberto; Baizán, Eva María; Faya-Ornia, Goretti; López, María Luisa
To explore the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and risky health behaviors in nursing students at the University of Oviedo (Spain). This cross-sectional study of 275 students used a validated questionnaire to measure EI level, nine risky behaviors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, unhealthy diet, being overweight, sedentarism, risky sun exposure, occupational risk, and unsafe sex), and other factors that may influence EI. Students with the highest EI score had a lower probability of drinking too much alcohol (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.19, 0.67]), eating too few fruits and vegetables (OR, 0.60; 95% CI [0.34, 0.99]), and having unsafe sex (OR, 0.10; 95% CI [0.01, 0.74]). A dose-response effect was found for those three behaviors (p for trend excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, and unsafe sex. Training nursing students about EI could improve health behaviors, and thus the role of nurses as health promoters. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.
Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Although a large body of previous research has examined sexual behavior and its relation to risk in men of diverse sexual identities, most studies have relied on convenience sampling. As such, the vast majority of research on the sexual behaviors of gay and bisexual men, in particular, might not be generalizable to the general population of these men in the United States. This is of particular concern because many studies are based on samples of men recruited from relatively "high-risk" venues and environments. To provide nationally representative baseline rates for sexual behavior in heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in the United States and compare findings on sexual behaviors, relationships, and other variables across subgroups. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of women and men at least 18 years old in the United States, with oversampling of self-identified gay and bisexual men and women. Results from the male participants are included in this article. Measurements include demographic characteristics, particularly sexual identity, and their relations to diverse sexual behaviors, including masturbation, mutual masturbation, oral sex, vaginal sex, and anal sex. Behaviors with male and female partners were examined. Men of all self-identified sexual identities reported engaging in a range of sexual behaviors (solo and partnered). As in previous studies, sexual identity was not always congruent for gender of lifetime and recent sexual partners. Patterns of sexual behaviors and relationships vary among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Several demographic characteristics, including age, were related to men's sexual behaviors. The results from this probability study highlight the diversity in men's sexual behaviors across sexual identities, and these data allow generalizability to the broader population of
Seaborn, Cynthia; Suther, Sandra; Lee, Torhonda; Kiros, Gebre-Egziabher; Becker, Alan; Campbell, Ellen; Collins-Robinson, Jackie
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent African Americans' knowledge and awareness of family health history and related risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes influence their likelihood of adopting a preventive behavior. This study employed an anonymous pencil-and-paper, self-administered survey consisting of two sections. Section 1 was a modified version of the US Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Risk Factor Survey. Section 2 of the survey was based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior. Over 394 African American participants completed the survey. 'Perceived behavioral control' was the strongest predictor of 'likelihood of adopting preventive behavior'. Participants were aware of their family history as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but it was not a significant predictor of behavior modifications based on that knowledge. The lack of perceived risk in this population shows the importance of not only knowing one's risk factors but translating those risk factors to a more personalized form that fits into the current lifestyle of the individual in a meaningful way. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Baker, Kate C
The behavioral management of laboratory nonhuman primates in the United States has not been thoroughly characterized since 2003. This article presents the results of a survey behavioral management programs at 27 facilities and covering a total of 59,636 primates, 27,916 housed in indoor cages and 31,720 in group enclosures. The survey included questions regarding program structure, implementation, and methodology associated with social housing, positive reinforcement training, positive human interaction, exercise enclosures, and several categories of inanimate enrichment. The vast majority of laboratory primates are housed socially (83%). Since 2003, the proportion of indoor-housed primates reported to be housed singly has fallen considerably, from 59% to 35% in the facilities surveyed. The use of social housing remains significantly constrained by: 1) research protocol requirements, highlighting the value of closely involved IACUCs for harmonizing research and behavioral management; and 2) the unavailability of compatible social partners, underscoring the necessity of objective analysis of the methods used to foster and maintain compatibility. Positive reinforcement training appears to have expanded and is now used at all facilities responding to the survey. The use of enrichment devices has also increased in the participating facilities. For most behavioral management techniques, concerns over the possibility of negative consequences to animals are expressed most frequently for social housing and destructible enrichment, while skepticism regarding efficacy is limited almost exclusively to sensory enrichment. Behavioral management program staffing has expanded over time in the facilities surveyed, due not only to increased numbers of dedicated behavioral management technicians but also to greater involvement of animal care technicians, suggesting an increase in the integration of behavioral care into animal husbandry. Broad awareness of common practice may assist
Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D
Emerging work demonstrates individual associations of sedentary behavior, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on mortality risk. Limited research has evaluated all three of these parameters in a model when considering mortality risk, and their potential additive association on mortality risk has not been fully evaluated, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2,295 adults 20-85 yrs), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were objectively assessed (accelerometry) with cardiorespiratory estimated from a prediction equation taking into consideration participant demographic, anthropometric and behavioral characteristics. Using the median values, a PACS (Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Sedentary) score was created that ranged from 0-3, indicating the number of these three positive characteristics. Those with below median sedentary behavior did not have a reduced all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.34-1.04; P = 0.07), but those with above median MVPA (HR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82; P = 0.02) and above median CRF did (HR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.09-0.43; P sedentary behavior, were independently associated with reduced mortality risk. Adults with all three characteristics (below median sedentary and above median MVPA and CRF), however, had the lowest mortality risk.
Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.
Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single...... control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction...
Full Text Available This work examines the co-occurrence of risk behaviors among Spanish adolescents. The analyzed behaviors were sexual activity, the use of alcohol and other drugs, violent conduct and behaviors related to driving mopeds or scooters. The sample consisted of 4,091 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 18, all of them enrolled in one of the four compulsory years of secondary education, the approximate equivalents of the 7th to 10th grades in the US educational system. Cluster analysis indicates that there are four risk profiles, one of which is the profile with the greatest risk and the highest co-occurrence of risk behaviors. This group represents 13% of the sample and is noteworthy for using illegal drugs, driving under the influence of drugs and other activities carried out under the influence of alcohol. Differences have been found among the various profiles according to sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, grade, perception of the family’s economic situation and ethnicity. The findings are discussed and some suggestions are given for prevention intervention.
Este trabajo examina la concurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo en adolescentes españoles. Los comportamientos analizados fueron la actividad sexual, el consumo de alcohol y otras drogas, conductas violentas y comportamientos en la conducción de ciclomotores o motocicletas. La muestra incluye 4.091 adolescentes de 13 a 18 años, perteneciente a educación secundaria obligatoria. Los resultados obtenidos muestran cuatro perfiles de riesgo, siendo uno de ellos el perfil de más alto riesgo y concurrencia de comportamientos arriesgados. Este grupo supone el 13% en el que destacan las conductas de consumo de drogas lícitas, conducir bajo los efectos de droga y otras conductas realizadas bajo los efectos del alcohol. Se encuentran diferencias entre estos perfiles y las características sociodemográficas como el sexo, el curso, la percepción sobre la economía familiar y
Loke, A Y; Mak, Y W; Wu, C S T
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between peer pressure and the health risk behaviors of secondary school students. Cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire. Secondary school students in Year 3 were the target population of this study. Information was solicited from students on their perceptions of peer pressure using a questionnaire employing the Peer Pressure Inventory and their involvement in risk behaviors using a modified global school-based student health survey. A total of 840 secondary students from Hong Kong completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of secondary students who had ever smoked was 6.4%, consumed alcohol 39.2%, ever used drugs 0.5%, were sexually active 3.9%, and involved in bullying 20.5%. A higher proportion of secondary students involved in risk behaviors were affiliated with peers who were involved in the same activities: smoking (48.9%), drinking alcohol (86.5%), using drugs (18.2%), engaged in sexual activity (34.5%), and bullying (82.6%). The perception of peer conformity and peer involvement was found to be significantly correlated with the students' health risk behaviors, particularly with regard to smoking, drinking alcohol, and bullying. A logistic regression analysis showed that having friends who are involved in the same risk behaviors is the single most important factor associated with the participation of secondary students in those specific risk behaviors. The results of this study provided a better understanding of the association between peer pressure and the adoption of health behaviors. The development of effective peer-led prevention programs to reduce the uptake of health risk behaviors should therefore be promoted to prevent adolescents from developing serious health problems. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, Keith M; Bettiol, Silvana
Numerous suicide risk factors have been proposed but not adequately validated for epidemiology, treatment and prevention efforts. Exposures to suicidal behaviors (ESB), from family and friend suicide attempts and completions, were tested for validity as a suicidal risk factor and also for measurement and construct adequacy. An anonymous online survey yielded 713 participants (aged 18-71), who reported ESB, completed the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale (SABCS), and comprised a broad spectrum on those variables. Tests of dimensionality and internal consistency showed the four ESB variables (attempts/completions through family/friends) were independent and did not form a common factor or an identifiable ESB latent trait. ESB variables were, however, associated with demographic and psychiatric histories. A battery of tests revealed no meaningful associations between ESB and total suicidality or suicide risk factors (social support, depression, anxiety, stress, satisfaction with life and emotional stability). In addition, in contrast to previous reports, young adults ( n = 200; aged 18-20) showed no increased suicidality due to ESB. Results showed no validity for ESB as a common risk factor for suicidality or other psychopathology, or as a latent trait. ESB showed evidence as a personal negative life event with individual effects and interpretations.
Full Text Available Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.
Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas
Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content.
Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas
Several studies indicate that exposure to suicide in movies is linked to subsequent imitative suicidal behavior, so-called copycat suicides, but little is currently known about whether the link between exposure to suicidal movies and suicidality is reflected in individual film preferences. 943 individuals participated in an online survey. We assessed associations between preferred film genres as well as individual exposure to and rating of 50 pre-selected films (including 25 featuring a suicide) with suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression, life satisfaction, and psychoticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences for film noir movies and milieu dramas were associated with higher scores on suicidal ideation, depression and psychoticism, and low scores on life satisfaction. Furthermore, preferences for thrillers and horror movies as well as preferences for tragicomedies, tragedies and melodramas were associated with higher scores of some of the suicide risk factors. There was also a dose-response relationship between positive rating of suicide films and higher life satisfaction. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study causality cannot be assessed. Individual film genre preferences seem to reflect risk factors of suicide, with film genres focusing on sad contents being preferred by individuals with higher scores on suicide risk factors. However, suicide movies are more enjoyed by viewers with higher life satisfaction, which may reflect a better ability to cope with such content. PMID:25028966
Full Text Available The methods for understanding rock instability mechanisms and for evaluating potential destructive scenarios are of great importance in risk assessment analysis dedicated to the establishment of appropriate prevention and mitigation actions. When the portion of the unstable rock mass is very large, effective actions to counteract the risks are complex and expensive. In these conditions, an optimal risk management cannot ignore procedures able to faster and accurately acquire i geometrical data for modeling the geometry of the rock walls and implementing reliable forecasting models and ii monitoring data able to describe the magnitude and the direction of deformation processes. These data contributes to the prediction of the behavior of a landslide if the measurements are acquired frequently and reliable numerical models can be implemented. Innovative geomatic techniques, based on GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning Surveying (TLS, automated total station and satellite and ground SAR Interferometry, have been recently applied to define the geometry and monitoring the displacements of unstable slopes. Among these, TLS is mainly adopted to generate detailed 3D models useful to reconstruct rock wall geometry by contributing to the estimation of geo-mechanical parameters, that is orientation, persistence and apparent spacing of rock discontinuities. Two examples of applications of TLS technique to the analysis of a large front in a quarry and of a rock shoulder of a dam are presented.
Manganello, Jennifer A; Taylor, Catherine A
To examine associations of child television (TV) exposure and household TV use with aggressive behavior among 3-year-old children while controlling for demographic characteristics and risk and protective factors for aggression. The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a prospective cohort study. Data collected at home and by telephone from parents of children born from 1998 to 2000 from 20 cities. Mothers who completed a 36-month in-home survey and met inclusion criteria (n = 3128). Direct child TV exposure and household TV use were the primary explanatory variables. Additional risk factors included neighborhood disorder and maternal factors like depression. Childhood aggression was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine associations between TV measures, additional risk factors, and childhood aggression. Children who were spanked in the past month (beta = 1.24, P < .001), lived in a disorderly neighborhood (beta = 2.07, P < .001), and had a mother reporting depression (beta = 0.92, P < .001) and parenting stress (beta = 0.16, P < .001) were significantly more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior. Direct child TV exposure (beta = 0.16, P < .001) and household TV use (beta = 0.09, P < .001) were also significantly associated with childhood aggression, even when controlling for other factors. Three-year-old children exposed to more TV, both directly and indirectly, are at increased risk for exhibiting aggressive behavior. Further research is essential to determine whether pediatric recommendations concerning TV and children should include limits for general household TV use.
Connor, Jennifer M; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj
This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two nonmainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a modified version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and the National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Grunbaum et al., 1999), respectively. Results indicated that nonmainstream students with high self-esteem were more likely to engage in their first sexual experience and to begin marijuana use later in life. African American students reported having their first sexual experience at an older age, but having more sexual partners than did Latino students. The implications of these findings are discussed.
James J McGrath
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to see if there was any correlation between the variables of age, gender, practice location and longevity, and type of practice on the risk-taking behavior of dentists in Connecticut. Risk-taking behavior was defined as the willingness to adopt new technologies. A questionnaire was used to gather data, and a series of questions were then posed to estimate the degree to which the responding dentists would be willing to implement the technology into their practices. Materials and Methods: Three hundred Connecticut dentists were randomly selected from a list of dentists that was provided by Benco Dental Supply Company. A questionnaire was written and mailed to all 300 dentists with a return envelope inside. One hundred twenty-nine dentists responded. The questionnaire contained questions to gather demographic information about the respondents. It posed a hypothetical situation that described a new imaging technology that was recently brought into the market. The only differences between this technology and current imaging machines were that it did not emit any radiation, and it was twice as expensive as comparable imaging technologies. A risk score was calculated based on the responses to the three main questions. Those who would adopt the technology quickly or immediately received higher risk scores, and those who would wait or would not buy the technology at all received low risk scores. The data were then analyzed with SPSS software to detect if there were statistically significant differences between different groups of dentists. Results: Male dentists were found to have higher risk scores than their female counterparts. Men in the 30-39-years age range had the highest risk scores, while women in this age range had the lowest. As age increased, the difference between the sexes decreased. Specialists were found to have higher risk scores compared to general dentists of the same gender; however, male
Sarah E Wiehe
Full Text Available Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors.Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls.Girls (N = 52, aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points. Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not.Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04 and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01. Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day.Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health.
Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev
CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.
Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme
The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to compare five dimensions of health on a sample of Latino solo grandparents and Latino single parents, raising their grandchildren/children alone. Bivariate and logistic regression comparative analyses were conducted on study measures. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of chronic health conditions, including arthritis (51%), depression (40%), diabetes (34%), and asthma (34%). Latino single parents have lower but troubling health risks, including depression (22%), diabetes (14%), and asthma (14%). Differences between the two groups were largely due to the grandparents older age. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of several chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of disorders is much lower for Latino single parents, although they too have disturbing health risks. Latino solo grandparents perform their parenting role under intense physical and emotional strain. Health professionals can be instrumental in facilitating interventions that affect the well-being of this expanding family group.
Chang, Hsin-Li; Woo, T Hugh; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Tseng, I-Yen
This study explored the driving behaviors and crash risk of 768 drivers who were under administrative lifetime driver's license revocation (ALLR). It was found that most of the ALLR offenders (83.2%) were still driving and only a few (16.8%) of them gave up driving completely. Of the offenders still driving, 67.6% experienced encountering a police roadside check, but were not detained or ticketed by the police. Within this group, 50.6% continued driving while encountering a police check, 18.0% of them made an immediate U-turn and 9.5% of them parked and exited their car. As to crash risk, 15.2% of the ALLR offenders had at least one crash experience after the ALLR had been imposed. The results of the logistic regression models showed that the offenders' crash risk while under the ALLR was significantly correlated with their personal characteristics (personal income), penalty status (incarceration, civil compensation and the time elapsed since license revocation), annual distance driven, and needs for driving (working, commuting and driving kids). Low-income offenders were more inclined to have a crash while driving under the ALLR. Offenders penalized by being incarcerated or by paying a high civil compensation drove more carefully and were less of a crash risk under the ALLR. The results also showed there were no differences in crash risk under the ALLR between hit-and-run offences and drunk driving offences or for offenders with a professional license or an ordinary license. Generally, ALLR offenders drove somewhat more carefully and were less of a crash risk (4.3 crashes per million km driven) than legal licensed drivers (23.1 crashes per million km driven). Moreover, they seemed to drive more carefully than drivers who were under short-term license suspension/revocation which previous studies have found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zungu, N P; Simbayi, L C; Mabaso, M; Evans, M; Zuma, K; Ncitakalo, N; Sifunda, S
In South Africa, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has recently been implemented as a strategy for reducing the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, there is some concern that VMMC may lead to low risk perception and more risky sexual behavior. This study investigated HIV risk perception and risk behaviors among men who have undergone either VMMC or traditional male circumcision (TMC) compared to those that had not been circumcised. Data collected from the 2012 South African national population-based household survey for males aged 15 years and older were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression, and relative risk ratios (RRRs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to assess factors associated with each type of circumcision relative no circumcision. Of the 11,086 males that indicated that they were circumcised or not, 19.5 % (95 % CI: 17.9-21.4) were medically circumcised, 27.2 % (95 % CI: 24.7-29.8) were traditionally circumcised and 53.3 % (95 % CI: 50.9-55.6) were not circumcised. In the final multivariate models, relative to uncircumcised males, males who reported VMMC were significantly more likely to have had more than two sexual partners (RRR = 1.67, p = 0.009), and males who reported TMC were significantly less likely to be low risk alcohol users (RRR = 0.72, p risk for HIV infection associated with multiple sexual partners and alcohol abuse following circumcision.
N. P. Zungu
Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC has recently been implemented as a strategy for reducing the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, there is some concern that VMMC may lead to low risk perception and more risky sexual behavior. This study investigated HIV risk perception and risk behaviors among men who have undergone either VMMC or traditional male circumcision (TMC compared to those that had not been circumcised. Methods Data collected from the 2012 South African national population-based household survey for males aged 15 years and older were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression, and relative risk ratios (RRRs with 95 % confidence interval (CI were used to assess factors associated with each type of circumcision relative no circumcision. Results Of the 11,086 males that indicated that they were circumcised or not, 19.5 % (95 % CI: 17.9–21.4 were medically circumcised, 27.2 % (95 % CI: 24.7–29.8 were traditionally circumcised and 53.3 % (95 % CI: 50.9–55.6 were not circumcised. In the final multivariate models, relative to uncircumcised males, males who reported VMMC were significantly more likely to have had more than two sexual partners (RRR = 1.67, p = 0.009, and males who reported TMC were significantly less likely to be low risk alcohol users (RRR = 0.72, p < 0.001. Conclusion There is a need to strengthen and improve the quality of the counselling component of VMMC with the focus on education about the real and present risk for HIV infection associated with multiple sexual partners and alcohol abuse following circumcision.
Skaar, Nicole R.; Williams, John E.
The current study aimed to investigate emotional intelligence as a predictor of adolescent risk participation and risk perception. While research has suggested that certain personality traits relate to adolescent risk behavior and perception, the extent to which emotional intelligence relates to risk behavior participation and perception is…
Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.
Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…
all Soldiers. The BHNAS and MHAT surveys have yielded valuable information regarding the effects of combat and deployment on service members...and Barriers to Care • Amount of Sleep and Sleep Deficit • Sleep Difficulties • Military Specialty • Positive Effects of Assignment • Contribution...nonopioid prescription painkillers was added; (3) the definition of “constantly and frequent” was omitted in the question; and (4) the NUBHNAS
Goldstein, Carly M; Minges, Karl E; Schoffman, Danielle E; Cases, Mallory G
Behavioral medicine training is due for an overhaul given the rapid evolution of the field, including a tight funding climate, changing job prospects, and new research and industry collaborations. The purpose of the present study was to collect responses from trainee and practicing members of a multidisciplinary professional society about their perceptions of behavioral medicine training and their suggestions for changes to training for future behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners. A total of 162 faculty and 110 students (total n = 272) completed a web-based survey on strengths of their current training programs and ideas for changes. Using a mixed-methods approach, the survey findings are used to highlight seven key areas for improved preparation of the next generation of behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners, which are grant writing, interdisciplinary teamwork, advanced statistics and methods, evolving research program, publishable products from coursework, evolution and use of theory, and non-traditional career paths.
Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying
To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P reasoned action is suitable for welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.
Kito, Yayoi; Niiyama, Yoko
In risk communication of food contamination by radioactive substances derived from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, it is required that experts, government and the public exchange information and opinions and establish a mutual understanding. To meet these requirements, it is necessary to investigate public risk perception and the structure of perception. We conducted a series of internet surveys in 2011-2012, two times in Kanto- and Kansai-area on men and women aged from 30 to 49 who have children, and once in all parts of Japan on women aged from 20 to 59. From the data analysis, we identified the feature of risk perception of radioactive substances and buying behavior, and moreover, we analyzed the relationship among the perceived risks and other factors using Structural Equation Modeling. (author)
Ryan J. Watson
Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.
Full Text Available Cases of HIV are common in Benin, with infection rates varying according to socioeconomic and cultural factors, and by region. Certain segments of the population, such as prison inmates, sex worker clients and truck drivers are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to identify which behavioral and serological indicators contribute to the spread of HIV among prisoners. A total of 496 inmates from prisons located in all major cities in Benin were surveyed. Data was collected through interview sessions carried out using a questionnaire and through blood samples. The results show that most inmates are Beninese (83.5%, and the average age is 33 years (range: 14-80 years. No prisoner reported using a condom the last time they engaged in sexual intercourse. Blood exposure was found in 14.6% of inmates and HIV was detected in 1.4% of cases. Our analysis indicates that the length of detention and gender are factors that influence HIV status. However, age, education, nationality and HIV awareness had no significant effect on HIV prevalence among inmates. The results highlight the need to raise awareness in prisons about HIV. This can be achieved by strengthening communication strategies and by organizing HIV and sexually transmitted diseases information sessions for both prison officers and inmates.
Nwokoji, Ugboga Adaji; Ajuwon, Ademola J
Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%). The majority (88.1%) had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and interact freely with civilian
Ajuwon Ademola J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and
and sex workers, for example) and substance abuse.2,5,8,9,10. A survey ... Objective: Various studies have reported increased prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric patients. ... The study took the form of a cross-sectional quantitative.
Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.
This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…
Assmuth, T.; Lyytimaeki, J.; Hilden, M.; Lindholm, M.; Munier, B.
This report presents results from a web-based explorative survey on integrated risk assessment. The survey was conducted in the EU-funded project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) which develops methods for assessing cumulative risks from combined exposures to multiple stressors. The objectives of the survey were to give a general picture of perceptions and views among experts and stakeholders concerning risks, risk assessment and risk management. The survey focused on chemicals with an emphasis on information related to complex risks and uncertainties in a management context. The methodology of the survey combined traditional multiple choice questions and a novel approach that charted the importance of different types of information in two-dimensional graphs describing simultaneously use in regulatory procedures and public discussion. Another part was linked to new methods of presenting risks and explored the ranking of separate and cumulative risks in map grids. The survey was e-mailed to 952 recipients representing researchers, national and EU level administrators, enterprises, NGOs and international organizations, and most EU member states and some other countries. The response rate (26 %) can be considered acceptable but limits the possibilities to make quantitative claims concerning the views held by different groups although it gives an overview of the types of views one encounter among experts. A key finding was the pronounced variability of concepts and views regarding risks and uncertainties, and regarding information and knowledge about these. Opinions on risks and risk assessment, particularly on integrated risk assessment, on related principles, and on the role of experts are genuinely variable. They cannot be reduced to any simple model, and cannot (and need not) be dispelled in a forced manner. The observations should be taken into account in the development and application of novel methods for risk
Whitehead, Sara J; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Papp, John; Kilmarx, Peter H; Markowitz, Lauri E; Tappero, Jordan W; Chaowanachan, Thanyanan; Uthaivoravit, Wat; van Griensven, Frits
Monitoring changes in adolescent sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and other prevention programs, but population-based data on adolescents in Thailand are limited. We report findings from 2 cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1999 and 2002 among 15-to 21-year-old vocational students. In 1999 and 2002, 1725 and 966 students, respectively, were interviewed using computer-assisted self-interview methods. Urine samples were collected and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by polymerase chain reaction. From 1999 to 2002 C. trachomatis prevalence increased from 3.2% to 7.5% (P partners among both men (3.4-4.7, P = 0.01) and women (2.5-3.3, P partners among men (1.1-2.1, P use decreased significantly among women with casual partners (43%-19%, P = 0.03) but not among men (25%-31%, P = 0.31). Our study identified important increases in the prevalence of chlamydial infection and in sexual risk behaviors among Thai adolescents over a 3-year period. These findings are consistent with other studies suggesting profound social changes are changing norms of adolescent sexual behavior in Thailand, and highlight the need for adolescent sexual health services and prevention programming.
Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Priority health-risk behaviors, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. This study was conducted to determine and compare the prevalence of risky behaviors on both sexes of freshman students enrolled in Tehran University, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical type of cross-sectional survey which has used stratified sampling to select 432 students during 2011-2012. A questionnaire including, 14 demographic questions and 38 questions about risky behaviors such as unintentional intentional injuries, smoking habits, alcohol and drug use, sexual behaviors, nutritional habits, and physical activities was used as the instrument of the study. Attending student’s club and passing medical examination, each student completed the self- reported questionnaire. Results: The mean age of participants was 23/2 ± 5/1, the majority of them were single (90.5%, 80.6% were unemployed, and 60.2% were from other cities. The prevalence of smoking cigarette (P 0.05. Conclusion: Some health risk behaviors in boys were more than girls, and there is a possibility of increasing these high-risk behaviors in the university environment. Thus, keeping students under surveillance and adopting preventive actions play a crucial role, and comprehensive training plans to promote health behavior should be designed and implemented.
Denson, Damian J; Padgett, Paige M; Pitts, Nicole; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Bingham, Trista; Carlos, Juli-Ann; McCann, Pamela; Prachand, Nikhil; Risser, Jan; Finlayson, Teresa
HIV prevalence estimates among transgender women in the United States are high, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities. Despite increased HIV risk and evidence of racial disparities in HIV prevalence among transgender women, few data are available to inform HIV prevention efforts. A transgender HIV-related behavioral survey conducted in 2009 in 3 US metropolitan areas (Chicago, Houston, and Los Angeles County), used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 227 black (n = 139) and Latina (n = 88) transgender women. We present descriptive statistics on sociodemographic, health care, and HIV-risk behaviors. Of 227 transgender women enrolled, most were economically and socially disadvantaged: 73% had an annual income of less than $15,000; 62% lacked health insurance; 61% were unemployed; and 46% reported being homeless in the past 12 months. Most (80%) had visited a health care provider and over half (58%) had tested for HIV in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of those who reported having an HIV test in the past 24 months self-reported being HIV positive. Most of the sample reported hormone use (67%) in the past 12 months and most hormone use was under clinical supervision (70%). Forty-nine percent reported condomless anal sex in the past 12 months and 16% reported ever injecting drugs. These findings reveal the socioeconomic challenges and behavioral risks often associated with high HIV risk reported by black and Latina transgender women. Despite low health insurance coverage, the results suggest opportunities to engage transgender women in HIV prevention and care given their high reported frequency of accessing health care providers.
Jones, Deborah; Bagga, Rashmi; Nehra, Ritu; Deepika; Sethi, Sunil; Walia, Kamini; Kumar, Mahendra; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Lopez, Maria; Weiss, Stephen M
With a population of 1.1 billion, India is considered to be a country in which effective prevention interventions could contain the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Heterosexual transmission accounts for 85 % of the extant HIV infections. This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a group, culturally tailored behavioral intervention and its impact on sexual barrier use, self-efficacy, knowledge, conflict resolution, and coping among high-risk heterosexual couples in Northern India. This pilot study was conducted at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India from February 2008 to January 2009. Thirty sexually active high-risk couples were drawn from a convenience sample of PGIMER patients attending infectious disease and family planning clinics. Couples participated in 1 month of three weekly gender-concordant behavioral intervention groups and were individually administered assessments preintervention and post-intervention. The intervention was tailored to the Northern Indian context and addressed sexual barrier use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection transmission, and cognitive behavioral skill building focusing on sexual negotiation and communication. The participants had a mean age of 32 years (men) and 29 years (women), and the majority had at least 10 years of education. At baseline, the majority reported inconsistent condom use (knowledge, and women increased their use of positive coping tactics. The results highlight the potential to successfully utilize a group intervention to discuss sensitive issues such as sexual risk behavior among both men and women. Strategies to improve condom use and communication without increasing intimate partner violence in high-risk couples may be an important adjunct to preventing the development of a generalized epidemic in India.
Amber Saylor Mase
Full Text Available Global climate change presents unique challenges to the resilience of United States agriculture, and farmers and advisors must utilize effective adaptation strategies to be both economically and environmentally sustainable. This study addresses Midwestern U.S. crop farmers’ beliefs about climate change, perceived risks from weather and climate, and attitudes toward adaptation that influence their decisions to adopt adaptation strategies. Analyzing a 2012 survey of nearly 5000 corn farmers across 22 Midwestern U.S. Watersheds, we investigate the most common weather and climate risk management strategies, including purchasing additional crop insurance, implementing conservation practices, and adding new technology. U.S. farmers’ belief in anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of changing weather patterns, climate risks to their farm and attitudes toward adapting are analyzed. Farmers’ perceptions of risk to their own farm, attitudes toward innovation and adaptation attitudes were the most important determinants of adaptation. This study highlights the critical role of risk perceptions in adaptation attitudes as well as behaviors among agriculturalists. Finally, we discuss how these findings could be applied to increase uptake of adaptation strategies and thus resilience of U.S. agriculture to a changing climate.
Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J
Growing evidence documents elevated behavioral risk among sexual-minorities, including gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals; however, tests of biological or psychological indicators of stress as explanations for these disparities have not been conducted. Data were from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and included 9662 participants; 9254 heterosexuals, 153 gays/lesbians and 255 bisexuals. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco, alcohol, substance, and marijuana use, and body mass index, were tested using the chi-square test. Stress, operationalized as depressive symptoms and elevated C-reactive protein, was tested as mediating the association between sexual orientation and behavioral health risks. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for mediation effects, and the Sobel test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the meditating effect. Gays/lesbians and bisexuals were more likely to report current smoking (p sexual orientation and current smoking (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.59, 2.63), lifetime history of substance use (aOR 3.30 95% CI 2.20, 4.96), and lifetime history of marijuana use (aOR 2.90, 95% CI 2.02, 4.16), among bisexuals only. C-reactive protein did not mediate the sexual orientation/behavior relationship. Higher prevalence of current smoking and lifetime history of substance use was observed among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Among bisexuals, depressive symptoms accounted for only 0.9-3% of the reduction in the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use and tobacco use, respectively. More comprehensive assessments of stress are needed to inform explanations of the disparities in behavioral risk observed among sexual minorities.
Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter
Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Keane, Eimear; Li, Xia; Harrington, Janas M; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Perry, Ivan J; Kearney, Patricia M
Globally, public health policies are targeting modifiable lifestyle behaviors. We explore the independent association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior on the risk of childhood overweight/obesity. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-11 years (N = 826). Objective body mass index was used to classify children as normal weight or overweight/obese. Children wore wrist-worn Geneactiv accelerometers for 7-days and thresholds were applied to categorize MVPA and sedentary time. Screen time (ST) was parent reported. Poisson regression examined the independent association of (1) MVPA (2), objective sedentary time and (3) ST on the risk of overweight/obesity. Overall, 23.7% (95% CI, 20.8-26.6%) of children were overweight/obese. On average, children spent 10.8% of waking time at MVPA and 61.3% sedentary. One-fifth (22.1%, 95% CI, 19.3-25.0%) of children achieved MVPA recommendations (≥ 60 min each day) and 17.5% (95% CI, 14.9-20.1%) met ST recommendations (overweight/obese independent of total sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary was not associated with overweight/obese independent of MVPA. ST was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obese independent of physical activity. Few schoolchildren met physical activity and screen time recommendations suggesting population based measures are needed.
Mital Prajapati; D.V.Bala; Hemant Tiwari
Background: Adolescence is a distinct age group (10-19 yrs) with complex needs because of physical and psychological development during puberty. Aim: To evaluate adolescents’ nutritional status and high risk behavior. Settings and design: A Cross Sectional study was conducted in West Zone of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Gujarat. Methods & Material: 401 students (10-19years) from 10 schools and colleges surveyed using pretested questionnaire ab...
Lenhart, Clare M.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Kang, Youjeong; Daly, Brian P.; Brown, Michael D.; Patterson, Freda
Background. Adolescent girls are less likely to meet physical activity recommendations than boys. This study examined the relative contribution of structured physical activity opportunities including physical education (PE) class and sports teams to overall activity levels for girls and boys. Methods. Data from 591 9th–12th grade students who completed the 2009 Philadelphia Youth Risk Behavior Survey were examined. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between PE and sport...
Symons, Frank J.; Byiers, Breanne J.; Raspa, Melissa; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.
We used National Fragile X Survey data in order to examine reported self-injurious behavior (SIB) to (a) generate lifetime and point prevalence estimates, (b) document detailed features of SIB (frequency, types, location, severity) in relation to gender, and (c) compare comorbid conditions between matched pairs (SIB vs. no SIB). Results indicate…
Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Yang, Yann-Jy; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lee, Ming-Chang
In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women. PMID:24005830
Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.
Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan
To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.
Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique
The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…
Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A
Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.
Austin, Anna; Herrick, Harry; Proescholdbell, Scott; Simmons, Jacqueline
Health disparities among persons with disabilities have been previously documented. However, there is little research specific to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in this population and how ACE exposure affects health outcomes in adulthood. Data from the 2012 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey were analyzed to compare the prevalence of ACEs between adults with and without disabilities and high ACE exposure (3-8 ACEs). Adjusted risk ratios of health risks and perceived poor health by disability status were calculated using predicted marginals. A higher percentage of persons with disabilities (36.5%) than those without disabilities (19.6%) reported high ACE exposure. Among those with high ACE exposure, persons with disabilities were more likely to report several ACE categories, particularly childhood sexual abuse. In adjusted analyses, persons with disabilities had an increased risk of smoking (relative risk [RR] = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51), poor physical health (RR = 4.34; 95% CI, 3.08-6.11), poor mental health (RR = 4.69; 95% CI, 3.19-6.87), and doctor-diagnosed depression (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.82-2.56) compared to persons without disabilities. The definition of disability derived from the BRFSS survey does not allow for those with disabilities to be categorized according to physical disabilities versus mental or emotional disabilities. In addition, we were unable to determine the timing of ACE exposure in relation to disability onset. A better understanding of the life course associations between ACEs and disability and the impact of exposure to multiple types of childhood adversity on disability and health is needed to inform research and services specific to this vulnerable population. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Bull, Kay S.; And Others
This paper describes a study by the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) to determine its membership's opinions on priorities and expertise regarding the dropout problem. ACRES members, primarily rural special-education teachers, parents, and collateral service workers, were surveyed about the dropout problem and what research they…
Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K
The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and
Full Text Available Background and Objective: High-risk behaviors can have adverse effects on health of adolescents. It is essential to identify risks so that modification can be initiated before any damage. The present study was conducted among adolescents to study their risk behaviors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study based on the concept of Global School-based Student Health Survey was conducted by interviewing adolescents of one urban and one rural randomly selected school. For quick overall assessment of their risk behaviors, a predesigned three-point scoring system was followed. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Results: The study of six domains of important risk behaviors among 788 school-going adolescents (rural: 436 [55.3%], urban: 352 [44.7%], (male: 406 [51.5%], female: 382 [48.5%] revealed that occurrence of dietary high-risk behavior was more in urban students (11.4% than rural students (1.8%. Regarding violence, occurrence of high-risk behavior was also higher among urban students (18.8% vs. 6%. The number of mentally disturbed girls is more than boys. Conclusion: The mean risk scores in all domains, except personal hygiene, are either in ′Moderate′ or ′high′ risk grade. It is of great concern that rural and urban, male and female adolescents are at risk though their vulnerability varies.
Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela
Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.
Rafael Alves Guimarães
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.
Houtman, I.L.D.; Eekhout, I.; Venema, A.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Buuren, S. van
This report presents the key findings of a joint analysis of EU-OSHA’s second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2), Eurostat’s Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2013 ad hoc module on accidents at work and other work-related health problems, and Eurofound’s 6th European Working
Huang, Jiun-Hau; Jacobs, Durand F; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina; Paskus, Thomas S
To examine prevalence and associations of gambling problems and health risk behaviors among college athletes from the first national survey of gambling among U.S. college student-athletes. Conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), this self-administered and anonymous survey collected information from a nationally representative sample of 20,739 student-athletes. Males consistently had higher past-year prevalence of gambling than females (e.g., 62.4% of males reported some type of gambling vs. 42.8% of females). Based on DSM-IV Gambling Screen, this study identified 4.3% of males and 0.4% of females as problem/pathological gamblers. A general upward trend existed that as the level of gambling problems increased, so did the prevalence of substance use, gorging/vomiting, and unprotected sex. Cross-group comparisons by gambler type were all significant. Problem and pathological gamblers also experienced significantly more drug/alcohol-related problems than non-gamblers and social gamblers. Direct associations found between gambling and multiple risk behaviors in college student-athletes support the persistence of the youth problem-behavior syndrome and suggest the need for multi-faceted initiatives to tackle these risk behaviors simultaneously.
Iversen, Jenny; Dolan, Kate; Ezard, Nadine; Maher, Lisa
Women who inject drugs (WWID) are vulnerable to a range of harms, including exposure to sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, abusive relationships, physical and sexual violence and mental health issues. Lesbians and bisexual women are at greater risk than heterosexual women for substance use disorders. This study aimed to compare a large sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian WWID and to identify correlates of sexual orientation. The Australian Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) Survey is an annual cross-sectional survey. People who inject drugs (PWID) who attend NSP services are invited to complete a brief self-administered questionnaire and provide a capillary dried blood spot. Of 22,791 survey respondents between 2004-2013, one third were women (n=7,604). Analyses were restricted to the first participation record for each respondent. Of the 5,378 individual women, 4,073 (76%) identified as heterosexual, 1,007 (19%) identified as bisexual, and 298 (6%) identified as lesbian. HIV prevalence was low (sexual orientation and risk behavior identified bisexual orientation as independently associated with increased risk. Services that target PWID need to recognise and address a broad range of sexual identities and behaviors. Future research should explore reasons for increased risk in sexual minority women.
Giesbrecht, N.; Schmidt, R.; Ialomiteanu, A. [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)
High risk behaviour near dams is not uncommon. This presentation discussed the results from 2 surveys on high risk behaviour near dams and power stations operated by Ontario Power Generation (OPG). The main components of the project were presented, with particular reference to analyses of recent literature on high-risk behaviour; interviews with OPG managers and staff in 4 regions; main survey of respondents from 4 regions; follow-up interviews with high-risk respondents; interviews with community members and contacts from recreational associations; and recommendations. Specific questions and results were provided from each survey. From the first survey, the characteristics of respondents that used OPG sites for recreation were identified. One hundred high risk respondents completed a follow-up interview. The survey showed that although high-risk behaviour is not uncommon, the main reason people use the facilities are for recreation and relaxation, and not for thrill seeking purposes. Recommendations stemming from the surveys included the need for definition of boundaries and delivery of messages via children, recreational associations, and law enforcement personnel. tabs., figs.
Boissonnault, Jill S; Cambier, Ziádee; Hetzel, Scott J; Plack, Margaret M
For health care providers in the United States, the risk for nonfatal violence in the workplace is 16 times greater than that for other workers. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior (IPSB) is directed at clinicians, staff, or other patients and may include leering, sexual remarks, deliberate touching, indecent exposure, and sexual assault. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior may adversely affect clinicians, the organization, or patients themselves. Few IPSB risk factors for physical therapists have been confirmed. The US prevalence was last assessed in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to determine career and 12-month exposure to IPSB among US physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, physical therapist students, and physical therapist assistant students and to identify IPSB risk factors. This was a retrospective and observational study. An electronic survey was developed; content validity and test-retest reliability were established. Participants were recruited through physical therapist and physical therapist assistant academic programs and sections of the American Physical Therapy Association. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior risk models were constructed individually for any, mild, moderate, and severe IPSB events reported over the past 12 months. Open-ended comments were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight hundred ninety-two physical therapist professionals and students completed the survey. The career prevalence among respondents was 84%, and the 12-month prevalence was 47%. Statistical risk modeling for any IPSB over the past 12 months indicated the following risks: having fewer years of direct patient care, routinely working with patients with cognitive impairments, being a female practitioner, and treating male patients. Qualitative analysis of 187 open-ended comments revealed patient-related characteristics, provider-related characteristics, and abusive actions. Self-report, clinician memory, and convenience sampling are
Quynh C Nguyen
Full Text Available Only a handful of public health studies have investigated expectations of early death among adolescents. Associations have been found between these expectations and risk behaviors in adolescence. However, these beliefs may not only predict worse adolescent outcomes, but worse trajectories in health with ties to negative outcomes that endure into young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to investigate perceived chances of living to age 35 (Perceived Survival Expectations, PSE as a predictor of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt and substance use in young adulthood. We examined the predictive capacity of PSE on future suicidal ideation/attempt after accounting for sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and history of suicide among family and friends to more fully assess its unique contribution to suicide risk. We investigated the influence of PSE on legal and illegal substance use and varying levels of substance use. We utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health initiated in 1994-95 among 20,745 adolescents in grades 7-12 with follow-up interviews in 1996 (Wave II, 2001-02 (Wave III and 2008 (Wave IV; ages 24-32. Compared to those who were almost certain of living to age 35, perceiving a 50-50 or less chance of living to age 35 at Waves I or III predicted suicide attempt and ideation as well as regular substance use (i.e., exceeding daily limits for moderate drinking; smoking ≥ a pack/day; and using illicit substances other than marijuana at least weekly at Wave IV. Associations between PSE and detrimental adult outcomes were particularly strong for those reporting persistently low PSE at both Waves I and III. Low PSE at Wave I or Wave III was also related to a doubling and tripling, respectively, of death rates in young adulthood. Long-term and wide-ranging ties between PSE and detrimental outcomes suggest these expectations may contribute to identifying at-risk youth.
Busseri, Michael A; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Bogaert, Anthony F
On the basis of a large-scale survey of high-school youth, the authors compared adolescents reporting exclusively heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and predominately same-sex attraction based on high-risk involvement across a range of risk